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Fernnadez, D., Martin, V., Molina, A.J.

, De Luis,
J.M. (2010). Smoking Habits of Students of
Nursing: A Questionnaire Survey (20042006).
Nurse Education Today. Volume 30, Issue 5,
Miguel-Baquilod, M., Fishburn, B., Warren, C., Jones, N., Asma, S.
(2008) LinkingGlobal Youth Tobacco Survey
(GYTS) Data to the WHO Framework Convention
on Tobacco Control (FCTC): The Case for the
Philippines. Preventive Medicine. Volume 47, Supplement 1.

Billano, V.L., Borja, M., Cruz, E., Tan, A., Montera,

L., Reganit, P.F. (2013). Smoking-attributable
Burden of Lung Cancer in the Philippines: a
Comparative Risk Assessment. The Lancet, Volume
381, Supplement 2.

Fernandez et al. (2010) studied to determine changes in the

prevalence of tobacco use among students of nursing and associated
factors and the prevalence and distribution of smokers among
nursing students varies according to the country and period of study.
It was found that Twenty eight percent of the students declared
themselves to be smokers. The habit began before the students
started university. The tendency of prevalence by year of survey and
by graduation year was downward. The students shown a low
nicotine dependency according to Fagerstrm and little motivation to
give up. The average age at the onset of consumption was 14.6 (1.8)
years. From the logistical regression analysis, the model best
explaining the prevalence of tobacco consumption included the
variable of year surveyed and academic background, those coming
from the baccalaureate showing a lesser prevalence and tendency to
smoke. Tobacco consumption among students of health sciences
was less than in the general population of the same age but high
given their future profession. The tendency to smoke is decreasing
and most started smoking before joining the university. We
recommend an intensification of actions directed at teenagers and
the promotion of anti-tobacco campaigns in universities.

Miguel-Baquilod et al. (2008) conducted a study with a purpose

of presenting data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)
conducted in the Philippines in 2000 and 2003 which can be used as
baseline measures to monitor provisions of the 2003 Tobacco
Regulatory Act and Articles of the WHO FCTC. The GYTS is a
school-based survey which uses a two-stage sample design to
produce representative, independent, cross-sectional estimates. In
both 2000 and 2003, the GYTS was conducted in three geographic
zones in the Philippines. The zones are then combined to produce a
representative national estimate each year. Data in this report are
limited to students aged 1315 years. The findings in this study
showed that in the Philippines changes occurred between 2000 and
2003 in that: students were less likely to smoke cigarettes or use
other tobacco products, less likely to be exposed to SHS in public
places, more likely to support bans on smoking in public places, more
likely to have learned in school and from the media about the health
hazards of tobacco use, and less likely to have been offered free
cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. The synergy
between the Philippines' leadership in passing the Clean Air Act in
1999 and the Tobacco Regulatory Air in 2003, in ratifying the WHO
FCTC in 2005, and in supporting the conduct of the GYTS offers the
Philippines a unique opportunity to develop, implement and evaluate
the youth component of their comprehensive tobacco control policy
that can be most helpful to the country.

Billano et al. (2013) stated that smoking is highly prevalent in

the Philippines. Tobacco control policies fail to fully implement the
WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provisions,
especially with respect to taxation, smoking bans, sales and
marketing restrictions, and cessation support. To aid in policy change
and intervention implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, his
study aimed to provide the most recent (2008) estimates for the
Philippines of: (1) disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost due to
lung cancer; (2) population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for smoking;
and (3) smoking-attributable lung cancer DALYs. It was found that for
the 2008 Philippine population, aggregated lung cancer incidence
and mortality estimates were 10871 cases and 9871 deaths,
respectively. Lung cancer accounted for the loss of an aggregated
estimate of 104442 DALYs, 99% of which were due to years of life
lost. Overall, the aggregated PAF for smoking was 62%, and an
aggregated total of 64913 DALYs were attributable to smoking.
There were increasing trends in incidence, mortality, and DALY
losses with age, the majority of which occurred among males, who
also had higher PAF estimates.In conclusion, it was further
emphasized that considerable health gains could be achieved if
smoking exposure were eliminated or reduced in the Philippines.
Prevention of initiation and support for cessation of smoking through
strong enforcement of measures, such as increasing taxation to the
WHO-endorsed rate, more stringent sales and marketing restrictions,
and development and scaling up of smoking cessation programs is