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K THUT IN

CHNG VII

NG C IN KHNG NG B
My in khng ng b: my in xoay chiu lm vic theo
nguyn l cm ng in t, c tc quay ca rto (n) khc vi
tc ca t trng quay n1.
My in khng ng b c tnh thun nghch, ngha l c th
lm vic ch ng c in, cng nh ch my pht in.
ng c in khng ng b, so vi cc loi ng c khc c
cu to v vn hnh khng phc tp, gi thnh r, lm vic tin cy
nn c s dng nhiu trong sn xut v sinh hot
My pht in ng b c c tnh lm vic khng tt v tiu tn
cng sut phn khng ca li nn t c dng.
ng c in khng ng b c cc loi: ba pha, hai pha v mt
pha. Cng sut > 600 W ba pha, cng sut < 600 W mt pha
(hai pha)
I. Cu to my in khng ng b ba pha
1.1. Stato (phn tnh)
a) Li thp:

B phn dn t ca my, c dng


hnh tr.
V t trng i qua li thp l t
trng quay nn gim tn hao,
li thp c lm bng cc l
thp k thut in dy 0,35mm
0,5mm ph sn cch in.
- Pha trong c x rnh t dy
qun
b) Dy qun:

Dy qun stato lm bng dy ng, bc


cch in, t trong cc rnh ca li thp.
S khai trin dy qun ba pha t
trong 12 rnh:
Dy qun pha A trong cc rnh 1,4,7,10
Dy qun pha B trong cc rnh 3, 6, 9, 12
Dy qun pha C trong cc rnh 5,8,11,2
Dng xoay chiu ba pha chy trong ba
pha dy qun stato s to ra t trng
quay
c) V my:

- Gi cht li thp v c nh my trn b.


- c lm bng nhm hoc gang.
- Hai u c np my, trong np c trc.
- V v np my cn dng bo v my
1.2. Rto (phn quay)

a) Li thp:

Gm cc l thp k thut in
ging stato, cc l thp ny ly t
phn rut bn trong khi dp l
thp stato.
Mt ngoi c x rnh t dy
qun rto, gia c l gn vi
trc my.
Trc my c gn vi li thp
rto v lm bng thp tt
b) Dy qun:
Dy qun c t trong li thp rto, v
phn lm 2 loi chnh: loi rto kiu lng
sc v loi rto kiu dy qun.
- Rto dy qun: Ging dy qun stato.
Dy qun ba pha ca rto u sao, ba u
cn li c ni vi ba vnh trt lm
bng ng gn mt u trc, cch in
vi nhau v vi trc.
Thng qua chi than v vnh trt, c th
ni dy qun rto vi in tr ph bn
ngoi. Khi lm vic bnh thng, dy qun
rto c ni ngn mch
iu chnh in tr ph mch in rto c th ci thin tnh
nng m my, iu chnh tc hoc ci thin h s cng
sut ca my
My in cng sut trung bnh tr ln, dy qun rto thng
l kiu dy qun sng hai lp.
My in c nh, thng dng dy qun ng tm mt lp
Rto lng sc:
Rto lng sc ca cc my cng sut ln
hn 100kW l cc thanh ng t trong
rnh ca li thp, hai u ni ngn mch
bng hai vng ng to thnh lng sc.
i vi ng c cng sut nh, lng sc
c ch to bng cch c nhm vo
cc rnh li thp rto, to thnh thanh
nhm, hai u c vng ngn mch v
cnh lm mt.
ng c in rto lng sc gi l ng
c khng ng b rto lng sc v c k
hiu nh hnh bn
Cc lng nh mc:
- Pm (W, kW) : cng sut nh mc l cng sut c nh
mc my a ra u trc my
- Im (A) : dng in dy nh mc
- Um (V, kV) : in p dy nh mc
- nm (vg/ph) : tc nh mc ca rto
- m : hiu sut nh mc ng c
- cosm : h s cng sut nh mc
- fm (Hz) : tn s nh mc
- Cch u dy ng c Y hay
II. T trng ca my in khng ng b

2.1. T trng ca dy qun mt pha

T trng ca dy qun mt pha l t trng c phng khng


i, song tr s v chiu bin i theo thi gian c gi l t
trng p mch.
Khi cho dng in i = Imaxsint vo cun dy, K hiu chiu dng
in trong cc cnh cun dy t trong rnh
Cn c vo chiu dng in, ta v c chiu t trng theo
quy tc vn nt chai.
l chiu ng vi mt na chu k ca dng i, na chu k
sau, chiu dng in v t trng s ngc li
Xt dy qun mt pha t
trong bn rnh ca stato:
S cc t: 2

Phng ca t trng
Xt dy qun mt pha t
trong bn rnh ca stato:
S cc t: 4 (2 cp cc:
1 v 2, 3 v 4)

Phng ca t trng
2.2. T trng dy qun ba pha

Xt my in ba pha n gin c 6 rnh, trong t ba


dy qun ba pha AX, BY, CZ v lch nhau 120o in trong
khng gian.
Cp ngun in ba pha cho cc dy qun, trong dy qun
c dng in ba pha lch pha nhau 120o.
Cc dy qun pha to ra cc t trng pha A,B, C,
tng hp li to nn t trng tng ca my in .
Xt ba thi im: t 90 o

t 90 120
o o

t 90 240
o o
t = 900 t = 900+1200 t = 900+2400

iA Im iA 0 iA 0
iB 0 iB Im iB 0
iC 0 iC 0 iC Im
t 90o t 90o 120o t 90o 240o
t 90o 120o


B
C C

A

t A
A
90 240
o o

C
B
B

c im ca t trng quay
- Tc t trng quay:
Tc ca t trng quay ph thuc vo tn s dng in stato
f(Hz) v s i cc ca my p.
Khi c mt i cc, tc quay ca t trng l n1 = f vng/giy.
Khi t trng c 2 i cc, dng in bin thin mt chu k, t
trng quay c 1/2 vng (t cc NSN), do tc t
trng quay l f / 2 vng/giy.

Tng qut, khi t trng quay c p i cc, tc t


trng quay:

n1 f 60f
p (vng/giy) n1 (vng/pht)
p
- Chiu quay ca t trng:

Chiu quay ca t trng ph thc vo th t pha ca


dng in. Mun i chiu quay ca t trng, ta thay i
th t hai pha cho nhau

Nu th t pha ln lt l ABC mt cch chu k th


t trng quay quay nh xt trn.

