SME Alliance Co-operative Network Security - CP70029E

BHARAT RAVIRALA 21097273 BHART RAVIRALA Thames Valley University St. Mary’s Road, Ealing London UK W5 5RF


ABSTRUCT This paper discusses the outline strategic security policies that needs for SME organisations to be implemented for all cooperative partners etc. must work within. Makes you to understand about the benefits and threats in the wireless and mobile technologies that are used in SME sector. The network infrastructure that could be developed at each centre as a standardised format detailing the security considerations and their collaborative strengths which are associated with emerging technologies generally in the networking sector form with development.

An SME is the Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) is a key sector in industrial economy of any country. The theorist described about SME in Wikipedia as “It is estimated that in terms of value, the sector accounts for about 39% of the manufacturing output and around 33% of the total export of the country. Further, in recent years the MSE sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared to the overall industrial sector. The major advantage of the sector is its employment potential at low capital cost. As per available statistics, this sector employs an estimated 31 million persons spread over 12.8 million enterprises and the labor intensity in the MSE sector is estimated to be almost 4 times higher than the large enterprises” referred from . SME resembles to be a small sector but indeed very much of big industries are dependent on the right functioning of SMEs. So let us see what are the key technologies in network are used give they good availability, reliability and high security and finding out the new technologies emerging in era which are useful in this sector for providing great outputs.

As we all know what is mobile phone? A medium through which we communicate through a long distance. How it works? With the help of telecommunication signals between your satellite and your receiver as air as medium of transferring a signal that means there will not be any connection wired. The wireless technology is increasing widely in all sectors and organizations using this technology to and getting benefitted.


SME Alliance Co-operative Network Security - CP70029E 2.1 WIRELESS MEDIUM 2.1.1 Radio communication


The Use of radio communication in industry is come in to picture along with the use of radio modems. The figure 1 below gives is an example, use of Modbus over a data link layer in radio communication. Diagram also explains about the latest wireless LAN technology standards such as IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.15 (Bluetooth) use making cut communication costs.



Figure 1

2.1.2 Bandwidth The bandwidth associated with rate of data flow in bytes. The bandwidth in wireless network is available only in the core of network. Bandwidth is always expansive. In all the country the wireless network spectrum is under the control of governments. The few spectrum of bandwidth is provided for commercial use which makes organizations to cost a more for wireless communication. All the protocols for wireless medium associated with bandwidth are given by central constrains such as governments. 2.2 WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN) WLAN are found normally in small area network such as in office buildings or in a campus any ware the traditional can’t be implemented for logistical reasons. The key benefits are speed simple setup, scalability and free mobility of user in the coverage area. 2

2.2.1 Advantages and disadvantages in WLAN WLAN having many advantages and disadvantages comparing to wired LANs. A WLAN provides to give add or remove the install access points of connectivity where the laying of cable is difficult. Advantages are  It is easier to add or move workstations.  It is easier to provide connectivity in areas where it is difficult to lay cable.  Installation is fast and easy, and it can eliminate the need to pull cable through Walls and ceilings.  Access to the network can be from anywhere within range of an access point.  Portable or semi-permanent buildings can be connected using a WLAN.  Although the initial investment required for WLAN hardware can be similar to the cost of wired LAN hardware, installation expenses can be significantly lower.  When a facility is located on more than one site (such as on two sides of a road), a directional antenna can be used to avoid digging trenches under roads to Connect the sites.  In historic buildings where traditional cabling would compromise the façade, a WLAN can avoid the need to drill holes in walls.  Long-term cost benefits can be found in dynamic environments requiring frequent moves and changes. Disadvantages are  As the number of computers using the network increases, the data transfer rate to each computer will decrease accordingly.  As standards change, it may be necessary to replace wireless cards and/or access points.  Lower wireless bandwidth means some applications such as video streaming will be more effective on a wired LAN.  Security is more difficult to guarantee and requires configuration.  Devices will only operate at a limited distance from an access point, with the distance determined by the standard used and buildings and other obstacles between the access point and the user.

