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Animals to be raised: Swine, Goat and Fish

A. Raising swine/hog raising

Hog meat is one of the popular meats in the market. Filipinos are heavy consumers of this protein-
rich food.

The following are the standard breeds of swine commonly raised today:
1. Hampshire The pig looks smaller than other breeds. The ears are erect, tail is usually black,
and legs are short.
2. Duroc This breed comes from New Jersey. It has a dark red and golden yellow color. It is
also a good producer of milk and has good mothering characteristics.
3. Yorkshire-This breed is commonly raised in Canada. It has large ears with white and black
spots. This breed is a good source of meat for making bacon.
4. Landrace This breed comes from Denmark. It has white hair and skin . Its ears are larger in
size and covers much of its face. Its meat is best for making bacon, ham, and pork chop.
5. Hypor- This breed has well muscled back, well developed ham, and has high carcass quality.It
has superior milking qualities.
6. Poland China- This breed is black in color with white spots on its feet, tail, and face. It has thick
7. Tamworth This has a long narrow head, long snout, and erect ears. The body is light and
dark red in color. Its meat is best for making bacon.

Feeding Swine
Swine at different age levels require different feed types to be given two to three times per day. These
are the following:
Starter Mash- This is given to two to eight week old piglets.
Growing mash- This is given to two to six month old piglets.
Fattening mash- This is given to ten month old piglets until they are ready for slaughtering.
Alternative food like camote tops, kangkong, papaya leaves may also be given to swine from time to

Needed materials to start the project

Requirements for hog raising
1. Pigpen. This must have adequate space for the pig to move around freely. There must be
trough for feeds and water. The roofing is made of galvanized sheets.The floor is slightly
sloping to the draining area to prevent urine and manure from accumulating. A pit is provided
for dumping of hog waste.
2. Piglet. This must be carefully selected. Check skin, legs, feet and nails, as well as breed and
size. Also choose those that have been vaccinated with anti-cholera, anti-anemia, and
immunization from other diseases.
3. Food. There are many kinds containing various ingredients and nutrients. Avoid giving spoiled
food for this can cause diseases which can be transmitted to humans.

Care. One must ensure that the pigs do not contact any diseases. Proper care includes keeping them
in pigpens, maintaining cleanliness in their spaces, bathing them every day, and consulting a
veterinarian when necessary.

B. Goat raising

Goats are easier to raise because they simply live on grass and leaves of plants like ipil-ipil,
kangkong, camote, and tamarind. They are managed for the production of milk, meat and wool.
Among goats, major health problems are internal and external parasites coccidiosis (in kids before
and after weaning) and pneumonia. A good health care program includes vaccination for most
diseases and is established between the grower and veterinarian. In the Philippines, goat meat is
relatively more expensive than chicken, pork, or beef, Goat farming has a high potential for profit.
Goats, like cattle, may be caged in a pen or allowed to graze on a large parcel of grassy land.

Needs in goat raising

In launching a goat enterprise, consider the resources you have to devote to the project.
Personal attitudes like interest and determination, availability of land, machinery, equipment, labor,
capital, and marketing/selling are the things that should matter. Also, there should be a profitable
outlet for goat products.

Housing for goats

A good housing for goats is very essential as they are prone to pneumonia when regularly
exposed to rain. A goat house must be well ventilated, clean, and dry. There should be separate pens
for lactating does, dry does, kids and bucks. A fenced loafing area should be provided complete with
feeding racks and water troughs.

Feeding the goats

Goats are known to relish paragrass, stargrass, napier grass, guinea grass, and centrosema
among other grasses and legumes. Goats like other livestock, require the same nutrients such as
protein, carbohydrates, fats , minerals, vitamins, and water. During the rainy season, keep the goats
in their pen. Feed them with cut grass and salt. Salt makes goats keep a steady appetite making
them grow faster and produce more milk.

C. Fish farming

Fish farming is one of the biggest industries in the Philippines. As an archipelago, surrounded by
many bodies of water, the country is rich in natural resources, making fish farming is suitable and
viable source of livelihood for many Filipinos.

1. Tilapia
Tilapia is one of the most in demand fish in the market today. Fish growers both locally and
abroad are focusing aquaculture efforts on Tilapia because of the demand for it as well as its rapid
growth and productivity at harvest time.

Ways of raising Tilapia

Tilapia may be grown in three ways.
Choose what suits your locality, space, and even your purpose whether for family consumption or as
a livelihood project.

1. Using the drum. This pertains to the use of big drums to grow tilapia. Because the space is
limited, the harvest is also limited just enough for a familys consumption.
2. Using a fish pen or pond. This indicates that the use of rivers and lakes with pens or ponds
measuring 1x1x1 square meters. This can raise from 250 to 1500 tilapia.
3. Using an artificial pond. This suggests raising tilapia in an excavated or dug out concrete pond
at the backyard preferably near a water source where water supply is sufficient.

2. Milkfish
Also referred to as the national fish of the Philippines, milkfish or bangus is very popular for its
milky taste. Like the tilapia, milkfish requires no special kind of feed, for its diet. Milkfish can be
harvested after seven to ten months of feeding.

3. Catfish
Catfish resembles cats whiskers. This fish has become a staple food for many Filipinos especially
in the tagalog region. Catfish can be harvested between four to six months of feeding.

Ways of raising fish

The following are the common types of fish enclosures used today.
a.Dug out/excavated enclosures This type of fish pen is an inland fish pen. A large land area is
excavated to create a pool of water where fish can be grown.

b.Concrete/plastic enclosures-Concrete and plastic fish tanks are usually used for commercial
fingerling production and research development.

c.Fish cages- This is an enclosure made of nets and stakes placed in large bodies of water like the
sea, lakes, and rivers to contain and protect fish until they can be harvested.