Khi i pha A v B cho nhau, tc cho dng iB vo dy


qun AX, dng iA vo dy qun BY, t trng s quay
theo chiu t BAC tc ngc vi chiu nh xt
+ Bin ca t trng quay
T trng quay sinh ra t thng xuyn qua mi dy qun. Xt t
thng ca t trng xuyn qua dy qun AX; ta thy dy qun pha
B v C lch vi pha A mt gc 1200 v 2400.
T thng tng xuyn qua dy qun AX do dy qun ba pha to ra:

A cos(120o ) cos(120o )
B C

A 1 (
C )
2 B

H thng dng in ba pha i xng


A B C 0 A (B C )

3

1
( C )
A
A
B 2
2
Dng iA = Imaxsint, nn t thng ca dng in pha A:
3
A Am sin t sin t
Am
2

T thng ca t trng quay xuyn qua cc dy qun bin thin


hnh sin v c bin bng 3/2 t thng cc i mt pha
3


m m.p
2 m
Tng qut, nu my c m pha:

m m.p
2
Kt lun:
Khi dy qun i xng v dng in cc pha i xng t trng
quay trn c bin khng i v tc khng i.
T trng quay trn s cho c tnh ca my tt.
Khi khng i xng, t trng quay elp c bin v tc quay
bin i
III. Nguyn l lm vic ca my in KB ba pha
3.1. Nguyn l lm vic ca ng c in KB ba pha

Cho dng in ba pha tn s f i vo ba dy qun stato ca


ng c khng ng b, trong my s c t trng quay p
i cc quay vi tc n1 = 60.f / p

T trng quay qut qua cc thanh dn ca dy qun rto,


cm ng trong dy qun s.
Dy qun rto khp kn mch (ngn mch) nn s cm
ng s sinh ra dng in chy trong cc thanh dn rto.
Lc in t do trng quay ca my tc ng vo dng
in chy trong thanh dn rto, ko rto quay vi tc n
cng chiu vi t trng quay v n<n1
T trng quay tc n1 c chiu
thun kim ng h.
Thanh dn chuyn ng tng i vi
t trng tc n1 ngc chiu kim
ng h.
Theo qui tc bn tay phi, xc nh
chiu ca s trong cc thanh dn
(nh biu din trn hnh).
Mch rto ni tt, trong thanh dn c
dng in trng chiu vi s.
Theo qui tc bn tay tri, xc nh chiu ca lc in t, tc ng
vo thanh dn (nh biu din trn hnh). Lc in t cng chiu vi
chiu quay ca t trng, rto quay theo t trng vi tc n
Tc ca rto (n) lun nh hn tc t trng quay (n1).
Nu tc n = n1 th gia cc thanh dn rto v t trng quay n1
khng c s chuyn ng tng i, do trong dy qun rto
khng c s v dng in cm ng, lc in t bng khng
lch gia tc t trng quay v tc my gi l tc
trt n2

n 2 n1 n
H s trt tc k hiu s:
s
n2 n1 n

n1 n1
Tc ca rto tnh theo n1 v s:

n (1 s)n1 0 s 1
3.2. Nguyn l lm vic ca my pht in KB ba pha

Ni dy qun stato vi li in, dng


ng c s cp ko rto quay vi tc
n > n1 v cng chiu n1, lc ny
chiu ca t trng quay qut qua cc
thanh dn rto s ngc li, s v
dng in rto ngc chiu so vi ch
ng c.
Chiu ca lc in t tc dng ln rto s ngc so vi chiu
quay ca rto, to ra mmen hm cn bng vi mmen quay
ng c s cp. My lm vic n nh ch my pht
n1 n
H s trt ch my pht: s 1

n1

Nh t trng quay do ngun in ca li to ra, c nng ng


c s cp a vo rto c bin thnh in nng stato.
to ra t trng quay, li in phi cung cp cho my pht
in khng ng b cng sut phn khng Q, do lm cho h s
cng sut cos ca li in thp i.
Khi my pht lm vic ring l (khng c in vo dy qun stato
lc ban u) ngi ta phi dng t ni u cc ca my kch
t cho my.
y chnh l nhc im ca my pht in KB, v th n t c
dng lm my pht in trong h thng cung cp in.
IV. Phng trnh in t trong ng c in KB
4.1. Phng trnh cn bng in trong dy qun stato

Dy qun stato ca ng c in khng ng b tng t


nh dy qun s cp ca my bin p.
L lun tng t nh vi my bin p, ta c phng trnh
cn bng in p trong dy qun stato

U1 E1 I1 Z1

U1 in p t ln mt pha dy qun stato


Z1 tng tr (phc) 1 pha dy qun stato
R1 in tr 1 pha dy qun stato
X1 in khng tn 1 pha dy qun stato
X1 2.f.L1
f - tn s dng in stato,
L1 - in cm mt pha dy qun stato,
E1 sc in ng pha dy qun stato
E1 4,44.w1.f.kdq1.m

w1 - s vng dy qun pha stato


kdq1 - h s dy qun mt pha stato. H s kdq1<1 ni
ln s gim sc in ng ca dy qun stato do qun
ri trn cc rnh v bc qun rt ngn so vi qun tp
trung nh my bin p.
m - bin t thng ca t trng quay
4.2. Phng trnh cn bng in dy qun rto

Dy qun rto c coi nh dy qun th cp my bin p,


song ng c, dy qun rto ni ngn mch v chuyn
ng i vi t trng quay tc trt: n2 = n1- n = sn1
Sc in ng v dng in trong dy qun rto c tn s f2:
p.n2 pn1s
f2 s.f
60 60

Tn s s rto khi quay v khi ng yn lch nhau h s s.

Khi rto ng yn, tn s s dy qun rto bng tn s s


dy qun stato, trng hp ny ging nh my bin p.
+ Khi rto ng yn s = 1, tn s s v dng in rto f2 = f.
Sc in ng dy qun rto lc ng yn:

E2 4,44.w2f.kdq2m
w1 - s vng dy qun pha stato
kdq2 - h s dy qun mt pha stato. H s kdq1<1.
m - bin t thng ca t trng quay

+ Khi rto quay s < 1, tn s s v dng in rto f2 = sf.


Sc in ng dy qun rto lc quay:

E2s 4,44.w2f2kdq2m 4,44.w2s.f.kdq2m

+ So snh s rto khi quay v ng yn:

E2s s.E2
+ in khng tn dy qun rto khi quay v ng yn:

X2s 2.f2.L2 2.sf.L2 s.X2

T s s pha stato v rto h s qui i s


E1
k w1kdq1
e

E2 w 2kdq2

Phng trnh cn bng in lc rto


quay (rto coi nh dy qun th cp
ni ngn mch)

E2s I2 (R2 jX2s )

0 s E2 I2 (R2 jsX2 )
4.3.Phng trnh cn bng t ca ng c KB

Khi ng c lm vic, t trng quay trong my do c hai


dng in hai dy qun stato v rto sinh ra.
- Dng in trong dy qun stato sinh ra t trng quay vi
tc n1 i vi stato.
- Dng in trong dy qun rto sinh ra t trng quay rto,
quay vi tc n2 so vi mt im trn rto. Rto quay so vi
stato tc n
- Tc ca t trng dy qun rto so vi stato:
n2 n s.n1 (1 s)n1 n1

o T trng quay ca stato v rto c tc bng nhau


khng c s chuyn ng tng i vi nhau.
o T trng tng hp ca my s l t trng quay vi tc n1
Nu dng ng c s cp ko rto quay vi tc n1, bng tc
t trng quay khng c s chuyn ng tng i gia rto v
t trng s v dng in rto I2 = 0. Dng in stato I0. ng
c ch khng ti.

St ca mch t ng c khng ti: m1w1kdq1 I0
Khi ng c quay vi tc n < n1 c s chuyn ng tng i
gia rto v t trng s v dng in rto I2 0. Dng in
stato I1.

