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[Steam Generators]

A steam generator generates steam at the desired


rate at the desired pressure and temperature by
burning the fuel in its furnace
It is integration of furnace, superheater, re heater,
boiler (evaporator), economizer, air preheater and
with various auxiliaries (pulverizers, burners, fans,
dust collectors, chimney etc.)
Introduction
Boilers are used for power generation (by running
steam turbines or steam engines) utility steam
generators
Boilers are used for process heating (refineries,
petrochemicals, paper mills, sugar mills, tire
manufacturing, etc.) industrial steam generators
Marine steam generators
Classification of Boilers
According to the orientation:
Horizontal boilers axis of the boiler is horizontal
inspected and repaired easily occupies more space.
Vertical boilers axis of the boiler is vertical
occupies less area
According to the heat utilization design:
Fire tube boilers hot gases are inside the tubes and
the water surrounds the tubes locomotive,
cochran, etc.
Classification of Boilers
Water tube boilers the water is inside the tubes
and hot gases surrounds them Babcock & Wilcox,
Stirling, etc
According to the firing type:
Externally fired the furnace is outside the shell.
Internally fired the furnace is located inside the
boiler
Classification of Boilers
According to the fuel used:
Solid fuel coal, bagasse, wood, saw dust, rice husk etc
Liquid fuel diesel, kerosene, oil, bio diesel, ethanol etc
Gaseous fuel - Natural gas, LPG, CNG, Gasifiers (methane), bio
gas, hydrogen etc
According to the water circulation:
Forced circulation the circulation of water is done by forced
pump
Natural circulation the circulation of water in the boiler
takes place due to natural convection
Classification of Boilers
According to the operating pressure:
High pressure 80 bar and above
Low pressure below 80 bar
According to the No. of tubes:
Single tube boiler
Multi-tube boiler

Stationary boilers high pressure boilers


Mobile boilers locomotive, small units
Fire Tube Boiler Water tube Boiler
Hot gases inside the tubes & water Water inside the tubes and hot gases
outside the tubes outside the tubes
Generally firing takes place internally Externally fired
Operating pressure limited to 16 bar Can work up to 100 bar
Steam production rate is lower Steam production rate is higher
Not suitable for large power plants Suitable for large power plants
Involves lesser risk on explosion due to Involves high risk on explosion
lesser pressure
For a given power it occupies more floor For given power it occupies less floor area
area
Construction is difficult Construction is simple
Transportation is difficult Transportation is simple
Shell diameter is large for same power Shell diameter is small for same power
Treatment of water is not necessary Treatment of water is necessary
Parts are not easily accessible for cleaning Parts are more accessible

Require less skill for operating the boiler Require more skill and careful attention
Selection of a boiler
The working pressure and quality of steam required
Steam generation rate
Floor area available
Accessibility for repair and inspection
Comparative initial cost
Erection facilities
The probable load factor
The fuel and water available
Operating and maintenance costs
Essentials of a good steam boiler
The boiler should produce the maximum weight of steam of
the required quality at minimum expenses.
Steam production rate should be as per requirements.
It should be absolutely reliable
It should occupy minimum space
It should be light in weight
It should capable of quick starting
There should be an easy access to the various parts of the
boiler for repair and inspection
The boiler components should be transportable without
difficulty
The installation of the boiler should be simple
The tubes of the boiler should not accumulate soot or water
deposits
The boiler should be sufficiently strong to allow for wear and
corrosion
The water and gas circuits should allow minimum fluid
velocity (low frictional losses)
Boiler Terminologies:
Shell : one or more steel plates cylindrical form riveted or
welded together.
Setting: confine heat to the boiler passage for flue gases
made of brick work
Grate platform in the furnace upon which solid fuel is burnt
Furnace chamber formed by the space above the grate and
below the boiler shell combustion takes place
Water & steam space the volume of the shell occupied by the
water & steam
Mountings a boiler cannot work safely without them stop
valves , safety valves, water level gauges, fusible plug, blow-
off cock, pressure gauges etc.
Accessories the components which increase the efficiency of
the boiler super heaters, economizers, feed pumps, air
preheater, repeater etc
Refractory a heat insulation material as lining for combustion
chamber fire brick or fire clay.
Simple vertical boiler
Steam production rate
2500 kg/h.
Pressure 7 to 10 bar
Easy to transport
Simple in construction
Used for process heating
and low pressure steam
applications
Cochran boiler
Vertical type, multi tubular
boiler, horizontal fire tubes
Steam capacity 3500 kg/h
Operating pressure 6 to 15
bar
Heating surface 120 m
Efficiency 70 to 75 %
Cornish boiler

