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2/9/12 Revascularization of Immature Permanent Incisors after Severe Extrusive L

Re a c la i a ion of Imma e Pe manen Inci o af e Se e e

E i e L a ion Inj
Zafe C. Ceh eli, DDS, PhD; Se gi Sa a, DDS; B ak Ak o , DDS

Posted on January 19, 2012

Tag : children endodontics injury treatment

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Cite this as: J Can Den A oc 2012;78:c4


Pulp necrosis is an uncommon sequel to extrusive luxation in immature teeth with incomplete apical closure. In this report, we
describe the management of severely extruded immature maxillary incisors and the outcome of revascularization to treat
subsequent pulp necrosis. An 8.5-year-old boy with severe dentoalveolar trauma to the anterior maxillary region as a result of a fall
was provided emergency treatment consisting of reduction of the dislodged labial cortical bone and repositioning of the central
incisors, which had suffered extrusive luxation. When he presented with spontaneous pain involving the traumatized incisors a
week later, the teeth were treated via a revascularization protocol using sodium hypochlorite irrigation followed by 3 weeks of
intracanal calcium hydroxide, then a coronal seal of mineral trioxide aggregate and resin composite. Complete periradicular
healing was observed after 3 months, followed by progressive thickening of the root walls and apical closure. Follow-up
observations confirmed the efficacy of the regenerative treatment as a viable alternative to conventional apexification in
endodontically involved, traumatized immature teeth.

In od c ion

Extrusion is an injury characterized by partial axial displacement of a tooth.1 Clinically, the affected tooth appears elongated, is
usually displaced in the palatal direction and demonstrates excessive mobility.2,3 Radiographically, extruded teeth appear to have
an increased periodontal ligament space. Based on severance of the periodontal ligament that has not yet been exposed to
desiccation or disarticulation of the tooth from the blood supply, Andreasen4 described extrusive luxation as partial avulsion.
According to Lee and colleagues,3 this term is useful in terms of treatment approach, as the pulpal outcome of severe extrusion
may be comparable to that of a replanted tooth.

The stage of apical development is a key factor in pulp healing after extrusive luxation.3,5,6 In teeth with open apices, the pulp has
greater potential for healing, commonly followed by pulp canal obliteration; in patients with closed apices, the likelihood of pulp
revascularization is low, usually leading to pulp necrosis.1,3,5,6 Once pulp necrosis is diagnosed, endodontic therapy should be
initiated to eliminate infection and facilitate healing and retention of the tooth.3 If root development is incomplete, apexification is
indicated to induce formation of a calcific barrier at the apex. However, this technique has several disadvantages, including up to
24 months of treatment, which often requires multiple visits and renewal of the intracanal dressing.7,8 Apical closure is
unpredictable,9 and the tooth is susceptible to root fracture after prolonged exposure to calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2).10,11 Because
of these concerns, the traditional Ca(OH)2-based apexification procedure has been modified by the introduction of an artificial
apical barrier using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).1215 Obturation of open apices with MTA plugs significantly reduces
treatment time and results in favourable healing of periradicular tissues.12,14,16,17 However, MTA plugs cannot stimulate
physiologic apical closure and thickening of radicular dentin, leaving the tooth s structural integrity compromised.18,19

Revascularization is an emerging regenerative endodontic treatment approach that aims to allow continuation of root development
and tissue regeneration in immature necrotic teeth.20,21 The root canal is disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, followed by
placement of an intracanal medicament, such as calcium hydroxide or a combination of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and 1/6
2/9/12 Revascularization of Immature Permanent Incisors after Severe Extrusive L
minocycline. After disinfection, the antibiotic paste is removed and apical bleeding is induced to form a blood clot below the
coronal level. The root canal orifice is then sealed with MTA, and the tooth crown is restored permanently.

This protocol has been successful, as evidenced by increased root length, thickening of the root walls and apical closure of
varying degrees.2328 In the following case, we describe the management of severely extruded immature maxillary incisors and the
outcome of revascularization in the treatment of pulp necrosis subsequent to the trauma.

Ca e Repo

A healthy 8.5-year-old boy was admitted to the pediatric dentistry clinic 6 hours after a fall in his schoolyard. Reportedly, an
emergency examination had been carried out by a hospital pediatrician, who found the patient to be free of neurologic and general
physical symptoms and referred him for management of dentoalveolar trauma.

The child was unable to close his mouth or speak properly because of severely displaced maxillary central incisors, evident on
extraoral view (Fig. 1a). Intraoral examination showed severe extrusive luxation of the incisors along with a fractured labial cortical
bone (Fig. 1b). The teeth were excessively mobile and the maxillary right central incisor showed pronounced displacement in the
palatal direction. The palatal segment of the alveolar bone was slightly mobile on palpation, but did not appear to be dislodged.
The neighbouring lateral incisors displayed normal mobility. The attached gingiva distal to the right lateral incisor was lacerated
(Fig. 1b). A periapical radiograph revealed increased apical periodontal ligament space in both incisors, along with palatal
displacement of the right central incisor (Fig. 1c). In both teeth, root development was incomplete, and wide root canals and open
apices were evident.