St ca mch t ng c: m1w1kdq1 I1 m2 w 2 k dq2 I2

T thng m lc khng ti v c ti l khng i phng trnh


cn bng t ca ng c KB:

m1w1kdq1 I0 m1w1kdq1 I1 m2 w 2 kdq2 I2
Chia hai v ca phng trnh cho m1w1kdq1
m2 w2kdq2

I0 I1 I2
m1w1kdq1
mw k
ki
1 1 dq1
H s qui i dng in
m2 w 2 kdq2
Phng trnh cn bng t ca ng c in:
1
I0 I1 I2 I1 I2
'

ki
1 Dng in rto qui i v stato

'

I2 I2
ki
V. S thay th ca ng c in KB
T phng trnh in lc rto quay vi tn s dng in rto
f2 = sf; chia 2 v cho s:
R2
0
E2 I2 ( jX )
2
s

Trong phng trnh: cc s E2 v in khng X2 cc i


lng rto ng yn vi tn s dng in f, bng tn s
dng in stato qui i tn s v stato

Nhn c hai v vi ke.ki / ki :



1 R
0 ke E2 I2 (k e k i 2 jk e k i X2 )
ki s

E2 k e E2
'
Sc in ng rto qui i v stato:

I I
' 1
Dng in rto qui i v stato: 2 2
ki
R ' k k R
in tr rto qui i v stato: 2 e i 2

X k k X
'
in khng rto qui i v stato: 2 e i 2

Phng trnh cn bng in rto qui i v stato:


'
R
0 E2 I2 ( 2
' '
jX' )
s
2

E1 v E2 l in p ri trn tng tr t ha

jX th )
E1 E2 I0 (R th
'

H phng trnh ng c jX jX


Ith R th
in KB (rto qui i v U1 I1 R1 1 th


R '2 jX' )
stato):
0 IR th jX thI2 ( '
2
0
s
'
H phng trnh gm 1 S thay th cho ng c in KB
phng trnh vit cho
nt v 2 phng trnh
vit cho vng.
Mch in tha mn cc
phng trnh gm 3
nhnh, 2 nt.

I
0
I1

I2
S thay th n gin:

R 0 R1 Rth

X0 X1 Xth

Th hin cng sut c trn trc ca ng c, tng t nh


cng sut P2 my bin p, trong s thay th thc hin
php bin i:
R '2 ' 1 s '
R 2 R2
s s
c trng cho cng sut in t t Stato Rto:
R '2
s
'
2 R 2 R2
Pt m I '
1 2
2
m2I 2
s s

c trng cho tn hao ng trong dy qun Rto: R '2


P m I' 2R' m I2R
2 1 2 2 2 2 2

1 s '
c trng cho cng sut c trn trc my: R2
s
P m '2 1 s
R' m I2 1 s
R
2 I
1 2 2 2 2 2
s s
S thay th ng c khng ng b:

Bin tr R2(1-s)/s c trng cho cng sut c u ra ng


c in KB
VI. Tn tht v hiu sut ca ng c in KB
Cng sut P1 cp cho ng c t li in:

P1 m1U1I1 cos1
Tn hao ng trong dy qun Stato P1:
P m I2R
1 1 1 1

Tn hao st t trong li thp Stato P1:

P m I2R
st 1 0 th

Tn hao trong li thp rto khng ng k v tn s


f2 ca dng in rto nh: f2 =13Hz
Cng sut in t truyn sang Rto Pt :

Pt P1 P1 Pst

'
2R 2 R2
Pt m I '
1 2 m2I2
2
s s

Tn hao ng trong dy qun Rto P2:

P m I' 2R' m I2R


2 1 2 2 2 2 2

Cng sut c u ra Pc:


'2 R' ' 2 ' ' 2 ' 1 s
Pco Pt P2 m1I2 2
m1I2 R 2 m1I2 R 2
s s
Ngoi cc tn hao trn trong ng c cn tn hao c (do ma st)
v tn hao ph (lm mt), cng sut u ra P2:

P2 Pco Pck Pf

Tng tn hao trong ng c P:

P Pst P1 P 2 Pck Pf

Gin nng lng:


Cng sut u ra P2:

P2 P1 P

Hiu sut ca ng c:


P2

P1 P
1
P
P1 P1 P1

Hiu sut ca ng c khng ng b khong 0,75 0,95


VII. Mmen quay ca ng c in KB ba pha
Ch ng c in, mmen in t ng vai tr mmen
quay, c tnh:
Pt
M Mt
R 1
'
' 2
Pt 3I2
2
s Pt cng sut in t ca ng c

1 tc gc ca t trng quay
tc gc ca dng in Stato
1
p p s i cc t

Lp biu thc tnh moomen in t ta dng s thay th


gn ng ca ng c KB ba pha.
U1
Dng in th cp: I 2
'


X X
s
Biu thc mmen in t (mmen quay)
3p.U2R'
M M t 1 2

R'
2

s.. R 2 X


2
X'
1 s 1 2

i vi mt ng c nht nh, cc thng s dy qun, s cc


khng i. Gi thit in p U1, tn s dng in khng i ta
thit lp quan h M = f(s)
th M = f(s) khi U1 = const, f = const ng c tnh c:

Xc nh cc tr ca hm s M=f(s),
ly o hm ring

dM
0 s sth
ds
H s trt ti hn:
' '
sth 2 R
2
R

R1 X1 X '
2 X 1 X '
2

M men cc i:
3pU2 3pU2
1 1
Mmax
2.(R1 ) 2.(R1
X X' )
1
Khi m my h s trt s = 1 (n = 0), biu thc ca mmen
m my: 2 '
3p.U R
Mmm 2 1 2

' ' 2

.[(R1 R 2 ) (X1 X2 ) ]

Quan h gia M, Mmax v sth c th vit gn ng nh sau


(cng thc Klox):

M 2

Mmax s sth
sth s
tnh sth,
Trong l lch my thng cho bit cc t s:
T M theo
h s trt s Mmax Mmm ; M m ;s m
;
Mm Mm
VIII. c tnh ca ng c in KB ba pha
i vi ng c in khng ng b, khi xt n vn
truyn ng (tc , mmen quay), ngi ta thng ch
nhiu n ng c tnh quan h gia mmen quay vi tc
quay rto M = f(n), gi l ng c tnh c:

Biu thc ca hm M = f(n) c th suy ra t biu thc M = f(s)


khi thay tc trt bng tc quay n = (1 - s) n1.
a) c tnh c M = f(n) khi U = const, f = const, R2 = const

Gi s ng c lm vic n nh vi
mt mmen ti Mc no , theo s
cn bng v mmen, trn ng c
tnh c, ng c c th lm vic 2
im a v b
Ti im a: mmen MC tng tc
ng c gim, theo ng c tnh
M ca ng c tng cn bng
MC. ng c lm vic n nh tnh
trng cn bng mi.
Ti im b: mmen MC tng tc ng c gim, theo
ng c tnh M ca ng c gim cng nh hn MC.
ng c khng th xc lp c tnh trng cn bng mi v phi
ngng quay.
ng c ch lm vic n nh trong an
dc trn ng c tnh c M = f(n), ng
vi:
dM
0
ds
on ny c tnh c rt cng, ngha
l khi thay i ph ti, tc quay ca
ng c thay i rt
b) c tnh c M = f(n) khi thay i in p U1