A single flue tube


surrounded by water
Steam capacity 6500
kg/h
Operating pressure 11
bar
Lancashire Boiler
Lancashire Boiler
Horizontal two fire
tubes
Steam capacity 9000
kg/h
Operating pressure
16 bar (max.)
Efficiency 50 to 70 %
Locomotive Boiler
Steam capacity 9000 kg/h
Operating pressure 14 bar (max.)
Efficiency 70 %
No of super heater tubes 38
Portability
Compact
Low installation cost
Chances of corrosion, scale formation
Difficult to clean
Cannot carry high overloads
Locomotive Boiler
Locomotive Boiler
Scotch boiler
Marine applications
Steam capacity 1000 kg /h
Operating pressure 17 bar
Compact in size
LaMont Boiler
The LaMont boiler is a semi-flash boiler in which the feed
water is supplied by means of a pump to the ends of long
closely spaced tubes of small diameter. The tubes end in a
separating drum where the emulsion of steam and water
separates. The boiler requires a powerful pump for the forced
circulation of the boiler water. The LaMont boilers forced
water circulation and the tubes of small diameter gives
enormous freedom as far as the design of the heating
surfaces concern.
Operating principles:
The Lamont boiler is like a big Doble F boiler in that it has a
large helical furnace wall and helical coils top and bottom.
The furnace is large and the water in the coils is force
circulated at more than 5 times full boiler output. Thus very
high heat transfer and radiation rates can be designed for
with complete safety as the tube walls are nailed to a
temperature a few degrees higher than the steam-water
saturation temperature.
Heat absorption rates as high as 60,000BTU/ft.sq. for the
entire boiler surface were possible and evaporation rates as
highas 47#/ft.sq obtained.
Advantages:
Very high heat transfer rates safely available,
Large reserve capacity due to water in vertical drum,
Simple control systems adequate with safety,
Forced circulation until drum runs dry (a pressure differential
safety switch on the circulation pump can shut off fire),
low carbon inexpensive lightweight thin wall tubing can be used
with complete safety,
large fire box allows for 45-50% of all heat transfer to be
absorbed in fire box by radiation; this allows less spiral coil
stacks needed for complete heat transfer and lower blower
horsepower for convective heat transfer.
Loeffler Boiler
The novel feature of the Loeffler Boiler is to evaporate water
solely by means of superheated steam. The furnace heat is
supplied only to economiser and superheater. In other words,
steam is used as a heat absorbing medium.