Following removal of the blood clot with copious saline irrigation (Fig. 1d), the dislodged buccal cortical bone was gently
repositioned. The extruded incisors were then meticulously repositioned by conventional digital maneuver, with no sign of
resistance caused by a clot blockage. A semi-rigid splint made of 0.9-mm monofilament fishing line was bonded to the lateral and
central incisors using acid-etch composite resin (Fig. 1e). After suturing of soft tissue lacerations, a radiograph was taken to
confirm correct reduction and repositioning (Fig. 1f). The patient was prescribed amoxicillin and ibuprofen, and scheduled for a
follow-up visit.

Fig e 1: Initial examination of patient. a) Extraoral view , demonstrating the extent of jaw closure; b) intraoral and c) radiographic
view s of extruded incisors; d) intraoral view follow ing removal of the blood clot w ith saline irrigation; e) view of the incisors after
reduction, splinting and suturing; f) radiographic view of the incisors after repositioning, revealing the w ide root canals and open

A week later, the patient returned with severe spontaneous pain involving the traumatized incisors. The teeth were tender on
palpation, and radiographic examination revealed periapical radiolucency. Because of the patient s incomplete root development
and wide open apices, traditional endodontic therapy using Ca(OH)2-based apexification or placement of an apical barrier with
MTA would seriously compromise the structural integrity of the tooth. Therefore, regenerative endodontic treatment of the affected
incisors was considered. After comprehensive discussion of the risks and possible outcomes of this treatment and the treatment
plan in case of failure, the consent of the patient and parents was obtained and treatment was initiated at the same visit. 2/6
2/9/12 Revascularization of Immature Permanent Incisors after Severe Extrusive L
After anesthesia, the pulp chambers were accessed. Isolation was achieved using cotton rolls and gauze, as a rubber dam could
not be placed in the presence of the trauma splint. Each root canal orifice was gently irrigated with 10 mL of 2.5% sodium
hypochlorite (NaOCl) without instrumentation. Ca(OH)2 powder (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) was mixed with sterile saline in a 3:1
ratio to produce a thick, homogeneous paste. The mixture was placed in the pulp chamber using a plastic carrier and loosely
packed into the coronal portion of the root canals with moist cotton pellets. Finally, the access cavity was sealed with Cavit (3M
ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) (Fig. 2a). A week later, the patient was recalled for removal of the trauma splint and, 3 weeks later, for
evaluation of the intracanal medication.

After 3 weeks, both teeth were asymptomatic. They were anesthetized using 2% mepivacaine (Citanest, AstraZeneca, UK) without
a vasoconstrictor, isolated with a rubber dam and reaccessed. The Ca(OH)2 paste was removed with copious 2.5% NaOCl
irrigation, and the root canals received a final irrigation with 10 mL sterile saline and were dried. Apical bleeding was induced by
gentle irritation using size 15 K-files. After a blood clot had formed, MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) was prepared
according to the manufacturer s instructions and gently adapted over the blood clot. A wet cotton pellet was placed over the MTA,
and the access cavity was temporarily restored with conventional glass ionomer cement. Final resin composite restorations were
placed 1 week later (Fig. 2b), and the patient was scheduled for regular follow-up visits.

The teeth remained asymptomatic during the 18-month evaluation period. At 3 months, the teeth showed complete periapical
healing and, thereafter, root development and closure of the apices continued (Fig. 2c).

To quantify the increase in root width and length, the radiographs obtained immediately after treatment and 18 months later were
converted to 32-bit TIFF files using ImageJ analysis program (v.1.44p, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). The TurboReg
plug-in (Biomedical Imaging Group, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland)29 was used to mathematically
align the two images as described by Bose and colleagues.28 Because the 18-month radiograph showed less distortion, it was
used as the source image, while the postoperative radiograph, which required correction, was used as the target image.28
Following alignment of the images using TurboReg (Fig. 2d), a scale was added, and root lengths and root wall thicknesses were
measured.28 This revealed an increase of 18.16% and 17.14% in the root lengths and 40.54% and 75.64% in the root widths of the
right and left incisors, respectively.

Fig re 2: a) Radiographic view of the teeth after intracanal application of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2) paste; periradicular
radiolucencies are evident in both roots. b) Periapical radiograph show ing the coronal mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) barrier and
final composite restoration. c) Radiographic view at 18 months follow -up, demonstrating narrow ing of root canal in the apical third
and thickening of the lateral w alls. A normal bony architecture at the periradicular region is evident. d) Image b after correction
(alignment) w ith ImageJ and the TurboReg plugin using c as the source image for mathematical correction.