Mmen t l vi bnh phng in p, nu in p t vo ng


c thay i, mmen ng c thay i rt nhiu.
Vng lm vic n nh ca ng c gim i v tc quay ca
ng c cng gim i khi in p gim
c) ng c tnh c khi thay i in tr rto

Khi thay i in tr rto (bng


cch thm in tr ph), sth thay
i nhng Mmax khng i.
Tnh cht ny c s dng
iu chnh tc v m my ng
c rto dy qun.
T hnh v ta thy khi tng in
tr mch rto, mmen m my
tng, vng lm vic n nh ca
ng c tng, tc gii hn nth
gim, tc quay ca ng c
gim
IX. Cc c tnh lm vic ca ng c in KB

Ch lm vic nh mc, ng c KB c cc i lng


nh mc:
- Cng sut c hu ch trn trc nh mc Pm
- in p dy nh mc Um
- Dng in dy nh mc Im
- Tc quay nh mc nm
- H s cng sut nh mc cosm
- Hiu sut nh mc m
Cc i lng nh mc khng th cho bit y cc c tnh khi ti
khc nh mc. Vi cc mc ti khc nhau, tnh ton ch lm vic
c ng c tng i phc tp, v th cn bit nhng c tnh lm vic
ca ng c khng ng b.
Cc c tnh lm vic bao gm:
- Tc quay rto: n = f(P2)
- H s cng sut: cos = f(P2)
- Hiu sut ng c: = f(P2)
- Mmen quay ng c:M = f(P2)
- Dng in stato: I1 = f(P2)
Vi cng sut c hu ch trn trc P2, khi in p U1 v tn s f stato
khng i.
Cc c tnh lm vic cng th hin trn mt th:
Trc ox mc mang ti kt = P2/Pm
Trc oy , cos, /1, s, P1/Pm, I1/Im, M/Mm
Cc c tnh ca ng c KB ba pha:

- c tnh tc : n = f(P2)
2. c tnh hiu sut = f(P2), h s cng sut cos1 = f(P2)
X. M my ng c KB ba pha
Mmen m my ca ng c KB ba pha l mmen ti thi
im tc n = 0.
m my c, mmen m my ng c phi ln hn
mmen cn ca ti lc m my, ng thi mmen ng c
phi ln thi gian m my trong phm vi cho php

U1
Dng in pha m my: Ip.mm

R R
X X

Dng in m my ln bng 5 7 ln dng in nh mc.


i vi li in cng sut nh s lm cho in p mng in
tt xung, nh hng n s lm vic ca cc thit b khc.
V th ta cn c cc bin php gim dng in m my
1. M my ng c rto dy qun

gim dng in v tng mmen m my, dy qun rto


c ni vi bin tr m my. u tin bin tr ln nht,
sau gim dn n khng. ng c tnh mmen ng vi
cc gi tr Rm
C c mmen m my bng mmen cc i (Mmm = Mmax, h s
trt ti hn sth = 1 (n = 0)
R' R'
sth 2 mm
1
X1 X'2

Rmm
1

X X' R '
keki 1 2 2

Dng in m my:
U
Ip.mm 1

Nh c Rmm mmen m my tng, dng in m my
gim, l u im ln ca ng c rto dy qun
2. M my ng c lng sc
a) M my trc tip.

y l phng php n gin nht, ch vic


ng trc tip ng c in vo li in.
Khuyt im ca phng php ny l dng
in m my ln, lm tt in p mng in
rt nhiu, nu qun tnh ca my ln, thi
gian m my s rt lu, c th lm chy cu
ch bo v.
Phng php ny dng c khi cng sut
mng in (hoc ngun in) ln hn cng
sut ng c rt nhiu, vic m my s rt
nhanh v n gin
b) Gim in p stato khi m my

Khi m my, gim in p t vo ng c, gim dng


in m my. Khi ng c hot ng bnh thng cp in
p nh mc.
in p gim dng in gim
in p gim mmen gim
Khuyt im ca phng php ny l mmen m my gim
rt nhiu, v th n ch s dng c i vi trng hp
khng yu cu mmen m my ln.
Dng in khng ni tip vo mch stato

in p mng in t vo ng c qua
in khng .K.
Lc m my, cu dao D2 m, D1 ng.
Khi ng c quay n nh th ng
cu dao D2 , m cu dao D1.
Do in p ri trn in khng, in p
trc tip t vo ng c gim i k ln.
Dng in s gim i k ln, song mmen
gim i k2 ln (v momen t l vi bnh
phng in p
Dng my bin p t ngu
in p mng in t vo s cp my bin
p t ngu, th cp a vo ng c.
Thay i v tr con chy cho lc m my
in p t vo ng c nh, sau dn dn
tng ln bng nh mc.
Gi k l h s bin p ca my t bin p; U1
l in p pha li in ; zn l tng tr ng
c lc m my.
in p pha t vo ng c v dng in
khi m my

U Uc U1
Uc 1 Imm
k Zn k.Zn
Dng in I1 li in cung cp cho ng c lc c my bin p t
ngu chnh l dng in s cp ca my t bin p:

Ic U1
I1 2
k k .Zn
Khi m my trc tip, dng in I1:
U1
I
1
Zn
Khi c my t bin p, dng in ca li in gim i k2 ln.
y l mt u im so vi dng in khng (dng in gim k ln).
Phng php c dng nhiu i vi ng c cng sut ln.
in p t vo ng c gim k ln, nn mmen s gim k2 ln
- Phng php i ni sao tam gic

Phng php ny ch dng c


vi nhng ng c khi lm vic
bnh thng dy qun stato ni
hnh tam gic

Khi m my ta ni hnh sao


in p t vo mi pha
gim
Sau khi m my ta ni li thnh hnh tam gic nh ng
quy nh ca my.
Trn hnh khi m my ta ng cu dao sang pha Y, m
my xong ng sang pha

Dng in dy khi ni hnh tam gic

3. U
Id.
1Z
n
Dng in dy khi ni hnh sao
U1
Id.Y

M my kiu i ni sao tam gic dng in dy gim i 3 ln,


mmen gim 3 ln
10.3. ng c in lng sc c c tnh m my tt

a) ng c in lng sc rnh su
Loi ng c ny, rnh rto hp v su
(chiu su bng 10 12 ln chiu rng
rnh.

