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SESSION 3 Vehicle Dynamics

Why VD is of central importance for new concepts of mobility

Live Demo: Rear-Wheel Steering

OPEN HOUSE 2017 5-Apr-17 2

IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Rear-Wheel Steering
Kinematics and compliance
Generalized coordinate for steer
Full SKC capability for front and rear
Direct Variable Access to the position and velocity coordinates
Steer.<pos>.q, Steer.<pos>.qp
Simulink, C code, FMI, Realtime Expressions access
Manipulated during the simulation

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Vehicle Dynamics Relevance for Automated Driving
Ride & handling

Automated driver
Vehicle dynamics
Chassis architecture
Geometry, mass & motion
Longitudinal & lateral motion SN/Porsche

Pitch, roll & yaw Ride Passengers

Kinematics & compliance
Tires & track Comfort
Subjective experience


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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Three Steps to Your Virtual Prototype

1st step 2nd step 3rd step

Basic parameterization Validation of the virtual Integration of

prototype using standard systems under test
(vehicle dynamics)
vehicle dynamics maneuvers
Supplier 1 LDW ECU
vehicle behavior
Vehicle data set generator

Supplier 2 Camera
OEM in-house HMI interface
Test bench measurements
vehicle behavior

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
1. Parameterization
Set up vehicle model parameters with real-world vehicle data

Parameterization of vehicle data set

Use case identification Sub-order for measurements at

Component model selection our partners, for e.g.:
Definition of required data Suspension components
Survey of available vehicle data Kinematics & compliance
Definition and coordination of Tires
required measurement procedures Vehicle dynamics

force [kN]

Yaris fl
-4 Yaris fr
-120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60
compression travel [mm] rebound

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
KnC Data Converter
Workflow Simulation

K&C data source Conversion


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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
ADAMS Converter


Database files Vehicle file

(springs, dampers) ADAMS Data Converter
ADAMS test bench simulation
output files
Additional subsystem
parameters (brake,
powertrain, aero)


Vehicle dynamics simulation Simulation with graph


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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
2. Validation
Vehicle dynamic comparison of the real vehicle to the virtual prototype

Vehicle model validation

Measurement: 20120709_141228_SLA_ESC_OFF_UD_1.ASC


Lateral Acceleration [m/s^2]






0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Time [s]
Measurement Offline Simulation
Project: Toyota XiL 2 - Validation
Lateral Acceleration vs. Time Vehicle: Toyota_Yaris_FKA_MS
Test: SLA
Validation - Slalom
Date: 2012/11/22

Virtual vehicle behavior must conform with real vehicle behavior

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Purpose-Driven Fidelity
Choice and versatility

Ideal/ Raw signal Integration

High fidelity
ground truth interface interfaces

Extended Integration
Linear Simple maps
maps interfaces

Non-linear Accelerated Integration

1D+ / 2D+ MBS interfaces

Static steer Dynamic steer Integration

Pfeffer steering
ratio ratio interfaces

Empirical Semi-physical High fidelity

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
3. Integration
Providing internal departments + suppliers with virtual prototypes
Internal dept. 1 or Internal dept. 2 or Internal dept. 3 or Internal dept. N or
supplier 1 supplier 2 supplier 3 supplier N
Component A Component B Component C Component Z

Virtual prototypes

Internal development depts. or suppliers Test driving department

Development + test of entire system Calibration (virtual + real)
in whole vehicles in scenarios Release (also virtual)
Pre-calibration of the system

Engineers can test and release their systems in a whole vehicle:

automotive systems engineering!
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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Sine Sweep
Added possibility to parameterize with frequency / period
Frequency build-up
Linear transition
Exponential transition
Exponential is a base function for some steering robots
Even distribution of the periods through the considered frequency range
Automatic calculation of the maneuver time through parameters entered
Test benches and detailed steering models
Multiple mini-maneuvers can be used to set up complex harmonic steering inputs
Supports a smoother transition between maneuvers with multiple sweeps
Old sinus sweep from zero frequency has a high initial acceleration
Creates an impulse on the steering wheel

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Live Demo: Sine Sweep

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Accelerated MBS
Where does it fit in?
In comparison to MBS tools such as In comparison to the Static Kinematics and
ADAMS and SimPack Compliance (SKC) approach

Accelerated MBS is a template-based MBS model More accuracy due to fully modeled elastic behavior
It has been optimized to run multiple times real time (compliance effects not only as single superposed
Includes non-linear bushings, hard point positions effects)

Supports the inclusion of active elements from third- Higher behavior coverage with interdependencies of
party tools the independent suspensions

Suitable for driving simulator

Robustness analysis of active elements with
variation of suspension hard points
Attributes definition in conceptual phases
Suitable for HIL applications
Durability of suspension elements MORE FIDELITY LESS
Active damper calibration and testing

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Accelerated MBS Axles
How fast IS faster than real time?

