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You are on page 1of 10

Biasing

Ashkarali P Asst. Professor

SNG College Chelannur

In order for a transistor amplifier to work the transistor

must be in the active region.

One option is to bias the transistor by a using a number of

power supplies.

VCC

VEE

1

Voltage-Divider Biasing

The most common method of biasing a transistor is to use

a single supply and a voltage divider circuit.

+VCC

15 V

RC

3.9 k

R1 vout

10 k

vin

2N3904

RE

R2 2.7 k

4.7 k

Voltage-Divider Biasing

The resistors R1 and R2 form a

simple voltage divider. +VCC

15 V

RC

3.9 k

R1 vout

10 k

The DC emitter voltage can be

vin

found from VB.

2N3904

RE

R2 2.7 k

4.7 k

2

Voltage-Divider Biasing

Likewise the emitter current

can be found from +VCC

15 V

RC

3.9 k

R1 vout

10 k

The collector current and DC

vin

collector voltage are

2N3904

.

RE

R2 2.7 k

4.7 k

Q-Point

We still need to determine

the optimal values for the

DC biasing in order to

choose resistors, etc.

This bias point is called the

quiescent or Q-point as it

gives the values of the

voltages when no input

signal is applied.

To determine the Q-point

we need to look at the

range of values for which

the transistor is in the

active region.

3

Load Line

At saturation the resistance

offered by the transistor is

effectively zero so the

current is a maximum

determined by VCC and the

resistors RE and RC.

When the transistor is in

cutoff no current flows so

VCE = VCC.

If we connect these two

points with a straight line

we get all possible values

for IC and VCE for a given

amplifier.

Q-point

To determine the q-point we

overlay the load line on the

collector curves for the

transistor.

The Q-point is where the

load line intersects the

appropriate collector curve.

For example if the amplifier

is operated at IB = 20 A the

Q-point is as shown on the

graph.

4

Midpoint biased

When the Q-point is chosen so that VCE is half of VCC and

IC is half of IC(sat) the amplifier is said to be midpoint

biased.

Optimum Biasing

Midpoint biasing allows

optimum ac operation of the

amplifier. When an ac

signal is applied to the base

of the transistor, IC and VCE

both vary about the Q-point.

With the Q-point center the

values can make the

maximum deviations from

the Q-point either above or

below.

5

Transistor Amplifiers

Gains

AC Gain is the ratio between the ac output and ac input

signal.

Voltage:

Current:

Power:

6

Decibels

Gains are sometimes expressed in terms of

decibels.

dB Power Gain:

Ap ( dB ) = 10 log Ap

dB Voltage Gain

Av ( dB ) = 20 log Av

The basic amplifier is characterized by its

gains, input impedance and output

impedance.

7

The Ideal Amplifier

The ideal amplifier has infinite input

impedance (Rin = ), zero output impedance

(Rout = 0) and infinite gain (if desired).

If we assume that the input impedance of

our amplifier is purely resistive then the

signal voltage at input (vin) is

8

Output Impedance (Zout)

If we assume that the output impedance of

our amplifier is purely resistive then the

signal voltage at output (vout) is

Impedance

vs = 15 mV, Rs= 20, RL =1.2k

Avo = 340, Zin = 980, Zout = 250

vout = 4.14 V, Av(eff) =276

9

Effects of Input and Output

Impedance

vs = 15 mV, Rs= 20, RL =1.2k

Avo = 340, Zin = 8k, Zout = 20

vout = 5.0 V, Av(eff) = 333

10

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