Khi c dng in cm ng trong thanh


dn rto, t thng tn rto t2 phn b
nh trn hnh bn. T thng tn mc
vng vi on di thanh dn nhiu
hn on trn
Khi rto cha quay, dng in rto c tn s
ln bng tn s stato f. in khng tn rto
s ln hn in tr, v c tc dng quyt
nh n s phn b dng in rto.
Lc m my in khng tn pha di ln,
dng in tp trung pha trn thanh dn gn
ming rnh. Do s phn b dng in tp
trung nhiu pha ming rnh, tit din dn
in ca thanh coi nh b nh i, in tr rto
R2 tng ln s lm tng mmen m my.
Khi m my xong, tn s dng in rto nh,
tc dng trn b yu i, in tr rto gim
xung nh bnh thng
b) ng c in lng sc kp

Rto ca ng c c hai lng sc , cc thanh


dn ca lng sc ngoi (cn gi l lng sc
m my) c tit din nh v in tr sut ln.
Lng sc trong c tit din ln in tr nh.
Nh trn, khi m my dng in tp trung
lng sc ngoi c in tr R2 ln, mmen m
my ln. Khi lm vic bnh thng, dng in
li phn b u c hai lng sc, in tr R2
nh xung.
ng c in rnh su v lng sc kp c c tnh m my tt,
nhng v t thng tn ln, nn cos thp hn ng c lng sc
thng thng
XI. iu chnh tc ng c in KB

Tc ca ng c in khng ng b

n n1 1 s 1 s
60.f
p
ng c rto lng sc:
Cch iu chnh: thay i tn s dng in stato, i ni dy
qun stato thay i s i cc t p ca t trng, thay i
in p t vo stato thay i h s trt s.
Tt c cc phng php u thc hin pha stato.
ng c in rto dy qun: thng iu chnh tc bng cch
thay i in tr rto thay i h s trt s, vic iu chnh
thc hin pha rto
11.1. iu chnh tc bng thay i tn s
Dng bin tn thay i tn s f ca
dng in stato.
iu chnh ng thi tn s v
in p, gi cho t s gia in p
U1 v tn s f khng i (do t
thng max t l thun vi t s U1/
f, v gi cho t thng max
khng i, mch t my tnh
trng nh mc).
H ng c tnh ng c khi
thay i tn s f v U1 sao cho t
s U1/f khng i.
11.2. iu chnh tc bng cch thay i s i cc

S i cc ca t trng quay
ph thuc vo cu to dy qun.
ng c khng ng b c cu
to dy qun thay i s i
cc t c gi l ng c khng
ng b nhiu cp tc .
Phng php ny ch s dng cho
loi rto lng sc.
Mc d iu chnh tc nhy
cp, nhng c u im l gi
nguyn cng ca c tnh c.
11.3. iu chnh tc bng thay i in p stato

Phng php ny ch c thc hin bng vic gim in p.


Khi gim in p ng c tnh M=f(n) s thay i.

Nhc im:
Gim kh nng qu ti
Di iu chnh tc hp
Tng tn hao dy qun rto
Pr = sPt = sM1.
Vic iu chnh tc bng thay i
in p ch yu vi cc ng c
cng sut nh c h s trt ti hn
sth ln
11.4. iu chnh tc bng thay i in tr mch rto

Thay i in tr dy qun rto,


bng cch mc bin tr ba pha
vo mch rto nh hnh
Bin tr iu chnh tc phi lm
vic lu di nn c kch thc ln hn
so vi bin tr m my.
H c tnh c ca ng c khng
ng b rto dy qun khi c bin tr
iu chnh tc v trn hnh
Nu mmen cn khng i, dng rto khng i, khi tng in
tr gim tc , s tng tn hao cng sut trong bin tr, do
phng php ny khng kinh t.
Tuy nhin phng php n gin, iu chnh trn v khong
iu chnh tng i rng, c s dng iu chnh tc
quay ca ng c cng sut c trung bnh
XII. Hm ng c in khng ng b
12.1. Phng php hm i th t pha

Khi ng c ang lm vic, rto


quay cng chiu t trng quay.
Khi ct in khi ng c, mun
ng c dng mt cch nhanh
chng ta ng cu dao v pha
khc i th t hai trong ba
pha in vo ng c
Do qun tnh, khi ngt in khi 1, rto vn quay theo chiu c,
trong lc ng D v pha 2, t trng quay do i th t hai trong ba
pha quay ngc li.
Kt qu mmen in t sinh ra ngc vi chiu quay ca rto c tc
dng hm nhanh chng v bng phng tc quay ca ng c.
Khi rto ngng quay, phi ngt ngay in vo ng c nu khng
ng c s quay theo chiu ngc li.
Trong qu trnh hm, dng in rt ln v th phi c bin php khc
phc nh gim in p hoc tng in tr vo mch rto
12.2. Phng php hm i thnh my pht in
Khi ng c lm vic ko ph ti, v mt l do no ph ti tng
tc (v d lc u xe in xung dc, cu trc th hng) rto quay
cng chiu nhng tc ln hn tc t trng quay, lc
ng c lm vic nh my pht in tr nng lng cho li in
ng thi sinh ra mmen hm hm ng c li.
to ra cch hm ny, ta i ni dy qun stato lm tng s i
cc t p, lc tc rto s ln hn tc t trng quay, to
mmen hm hm ng c v nng lng tr cho li.
V d: Gi s ng c lm vic vi h s trt s = 0,03 v c p =
1, lc ny tc t trng quay n1 =3000vg/ph (nu f = 50Hz), v
tc rto
n = n1(1-s) = 3000(1-0,03) = 2910vg/ph.
Khi i dy ni cho p =2, ta c n1 = 1500 vg/ph < n
12.3. Phng php hm ng nng

Khi dng ng c, ngt cu


dao D1 v ng cu dao D2.
D2
Dng in mt chiu t chnh D1

lu i vo dy qun stato to
thnh t trng mt chiu.
Do qun tnh, rto vn quay
I
trong t trng ny, trong dy
qun rto cm ng nn sc
in ng v dng in.
Tc dng gim t trng stato vi dng cm ng trong dy
qun rto to nn mmen in t ngc chiu vi chiu quay
rto, lm cho rto nhanh chng dng li
XIII. ng c in khng ng b mt pha
13.1. Cu to v nguyn l lm vic

a. Cu to ng c KB mt pha

ng c K mt pha c kt cu c bn ging nhau nh


ng c in ba pha: Stato (li thp, dy qun) v Rto
(li thp, dy qun).
im khc bit l Stato ng c mt pha c hai dy qun :
dy qun chnh (hay dy qun lm vic) v dy qun ph
(hay dy qun m my).
Rto cng c hai loi : rto dy qun v rto lng sc,
nhng thng l rto lng sc
b) Nguyn l lm vic
Cp in mt pha cho dy qun Stato,
dng dy qun stato s sinh ra t
trng p mch B.

Phn tch B thnh hai t trng quay BI


v BII, quay ngc chiu nhau, cng tc
n1 v bin bng na bin t
trng p mch
1
BI.m BII.m Bm
2


BI BII B
Trn th vc t: khi t trng B bin thin c chu k
th BI v BII quay c vng vi chiu tng ng. Tc
quay ca BI v BII bng tc t trng p mch B

60.f
n1
p
T trng BI c chiu quay thun t trng thun
T trng BII c chiu quay ngc t trng ngc
Cc t trng BI v BII tc ng v thanh dn Rto to nn cc
m men quay thun, ngc MI , MII tng ng.
Nu tc ca Rto l n (vng/pht):

H s trt i vi t trng thun MI:


n1 n
s s
th
n1
H s trt i vi t trng ngc MII:

n1 n n1 n1 1 sth 2 s 2 s
s
ng th
n1 n1
Mmen quay ca ng c l tng i s ca hai mmen MI
v MII.

