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Cu 1 : Cho hnh bnh hnh ABCD. Gi E, F theo th t l trung im ca AB, CD.

Gi M
l giao im ca AF v DE, N l giao im ca BF v CE.
a) Chng minh DE = BF.
b) T gic EMFN l hnh g? Chng minh.
c) Chng minh cc ng thng AC, EF, MN ng quy.
d) Gi I, K theo th t l giao im ca BD vi AF, CE. Chng minh BK = IK = ID.

V hnh
a) Ta c: BE //DF, BE = DF
=> BEDF l hnh bnh hnh
=> DE = BF
b) BEDF l hnh bnh hnh => DE //BF => EM //NF (1)
Tng t: AECF l hnh bnh hnh => AF // CE => MF // NE (2)
T (1) v (2) => EMFN l hnh bnh hnh.
c) Gi O l giao im ca AC v EF, v AECF l hnh bnh hnh
=> O l trung im ca EF.
Ta cng c EMFN l hnh bnh hnh nn EF v MN ct nhau ti trung im mi ng
=> Suy ra O thuc MN
Vy AC, EF, MN ng quy ti O.
d) Trong tam gic ABI, ta c :
AE = BE, EK // AI => BK = KI (3)
Trong tam gic CDK, ta c :
CF = DF, FI // CK => ID = IK (4)
T (3) v (4) suy ra BK = IK = ID.

Cu 2 :
Cho hnh vung ABCD c AC ct BD ti O. M l im bt k thuc cnh BC
(M khc B, C).Tia AM ct ng thng CD ti N . Trn cnh AB ly im E sao cho BE =
CM.
a) Chng minh : OEM vung cn.
b) Chng minh : ME // BN.
c) T C k CH ^ BN ( H BN). Chng minh rng ba im O, M, H thng hng.

Hnh v

Xt OEB v OMC
V ABCD l hnh vung nn ta c OB = OC
V B=C = 450
1 1

BE = CM ( gt )
Suy ra OEB = OMC ( c .g.c)
OE = OM v O =O
1 3

= 900 v t gic ABCD l hnh vung


Li c O2 + O3 = BOC
+O
O = EOM
= 900 kt hp vi OE = OM OEM vung cn ti O
2 1

T (gt) t gic ABCD l hnh vung AB = CD v AB // CD


AM BM
+ AB // CD AB // CN = ( Theo L Ta- lt) (*)
MN MC
M BE = CM (gt) v AB = CD AE = BM thay vo (*)

AM AE
Ta c : = ME // BN ( theo L o ca l Ta-lt)
MN EB
Gi H l giao im ca OM v BN
T ME // BN OME = OH ' E ( cp gc so le trong)
= 450 v OEM vung cn ti O
M OME
' B = 450 = C
MH
1

OMC : BMH (g.g)


OM MH '
= = CMH
,kt hp OMB ' ( hai gc i nh)
OB MC

OMB : CMH (c.g.c) OBM ' C = 450
= MH
' C = BH
Vy BH ' M + MH
' C = 900 CH ' ^ BN
M CH ^ BN ( H BN) H H hay 3 im O, M, H thng hng ( pcm)

Cu 3:
Cho hnh bnh hnh ABCD c ng cho AC ln hn ng cho BD. Gi E, F ln
lt l hnh chiu ca B v D xung ng thng AC. Gi H v K ln lt l hnh chiu
ca C xung ng thng AB v AD.
a) T gic BEDF l hnh g ? Hy chng minh iu ?
b) Chng minh rng : CH.CD = CB.CK
c) Chng minh rng : AB.AH + AD.AK = AC2.

B C

F
O

E
A
K
D

Ta c : BE ^ AC (gt); DF ^ AC (gt) => BE // DF


Chng minh : DBEO = DDFO( g - c - g )
=> BE = DF
Suy ra : T gic : BEDF l hnh bnh hnh.

Ta c:
ABC = = KDC
ADC HBC
Chng minh : DCBH : DCDK ( g - g )
CH CK
= CH .CD = CK .CB
CB CD

Chng minh : DAFD : DAKC ( g - g )


AF AK
= AD. AK = AF . AC
AD AC
Chng minh : DCFD : DAHC ( g - g )
CF AH
=
CD AC
CF AH
M : CD = AB = AB. AH = CF . AC
AB AC
Suy ra : AB.AH + AB.AH = CF.AC + AF.AC = (CF + AF)AC = AC2 (fcm).
Cu 4. Cho hnh vung ABCD, M l mt im tu trn ng cho BD. K ME ^ AB,
MF ^ AD.
a. Chng minh: DE = CF
b. Chng minh ba ng thng: DE, BF, CM ng quy.
c. Xc nh v tr ca im M din tch t gic AEMF ln nht.

HV + GT + KL

a. Chng minh: AE = FM = DF
DAED = DDFC pcm
b. DE, BF, CM l ba ng cao ca DEFC pcm
c. C Chu vi hnh ch nht AEMF = 2a khng i
ME + MF = a khng i
SAEMF = ME.MF ln nht ME = MF (AEMF l hnh vung)
M l trung im ca BD.
Cu 5 :
Cho tam gic u ABC , gi M l trung im ca BC . Mt gc xMy bng 600 quay
quanh im M sao cho 2 cnh Mx , My lun ct cnh AB v AC ln lt ti D v E .
Chng minh :
BC 2
a) BD.CE=
4
b) DM,EM ln lt l tia phn gic ca cc gc BDE v CED.
c) Chu vi tam gic ADE khng i.
Gii :
a) y
A
Trong tam gic BDM ta c : D 1 = 120 0 - M 1 x
E
V M 2 =600 nn ta c : M 3 = 120 0 - M 1
D 2
1
2 3
B 1 C
M
Suy ra D 1 = M 3

Chng minh DBMD DCEM (1)

BD CM
Suy ra = , t BD.CE=BM.CM
BM CE
BC BC 2
V BM=CM= , nn ta c BD.CE=
2 4
BD MD
b) T (1) suy ra = m BM=CM nn ta c
CM EM
BD MD
=
BM EM

Chng minh DBMD DMED

T suy ra D 1 = D 2 , do DM l tia phn gic ca gc BDE


Chng minh tng t ta c EM l tia phn gic ca gc CED
c) Gi H, I, K l hnh chiu ca M trn AB, DE, AC
Chng minh DH = DI, EI = EK
Tnh chu vi tam gic bng 2AH; Kt lun.
Bi 6:
Cho tam gic ABC vung ti A, D l im di ng trn cnh BC. Gi E, F ln lt l
hnh chiu vung gc ca im D ln AB, AC.
a) Xc nh v tr ca im D t gic AEDF l hnh vung.
b) Xc nh v tr ca im D sao cho 3AD + 4EF t gi tr nh nht.

Gii:
=A
a) T gic AEDF l hnh ch nht (v E = F$ = 90o ) C

t gic AEDF l hnh vung th AD l tia phn


.
gic ca BAC
b) Do t gic AEDF l hnh ch nht nn AD = EF
Suy ra 3AD + 4EF = 7AD
3AD + 4EF nh nht AD nh nht D
F
D l hnh chiu vung gc ca A ln BC.

A E B
Bi 7: Trong tam gic ABC, cc im A, E, F tng ng nm trn cc cnh BC, CA,
= BFD,
AB sao cho: AFE = CDE,
BDF = AEF
CED .
= BAC
a) Chng minh rng: BDF .
b) Cho AB = 5, BC = 8, CA = 7. Tnh di on BD.

Gii:
= BFD
a) t AFE = w, BDF = CDE = a, CED
= AEF
= b.
+ b + w = 1800 (*)
Ta c BAC
Qua D, E, F ln lt k cc ng thng vung gc vi BC, AC, AB ct nhau ti O.
Suy ra O l giao im ba ng phn gic ca tam gic DEF.
A
+ OED
OFD + ODF = 90o (1) E
F w

Ta c OFD + w + OED + b + ODF + a = 270 (2)
o b
(1) & (2) a + b + w = 180o (**) wO b
= a = BDF
(*) & (**) BAC .
b) Chng minh tng t cu a) ta c:
B = b, C
=w
DAEF DDBF DDEC DABC a a
s
s

B D C
s

BD BA 5 5BF 5BF 5BF


BF = BC = 8 BD =
8 BD =
8 BD =
8

CD CA 7 7CE 7CE 7CE
= = CD = CD = CD =
CE CB 8 8 8 8
AE AB 5 7AE = 5AF 7(7 - CE) = 5(5 - BF) 7CE - 5BF = 24
= =
AF AC 7
CD - BD = 3 (3)
Ta li c CD + BD = 8 (4)
(3) & (4) BD = 2,5

Bi 8 : Cho tam gic ABC nhn, cc ng cao AA, BB, CC, H l trc tm.
HA' HB' HC'
a) Tnh tng + +
AA' BB' CC'
b) Gi AI l phn gic ca tam gic ABC; IM, IN th t l phn gic ca gc AIC v gc
AIB. Chng minh rng: AN.BI.CM = BN. IC.AM.
( AB + BC + CA ) 2
c) Tam gic ABC nh th no th biu thc AA' 2 + BB' 2 + CC' 2
t gi tr nh nht?