The major difficulty experienced in La-Mont boiler is


deposition of salt and sediment on the inner surfaces of water
tubes. The deposition reduces the heat transfer, ultimately,
the generating capacity. This difficulty was solved in Loeffler
boiler by preventing the flow of water into the boiler tubes.
Feed water is evaporated in the drum using part of the
superheated steam coming out from the water-heater. Thus
only the dry saturated steam passes through the tubes. Poor
feed water can, therefore, be used without any difficulty in
the boiler, which is great advantage of this boiler.
Economiser
The feed water from the feed tank is supplied to the economiser by feed
pump. In the economiser the feed water is made to flow through a
number of tubes surrounding which the hot gases leaving the furnace pass
over. There is a heat exchange from the hot gases to the feed water,
which is preheated in the economiser.
Evaporated Drum
It is housed away from the furnace. It contains a mixture of steam and
water. The feed water from the economiser tubes enters the evaporator
drum into which is also passed two-thirds of the superheated steam
generated by the boiler. The superheated steam gives its superheat to the
water in the drum and evaporates it to saturated steam.
Mixing Nozzles
The nozzles distribute and mix the superheated steam throughout the
water in the evaporator drum.
Steam circulating pump
A steam circulating pump forces this saturated steam from the evaporator
drum to the radiant superheater through the tube of the furnace wall.
Radiant superheater
The radiant superheater is placed in the furnace. The hot gases in the
furnace are used for superheating the saturated steam from the drum.
The radiant superheater receives heat from the burning fuel through
radiation process.
Convection superheater
Steam from the radiant superheater enters the convection superheater
where it is finally heated to the desired temperature of 500C. The
convection superheater receives heat from the flue gases entirely by
convective heat transfer. Both radiant and convection superheater are
arranged in series in the path of the flue gases.
Steam outlet
About one-third of the superheated steam from the convection
superheater passes to the steam turbine while the remaining two-thirds is
passed on to evaporator drum to evaporated the feed water to saturated
steam.
Capacity
Capacity of the Loeffler boiler is about 100 Tonnes/Hr of superheated
steam generated at a pressure of 140 kgf/sq.cm and at a temperature of
500C.
Scotch Boiler
Babcock and Wilcox boiler
Water tube boiler
Steam capacity 7000 - 40,000 kg/h
Operating pressure 10 - 40 bar
Efficiency 60 to 80 %
Power production, marine applications
The angle of inclination of tubes is 15 or more
Babcock and Wilcox boiler
Stirling Boiler
Bent tube boiler
Large central power
stations
50,000 kg/h, 60 bar
Super critical boilers
Working pressure ranges from 125 atm & 510 C to 300 atm &
660 C
Consists of only economiser & superheater
A 500 MW plant works with 246 atm and 538 C
Advantages:
Large heat transfer rates
Pressure level is more stable and gives better response
Absence of two phase mixing minimize corrosion and erosion
problem
Higher thermal efficiency
Once through boiler
A boiler in which water flows, without recirculation, sequentially
through the economizer, furnace wall, and evaporating and
superheating tubes.
With less initial cost and high fuel efficiency
Film boiling is eliminated
Controlled circultion
Advantages:
No higher limit for higher steam pressure
Steam temperature can be maintained by varying load
Starting and cooling down the boiler is fast
Smaller in size and less weight
Easy control of steam temperature during start up and shut
down
Freedom to arrange and locate the heating surfaces.
Better performance in part load operation
Elimination of heavy steam / water drum
Flash Boiler
A flash boiler is a type of water-tube boiler.
The tubes are close together and water is pumped through
them.
A flash boiler differs from the type of monotube steam
generator in which the tube is permanently filled with water.
In a flash boiler, the tube is kept so hot that the water feed is
quickly flashed into steam and superheated
Helix tubes are used and oil fired boiler
The combustion efficiency is 80 % in oil and 73 % on gas
Steam production in few min.
Evaporation rate 1 kg /s and operating pressure of 3 to 70 bar
More suitable for peak load plant
Benson Boiler
LaMont boiler experiences formation and attachment of
bubbles on the inner surface of heating tubes
Reduction in heat flow
Reduction in steam generation rate
High thermal resistance
Benson boiler raises the boiler pressure to critical pressure
to avoid bubble formation
Forced water circulation
Uses oil as fuel
Benson boiler
Advantages
Small floor area required
Total weight is less than 20 % of other boilers (no drums)
Boiler cost is less
Started very quickly
Furnace wall can be protected by fixing closely fitted tubes
Transferring the parts of the boiler is easy
Part load and over load operation is possible
Explosion hazards are not severe coz of small diameter tubes
Supercharged boilers
Combustion carried out under pressure in combustion
chamber
The exhaust gas is used to run the gas turbine which runs the
compressor
Advantages
High over all heat transfer coefficient
Part of gasturbine output used to drive auxiliaries
Rapid start of the boiler is possible
Less number of operator required
Velox boiler
When gas velocity exceeds the sound velocity the heat is
transferred from the gas at much higher rate than subsonic
flow
Uses pressurised combustion
Advantages
Compact in size
Very high combustion rate
Started quickly
Problem of draught is simplified
Fluidized bed combustion Boilers
Types of FBC boilers
Atmospheric classic Fluidised Bed Combustion System (AFBC)
Atmospheric circulating (fast) Fluidised Bed Combustion
system(CFBC)
Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion System (PFBC).
AFBC / Bubbling bed boiler
Coal size 1 10 mm
Air velocity 1.2 to 3.7 m/s
Bed height 0.9 to 1.5 m
Fluidised bed boiler can operate at near atmospheric
Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion
(CFBC)
Coal size 6 12 mm
Air velocity 3.7 to 9 m/sec.
Temperature ranges 840-900C
Limestone is mixed along with coal
Taller CFBC boiler used for better space utilization
Steam generation rate for industrial purpose 75 100 TPH
Sulfur present in the fuel is retained in the circulating solids in the form of
calcium sulphate and removed in solid form
Pressurised Fluid Bed Combustion (PFBC)
Large-scale coal burning applications
The bed vessel is operated at pressure upto 16 ata ( 16
kg/cm)
The off-gas from the fluidized bed combustor drives the gas
turbine
Electricity is generated more efficiently than in conventional
system
The overall conversion efficiency is higher by 5% to 8%
Advantages of FBC
High Efficiency
Reduction in Boiler Size
Fuel Flexibility
Ability to Burn Low Grade Fuel (coal with ash content of
67% - low calorific value 2500 kcal/kg)
Ability to Burn Fines (below 6 mm)
Pollution Control
Low Corrosion and Erosion
Easier Ash Removal
Simple Operation, Quick Start-Up
Fast Response to Load Fluctuations
No Slagging in the Furnace-No Soot Blowing the
ash is non sticky
Provisions of Automatic Coal and Ash Handling
System
High Reliability low moving parts
Reduced Maintenance
High Efficiency of Power Generation
Waste heat recovery boiler
Various source
Exhaust heat recovery from Reciprocating Engine driven Gen-
sets used for Captive Power Cogeneration and Independent
Power Production.
Heavy fuel fired
Gas fired
Diesel fired of waste heat
Exhaust heat recovery from Gas Turbine exhaust.
Jacket heat recovery from Engine
Hot Waste Gases from
-Scrap melting steel furnaces
-Cement kilns
-Industrial furnaces
-Incinerators
-Process Waste Gases