T ng c tnh mmen:
Khi m my, s = sth = sng = 1, cc
m men MI = MII nn Mm = 0, ng
c khng t m my c.
Nu tc ng vo rto theo chiu
no tc l lm cho s1 lc
ng c c mmen M 0, s tip
tc quay theo chiu

Do c t trng ngc nn Mmax, , h c cos ca ng c KB


mt pha nh hn ng c in ba pha cng cng sut
13.2. M my ng c KB mt pha

a) Dng dy qun ph m my

Dy qun ph thit k c loi ch m my (m my


xong ngt ra khi li in), c loi lm vic lu di.
Dy qun ph c tc dng to ra t trng, phi hp vi
t trng dy qun chnh to thnh t trng quay sinh
ra mmen m my ban u.
Dy qun ph phi t trong mt s rnh ca stato sao
cho sinh ra t thng lch vi t thng chnhmt gc 90o
khng gian, v dng in trong dy qun ph lch pha vi
dng in trong dy qun chnh mt gc 900
To ra s lch pha gia hai dng in trong hai dy qun, bng
cch mc ni tip dy qun ph vi t in C (ng c mt pha
kiu in dung) hay in cm L (ng c mt pha kiu in cm).
Thc t thng dng ng c mt pha kiu in dung.
b) Dng vng ngn mch cc t

- p dng cho ng c cng sut nh,


m my khng ti hoc ti nh.
- Cc t c ch ra 1/3 v cho vo
mt vng ngn mch
- Khi t in p mt pha vo dy qun,
s c t trng p mch chnh l c.
Mt phn ca t trng ny l c xuyn
qua vng ngn mch, trong vng ny s
sinh ra mt t thng n.
T thng n tc dng vi c sinh ra
t thng ph f i qua vng ngn mch
Ngoi ra, trong thc t, khi khng c ngun in ba pha ta c th
u li ng c ba pha ni vo li in mt pha, khi chn tr s
in dung C ph hp, c th t 70- 80% cng sut ca ng c ba
pha trc khi u li
XIV. Cc v d
V d 1
Mt ng c in khng ng b ba pha
Pm =7,5kW ; 220/380 V - /Y ; f = 50Hz ; p = 2; cosm = 0,88 ;
m = 0,88.
Tn hao st t Pst = 220W ; tn hao c v ph Pcf = 124,5W ;
in tr dy qun stato R1 = 0,69 .
Tnh dng in nh mc I1m cng sut tc dng P1 , cng sut
phn khng Q1, tc quay n, mmen in t.
Bit ng c mc vo li in c Um = 380V
Bi gii:

Dng in nh mc stato I1m

Pm 7500
I1m 14,7A
3.380.0,88.0,88

Cng sut tc dng P1 ng c tiu th

Pm 7500
P1 8522
m 0,88

P1 3.U1mI1m cosm 3.380.14,7.0,88 8522


Cng sut phm khng Q1 ng c tiu th

Q1 3.U1mI1m sinm 3.380.14,7.0,47 4595

Q1 P1tgm 8522.0,54 4595

Tn hao ng dy qun stato

P1 3.I1m.p
2
R1 3.14,72.0,69 447

Cng sut in t Pt :

Pt P1 Pst P1 8522 220 447 7855


Tn hao ng dy qun Rto

P 2 Pt Pc.f P 7855 124,5 7500 230,5


2

H s trt nh mc
P2 230,5
sm 0,029
Pt 7855

Tc vng t trng quay


60.f 60.50
n1 1500 (vng / pht)
p 2
1 2.f 314 (rad / s)
Tc ng c :

nm n1 1 sm 15001 0,029 1456

M men in t:
Pt
7855
Mt 50 (N.m)
1 314
V d 2
Mt ng c in khng ng b ba pha dy qun stato ni hnh
tam gic; in p li 220V ; 50Hz. S liu ng c : p = 2 ; I1 = 21
A ; cos1 = 0,82 ; = 0,837 ; s = 0,053 .
Tnh tc ng c, cng sut in ng c tiu th P1 , tng cc
tn hao, cng sut c hu ch P2, mmen quay M ng c

Bi gii
Tc ca ng c:
2.f
1 1 s 1 s 148,68 (rad / s)
p

n n1 1 s
60.f p
1 s 1420
(vng / pht)
Cng sut in ng c tiu th

P1 3. U1I1 cos1 3.220.21.0,82 6561



Cng sut c hu ch

P2 .P1 0,837.6561 5491

Tng tn hao cng sut

P P1 2 6561 5491 1070


P

M men quay ng c
P2
M
5491
36,9 (N.m)
148,68
V d 3
ng c in khng ng b ba pha rto lng sc : Pm = 14 kW,
tc nh mc nm = 1450 vg/ph, hiu sut nh mc m = 0,885,
h s cng sut nh mc cosm = 0,88 ; Y/ - 380/220 V ; t s
dng in m my Imm/Im = 5,5; mmen m my Mmm/Mm = 1,3 ;
mmen cc i Mmax/Mm = 2 . in p mng in Ud =380 V.
Tnh :
a) Cng sut tc dng v phn khng ng c tiu th ch
nh mc.
b) Dng in, h s trt v mmen nh mc
c) Dng in m my, mmen m my, mmen cc i
Bi gii
a) Cng sut ng c tiu th:
Pm 14
P1 15,82 (kW)
0,885

Q1 P1tg 15,82.0,54 8,54 (kVAr)

a) Dng in, h s trt nh mc:

Pm 7500
I1m 27,3A
3.380.0,885.0,88
n1 n
s
1500 1450 0,033

m
n1 1500
Mmen nh mc
Pm 14
Mm 9550 9550 92,2 (N.m)
nm 1450

Mmen m my

Mmm 1,3.Mm 1,3.92,2 119,8 (N.m)

Mmen cc i

Mmax 2.Mm 2.92,2 184,4 (N.m)

Dng in m my
Imm 5,5.Im 5,5.27,3 150,15 (N.m)
V d 4
ng c in khng ng b ba pha, rto dy qun, R1 = 0,46 ;
X1 = 2,24; kdq1 = 0,932; w1 = 192 vng, R2 = 0,02; X2 = 0,08;
kdq2 0,955; w2 = 36 vng. Dy qun stato u tam gic, mng in
c Ud = 220 V , f = 50 Hz, s pha ca ng c m1 = m2 = 3.
Tnh h s quy i sc in ng ke , h s quy i dng in ki
in tr m my mc vo mch rto mmen m my cc i.
Tnh dng in stato v rto khi c bin tr m my v khi m
my trc tip.
Bi gii
H s quy i sc in ng
w1kdq1 192.0,932 5,2
ke
w2k dq2 36.0,955
H s quy i dng in

m1w1kdq1 3.192.0,932 5,2


ki
m2 w 2 k dq2 3.36.0,955

in tr, in khng rto quy i v stato

R '2 k i k e R 2 5,2.5,2.0,02 0,54

X '2 k i k e X 2 5,2.5,2.0,08 2,16

mmen m my cc i
R R
' '
'