Gii
V hnh ng
1
.HA'.BC
S 2 HA'
a) S HBC = = ;
1 AA'
ABC .AA'.BC
2
S HC' S HB'
Tng t: S
HAB
= ;
HAC
=
ABC CC' S ABC BB'
HA' HB' HC' S HBC S HAB S HAC
+ + = + + =1
AA' BB' CC' S ABC S ABC S ABC
b) p dng tnh cht phn gic vo cc tam gic ABC, ABI, AIC:
BI AB AN AI CM IC
= ; = ; =
IC AC NB BI MA AI
BI AN CM AB AI IC AB IC
. . = . . = . =1
IC NB MA AC BI AI AC BI
BI .AN.CM = BN.IC.AM
c)V Cx ^ CC. Gi D l im i xng ca A qua Cx
-Chng minh c gc BAD vung, CD = AC, AD = 2CC
- Xt 3 im B, C, D ta c: BD BC + CD
- D BAD vung ti A nn: AB2+AD2 = BD2
AB2 + AD2 (BC+CD)2
AB2 + 4CC2 (BC+AC)2
4CC2 (BC+AC)2 AB2 (0,25im)
Tng t: 4AA2 (AB+AC)2 BC2
4BB2 (AB+BC)2 AC2
-Chng minh c : 4(AA2 + BB2 + CC2) (AB+BC+AC)2
(AB + BC + CA ) 2
4
(0,25im)
AA'2 + BB'2 + CC'2
ng thc xy ra BC = AC, AC = AB, AB = BC
AB = AC =BC D ABC u

Bi 10:

Cho tam gic ABC vung A,ng cao AH. Gi D v E ln lt l hnh chiu

ca im H trn AB v AC. Bit BH=4cm, CH=9cm.

a) Tnh di on DE .

b) Chng minh: AD.AB = AE.AC

c) Chng minh: AH3 =BC.BD.CE


Cu a: 1im; cu b: 1im; cu c: 0.5

a) T gic ABCD l hnh ch nht v c 3 gc vung DE = AH


Tam gic ABC vung A, c AH ^ BC, nn AH2=BH.CH=4.9=36
AH=6(cm) Vy DE=6cm.
b) Ta c AH2=AD.AB ; AH 2=AE.AC
AD.AB=AE.AC
c) Ta c AH2=BH.CH
AH4=BH2CH2=AB.BD.AC.CE=AH.BC.BD.CE
AH3=BC.BD.CE

Bi 11
Hnh thang ABCD (AB // CD) c hai ng cho ct nhau ti O. ng thng qua O
v song song vi y AB ct cc cnh bn AD, BC theo th t M v N.
a, Chng minh rng OM = ON.
1 1 2
b, Chng minh rng + = .
AB CD MN
c, Bit SAOB= 20082 (n v din tch); SCOD= 20092 (n v din tch). Tnh SABCD.
Gii
a,
OM OD ON OC
Lp lun c = , =
AB BD AB AC
OD OC
Lp lun c =
DB AC
OM ON
= OM = ON
AB AB
b, (1,5 im)
OM DM OM AM
Xt DABD c = (1), xt DADC c = (2)
AB AD DC AD
1 1 AM + DM AD
T (1) v (2) OM.( AB + CD ) = AD
=
AD
=1
1 1
Chng minh tng t ON. ( AB + CD ) = 1
1 1 1 1 2
t c (OM + ON). ( AB + CD ) = 2 AB + CD = MN
b, (2 im)
S AOB OB S BOC OB S AOB S BOC
= , S = = S AOB .S DOC = S BOC .S AOD
S AOD OD DOC OD S AOD S DOC
Chng minh c S AOD = S BOC
S AOB .S DOC = ( S AOD ) 2
Thay s c 20082.20092 = (SAOD)2 SAOD = 2008.2009
Do SABCD= 20082 + 2.2008.2009 + 20092 = (2008 + 2009)2 = 40172 (n v
DT)

Bi 12
Cho tam gic ABC vung ti A c gc ABC
B bng 600, phn gic BD. Gi M,N,I theo
th t l trung im ca BD, BC, CD.
a, T gic AMNI l hnh g? Chng minh.
b, Cho AB = 4cm. Tnh cc cnh ca t gic AMNI.
M N

Gii

A
D I C
a,
Chng minh c t gic AMNI l hnh thang
Chng minh c AN=MI, t suy ra t gic AMNI l hnh thang cn
b,(2im)
4 3 8 3
Tnh c AD = cm ; BD = 2AD = cm
3 3
1 4 3
AM = 2 BD = cm
3
4 3
Tnh c NI = AM = cm
3
8 3 1
DC = BC = cm , MN = DC = 4 3 cm
3 2 3
8 3
Tnh c AI = cm
3

Bi 13Cho tam gic ABC vung ti A (AC > AB), ng cao AH (HBC). Trn tia HC ly
im D sao cho HD = HA. ng vung gc vi BC ti D ct AC ti E.
1. Chng minh rng hai tam gic BEC v ADC ng dng. Tnh di on BE theo
m = AB .
2. Gi M l trung im ca on BE. Chng minh rng hai tam gic BHM v BEC
ng dng. Tnh s o ca gc AHM
GB HD
3. Tia AM ct BC ti G. Chng minh: = .
BC AH + HC
Gii
+ Hai tam gic ADC v BEC c:
Gc C chung.
CD CA
= (Hai tam gic vung CDE v CAB ng
CE CB
dng)

Do , chng dng dng (c.g.c).


=
Suy ra: BEC ADC = 135 (v tam gic AHD vung cn ti H theo gi thit).
0

Nn AEB = 450 do tam gic ABE vung cn ti A. Suy ra: BE = AB 2 = m 2


BM 1 BE 1 AD
Ta c: = = (do DBEC : DADC )
BC 2 BC 2 AC
m AD = AH 2 (tam gic AHD vung vn ti H)
BM 1 AD 1 AH 2 BH BH
nn = = = = (do DABH : DCBA )
BC 2 AC 2 AC AB 2 BE

Do DBHM : DBEC (c.g.c), suy ra: BHM = 1350
= BEC AHM = 450
Tam gic ABE vung cn ti A, nn tia AM cn l phn gic gc BAC.
GB AB AB ED AH HD
Suy ra: = , m = ( DABC : DDEC ) = ( ED // AH ) =
GC AC AC DC HC HC
GB HD GB HD GB HD
Do : = = =
GC HC GB + GC HD + HC BC AH + HC
Bi 14 :
Cho hnh ch nht ABCD. Trn ng cho BD ly im P, gi M l im i xng ca
im C qua P.
a) T gic AMDB l hnh g?
b) Gi E v F ln lt l hnh chiu ca im M ln AB, AD. Chng minh EF//AC v ba
im E, F, P thng hng.
c) Chng minh rng t s cc cnh ca hnh ch nht MEAF khng ph thuc vo v tr
ca im P.
PD 9
d) Gi s CP ^ BD v CP = 2,4 cm, = . Tnh cc cnh ca hnh ch nht
PB 16
ABCD.
Gii
V hnh, ghi GT, KL ng

D C
P
M
O
I F
E A B

a) Gi O l giao im 2 ng cho ca hnh ch nht ABCD.


PO l ng trung bnh ca tsm gic CAM.
AM//PO
t gic AMDB l hnh thang.
b) Do AM //BD nn gc OBA = gc MAE (ng v)
Tam gic AOB cn O nn gc OBA = gc OAB
Gi I l giao im 2 ng cho ca hnh ch nht AEMF th tam gic AIE cn I nn
gc IAE = gc IEA.
T chng minh trn : c gc FEA = gc OAB, do EF//AC (1)
Mt khc IP l ng trung bnh ca tam gic MAC nn IP // AC (2)
T (1) v (2) suy ra ba im E, F, P thng hng.
MF AD
c) DMAF : DDBA ( g - g ) nn = khng i.
FA AB
PD 9 PD PB
d) Nu = th = = k PD = 9k , PB = 16k
PB 16 9 16
CP PB
Nu CP ^ BD th DCBD : DDCP ( g - g ) =
PD CP
do CP2 = PB.PD
hay (2,4)2 = 9.16 k2 => k = 0,2
PD = 9k = 1,8(cm)
PB = 16k = 3,2 (cm)
BD = 5 (cm)
C/m BC2= BP.BD = 16
do BC = 4 (cm)
CD = 3 (cm)
Bi 15: Cho hnh vung ABCD; Trn tia i tia BA ly E, trn tia i tia CB ly F sao
cho
AE = CF
a) Chng minh D EDF vung cn
b) Gi O l giao im ca 2 ng cho AC v BD. Gi I l trung im EF. Chng
minh O, C, I thng hng.
Gii
a)
Chng minh D EDF vung cn
Ta c D ADE = D CDF (c.g.c) D EDF cn ti D
Mt khc: D ADE = D CDF (c.g.c) E 1 = F2
M E 1 + E 2 + F1 = 900 F2 + E 2 + F1 = 900
EDF = 900. Vy D EDF vung cn
b) Chng minh O, C, I thng
Theo tnh cht ng cho hnh vung CO l trung trc BD
1
M D EDF vung cn DI = EF
2
1 B
Tng t BI = EF DI = BI
2
I thuc dng trung trc ca DB I thuc ng thng CO
Hay O, C, I thng hng D

Bi 16: Cho tam gic ABC vung cn ti A. Cc im D, E theo th t di chuyn trn AB,
AC sao cho BD = AE. Xc nhv tr im D, E sao cho: C
A
a/ DE c di nh nht E
b/ T gic BDEC c din tch nh nht.
Gii
a)
DE c di nh nht
t AB = AC = a khng i; AE = BD = x (0 < x < a)
p dng nh l Pitago vi D ADE vung ti A c:
DE2 = AD2 + AE2 = (a x)2 + x2 = 2x2 2ax + a2 = 2(x2 ax) a2
a2 2 a2 a2
= 2(x ) +
4 2 2
a
Ta c DE nh nht DE2 nh nht x =
2
a
BD = AE = D, E l trung im AB, AC
2
b)
T gic BDEC c din tch nh nht.
1 1 1 1
Ta c: SADE = AD.AE = AD.BD = AD(AB AD)= (AD2 AB.AD)
2 2 2 2
1 AB AB 2
AB 2
1 AB 2 AB2 AB2
= (AD2 2 .AD + )+ = (AD ) +
2 2 4 8 2 4 2 8
AB 2
AB 2
3
Vy SBDEC = SABC SADE = AB2 khng i
2 8 8
3
Do min SBDEC = AB2 khi D, E ln lt l trung im AB, AC
8
Bi 17: Cho ABC vung ti A, c AB = 15 cm, AC = 20 cm. K ng cao AH v
trung tuyn AM.
a) Chng minh ABC ~ HBA
b) Tnh : BC; AH; BH; CH ?
c) Tnh din tch AHM ?
Gii: a) Xt ABC v HBA, c:
Gc A = gc H = 900; c gc B chung
ABC ~ HBA ( gc. gc)
b) p dng pitago trong vung ABC
ta c : BC = AB 2 + AC 2 = 15 2 + 20 2 = 625 = 25 (cm)
AB AC BC 15 20 25
v ABC ~ HBA nn = = hay = =
HB HA BA HB HA 15
20.05
AH = = 12 (cm)
25
15.15
BH = = 9 (cm)
25
HC = BC BH = 25 9 = 16 (cm)
BC 25
c) HM = BM BH = - BH = - 9 = 3,5(cm)
2 2
1 1
SAHM = AH . HM = . 12. 3,5 = 21 (cm2)
2 2
- V ng hnh: A