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
New use cases for CarMaker
Measurement vehicles
Prototype vehicles as well as MBD models generate load conditions for durability
Attributes for suspension elements derived from such data
Installation of measurement instruments and real-world driving not ideal
Setup time
Test track and transportation time
Prototype costs
MBD tools
MBD is slower than real time and needs high processing power
Time-consuming setup of more complex loads such as:
trailer being towed, changing the behavior of the driver, etc.
Integrating all active supplier models for closer correlation is difficult
Running MBD in closed loop with HILs and test benches is not feasible

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Simulation results require less post-processing
Easier generation of test tracks or roads
Generation in CarMaker
Imported from vehicle laser scans or cameras
CarMaker models are more easily validated to the real vehicle
Generalized load conditions for newer concepts
Low costs
The use of a virtual prototype is much cheaper
Minimum IT infrastructure
CarMaker is more than 50 times faster than MBS
Generation of more representative real load profiles as compared to MBS tools
Driver behavior (on-road / off-road)
Supplier vehicle dynamic models: higher correlation
Can be run in closed loop with test benches for cohesive tests

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Live Demo: Durability

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Compliance Models in CarMaker
Types of models
Forces and opposite forces or torques and
Compliance models can be superimposed
opposite torques

Effects can be added on individually Can be applied for X, Y and Z directions

Differing levels of fidelity can be used Can also be applied as complex values to reduce
testing complexity

Model Name Description DOF 1 DOF 2

Forces/torques Frc./Trq and/or
Linear Linear mapping FrcOpp/TrqOpp
Forces/torques described by linear compression Frc./Trq.
Coeff 1D mappings, for different values of the
suspension compression
Forces/torques described by nonlinear Frc/Trq and/or
Displace1D mappings FrcOpp/TrqOpp
Forces/torques described by nonlinear mappings, for different compression Frc/Trq
values of the suspension compressions or the steering rack steering Frc/Trq
Displace2D positions, or forces/torques acting on the current and Frc./Trq. FrcOpp/TrqOpp
opposite wheel carrier as 2D mapping

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Compliance Models in CarMaker
What is so great about the new models?!

In-phase sub-frame compliance Out-of-phase sub-frame compliance

Frc/Trq in x,y and z Frc/Trq in x,y and z

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
CarMaker for Ride
The requirement

Need from OEMs and Tier1s

Current use of MBS tools such as ADAMS, SimPack, etc.

Simulations are extremely processor-intensive and slow
Attributes setting for ride easier to achieve with a parametric approach
Using the office environment or a driving simulator for ride assessments
Controller integration and tuning can be difficult
VD test benches such as the active damper
Representative correlation of CarMaker up to 30 Hz
Sensors used for ADAS and AD
Homogenizing the scenario definition and requirements by using a single tool
OEMs are more willing to exchange CarMaker models with suppliers than full MBS models

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
CarMaker for Ride
TRE project results
IPG Automotives project with TRE to scope
Highlights from the project
the current capability

TRE is a leading chassis developer based in A combination of models within the current
Neustadt, Germany CarMaker product provides reasonable results
TRE has installed a new seven poster test rig to The key characteristics when comparing CoG
aid with the development and tuning of chassis accelerations in Z match up to a large extent
systems Tuning the vehicle model to achieve a better
correlation was done with little effort using a DOE
type analysis and the Test Manager
A follow-up project with more detailed analysis
and prototype models for the damper top-mount
etc. would have to be included to further evaluate
CarMaker for Ride

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
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TASS MF-Tyre/MF-Swift in CarMaker
High-fidelity tire models
From CarMaker 6.0 onward
MF-Tyre/MF-Swift advantages:
MF-Tyre/MF-Swift is directly available:

Tire model libraries delivered with the Standardized Magic Formula model available in
CarMaker installation all vehicle dynamics simulation packages
Using the MF-Swift functionality requires a Real-time capable without any model reduction
license from TASS (equal accuracy)
Accurate tire model for handling, low-speed
parking, ABS/ESC and ride comfort simulations

Current and future compatibility:

OPEN HOUSE 2017 5-Apr-17 24

IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Vehicle Dynamics Controls Testing: HIL Test Systems

ESC / EPB HIL system Braking system test bench Electronic brake booster test bench

Single ECU test system for ESC / Testing and validating complete Testing and validating electro-
EPB braking systems mechanical brake boosters
Valve activities measurement Wet brake approach including (e.g. iBooster)
through Signal Acquisition Box hydraulic components Can be connected with other brake

Test Systems portfolio covers all hardware-relevant tests

From single ECU up to the complete braking system
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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Test Systems Integration Level Portfolio Structure

Vehicle Virtual reality &

ADAS Powertrain simulator

Single ECU
as DUT

Network of ECUs ECU with mechanical


Integration test bench

Complexity of the system is mainly determined by integration level

OPEN HOUSE 2017 5-Apr-17 26

IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Test Systems Integration for Virtual Prototype Testing

Vehicle dynamics ADAS &

Driver interaction
& propulsion automated driver

Virtual prototype

Integration test bench Actuators-in-the-loop

Network of ECUs Driver-in-the-loop Sensors-in-the-loop

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Test Systems Integration for Virtual Prototype Testing
Re-use of virtual prototypes and test scenarios

Steering-in-the-loop Powertrain-in-the-loop

Virtual prototype

Driver-in-the-loop Sensors-in-the-loop

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Support of Multiple Hardware Platforms
Re-use of existing HIL hardware


Xpack4, ETAS LABCAR, NI Simulator, dSPACE Simulator

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
CarMaker for SCALEXIO
CarMaker/HIL on dSPACE hardware

Supported configurations CarMaker/HIL for dSPACE

DS1006 (AMD Opteron), single- / quad-core Integration of complete CarMaker environment

SCALEXIO on dSPACE hardware
All dSPACE I/O boards can be used with Permanent real-time operation with full service of
I/O interfaces between two test runs (no interrupts)
Support of CarMaker Model Manager
dSPACE releases 7.0 up to 2016-A
(switch models on the fly)
(32- and 64-bit)
Read parameter files online from host PC or
network (no need to recompile the model after
parameter change)
Simultaneous use of dSPACE tools
(ControlDesk, etc.) and CarMaker tools
CarMaker product family

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017
Hier steht eine berschrift
Hier steht Text

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IPG Automotive GmbH, 2017