3.0 Network Issues
In the recent year’s computer networks problems are mainly linked with Security vulnerabilities problems in computer networks are design flaws, poor security management, incorrect implementation, Internet technology vulnerability, the nature of intruder activity, the difficulty of fixing vulnerable systems, the limits of effectiveness of reactive solutions, and social engineering. 3.1Design Flaw The major components network systems are hardware and software. The less effected system to design flaw is hardware. But the biggest system security problems are with the software design flaws. The three major contribute great deal of design flaw are human factors, software complexity and trust worthy software resources. 3.2 Poor Security Management The two major factors influencing the security management are technical and administrative security process that involves the controls which are placed by organization for providing the required level of protection and security policies. Poor security management comes into picture because of little control of security implementation, monitoring and administration. 3.3 Incorrect Implementation Incorrect implementation is also known as incomplete interfaces the two product modules a can only work properly when it is deployed completely. The incompatibility in system interfaces may occur due to too much detail, not enough understanding of the underlying parameters, poor communication during design, selecting the software or hardware modules before understanding the receiving software, ignoring integration issues and error in manual entry. 3.4 Internet Technology The Internet technology has many more things to be discussed and there are reports produced on different types of loopholes, gaping holes and weaknesses, in both hardware and software technologies.

4.0 Ethical Issues Considered in SME Network Design
The main forwarded ethical issues are raised by SME enterprise Privacy.  Is it possible to monitor the web sites visited by your network users? Should you routinely keep logs of visited sites? Is it negligent to not monitor such internet usage, to prevent the possibility of pornography in the workplace that could create a hostile work environment?  Is it okay to place key loggers on machines on the network to capture everything the user types? Screen capture programs so you can see everything that’s displayed? Should users be informed that they’re being watched in this way?

5.0 Network Security design for SME organization



Figure 2

5.1 Network Consideration

5.1.1 Core layer The core layer provides high availability, fast convergence and high scalability to the network. The backbone of the campus network design is core layer. The core layer provides high level of redundancy and changes and be adopted easily. We can mostly reliable on core layer to when the failure occurs than the core layer helps by rerouting the traffic and responds quit smoothly to the changes that occur in the network topology. The core devices will implement technologies and scalable protocols. The core layer help when their will be growth in the network as it is very it property of high scalability. The core layer is layer 3 high speed switching environment which use its hardware to accelerate the service. The core layer is design helps in packet manipulation, filtering and such as access list checking. Without the core layer, the distributed layer would be fully meshed. As distributed layer without the core layer the full mash design routing complexity increases when new neighbors are added to network. As the in practice the enterprise collaborated in more than one building in core layer helps in connection of the building in stakeholder campus by providing the four or more pairs of building distribution switches. The scaling in the network in much easier in campus core by addressing the requirements as follows.  LAN WAN and MAN convergence  Data voice integration  Gigabyte density 5.2 Network Services considered 5.2.1 Network switching services The switching elements are widely used in the network for the reliability and to carry out the continues work on the network. The technique used is said as data switching. There are two type of techniques deployed in the stakeholder network structure. They are  Circuit Switching  Packet Switching Circuit switching

All the resources are reserved in the circuit switching before the communication session starts. Once the physical connection is established, the two end users are exclusively use the connection. The crew issue for having this type connection is to provide a fixed data channel; both the subscribers (users) must operate in same rate. Packet Switching

On the other hand packet switching do not require any resources to receive to begin a communication session. Packet switching network require the sending host to assemble all the data to be transmitted in packets. The message is broken into several small packets if it is large. With the help of communication link the packets are sent via switches (routers). The router inspects each packet it directs to its addressed destination at maximum available bit rate. 5.3 Network Connection Devices LAN connecting devices are  Hub  Repeater  Bridge  Switches 5.3.1 Hub Hub is a simple device which is used to connect the same identical protocols. It takes in imports and retransmits them verbatim. It is used switch analog data to digital data and vice versa. If the incoming data is in digital then it first transfer as a packets and if it is a analog data then it is simply transfers as a signal. The figure 7 gives the simple view of hub connections

Figure 3

5.3.2 A Repeater A repeater is a low level communication device which receives a signal and re transmits it to the high level or onto the other side of the signal transmitter. It helps the signal when it gets weaken while travelling for the long distances. Repeater enhances the signal strength and directs signal to its defined addresses. 5.3.3 A Bridge A Bridge is just like a repeater but differs; repeater enhances the electrical signal strength because it is deployed at the physical layer. Whereas bridge is deployed at datalink layer and it enhances the digital signal. Figure 8 is a multi-ported bridge

Figure 4

5.3.4 A Switch A switch which is used to connect the network segments or two small network such as mash, token ring or Ethernet LANs. The work done by switch is as same as the bridge. The poin to point approach helps the switch to connect multi pairs of segments at a time.