B H M C
Cu 4: (5im). Cho hnh thang ABCD (AB//CD), 0 l giao im hai ng cho.Qua 0 k
ng thng song song vi AB ct DA ti E,ct BCti F.
a, Chng minh :Din tch tam gic AOD bng din tch tam gic BOC.
1 1 2
b. Chng minh: + =
AB CD EF
c, Gi Kl im bt k thuc OE. Nu cch dng ng thng i qua Kv chia i din
tch tam gic DEF.
a, V AB//CD S DAB=S CBA A B
(cng y v cng ng cao)
S DAB SAOB = S CBA- SAOB K O
E F
Hay SAOD = SBOC I
M
N
C
D

EO AO
b, V EO//DC = Mt khc AB//DC
DC AC
AB AO AB AO AB AO EO AB
= = = =
DC OC AB + BC AO + OC AB + BC AC DC AB + DC
EF AB AB + DC 2 1 1 2
= = + =
2 DC AB + DC AB.DC EF DC AB EF
c, (2im) +Dng trung tuyn EM ,+ Dng EN//MK (N DF) +K ng thng KN l
ng thng phi dng
Chng minh: SEDM=S EMF(1).Gi giao ca EM v KN l I th SIKE=SIMN
(cma) (2) T (1) v(2) SDEKN=SKFN.
Cu 19
Cho tam gic ABC, ba ng phn gic AN, BM, CP ct nhau ti O. Ba cnh AB, BC, CA
t l vi 4,7,5
a) Tnh NC bit BC = 18 cm
b) Tnh AC bit MC - MA = 3cm
AP BN CM
c) Chng minh . . =1
PB NC MA
Gii a) A
B C

N
NB AB
AN l phn gic ca A Nn =
NC AC
AB BC AC AB 4
Theo gi thit ta c = = = Nn
4 7 5 AC 5
NB 4 BC 9 5.BC
= = NC = = 10(cm)
NC 5 NC 5 9
MC BC
b) BM l phn gic ca B nn MA = BA
AB BC AC BC 7
Theo gi thit ta c: 4 = 7 = 5 BA = 4
MC 7 MC - MA 3 3.11
Nn MA = 4 MA + MC = 11 ac = 3 = 11(cm)
c) V AN,BM,CP l 3 ng phn gic ca tam gic ABC
BN AB MC BC AP AC
Nn = ; = ; =
BC AC MA BA PB AB
BN MC AP AB BC AC
Do BC . MA . PB = AC . AB . BC = 1

Cu 20

Cho tam gic ABC. Gi I l mt im di chuyn trn cnh BC. Qua I, k ng


thng song song vi cnh AC ct cnh AB ti M. Qua I, k ng thng song song vi
cnh AB ct cnh AC ti N.

1) Gi O l trung im ca AI. Chng minh rng ba im M, O, N thng hng.

2) K MH, NK, AD vung gc vi BC ln lt ti H, K, D. Chng minh rng MH + NK =


AD.

3) Tm v tr ca im I MN song song vi BC.


A

B H D E I K C

Ta c IM//AC, IN//AB => AMIN l hnh bnh hnh


=> MN ct AI ti trung im mi ng . M O l trung im AI
=> M, O, N thng hng (pcm)
K OE vung gc vi BC. Chng minh MHKN l hnh thang vung.
Ta c O l trung im MN m OE//MH//NK. Suy ra OE l ng trung bnh ca hnh
thang vung MNKH nn MH + NK = 2OE (1)
Xt ADI c O l trung im ca AI v OE//AD. Suy ra OE l ng trung bnh ca
ADI nn AD = 2OE (2)
T (1) v (2) ta c MH + NK = AD (pcm).
Ta c MN // BC khi v ch khi MN l ng trung bnh ca DABC (Do O l trung im
AI)
I l trung im BC (V MI // AC, MA=MB)
Vy MN song song vi BC th I l trung im BC
Bi 21 Cho h/vung ABCD. Gi E l 1 im trn cnh BC. Qua E k tia Ax vung gc vi
AE. Ax ct CD ti F. Trung tuyn AI ca tam gic AEF ct CD K. ng thng qua E
song song vi AB ct AI G. C/minh :
a) AE = AF v t gic EGKF l hnh thoi . b) D AEF ~ D CAF v AF2 = FK.FC
c)Khi E thay i trn BC chng minh : EK = BE + DK v chu vi tam gic EKC khng
i .
d) 3 im B,I,D thng hng.
E
B C

K
I
G
D
A

D ABE = D ADF (c.g.c) AE = AF ; D AEF vung cn ti ti A nn AI ^ EF .


D IEG = D IEK (g.c.g) IG = IK .
T gic EGFK c 2 ng cho ct nhau ti trung im mi ng v vung gc nn hnh
EGFK l hnh thoi .
Ta c: KAF = ACF = 450 , gc F chung
AF KF
D AKI ~ D CAF (g.g) = AF 2 = KF .CF
CF AF
T gic EGFK l hnh thoi KE = KF = KD+ DF = KD + BE
Chu vi tam gic EKC bng KC + CE + EK = KC + CE + KD + BE = 2BC ( Khng i) .
Bi 22: Cho t gic ABCD c din tch S. Gi K, L, M, N ln lt l cc im thuc cc
cnh AB, BC, CD, AD sao cho AK/ AB = BL / BC = CM/CD = DN/DA= x.
a) Xc nh v tr cc im K,L,M,N sao cho t gic MNKL c din tch mh nht.
b) T gic MNKL cu a l hnh g? cn thm iu kin g th t gic MNKL l
hnh ch nht.
A
K

N B

L
D

Gi S1,,S2, S3, S4 ln lt l din tch tam gic AKN,CLM,DMN v BKL.


K BB1^AD; KK1^AD ta c KK1//BB1 => KK1/BB1= AK/AB
SANK/SABD= AN.KK1/AD.BB1= AN.AK/AD.AB= x(1-x)=> S1=x(1-x) SABD
Tng t S2= x(1-x) SDBC=> S1,+S2= x(1-x)( SABD+ SDBC)= x(1-x)S
Tng t S3+S4= x(1-x)S
S1,+S2+ S3+ S4= x(1-x)2S
SMNKL=S-( S1,+S2+ S3+ S4)= 2S x2-2Sx+S=2S(x-1/2)2+1/2S1/2S
Vy SMNKL t gi tr nh nht bng 1/2S khi x=1/2 khi M,N,K,L ln lt l trung
im cc cnh CD,DA,AB,BC
T gic MNKL cu a l hnh bnh hnh
T gic MNKL cu a l hnh ch nht khi BD^AC
Bi 23Cho tam gic ABC vung ti A (AC > AB), ng cao AH (HBC). Trn tia
HC ly im D sao cho HD = HA. ng vung gc vi BC ti D ct AC ti E.
4. Chng minh rng hai tam gic BEC v ADC ng dng. Tnh di on BE theo
m = AB .
5. Gi M l trung im ca on BE. Chng minh rng hai tam gic BHM v BEC
ng dng. Tnh s o ca gc AHM
GB HD
6. Tia AM ct BC ti G. Chng minh: = .
BC AH + HC

+ Hai tam gic ADC v BEC c:


Gc C chung.
CD CA
= (Hai tam gic vung CDE v
CE CB
CAB ng dng)

Do , chng dng dng (c.g.c).


=
Suy ra: BEC ADC = 135 (v tam gic AHD vung cn ti H theo gi thit).
0

Nn AEB = 450 do tam gic ABE vung cn ti A. Suy ra: BE = AB 2 = m 2


BM 1 BE 1 AD
Ta c: = = (do DBEC : DADC )
BC 2 BC 2 AC
m AD = AH 2 (tam gic AHD vung vn ti H)
BM 1 AD 1 AH 2 BH BH
nn = = = = (do DABH : DCBA )
BC 2 AC 2 AC AB 2 BE

Do DBHM : DBEC (c.g.c), suy ra: BHM = 1350
= BEC AHM = 450
Tam gic ABE vung cn ti A, nn tia AM cn l phn gic gc BAC.
GB AB AB ED AH HD
Suy ra: = , m = ( DABC : DDEC ) = ( ED // AH ) =
GC AC AC DC HC HC
GB HD GB HD GB HD
Do : = = =
GC HC GB + GC HD + HC BC AH + HC
Bi 24: Cho ABC vung ti A, c AB = 15 cm, AC = 20 cm. K ng cao AH v
trung tuyn AM.
d) Chng minh ABC ~ HBA
e) Tnh : BC; AH; BH; CH ?
f) Tnh din tch AHM ?
Gii: a) Xt ABC v HBA, c:
Gc A = gc H = 900; c gc B chung
ABC ~ HBA ( gc. gc)
b) p dng pitago trong vung ABC
ta c : BC = AB 2 + AC 2 = 15 2 + 20 2 = 625 = 25 (cm)
AB AC BC 15 20 25
v ABC ~ HBA nn = = hay = =
HB HA BA HB HA 15
20.05
AH = = 12 (cm)
25
15.15
BH = = 9 (cm)
25
HC = BC BH = 25 9 = 16 (cm)
Bi 25 : Cho hnh vung ABCD. Qua A v hai ng thng vung gc vi nhau ln lt
ct BC ti P v R, ct CD ti Q v S.
a) Chng minh D AQR v D APS l cc tam gic cn.
b) QR ct PS ti H; M, N l trung im ca QR v PS. Chng minh t gic AMHN
l hnh ch nht.
c) Chng minh P l trc tm D SQR.
d) Chng minh MN l ng trung trc ca AC.
e) Chng minh bn im M, B, N, D thng hng.
V ng hnh, cn i p.
a) a) D ADQ = D ABR v chng l hai tam gic
vung (2 gc c cnh t. vung gc) v DA = BD
(cnh hnh vung). Suy ra AQ=AR, nn D AQR l
tam gic vung cn. Chng minh tng t ta c: D
ABP = D ADS
do AP =AS v D APS l tam gic cn ti A.
b) AM v AN l ng trung tuyn ca tam gic
vung cn AQR v APS nn AN ^ SP v AM ^ RQ.

