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Many different factors can influence the final choice of a pump for a

particular operation. The following list indicates the major factors that govern
pump selection:
1. The amount of fluid that must be pumped. This factor determines the size of
pump (or pumps) necessary.
2, The properties of the fluid. The density and the viscosity of the fluid
influence the power requirement for a given set of operating conditions;
corrosive properties of the fluid determine the acceptable materials of
construction. If solid particles are suspended in the fluid, this factor dictates
the amount of clearance necessary and may eliminate the possibility of using
certain types of pumps.
3. The increase in pressure of the fluid due to the work input of the pumps.
The head change across the pump is influenced by the inlet and
downstream-reservoir pressures, the change in vertical height of the delivery
line, and frictional effects. This factor is a major item in determining the
power requirements.
4. Type of flow distribution. If nonpulsating flow is required, certain types of
pumps, such as simplex reciprocating pumps, may be unsatisfactory. Similarly,
if operation is intermittent, a self-priming pump may be desirable, and
corrosion
difficulties may be increased.
5. Type of power supply. Rotary positive-displacement pumps and centrifugal
pumps are readily adaptable for use with electric-motor or internal-combustion-engine
drives; reciprocating pumps can be used with steam or gas drives.
6. Cost and mechanical efficiency of the pump.

Advantages
1. They are simple in construction and cheap.
2. Fluid is delivered at uniform pressure without shocks or pulsations.
3. They can be coupled directly to motor drives. In general, the higher the
speed, the smaller the pump and motor required for a given duty.
4. The discharge line may be partly shut off or completely closed off without
damaging the pump.
5. They can handle liquid with large amounts of solids.
6. There are no close metal-to-metal fits.
7. There are no valves involved in the pump operation.
8. Maintenance costs are lower than for other types of pumps.

Disadvantages
1. They cannot be operated at high heads.
2. They are subject to air binding and usually must be primed.
3. The maximum efficiency for a given pump holds over a fairly narrow range of
conditions.
4. They cannot handle highly viscous fluids efficiently.