'

'

sth 2 f R f sth X2 X1 R 2 3,88

X '2 X1
in tr ph cha quy i

1 1
R f R f 2 3,88 0,1436
'

ke ki 5,2

Dng in pha Stato khi m my bng in tr ph mch Rto


U1p
Imm.p
R R R
X X

I 220 33,75A
mm.p

Dng in dy Stato khi m my:


Imm 3. Imm.p 3.33,75 58A

Dng in rto khi m my (rto u sao)

I2 ki I1 ki Imm.p 5,2.33,75 174A

Nu m my trc tip th dng in m my:


U1p
Imm
R R
X X
220
Imm 84A

Dng in tr mc vo mch rto, dng in m my gim i:


84
1,46
58
V d 5:

Mt ng c in khng ng b ba pha c s liu nh v d 3 .


in p mng in U = 380 V. Tnh ton cc phng php m my
sau :
a) Dng bin p t ngu gim dng in m my 2,25 ln th h
s bin p phi l bao nhiu? Tnh mmen cn ti a ng c
c th m my dc trong trng hp ny.
b) Nu dng cun in cm ni vo pha stato in p vo dy
qun gim i 10%. Tnh dng in m my v mmen m my.
Xc nh mmen cn Mc lc m my ng c c th m my
c bng phng php ny
S liu tnh ton c t v d 3:
Im = 27,3A; Imm = 150A; Mm = 92,2Nm; Mmm = 119,8Nm;
Mmax = 184,4Nm
Bi gii:

dng in m my gim i 2,25 ln th h s bin p kba

kba 1,5

Dng in m my dng bin p t ngu:


Imm 150
Imm.ba 2 66,75A
k ba 2,25
Mmen m my khi dng bin p t ngu

Mmm 119,8
Mmm.ba 2 53,24Nm
k ba 2,25

ng c c th m my khi kba =1,5 th mmen cn lc


m my Mc < 53,24 Nm
b) Khi dng cun in cm, in p t vo dy qun ng c
s bng 0,9Um do dng in m my:

Imm.k 0,9Imm 0,9.150 135A

Mmen m my khi dng in khng

Mmm.k 0,92 M 0,92.119,8 97,03Nm


mm

ng c c th m my c, trong trng hp ny th
mmen cn lc m my Mc < 97,03 Nm
V d 6:

Mt ng c khng ng b ba pha rto dy qun R2 = 0,0278 , tc


nh mc nm = 970 vg/ph, hiu sut nh mc m = 0,885.
Tnh in tr ph mc vo mch rto tc ng c l 700 vg/ph.
Cho bit mmen cn ca ti khng ph thuc tc .

Bi gii:
R2
Mmen cn khng i mmen in t khng i const
s
H s trt vi tc nh mc

n1 n 1000 970 0,03


s
m
n1 1000
H s trt vi tc n = 700 vg/ph
n1 n 1000 700 0,3
s
n1 1000
Do :

R2 R 2 Rf

sm s
s 0,3
R f R2 1 0,0278 1 0,25
s m 0,03
Bi tp

Bi s 7.1
in p t vo mi pha ng c khng ng b ba pha U = 380 V,
tn s f = 50Hz, s i cc p = 3. B qua in p ri trn dy qun
stato, h s bin i s ke = 0,8, tc quay ca rto n = 960vg/ph.
Xc nh : h s trt s; tn s v sc in ng cm ng trong mt
pha rto

Bi gii:
60.f 60.50
Tc t trng quay n1 1000(vg / ph)
p 3

n1 n 1000 960 0,04


H s trt: s
n1 1000
Tn s s Rto:

f2 s.f 0,04.50 2(Hz)

Phng trnh cn bng in Stato khi b qua in p ri


trn dy qun

U1 I1 Z1 E U1 E1
1

Gi tr hiu dng

U1 E1 380V

Gi tr s Rto khi ng yn:


E1 380 475V
E2 0,8
ke
Gi tr s Rto khi quay:

E2s sE2 0,04.475 19V


Bi s 7.2.
in p dy trn cc cc ng c in khng ng b l 2000(V),
Dy qun stato v rto ni Y, bit W2 = 30 vng, kdq2 = 0,957;
kdq1 = 0,92; t thng =3,51.10-2Wb, f = 50Hz. B qua in p ri
trn dy qun stato.
Xc nh:
a) S E2 khi rto ng yn?
b) S vng dy mt pha dy qun stato W1
Bi gii:

S Rto khi ng yn:

E2 4,44.f.w2.kdq2.m
2
E2 4,44.50.30.0,957.3,51.10 224V

Phng trnh cn bng in Stato khi b qua in p ri


trn dy qun

U1 I1 Z1 E U1 E1
1

Gi tr hiu dng s pha Stato:


U1p 2000 1155V
E1
S vng dy ca pha Stato:

E1 4,44.f.w1.kdq1.m
E1 1155
w1
4,44.f .kdq1.m 4,44.50.0,92.3,51.102

w1 161(vg)
Bi s 7.3.

Mt my in khng ng b ba pha 6 cc, f = 50Hz, s cm ng


trn mi pha rto l 110V. Gi thit tc lm vic nh mc nm =
980 vg/ph. Rto quay cng chiu vi t trng quay. Hi:
a) My lm vic trng thi no?
b) Lc s E2s l bao nhiu?
c) Nu gi cht rto li v o c R2 = 0,1; X2 = 0,5. Hi, ch
lm vic nh mc, dng in rto I2 bng bao nhiu?

Bi s 7.3.
60.f
Tc t trng quay n1 1000(vg / ph)
p

My in lm vic vi tc n < n1 Ch ng c
H s trt
n1 n 1000 980 0,02
s
n1 1000
S Rto khi quay

E2s s.E2 0,02.110 2,2V

Phng trnh cn bng in khi Rto quay

0 E2s I2 R 2 jsX2

Dng in Rto khi quay

I
E2s

2,2 20A
R 2 jsX 2
2
0,1 0,5.0,02
Bi s 7.4.
ng c in khng ng b ba pha rto dy qun 4 cc. Trn nhn
ghi: Pm = 22kW, Um = 220/380V, nm = 1460vg/ph, cosm = 0,88;
m =0,889%.
a) Tnh dng in dy khi dy qun stato ni sao v ni .
b) H s trt nh mc sm

Bi gii
a) Tnh dng in dy khi dy qun stato ni sao v ni .