= PAM
Mt khc : PAN = 450 nn gc MAN vung. Vy t gic AHMN c ba gc
vung, nn n l hnh ch nht.
c) Theo gi thit: QA ^ RS, RC ^ SQ nn QA v RC l hai ng cao ca D SQR.
Vy P l trc tm ca D SQR.
1
d) Trong tam gic vung cn AQR th MA l trung im nn AM = 2 QR
MA = MC, ngha l M cch u A v C.
Chng minh tng t cho tam gic vung cn ASP v tam gic vung SCP, ta c
NA = NC, ngha l N cch u A v C. Hay MN l trung trc ca AC
e) V ABCD l hnh vung nn B v D cng cch u A v C. Ni cch khc, bn
im M, N, B, D cng cch u A v C nn chng phi nm trn ng trung trc
ca AC, ngha l chng thng hng.
Cu 26: Cho tam gic ABC c gc A nh hn 900. Trn na mt phng khng cha im
C, b l ng thng AB v AF vung gc vi AB v AF = AB. Trn na mt phng khng
cha im B, b l ng thng AC v AH vung gc vi AC v AH = AC. Gi D l trung
im ca BC. Trn tia i ca tia DA ly im I sao cho DI = DA. Chng minh rng:
a/ AI = FH ; b/ DA ^ FH
Gii
H
K

F A

B D C

I
a/ - Xt D BDI v D CDA c: DB = DC (gt),
= CDA
BDI (i nh), DA = DI (gt)
D BDI = D CDA (c.g.c)
BI = CA (2 cnh tng ng),
= CAD
BID (2 gc tng ng). Mt khc 2 gc ny v tr so le trong nn suy ra BI//AC.
- Xt D ABI v D FAH c:
AB=AF (gt), ),
(cng b vi BAC
ABI = FAH
BI = AH (cng = AC) D ABI = D EAH (c.g.c)
AI = FH (2 cnh tng ng).
b/ Gi K l giao im ca DA v FH ta c:
+ FAK
BAI = 900 , m
AFH = BAI
hay nn
AFK = BAI = 900
AFH + FAK
- Xt D AFK c = 900
AFH + FAK
= 900 AK ^ FK AI ^ FH
FKA
(v I, K thuc ng thng AD, K thuc EH)
Bi 27: Cho hnh bnh hnh ABCD c E, F th t l trung im ca AB, CD.
a/ Chng minh rng cc ng thng AC, BD, EF ct nhau ti trung im ca mi
ng.
b/ Gi giao im ca AC vi DE v BF theo th t l M v N. Chng minh rng EMFN l
hnh bnh

Gii
a/ A E B
// //
- Hnh v:
M
- Gi O l giao im hai ng cho ca hnh bnh O
hnh ABCD, ta c O l trung im ca BD.
- Chng minh BEDF l hnh bnh hnh N
- C O l trung im ca BD nn O cng l trung // //
D C
im ca EF F
- Vy EF, BD, AC ng quy ti O.
1
b/ Xt D ABD c M l trng tm, nn OM = OA
3
1
- Xt D BCD c N l trng tm, nn ON = OC
3
- M OA = OC nn OM = ON
- T gic EMFN c OM = ON v OE = OF nn l hnh bnh hnh.
Bi 28
Cho hnh bnh hnh ABCD. Gi E, F theo th t l trung im ca cnh AD, BC.
ng cho AC ct ng cho BD ti O v cc on BE, DF ln lt ti P, Q.
1) Chng minh rng: P l trng tm ca tam gic ABD.
2) Chng minh rng: AP = PQ = QC.
3) Ly M bt k thuc on DC. Gi I, K theo th t l cc im i xng ca M
qua tm E, F. Chng minh rng I, K thuc ng thng AB.
4) Chng minh: AI + AK khng i khi M thuc ng thng AB.

V ABCD l hnh bnh hnh nn hai ng cho AC, BD ct nhau ti O l trung im ca


mi ng.
Ta c: AO, BE l trung tuyn ca D ABD
M: AO ct BE ti P nn P l trng tm ca D ABD .
2 2 1 1
Theo cu 1) P l l trng tm ca D ABD AP = AO = . AC = AC
3 3 2 3

1
CQ = AC
3

Tng t, ta c:
1
Do : PQ = AC AP CQ = AC
3
Vy AP = PQ = QC
V I i xng vi M qua E nn EI = EM
Ta c: AE = ED, EI = EM AMDI l hnh bnh hnh
AI // MD (1)
Chng minh tng t, ta c: BK // MC (2)
T (1), (2) v (3) suy ra I, A, B, K thng hng hay I, K thuc ng thng AB.
D KMI c E, F ln lt l trung im ca MI, MK
EF l ng trung bnh ca D KMI
1
EF= KI KI = 2.EF
2
Suy ra AI + AK = IK = 2.EF (4)
BF // AE v AF = AE T gic ABFE l hnh bnh hnh
EF = AB (5)
T (4) v (5) suy ra: AI + AK = 2.AB khng i khi M di ng trn cnh CD.
Cu 29
Cho hnh thang ABCD (AB // CD, AB < CD). Qua A v ng thng song song vi
BC ct BD E v ct CD K. Qua B k ng thng song song vi AD ct AC F v ct
CD I. Chng minh rng:
a) DK = CI
b) EF // CD
c) AB2 = CD.EF
A B

E F

D K I
a) C

T gic ABCK c:
AB // CK (AB // CD, K CD)
AK // BC (gt)
ABCK l hnh bnh hnh
CK = AB
DK = CD CK = CD AB (1)
Chng minh tng t, ta c DI = AB
IC = CD DI = CD AB (2)
T (1) v (2) suy ra: DK = IC
b)
D DEK c AB // DK, theo h qu nh l Ta-let ta c:
AE AB
= (3)
EK DK
D FIC c AB // IC, theo h qu nh l Ta-let ta c:
AF AB
= (4)
FC IC
M: DK = IC (cu a) (5)
AE AF
T (3), (4), (5) suy ra: =
EK FC
AE AF
D AKC c = EF // KC (nh l Ta-lt o)
EK FC
EF // CD
c)
AB CK
Ta c: = (v AB = CK) (6)
CD CD
D BCD c EK // BC, theo nh l Ta-lt ta c:
CK BE
= (7)
CD BD
D BDI c EF // DI, theo nh l Ta-let ta c:
BE EF
=
BD DI
M DI = AB
BE EF
Suy ra: = (8)
BD AB
AB CK BE EF
T (6), (7), (8) suy ra: = = =
CD CD BD AB
AB EF
= AB2 = CD. EE
CD AB
Cu 30
Cho tam gic ABC cn ti A. M, D tng ng l trung im ca BC, AM. H l hnh
chiu ca M trn CD. AH ct BC ti N, BH ct AM ti E. Chng minh rng:
a) Tam gic MHD ng dng vi tam gic CMD.
b) E l trc tm tam gic ABN.
Cu 31 Cho hnh ch nht ABCD. Gi M l trung im ca cnh CD v
N l mt im trn ng cho AC sao cho BNM = 900 . Gi F l im i
xng ca A qua N. Chng minh rng FB ^ AC.
A

H
E

B M N C
a)
V M l trung im ca BC nn AM l ng trung tuyn ca tam gic
ABC.
M D ABC cn ti A (gt)
Suy ra: AM l ng cao ca D ABC
Xt D MHD v D CMD c:
= CMD
MHD (= 900)

MDH
= CDM
Suy ra: D MHD D CMD (g.g).
b) D MHD D CMD (cu a)
HD HM
=
MD CM
HD HM
= (v MD = AD, CM = BM)
AD BM
Mt khc ta c:

ADH = 900 + DMH .
= BMH
Suy ra DHDA D HMB (trng hp ng dng th hai)
Do :
AHD = BHM
T :
AHB = DHM = 900 hay BH ^ AN
Kt hp vi AM ^ BC ta suy ra E l trc tm ca tam gic ABN.
B E C

M
F

N
A D
Gi I l trung im ca BF, ng thng NI ct BC ti E.
Ta c: F i xng vi A qua N (gt) N l trung im ca AF.
6 M I l trung im ca BF
NI l ng trung bnh ca tam gic ABF
1
NI // AB v NI = AB .
2
Bi 33: Cho DABC vung ti A. V ra pha ngoi tam gic cc tam gic ABD vung cn
B, ACE vung cn C. CD ct AB ti M, BE ct AC ti N
a) Chng minh ba im D, A, E thng hng; cc t gic BCE; ACBD l hnh thang
b) Tnh DM bit AM = 3cm; AC = 4 cm; MC = 5cm
c) Chng minh AM = AN
Bi 34: Cho M l im nm trong DABC , t M k MA ^ BC, MB ^ AC, MC ^ AB
MA ' MB' MC '
(A BC; B AC; C AB). Chng minh rng: h + h + h = 1
a b c

(Vi ha, hb, hc l ba ng cao ca tam gic h ln lt t A, B, C xung ba cnh ca DABC )