5.4 Internetworking devices

5.4.1 Routers Routers are general purpose devices that interconnect two or more heterogeneous networks represented by IP subnets or unnumbered point to point lines. They are usually dedicated specialpurpose computers with separate input and output interfaces for each connected network. 5.4.2 Gateways Gateways are very intelligent devices then the routers. Gateways are used to perform the protocol operations which are linked with the different types of networks, applications and serves as a medium of translators and interpreters in the network. Gateways operate far better operations than the routers and it does all the work that can be done by the routers. Gateways also act as protocol converters. They service the packet format, multiplexing terminal emulation and data translation. Figure 9 gives the view of where the gateways operations are worked out in the network connections.

Figure 5

6.0 Emerging technologies
The organizations are showing much interest in new technologies which give more scalability, reliability availability, accessibility and easy control.  VoIP  WI FI  4G the Future technology.  Cloud Computing 6.1 Voice over Internet protocol VoIP is Communication of voice over the internet protocol such as internet or packet switched network. VoIP is also known with many names such as IP telephony, broadband telephony… In present world, the telecommunication providers are increasing to provide the facilities for VoIP over public IP networks to connect switching station to connect with other IP network providers. 6.2 Wi-Fi Technology Wi Fi needs no wires to connection between the sender and receiver by using the RF signals. WiFi has a boundary with in which it can only be accessed by the addresser. Any network accessor must access the Wi-Fi with the access point (AP). The first job of AP is to generate a signal which can be detected by computers and other devices. In order to connect with Wi-Fi the computer devices must be equipped with network adaptors. 6.3 Fourth Generations 4G Future Technology Fourth generation 4G is the sequential of 3G, 4G network is expected to be released in 2010 to 2015 which is expected to offer more reliability than what the 3G and 2G are offering. The following figure no 6 may give you the clear picture. Why the organizations are very eagerly awaited for 4G to be released in the markets.

Figure 6

7.0 Cryptography
In the present world the its became a critical point of view to give a security for the digital transaction system as more and more organizations are joining the e-commerce link. Cryptography is using to fight off to large inventions of security and privacy for guarantee confidentiality and integrity to bring trust in e-commerce. Cryptography became a very important tool for providing a digital security in a modern communication. The cryptography always ensures to guarantee authentication, confidentiality, authorization, non-repudiation and integrity.

8.0 Network Security policies
The network security policies are built to protect the network and ensuring the security.  E-mail and Web access (SNMP, DNS, NTP, WWW, NNTP, SMTP)  Hardware access (logon passwords/usernames)  Databases (file access/data backup).  Wireless devices (access point logon/authentication/access control)  Laptops’ use and connection to organization’s network  Remote access (Telnet, FTP)  8.1 Wireless Network – Wireless communication protocols should be followed by the user how is using it and want to use wireless communication. IT polies are very much subjected to wireless network communication such as Emails, World Wide Web etc. The selected services are encrypted and communication links are not encrypted. Wireless services and access are limited to the authorized employees, agents and customers. Standard and recognized wireless encryption is used on all devices possess to use wireless service. Anti-virus should be up to date and it must be on device to use wireless service. Authentication recognition should be given before logging on to service. 8.2 TCP/IP network protocols – Stakeholder campus network supports only TCP/IP and other IP based protocols such as IPv4and IPv6 which will help in interoperability among stakeholder systems. 8.3 Physical access to wiring closets – Only IT have the authorization to place the devices and cabling in wiring closets, equipment rooms etc. Any damage to the equipment network device should be noticed to IT. At any time the wires which are not belonging to IT should be installed anywhere in campus. 8.4 Extension of campus backbone into the new buildings – The new buildings which are going to be the part of the stakeholder campus network should be erected only if they are have

compatibilities and are capable of communicate with stakeholder campus network or without the IT approval, IT should and must involve while construction of building. Wiring in the building and installation communication devices should pose industry standards and requirements setting to the IT.

Small and medium-sized enterprises need to mange risk factors associated with the business infrastructure through proper planning, creation of strategy and policies and adapting them in there business practice Fast changing technology, security, privacy issues, need for new business models, government and legal issues, return on investment, skills shortage and integration issues with legacy systems are some of the risks that small and medium sized enterprises need to be cognizant of and demonstrate preparedness in managing them. The mean the proposed network structure, network devices and the technologies used in status network for SME giving the security, scalability, availability and confidentiality at all the point of network.


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