- Dy qun stato ni Y Um = 380V

22.103

Pm
I1m.Y 43A
3.Umm cosm 3.380.0,889.0,88
- Dy qun stato ni Um = 220V
P 22.103
I1m. m 74,5A
3.Umm cosm 3.220.0,889.0,88

b) H s trt nh mc sm

n1 n m 1500 1460
sm 0,0267
n1 1500
Bi s 7.5.

ng c in khng ng b ba pha, rto dy qun, s i cc p =2,


h s quy i s ke =2, h s quy i dng in ki =2. in tr v
in khng pha rto lc ng yn R2 = 0,2; X2 = 3,6; f = 50Hz; Y/-
380/220V.
a) ng c ni vo li in c U = 380V, xc nh cch u dy
ng c.
b) Nu coi s pha stato bng in p t vo, tn hao ng trong dy
qun stato bng tn hao ng trong dy qun rto, tn hao st t
Pst = 145W, tn hao ma st v ph Pmsf= 145W, h s trt s=0,05.
Tnh dng in rto, cng sut c hu ch P2, hiu sut ca ng c
Bi gii:

a) ng c ni vo li in c U = 380V v dy qun ca
ng c Y/ 380/220V Dy qun ng c ni Y

b) Tnh dng in rto, cng sut c hu ch P2, hiu sut

S pha Stato, E1 (s pha bng in p t vo Stato)

U1
E1 U1.p 220V

S pha Rto, E2 khi ng yn:

E1.p ke 220
E2.p
2
110V
S pha Rto, E2s khi quay vi h s trt s = 0,05:

E2s.p s.E2.p 0,05.110 5,5V

Dng in pha Rto, I2 khi quay vi h s trt s = 0,05:


E2s.p 5,5
I2 20,44A
R s.X
Tn hao ng trong dy qun stato P1 bng tn hao ng
trong dy qun rto P2 :

P1 P2 3.I22R2 3.20,442.0,2 250W


Cng sut in t Pt :

P2 250
Pt 5000W
s 0,05
Cng sut c hu ch P2 :

P2 Pt P 2 Pcf 5000 250 145 4655W

Cng sut u vo P1 :

P1 Pt P1 Pst 5000 250 145 5345W

Hiu sut ca ng c :
P2 4655 0,87

P1 5345
Bi s 7.6.

Mt ng c khng ng b ba pha f = 60Hz, tn s dngin


rto f2 = 3Hz, s cc t bng 4. Cng sut in t Pt = 120kW;
tn hao ng stato P1 = 3kW; tn hao c v ph Pcf = 2kW;
tn hao st t Pst = 1,7kW.
a) tnh h s trt s, tc ng c n.
b) Tnh cng sut in ng c tiu th P1.
c) Tnh hiu sut ng c.

Bi gii:
f2 3
a) H s trt s, tc ng c n: s 0,05
f 60
Tc ng c n:
60f 60.60
n n1 1 s 1 s 1 0,05 1140
p 3
Cng sut in ng c tiu th P1:

P1 Pt P1 Pst 120 3 1,7 124,7kW

Tn hao ng s Rto P2:

P 2 s.Pt 0,05.120 6kW

Cng sut c u ra P2:


P2 Pt P 2 Pcf 120 6 2 112kW
Hiu sut ng c :

P2

112
0,898
P1 124,7
Bi s 7.7

Mt ng c in khng ng b ba pha Pm = 45kW; f = 50Hz; Y/ -


380/220V; Imm / Im = 6; Mmm / Mm = 2,7 ; cosm = 0,86; m = 0,91; nm
= 1460vg/ph. ng c lm vic vi li in U = 380V.
a) Tnh Im , Mm Im Mm .
b) m my vi ti c mmen cn ban u Mc = 0,45Mm Ngi ta
dng bin p t ngu, c dng Imm.ba = 100A. Xc nh h s bin p
k, v ng c c th m my c khng?
c) Cng vi ti trn, dng in khng m my vi Imm.K = 200A. Xc
nh in p t ln ng c lc m my v ng c c th m my
c khng ?
Bi gii:

a) Tnh Im ; Mm ; Im ; Mm .

Dng in nh mc ng c:
P 45.103
Im m 87,36A
3.Um cosmm 3.380.0,86.0,91

M men nh mc ng c:

Pm 45
Mm 9550 294,35N.m
nm 1460
Dng in v mmen m my ng c:

Imm kmm.I .Im 6.87,36 524A

Mmm kmm.M .Mm 2,7.294,35 794,75N.m

b) H s bin p kba:

k ba 2,29

Momen khi m my bng bin p:


Mmm 2,7.Mm
Mmm.ba 2 2
0,515Mm
k ba 2,29
Momen m my Mmm = 0,515Mm > 0,45Mm = Mc momen cn
ng c m my c

H s gim dng khi m my bng in khng:

Imm 524
kk 2,62
Imm.dk 200

in p t vo dy qun Stato khi m my:

Um 380
Umm 145V
kk 2,62
Momen m my khi dng in khng:

Umm 2,7Um
Mmm.k 2 2
0,393Mm
k k 2,62

Momen m my Mmm.k = 0,393Mm < 0,45Mm = Mc momen


cn ng c khng m my c
Bi s 7.8

Mt ng c khng ng b ba pha u sao ni vo li Ud= 380V.


Bit Rn = 0,122; Xn = 0,4; f = 50Hz.
a) Tnh dng in m my Im
b) Dng in khng m my ImoK = 300A. Tnh in cm L ca
cun in khng m my.

Bi gii:

a) Dng in m my Im

Up 220
Imm 526A
b) in cm L ca cun in khng m my

H s gim dng khi dng in khng m my

Imm 526
kk 1,753
Imm.dk 300

in p pha dy qun Stato khi m my:

Um.p 220
Umm.p 125,5V
kk 1,753

in p pha in khng:
Uk Um.p Umm 220 125 95V
.p
in khng mt pha:

Uk 95
Xk 0,316
Imm.k 300

in cm mt pha (tn s dng in 50Hz):

X k 0,316
Lk 0,001(H)
2.f 314
Bi s 7.9
Mt ng c khng ng b ba pha dy qun
E2 = 157V; p = 4; f = 50Hz; nm = 728 vg/ph
R2 = 0,105; X2 = 0,525
Tnh mmen in t ca ng c

Bi gii
Tc t trng quay:
60.f 60.50
n1 750
p 4
H s trt nh mc:
n1 n 750 728 0,0293
s
m
1
750
S Rto khi quay:
E2s smE2 0,0293.157 4,6V

in khng Rto khi quay:

X2s smX2 0,0293.0,525 0,015

Dng in Rto:


E2s 4,6
I2 43,37A

Tn hao ng dy qun Rto:


P 2 3.I2R 3.43,372.0,105 592,5W
Cng sut in t Pt:

P2 592,5
Pt 20198W
sm 0,0293

Momen in t Mt:

Pt
p.Pt 4.20198
M t 257,3N.m
1 2 .f 2.3,14.50
p
Bi s 7.10

Mt ng c in khng ng b ba pha rto lng sc dy


qun stato u tam gic, c cung cp bi ngun in ba
pha c Um = 220V. Bit bi s m my Mmm / Mm = 1,2
C th dng phng php m my Y - m my ng c
khi ti bng 25% v bng 50% ti nh mc
Bi gii:

Khi dng phng php m my Y - : Dng in gim i 3 ln


v Mmen gim i 3 ln
1 1
Mmm.Y M mm .1,2.Mm 0,4.Mm
3 3

Khi ti bng 50% nh mc (Mc = 0,5Mm)

MC Mmm.Y Khng m my c

Khi ti bng 25% nh mc (Mc = 0,25Mm)


M my c
MC Mmm.Y