Bi 35:
Cho DABC vung ti A. V ra pha ngoi tam gic cc tam gic ABD vung cn B,
ACE vung cn C. CD ct AB ti M, BE ct AC ti N
a) Chng minh ba im D, A, E thng hng; cc t gic BCE; ACBD l hnh thang
b) Tnh DM bit AM = 3cm; AC = 4 cm; MC = 5cm
c) Chng minh AM = AN
Gii
+ BAC
+ CAE D
a) Chng minh DAB = 1800 A
D, A, E thng hang M
b) at AB = c, AC = b. N E
BD // AC (cung vuong goc vi
AB)
B C
nen
MC AM AC AM AC
= = =
MD MB BD MB + AM AC + BD
AM AC AM AC AC. AB
= = AM = (1)
AB AC + BD AB AC + AB AC + AB
AM(AC + AB) = AC. AB 3(4 + AB) = 4 AB AB = 12 cm MB = 9
cm
MC AM MC.MB 5.9
T = MD = = = 15 cm
MD MB MA 3

c) AB // CE (cung vuong goc vi AC) nen


AN AB AN AB
= =
NC CE NC + AN AB + CE
AN AB AB. AC
= AN = (2)
AC AB + AC AB + AC
T (1) va (2) suy ra: AM = AN
Bi 36:
Cho M l im nm trong DABC , t M k MA ^ BC, MB ^ AC, MC ^ AB
MA ' MB' MC '
(A BC; B AC; C AB). Chng minh rng: h + h + h = 1
a b c

(Vi ha, hb, hc l ba ng cao ca tam gic h ln lt t A, B, C xung ba cnh ca DABC )


Gii
K ng cao AH, ta c:
MA ' MA ' SMBC
= = (1)
ha AH SABC
MB ' SMCA MC ' SMBA
Tng t: h = S (2) v h = S (3)
b ABC c ABC

Cng (1), (2) v (3) v theo v, ta c:


MA ' MB' MC ' SMBC SMCA SMBA
+ + = + +
ha hb hc SABC SABC SABC
SMBC + SMCA + SMBA SABC
= = =1
SABC SABC
, Ax ct BC ti E. Trn tia Ex
Cu 37: Cho tam gic ABC; gi Ax l tia phn gic ca BAC
= ECH
ly im H sao cho BAE . Chng minh rng:
a) BE. EC = AE. EH
b) AE2 = AB. AC - BE. EC
Cu 38: Cho t gic ABCD. T A k ng thng song song vi BC ct BD ti E; t B k
ng thng song song vi AD ct AC ti F.
Chng minh rng: EF // DC
Gii
a) Ta c D BAE D HCE (g.g)
BE AE
= BE.EC = AE.EH (1)
EH EC
b) D BAE D HCE (g.g)
= CHE
ABE = CHA
ABE
D BAE D HAC (g.g)
AE AB
= AB.AC = AE.AH (2)
AC AH
Tr (1) cho (2) v theo v ta c :
AB. AC - BE. EC = AE.AH - AE. EH
AB. AC - BE. EC = AE. (AH - EH) = AE. AE = AE2

Gii: A B
Goi O la giao iem cua AC va BD
OE OA O
a) V AE // BC = (1)
OB OC E
OB OF F
BF // AD = (2) D
OD OA
OE OF
Nhan (1) vi (2) ve theo ve ta co: = C
OD OC
EG // CD

DB 1
Cu 39 : Cho tam gic ABC, im D nm trn cnh BC sao cho = ;
DC 2
OA 3
im O nm trn on AD sao cho = . Gi K l giao im ca BO v AC.
OD 2
Tnh t s AK : KC.
Cu 40 : Cho tam gic ABC c 3 gc nhn, trc tm H. Mt ng thng qua H ct AB,
AC th t P v Q sao cho HP = HQ. Gi M l trung im ca BC. Chng minh rng tam
gic MPQ cn ti M.
Gii

T D k DM // BK. p dng nh l Talt vo D AOK ta c: A

AK AO 3
= = (1) K
KM OD 2
M
KM CD 1 O
Tng t, trong D CKB th: = = (2)
CK DB 3
AK 1 B
Nhn (1) vi (2) v theo v ta c: = D C

CK 2
gii
Gi giao im ca AH v BC l I
A
T C k CN // PQ (N AB),
P
T gic CNPQ l hnh thang, c H l trung im PQ, hai cnh N
bn NP v CQ ng quy ti A nn K l trung im CN MK H
l ng trung bnh ca D BCN Q
MK // CN MK // AB (1) K

H l trc tm ca D ABC nn CH ^ A B (2)


T (1) v (2) suy ra MK ^ CH MK l ng cao ca D B M I C
CHK (3)
T AH ^ BC MC ^ HK MI l ng cao ca D CHK (4)
T (3) v (4) suy ra M l trc tm ca D CHK MH ^ CN MH ^ PQ
D MPQ c MH va l ng trung tuyn va l ng cao nn cn ti M
Cu 41. (6,0 im) Cho hnh vung ABCD, trn cnh AB ly im E v trn cnh AD ly
im F sao cho AE = AF. V AH vung gc vi BF (H thuc BF), AH ct DC v BC
ln lt ti hai im M, N.
1. Chng minh rng t gic AEMD l hnh ch nht.
2. Bit din tch tam gic BCH gp bn ln din tch tam gic AEH. Chng minh rng: AC
= 2EF.
1 1 1
3. Chng minh rng: 2
= 2
+ .
AD AM AN 2
A E
B

D C
M


Ta c DAM (cng ph BAH
= ABF )
AB = AD ( gt)
= ADM
BAF = 900 (ABCD l hnh vung)
ADM = BAF (g.c.g)
=> DM=AF, m AF = AE (gt)
Nn. AE = DM
Li c AE // DM ( v AB // DC )
Suy ra t gic AEMD l hnh bnh hnh
= 900 (gt)
Mt khc. DAE
Vy t gic AEMD l hnh ch nht
Ta c ABH : FAH (g.g)
AB BH BC BH
=> = hay = ( AB=BC, AE=AF)
AF AH AE AH
= HBC
Li c HAB )
(cng ph ABH
CBH : EAH (c.g.c)
2 2
SCBH BC SCBH BC
= , m = 4 (gt) = 4 nn BC2 = (2AE)2
SEAH AE SEAH AE
BC = 2AE E l trung im ca AB, F l trung im ca AD

Do : BD = 2EF hay AC = 2EF (pcm)


Do AD // CN (gt). p dng h qu nh l ta lt, ta c:
AD AM AD CN
= =
CN MN AM MN
Li c: MC // AB ( gt). p dng h qu nh l ta lt, ta c:
MN MC AB MC AD MC
= = hay =
AN AB AN MN AN MN
2 2 2 2
AD AD CN CM CN 2 + CM 2 MN 2

+ = + = = =1
AM AN MN MN MN 2 MN 2
(Pytago)

2 2
AD AD 1 1 1

+ = 1 => AM 2 + AN 2 = AD 2 (pcm)
AM AN
Bi 42: (3 im).Cho hnh vung ABCD, gi E, F th t l trung im ca AB, BC.
a) CMR: CE vung gc vi DF
b) Gi M l giao im ca CE v DF. Chng minh rng AM = AD.
Bi 43: (3 im).Cho tam gic ABC. V ngoi tam gic cc hnh vung ABDE, ACFH.
a) Chng minh rng EC = BH; EC ^ BH
b) Gi M, N th t l tm ca cc hnh vung ABDE, ACFH. Gi I l trung im ca
BC. Tam gic MNI l tam gic g? V sao?

A E B

M F

1
1 2
D K C

C/M c D CBE = D DCF (c-g-c) => C1 = D



1

Li c : C1 + C2 = 900 D
+C
1
= 900 => PCM
2

Gi K l trung im ca CD. c/m c T gic AECK l hbh suy ra AK // CE.


Goi N l giao im ca AK v DF. Tam gic DCM c DK = KC v KN //CM nn
N l trung im ca DM. V CM ^ DM (cu a), KN //CM nn KN ^ DM.
Tam gic ADM c AN l ng cao ng thi l trung tuyn nn l tam gic cn
ti A => AM = AD
H

A N F

K
M O

B I C

C/m c D EAC= D BAH(c-g-c) => EC = BH,


AEC =
ABH .

Gi K v O th t l giao im ca EC vi BA v BH.
Xt D AEK v D OBK c ;
AEK = OBK nn EAK
AKE = OKB = BOK

= 900 . Vy EC ^ BH
=> BOK
Ta c MI//EC, MI = 1/2EC
IN//BH ; IN=1/2 BH
M EC ^ BH v EC = BH nn MI = IN v MI ^ IN. Vy D MIN vung cn ti
I.
Cu 44:Cho tam gic ABC vung ti A. Ly mt im M bt k trn cnh AC. T C v
mt ng thng vung gc vi tia BM, ng thng ny ct tia BM ti D, ct tia BA ti
E.
a) Chng minh: EA.EB = ED.EC.
b) Chng minh rng khi im M di chuyn trn cnh AC th tng BM.BD+CM.CA
c gi tr khng i.
c) K DH ^ BC ( H BC ) . Gi P, Q ln lt l trung im ca cc on thng BH,
DH. Chng minh CQ ^ PD .
E

A
M
Q

B C
P I H
a) Chng minh EA.EB = ED.EC. Chng minh D EBD ng dng vi D ECA (g-g)
EB ED
- T suy ra = EA.EB = ED.EC
EC EA
b) K MI vung gc vi BC ( I BC ) . Ta c D BIM ng dng vi D BDC (g-g)
BM BI
= BM .BD = BI .BC (1)
BC BD
CM CI
Tng t: D ACB ng dng vi D ICM (g-g) = CM .CA = CI .BC (2)
BC CA
T (1) v (2) suy ra BM .BD + CM .CA = BI .BC + CI .BC = BC ( BI + CI ) = BC 2 (khng i)
c) Chng minh D BHD ng dng vi D DHC (g-g)
BH BD 2 BP BD BP BD
= = =
DH DC 2 DQ DC DQ DC
- Chng minh D DPB ng dng vi D CQD (c-g-c) BDP = DCQ

+ PDC
m BDP = 90o DCQ + PDC
= 90o CQ ^ PD
Bi 45: Cho h/thang ABCD; M l mt im tu trn y ln AB. T M k cc ng
thng song song vi hai ng cho AC v BD. Cc ng thng ny ct hai cnh BC v
AD ln lt ti E v F. on EF ct AC v BD ti I v J.
a) Chng minh rng nu H l trung im ca IJ th H cng l trung im ca EF.
b) Trong trng hp AB = 2CD, hy ch ra v tr ca M trn AB sao cho EJ = JI = IF.
D C

E
J
I
Q
F

P
A M B

FI FP DO EJ
=
EQ
=
CO DO CO
Ta c: = = (1) (2) = (3)
IE PM OB FJ QM OA OB OA
FI EJ
T (1), (2) v (3) suy ra = hay FI.FJ = EI.EJ (4)
IE FJ
Nu H l trung im ca IJ th t (4) ta c:
IJ IJ IJ IJ
( FH - )( FH + ) = ( EH - )( EH + ) FH = EH
2 2 2 2
DO CO 1 FI 1
Nu AB = 2CD th OB = OA = 2 nn theo (1) ta c IE = 2
suy ra: EF = FI + IE = 3FI. Tng t t (2) v (3) ta c EF = 3EJ.
EF
Do : FI = EJ = IJ = 3
khng lin quan g n v tr ca M. Vy M tu trn AB

Cu46: Cho tam gic ABC vung ti A, ng phn gic AD. V hnh vung MNPQ c M
thuc cnh AB, N thuc cnh AC, P v Q thuc cnh BC. Gi E v F ln lt l giao im
ca BN v MQ; CM v NP. Chng minh rng:
a) DE song song vi AC
b) DE =DF; AE =AF.
a/ V hnh

a) Chng minh c:
BE BQ BQ AB BD
= = = =
EN QP MQ AC DC
DE / / NC hay DE / / A C
b) Do DE / / A C nn
DE BD BD
= DE = .CN (1)
CN BC BC
Tng t,
CD
DF = .BM (2)
BC
T (1) v (2) suy ra
DE BD CN
= .
DF CD BM
BD AB CN AC
M = v =
CD AC BM AB
DE
Nn = 1 DE = DF
DF
= DAB
Ta c D1 = DAC = D DADE = DADF
2

AE =AF
Bi47:
Cho tam gic ABC nhn c cc ng cao AD,BE,CF ct nhau ti H.
HD HE HF
a. Tnh tng: + +
AD BE CF
b. Chng minh: BH.BE + CH.CF = BC 2
c. Chng minh: H cch u ba cnh tam gic DEF.
d. Trn cc on HB,HC ly cc im M,N ty sao cho HM = CN.
Chng minh ng trung trc ca on MN lun i qua mt im c nh.
A

E
F

H
M

K
I
B
N
D

HD S ( HBC )
Trc ht chng minh: = S ( ABC )
AD
HE S ( HCA) HF S ( HAB )
Tng t c: BE = S ( ABC ) ; CF = S ( ABC )
HD HE HF S ( HBC ) + S ( HCA) + S ( HAB ) HD HE HF
Nn + + = + + =1
AD BE CF S ( ABC ) AD BE CF
Trc ht chng minh D BDH : D BEC BH.BE = BD.BC
V D CDH : D CFB CH.CF = CD.CB.
BH.BE + CH.CF = BC.(BD + CD) = BC 2 (pcm)
Trc ht chng minh: D AEF : D ABC AEF =
ABC
V D CDE : D CAB CED = CBA


AEF = CED m EB ^ AC nn EB l phn gic ca gc DEF.
Tng t: DA, FC l phn gic ca cc gc EDF v DFE.
Vy H l giao im cc ng phn gic ca tam gic DEF
nn H cch u ba cnh ca tam gic DEF (pcm)
Gi O l giao im ca cc ng trung trc ca hai on MN v HC, ta c D
OMH = D ONC (c.c.c) OHM .(1)
= OCN
= OCH
Mt khc ta cng c D OCH cn ti O nn: OHC .(2)
= OHB
T (1) v (2) ta c: OHC HO l phn gic ca gc BHC
Vy O l giao im ca trung trc on HC v p/gic ca gc BHC nn O l im
c nh.
Hay trung trc ca on MN lun i qua mt im c nh l O.

Cu 48:
Cho hnh vung ABCD c AC ct BD ti O. M l im bt k thuc cnh BC (M khc
B, C). Tia AM ct ng thng CD ti N. Trn cnh AB ly im E sao cho BE = CM.
a) Chng minh: OEM vung cn.
b) Chng minh: ME // BN.
c) T C k CH ^ BN ( H BN). Chng minh ba im O, M, H thng hng.
A E B

H
M

N
D
C

Xt OEB v OMC
V ABCD l hnh vung nn ta c OB = OC
= MCO
V EBO = 450
BE = CM ( gt )
Suy ra OEB = OMC ( c .g.c)
OE = OM v EOB = MOC

+O
Li c O = BOC
= 900 v t gic ABCD l hnh vung
2 3

EOM + MOB
= EOB = MOC
+ MOB
= COB
= 900 kt hp vi OE = OM OEM vung
cn ti O
T (gt) t gic ABCD l hnh vung AB = CD v AB // CD
AM BM
+ AB // CD AB // CN = ( Theo L Ta- lt) (*)
MN MC
M BE = CM (gt) v AB = CD AE = BM thay vo (*)
AM AE
Ta c : = ME // BN ( theo L o ca L Ta-lt)
MN EB
Gi H l giao im ca OM v BN
T ME // BN OME = MH ' B ( cp gc ng v)
= 450 v OEM vung cn ti O
M OME
' B = 450 = MCO
MH
OMC : BMH (g.g)

OM MC = CMH
' ( hai gc i nh)
= ,kt hp OMB
MB MH '
OMB : CMH (c.g.c) OBM
' C = 450
= MH
' C = BH
Vy BH ' M + MH
' C = 900 CH ' ^ BN
M CH ^ BN ( H BN) H H hay 3 im O, M, H thng hng
Bi 49 Cho hnh vung ABCD ( AB = a ), M l mt im bt k trn cnh BC. Tia Ax
vung gc vi AM ct ng thng CD ti K. Gi I l trung im ca on thng MK. Tia
AI ct ng thng CD ti E. ng thng qua M song song vi AB ct AI ti N.
a/ T gic MNKE l hnh g ? Chng minh.
b/ Chng minh: AK2 = KC . KE.
c/ Chng minh rng khi im M di chuyn trn cnh BC th tam gic CME lun c
chu vi khng i.
1 1
d/ Tia AM ct ng thng CD G. Chng minh rng 2
+ khng ph thuc
AM AG 2
vo v tr ca im M.
Gii.

A B

N M

K D E C G

a/
+ T MN // AB // CD v MI = IK p dng nh l Ta let ta c NI = IE

+ Ch ra tam gic AMK vung cn ti A c AE ^ KM


+ T gic MNKE l hnh bnh hnh c hai ng cho vung gc vi nhau nn
MNKE l hnh thoi.
b/
+ T tnh cht hnh vung c ACK = 45 0.
+ Chng minh hai tam gic AKE v CKA ng dng, suy ra PCM.
c/
+ T hai tam gic ABM v ADK bng nhau ta c MB = DK nn EK = MB + ED.
+ Tam gic AMK vung cn ti A c MI = IK nn AI l trung trc ca MK do
ME = EK.
+ T ME = MB + ED, suy ra ME + CM + CE = 2a. + KL:
d/.
+ Tam gic AMK vung cn ti A nn AM = AK; do
1 1 1 1
2
+ 2 = 2
+ .
AM AG AK AG 2
+ Tam gic AKG vung ti A nn AK . AG = KG . AD = 2. dt AKG, do AK2 .
AG2 = KG2 . AD2.
+ Mt khc li c KG2 = AK2 + AG2 v AD = a nn ta c
AK 2 + AG 2 1 1 1 1
AK2 . AG2 = a2( AK2 + AG2 ), hay = 2 , suy ra 2
+ 2 =
2
AK . AG 2
a AK AG a2
Bi 5 0:
Cho hnh bnh hnh ABCD , trn cnh AB v CD ln lt ly cc im M , K
sao cho
AM = CK . Ly im P nm trn cnh AD ( P A ; P D ). Ni PB , PC ct
MK ti
E , F . Chng minh S PEF = S BME + SCKF
Gii lp lun din tch tam gic PBC bng na din tch hbh ABCD
A M B
Lp lun din tch t gic AMKD bng din tch t gic
P
E CKMB v bng na din tch hbh ABCD
Suy ra din tch tam gic PBC bng din tch CKMB
F
D K C Loi tr i din tch phn chung , suy ra kt qu

Bi 51:
Cho hnh thoi ABCD c BAD = 120 0 . Tia Ax to vi tia AB mt gc BAx = 15 0 v
ct
4 3 3
cnh BC ti M , ct ng thng CD ti N . Chng minh 2
= 2
+
AB AM AN 2
Bi 6A T A k ng thng vung gc vi Ax , ct cnh DC ti K
B
=> DAK = 15 0 (0,25). Chng minh hai tam gic DAK , BAM
M bng nhau => AK = AM (0,5) . Thy c AH l ng cao
1 1 1
ca DAKN vung ti A , suy ra 2
= 2
+
AH AK AN 2
D K H C N
3
m AH= AD.Sin600 = AB. , th vo, suy ra c kqu
2
Bi 52: Chng minh rng vi a < 450, ta c sin2a = 2sina. cosa.
Gii Xt DABC c A = a . K trung tuyn AM, ng cao AH AMH
= 900; C = 2a
a
t BC = a; AC = b; AB = c; AH = h; MA = MB = MC = m = A.
2
c b h
Ta c sina = ; cosa = ; sin2a =
a a m
c b 2bc 2ah 2h h
Do 2sina. cosa = 2 . = 2 = 2 = = = sin2a
a a a a a m a C
B
H M
Bi 53: Cho tam gic ABC c ABC =600 ; BC =a; AB =c (a, c l hai di cho trc). Hnh
ch nht MNPQ c nh M trn cnh AB, N trn cnh AC, P v Q trn cnh BC c gi
l hnh ch nht ni tip trong tam gic ABC.
a/ Tm v tr ca M trn cnh AB hnh ch nht MNPQ c din tch ln nht.
Tnh din tch ln nht .
a/ t AM =x (0<x <c) . A
MN AM ax
Ta c: = MN = x
BC AB c M N
MQ =BM.sin600 =
( c- x) 3 .
2
Suy ra din tch ca MNPQ l:
ax ( c- x) 3 a 3 600
S= = x ( c- x) B C
2c 2c Q P
2
a+b a+b
+ Ta c bt ng thc: ab
ab (a>0,b >0)
2 2
2
x+c- x c2
c
p dng, ta c: x(c- x) = . Du ng thc xy ra khi: x =c- x x = 2 .
2 4
2
a 3 c ac 3 ac 3 c
Suy ra: S . = . Vy: Smax = khi x = hay M l trung im ca cnh
2c 4 8 8 2
AB

Cu 54 Cho tam gic u ABC vi tm O. Gi M l im bt k bn trong tam gic ABC.


K MH ^ BC , MK ^ AC , MI ^ AB.
a) Chng minh rng: MH + MK + MI = h ( h l chiu cao ca tam gic ABC).
b) ng thng MO ln lt ct cc cnh BC, CA, AB ti A, B, C.
MA ' MB ' MC '
Chng minh rng: + + =3.
OA ' OB ' OC '
Chng minh:
A

a) Ta c: S ABC = S MBC + SMCA + SMAB


1 1 1 1
.BC.h = .BC.MH + . AC.MK + . AB.MI
2 2 2 2 K
I' K'
BC.h = ( MH + MK + MI ).BC B'
MH + MK + MI = h (pcm) I
O
b) T O k OH ' ^ BC , OK ' ^ AC , OI ' ^ AB C' M

Theo kt qu cu a ta c:
C
OH + OK + OI = h A' B H H'

M O l tm ca tam gic u ABC nn:


1
OH ' = OK ' = OI ' = h
3
MA ' MH
Ta c: MH // OH nn: = (1)
OA ' OH '
MB ' MK
OK // MK nn: = (2)
OB ' OK '
MC ' MI
IM // OI nn: = (3)
OC ' OI '
Cng (1), (2) v (3) theo v ta c:
MA ' MB ' MC ' MH MK MI MH + MK + MI
+ + = + + = (v OH = OK = OI)
OA ' OB ' OC ' OH ' OK ' OI ' OH '
h
= =3
1
h
3
MA ' MB ' MC '
Vy + + = 3 (pcm)
OA ' OB ' OC '

Bi 55
Cho hnh vung ABCD, di cc cnh bng a. Mt im M chuyn
ng trn cnh DC (M D, M C) chn im N trn cnh BC sao cho
MAN = 45o, DB th t ct AM, AN ti E v F.
1. Chng minh: ABF # AMC
2.Chng minh AFM = AEN = 90o
1
3. Chng minh S D AEF = 2
S D AMN
4. Chng minh chu vi tam gic CMN khng i khi M chuyn
ng trn DC
5. Gi H l giao im ca MF v NE . Chng Minh: MH.MF + NH.NE
= CN2 + CM2
Gii
A
B

N
H

E I

K D M C

1. Chng minh: ABF # AMC ( 1,25 im)


-Ta cm: ABF = ACM = 450
- BAF = MAC ( v cng cng vi gc CAN bng 450 )
suy ra : ABF # AMC

2. Chng minh AFM = AEN = 90o ( 1,5 im)

T D AFB # D AMC (g.g)


AF AB AF AM
=> = = (1)
AM AC AB AC
C MAF = BAC = 45 0(2)
T 1 v 2 => D AFM # D ABC
=> AFM = ABC = 90o
C/M hon ton tng t c AEN = 900
v vy AFM = AEN = 90o

3. S D AEF = 1/2 S D AMN (2 im)


AF AE
C D AFM # D AEN => AM
=
AN
SAEF AF 2
=> D AEF # D AMN (c.g.c) => SAMN
=(
AM
) (1)

C FAM = 450, AFM = 900


=> D AFM Vung cn nh F nn AM2 = AF2 + FM2 = 2AF2
AF 2 1
=> ( ) =
AM 2
SAEF 1
Thay vo (1) ta c = hay: S D AEF = 1/2 S D AMN
SAMN 2

4.. C/M chu vi D CMN khng i ( 1,25 im)


Trn tia i ca tia DC ly im K sao cho DK = BN
D ADK = D ABN => AK = AN v BAN = DAK.
do D AMN = D AKM (c.gc) => MN=KM
V vy: Chu vi D CMN = MN + CN +CM = CM + KM + CN
= CD + KD + CN = CD + NB + CN
= CD + CB = 2a khng i
Tc l: Chu vi D CMN khng thay i khi M chuyn ng trn
cnh DC

5. Chng Minh: MH.MF + NH.NE = CN2 + CM2 (2 im)


K HI ^ MN ti I
- Cm: MHI # MNF => MH.MF =MI.MN
- Cm: NHI # NME => NH.NE =NI.NM
- suy ra: MH.MF + NH.NE =MI.MN + NI.NM = MN( MI+NI ) = MN 2
- p dng nh l Pitago vo CMN ta c: MN2 = MC2 +CN2
Vy: MH.MF + NH.NE = MC2 +CN2

Bi56
Cho tam gic ABC nhn (AB<AC). Cc ng cao AE, BF ct nhau ti H. Gi M
trung im ca BC, qua H v ng thng a vung gc vi HM, a ct AB, AC ln lt ti I
v K.
a. Chng minh D ABC ng dng D EFC.
b. Qua C k ng thng b song song vi ng thng IK, b ct AH, AB theo th t
ti N v D. Chng minh NC = ND v HI = HK.
AH BH CH
c. Gi G l giao im ca CH v AB. Chng minh: + + >6
HE HF HG
Gii
A

F
K
G
H

B E M C

CE CA
Ta c D AEC : D BFC (g-g) nn suy ra =
CF CB
CE CA
Xt D ABC v D EFC c = v gc C chung nn suy ra D ABC : D EFC ( c-g-c)
CF CB
V CN //IK nn HM ^ CN M l trc tm D HNC
MN ^ CH m CH ^ AD (H l trc tm tam gic ABC) nn MN // AD
Do M l trung im BC nn NC = ND
IH = IK ( theo Ta let)
AH S S S +S S AHC + S ABH
Ta c: HE = S = S = S + S =
AHC ABH AHC ABH

CHE BHE CHE BHE S BHC


BH S BHC + S BHA CH S BHC + S AHC
Tng t ta c BF = S AHC
v CG = S BHA
AH BH CH S AHC + S ABH S BHC + S BHA S BHC + S AHC
+ + = + +
HE HF HG S BHC S AHC S BHA
S AHC S ABH S BHC S BHA S BHC S AHC
= S + S + S + S + S + S 6 . Du = khi tam gic ABC u, m theo gt th AB
BHC BHC AHC AHC BHA BHA

< AC nn khng xy ra du bng.

Cu 57: Cho tam gic ABC nhn. Dng ra pha ngoi hai tam gic u ABE; ACF, li
dng hnh hnh AEPF. Chng minh rng PBC l tam gic u.
A
Cu 58: Cho tamEgic ABC c BC1 = 152 cm, AC = 20 cm, AB = 25 cm.
3
1
a. Tnh di ng
2
cao CH ca tam gic ABC. F
P
b. Gi CD l ng phn gic ca tam gic ACH. Chng minh BCD cn.
c. Chng minh: BC + CD + BD = 3CH2 + 2BH2 + DH2
2 2 2

B
C
Ta c: AEPF l hnh bnh hnh nn AE P = AFP
Xt D EPB v D FPC, ta c:
EB = FP ( = AE) ; EP = FC (= AF) v B = PF C
PE ( v 600 - P =600
AE - P )
AF
D EPB = D FPC ( c.g. c )
Suy ra: PB = PC (1)
Ta c: EA F + AE P = 180 0 A 3 + E1 = 60 0
m 1 + 2 = 600
Do 3 = 2
Xt D EPB v D ABC, ta c:
EB = AB; EP = AC ( = AF) v 3 = 2
D EPB = D ABC ( cgc )
Suy ra: PB = BC (2)
T (1) v (2) PB = PC = BC
Vy D PBC u

B H D A

a. Dng nh l Py-ta-go o chng minh c: D ABC vung ti C


1 1 AC.BC 20.15
Ta c: SABC = 2 AC.BC = 2
AB.CH CH =
AB
=
25
= 12 cm
b. D dng tnh c;
HA = 16 cm ; BH = 9 cm
CD l tia phn gic ca D ACH nn suy ra
AD = 10 cm ; HD = 6 cm.
Do BC = BD ( = 15 cm )
Vy D BDC cn ti B.
c. Xt cc D vung : CBH, CAH
Ta c: BC2 = BH2 + CH2 ( l Py-ta-go)
CD2 = DH2 + CH2 ( l Py-ta-go)
BD2 = BC2 = BH2 + CH2 ( l Py-ta-go)
T suy ra BC2 + CD2 + BD2 = 3CH2 + 2BH2 + DH2

Bi 59:
Cho tam gic ABC vung ti A. K ng trung tuyn AM (vi M BC). Gi D l im
i xng vi A qua M, E l im i xng vi A qua BC.
a/ Chng minh BCDE l hnh thang cn.
b/ Qua A k ng thng d bt k khng ct cnh BC. B, C l hnh chiu ca B v C trn
ng thng d. Chng minh rng: BB + CC BC

Bi 60:
Cho hnh vung ABCD c di ng cho l 1. Trn cc cnh AB, BC, CD, DA ln
lt ly cc im M, N, P, Q . Chng minh rng chu vi t gic MNPQ khng nh hn 2.
Hnh v: B'
A
M'

C'
// d
x
B C
M
x //

E D

a/ Chng minh HM l ng trung bnh ca D ADE


HM // ED hay BCDE l hnh thang. (1)
+ Chng minh BD = AC (do ABDC l hnh bnh hnh)
+ Chng minh CE = AC (do A v E i xng qua BC)
BD = CE (2)
T (1) v (2) suy ra BCDE l hnh thang cn.
b/ K thm MM ^ d MM l ng trung bnh ca hnh thang BCCB
BB + CC = 2MM
m MM AM
hay 2MM 2AM = BC
suy ra: BB + CC= 2MM BC
Hnh v:
Q D
A
K
M
F P

I E

B N C

K ME ^ BD ; QF ^ BD ; NI ^ BD ; PK ^ BD
Ta c: MN ME + NI
NP IK
PQ QF + PK
QM EF
Gi p l chu vi t gic MNPQ, th: p = MN + NP + PQ + MQ
p ME + NI + IK + QF + PK + EF = (ME + EF + FQ) + (NI + IK + PK)
M cc tam gic EBM, FDQ, IBN, KDF vung cn.
p (BE + EF + FD) + (BI + IK + DK) = 2BD = 2

Cu 59 :
Gi O l giao im hai ng cho AC v BD ca hnh thang ABCD (AB//CD).
ng thng qua O song song vi AB ct AD v BC ln lt ti M v N.
a) Chng minh OM=ON.
1 1 2
b) Chng minh + = .
AB CD MN
= a 2 ; S COD = b 2 . Tnh S ABCD
c) Bit S AOB ?

d) Nu D C 90 . Chng minh BD > AC.
0

A B hnh v

M N
O

D
C

OA OB
a/ Ta c = Do MN//DC
AC BD
OM ON
= OM=ON.
DC DC
OM AM OM DM OM OM AM + MD
b/ Do MN//AB v CD CD = AD v AB
=
AD
. Do : + = = 1 (1)
DC AB AD
ON ON
Tng t: DC + AB = 1 (2)
MN MN
T (1);(2) DC
+
AB
=2

1 1 2
+ =
DC AB MN
c/ Hai tam gic c cng ng cao th t s din tch 2 tam gic bng t s gia 2 cnh y
S OB S OA
tng ng. Do vy : S
AOB
= v S
AOD
=
AOD OD COD OC

OB OA S S
Nhng = AOB = AOD S 2 AOD = S AOB .S COD = a 2 .b 2 nn S AOD = ab .
OD OC S AOD S COD
A B
Tng t S BOC = ab .Vy S ABCD = ( a + b ) 2

d/ H AH, BK vung gc vi CD ti H v K
Do D C 90 0 nn H, K nm trong on CD
Ta c AE D = BC D = C > D AD > AE .
T gic BCEA l hnh bnh hnh nn BC=AE
Vy AD>BC DH>KC DK > CH.

Theo nh l pitago cho tam gic vung BKD ta c : DB


D
2
= BK 2 H+ DK 2 >
E AH + CH
2
K
2
C (Do
= AC 2

AH 2 = BK 2 ) BD > AC
Bi 60 :
Cho tam gic ABC vung ti A. Gi M l mt im di ng trn AC. T C v ng thng
vung gc vi tia BM ct tia BM ti H, ct tia BA ti O. Chng minh rng :
a ) OA.OB = OC.OH
b ) Gc OHA c s o khng i
c ) Tng BM.BH + CM.CA khng i. O
Gii
OB OH
a) D BOH ~ D COA (g-g) = OA.OB = OC.OH (2) H
OC OA
OB OH OA OH A M
b) = = (1)
OC OA OC OB
D OHA v D OBC c O chung (2) B K C
T (1) v (2) D OHA ~ D OBC (c.g.c)
= OBC
OHA (khng i) ( 2 )
BM BK
c) V MK ^ BC ; D BKM ~ D BHC (g.g) = BM.BH = BK.BC (3)
BC BH
CM CK
D CKM ~ D CAB (g.g) = CM.CA = BC.CK (4)
CB CA
Cng tng v ca (3) v (4) ta c: BM.BH + CM.CA = BK.BC + BC.CK
= BC(BK + CK) = BC2 (khng
i).

Bi 61
AB 3
Cho tam gic ABC vung ti A vi = v BC = 15cm. Tia phn gic gc C ct
AC 4
AB ti D. K DE ^ BC (E BC).
a) Chng minh AC = CE.
b) Tnh di AB; AC.
c) Trn tia AB ly im F sao cho AF = AC. K tia Fx ^ FA ct tia DE ti M. Tnh

DCM .
V hnh, ghi GT, KL ng :
A

B C
E
F

K
a) C/m c DACD = DECD ( cnh huyn- gc nhn)
=> AC = CE (hai cnh tng ng)
AB 3 AB AC
b) = ( gt ) =
AC 4 3 4
AB 2
AC 2
AB + AC 2 BC 2 152
2
= = = = =9
9 16 9 + 16 25 25
AB 2 = 9.9 = 81 AB = 9cm
AC 2 = 9.16 = 144 AC = 12cm

c) K Cy ^ Fx ct nhau ti K
Ta thy AC = AF = FK= CK = CE
v ACK = 900
C/M c DCEM = DCKM ( cnh huyn- cnh gc vung)

ECM
= KCM (hai gc tng ng)
+ ECM
1 1
M DCM = DCE = ACK = 900 = 450
2 2
Bi 62 Cho tam gic ABC, trn cnh BC ly im M, Qua im M k cc ng thng
song song vi AC v AB th t ct AB v AC ti E v F.
ME MF
1)Chng minh + c gi tr khng i.
AC AB
2) Cho bit din tch ca cc tam gic MBE v MCF th t l a2 v b2 .Tnh din tch
ca tam gic ABC theo a v b.
3)Xc nh v tr ca M din tch t gic AEMF ln nht.

F
E

B C
M

V ng hnh v ghi c ghi GT, KL


ME MF BM MC
1) V ME// AC ; MF // AB theo h qu nh l Ta-Let ta c + = + =1
AC AB BC BC
2) Chng minh tam gic MBE ng dng vi tam gic CBA suy ra
dt ( MBE ) a 2 BM 2 BM a CM b
= 2 = 2
= ; Tng t = ( S2 l din tch tam gic ABC) suy ra
dt (CBA) S BC BC S BC S
BM CM b a a + b a + b BC
= 1 S = a + b S 2 = ( a + b ) . Vy dt(ABC) =
2
+ = + = hay =
BC BC S S S S BC
(a+b)2
3) T phn 2 suy ra dt(AEMF) = 2ab
Li c 2ab (
a + b)
2
S2
= du bng xy ra khi a = b khi M l trung im ca BC
2 2

Cu 63 Cho hnh vung ABCD, O l giao im ca hai ng cho. V gc xOy = 450 sao
cho Ox ct BC ti G (G nm gia B, C) Oy ct DC ti H (H nm gia D, C). Gi M l
trung im AB.
Chng minh rng:
a, HOD ng dng OGB.
b, GM // AH.
Cu 64 cho ABC bit gc A bng 2 ln gc B v bng 4 ln gc C.
1 1 1
Chng minh rng: = + .
AB BC AC
a, HOD + O1=1350
A M B
OGB + O1=1350 nn HOD =
OGB
->HOD ng dng OGB (g.g)
b, t cu a, suy ra :
HD DO
= t BM = a O 1
OB BG
Th AD = 2a , OB = OD = a 2
Ta c HD.BG = OB.OD = a 2 . G a 2 =2a.a
=AD.BM
HD BM
=> = => AHD ng dng vi
AD BG D H C
GMB(c.g.c)
=> AHD = GMB do HAB = GMB => MG // AH

Gi D l giao im ca AB
vi ng trung trc ca on D BC.
Khi ta c: 3
BCD cn ti D, ACD cn ti A C
AB AB
DB = DC = CA = (1) 4
CA DB

Do CA l phn gic 2
AB AD AB AD B
= = (V DC C =DB) (2)
BC DC BC DB
Cng theo v (1) v (2) ta c:
AB AB AB AD 1 1 1
+ = + =1 + =
AC BC DB DB AC BC AB

Cu 65Cho hnh vung ABCD . Dng pha trong hnh vung tam gic AFB cn ti F c
gc y l 150 . Chng minh CDF l tam gic u.

D C

K
F

B
A
Ly im K trong hnh vung sao cho tam gic AKD cn tai K c gc KDA bng150
= 600 (1) .
Suy ra : KAF
Ta c VDAK =VBAF (theo cch v) nn AK = AF (2).
T (1) v (2) suy ra : VAKF u .
Khi VDAK =VDFK ( c.g.c) AD = DF = DC ( 3)
Mt khc : VADF =VBCF ( c.g.c) DF = CF ( 4 )
T (3) v (4) suy ra : VDCF u.

Bi 66: Cho tam gic ABC cn ti A c AB = AC =b ; BC = a. ng phn gic BD ca


tam gic ABC c di bng cnh bn ca tam gic ABC. Chng minh rng:
1 1 b
- = .
b a (a + b ) 2
A
H
D

C
B

V BH l ng cao ca tam gic ABC.


Tam gic BAD cn ti B (BA=BD) c BH l ng cao nn cng l ng trung tuyn
AD
AH = .
2
Tam gic ABC c BD l ng phn gic , ta c :
DA AB b DA DC DA + DC AC b b2
= = = = = = DA =
DC BC a b a a +b a +b a+b a +b
AD 2
Tam gic HAB vung ti H , theo /l Pytago ta c : AB 2 = BH 2 + AH 2 BH 2 = b 2 -
4
(1)
Tam gic HBC vung ti H , theo /l Pytago, ta c
AD 2
BC 2 = BH 2 + HC 2 BH 2 = BC 2 - ( AC - AH )2 = a 2 - (b - )
2
AD 2
BH 2 = a 2 - b 2 + b. AD - (2)
4
AD 2 AD 2
b -2
= a - b + b. AD -
2 2
b 2 - a 2 = b. AD - b 2
4 4
T (1) v (2) ta c :
-ab 2
a -b b 1 1 b
(b + a )(b - a ) = = - =
a+b ab ( a + b) 2
b a ( a + b) 2
Vy bi ton c c/m.