At 12 months, a positive response to a cold test was first observed, but the response of both teeth to electric pulp testing (EPT)
was inconsistent. At 18 months, response to cold testing was still positive and both teeth showed a consistent, delayed response
to EPT. The patient has been attending regular follow-up appointments; his teeth have remained asymptomatic, with normal
mobility and gingiva in good condition.

Disc ssion

Pulp necrosis is a relatively uncommon sequel to extrusive luxation in immature teeth with wide-open apices,5 because of the high
likelihood of revascularization and subsequent root development in these teeth. However, the risk increases significantly in the
case of severe extrusion3 and, if pulp necrosis occurs, it is likely to be an early event.3,5,30

Regenerative endodontic techniques may enhance continued root development21 and, therefore, offer an alternative approach to
the management of traumatized immature permanent teeth with pulp necrosis and periradicular infection.24,31 A growing body of
evidence supports the possibility of residual viable pulpal tissue in the wide root canal or apical region of necrotic immature teeth,
which may survive the infection and allow continued apical development.25,32,33 Stem cells from the apical papilla may also survive
infection, because of their proximity to the periapical tissues.26,32,33 Following proper endodontic disinfection, these cells may
differentiate under the influence of surviving epithelial cells of Hertwig s root sheath and initiate continued root development.26,33
Once the regenerative process is induced, the presence of a wide apical foramen and root canal enhances the ingrowth of small 3/6
2/9/12 Revascularization of Immature Permanent Incisors after Severe Extrusive L

blood vessels and regenerated tissues.26

In the revascularization protocol, infected root canals should be treated as conservatively as possible.20,25,31 This is best achieved
by copious irrigation with 2.5% 5.25% NaOCl and no instrumentation. At the same appointment, intracanal medication is put in
place to disinfect the root canal and left for 3 4 weeks. Previous reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of a triple antibiotic
paste consisting of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline in the disinfection of infected root canals,22,34 including those of
immature teeth with apical periodontitis.25,35 The main disadvantage of this paste is minocycline-induced crown discoloration,36,37
which might be reduced, but not prevented by prior sealing of the coronal dentin with bonding agents.37

Ca(OH)2 has also been used successfully for disinfection of root canals before revascularization.23,26,28 Bose and colleagues 28
showed that placement of Ca(OH)2 in the coronal half of the root canal contributed to a significant increase in root length and wall
thickness, comparable to that achieved with the triple antibiotic paste.

In the current case, the teeth were asymptomatic after treatment with Ca(OH)2: continuing root development was observed,
symptoms of infection were absent and no crown discoloration occurred. In a retrospective study, Chueh and colleagues 26
showed a high rate of progressive calcification of the root canal space in teeth medicated with Ca(OH)2, suggesting that root
development induced by regenerative endodontic treatment may not follow a natural pattern. Thus, despite the absence of root
canal obliteration in the current case, progressive calcification may occur in the longer run.

Previous studies of the revascularization procedure in traumatized, immature incisors have reported a lack of sensitivity to both
cold testing and EPT.24,30,38 In the absence of histologic data from humans, the reasons for both positive and negative responses
to thermal and electrical stimuli should be interpreted with caution, as lack of response could merely be a result of the thickness of
the MTA and restorative materials preventing stimulation of vital tissues within the root canal.39 The use of a collagen matrix to
control the thickness of the coronal MTA barrier30 and placement of the MTA barrier close to the cementoenamel level39 might
increase the likelihood of a positive response, provided that the regenerated tissue in the root canal contains nerves. Based on
these considerations, the inconsistent responses of the extruded incisors to EPT in contrast to cold testing might have resulted
from the thick MTA barriers, which occupied almost half the length of the root canal.

The favourable short-term results in this case of severe extrusive luxation show that regenerative endodontic treatment of pulpally
involved traumatized immature teeth is a viable alternative to apexification or artificial apical barrier techniques. Although the nature
of the regenerated tissue within the root canal is yet to be elucidated in humans, it is evident that this technique can allow for
continued root development and apical closure. More clinical data is required to confirm the predictability of this approach.


Dr. Cehreli i a p ofe o in he depa men of pedia ic den i , fac l of den i , Hace epe Uni e i ,
Anka a, T ke .

Dr. Sara i a e ea ch a i an in he depa men of pedia ic den i , fac l of den i , Hace epe Uni e i ,
Anka a, T ke .

Dr. Akso i a e ea ch a i an in he depa men of pedia ic den i , fac l of den i , Hace epe
Uni e i , Anka a, T ke .

Correspondence to: D . Zafe C. Ceh eli, Depa men of pedia ic den i , Fac l of den i , Hace epe Uni e i , Sihhi e
06100, Anka a, T ke . Email: ceh eli@hace epe.ed .

The a ho ha e no decla ed financial in e e in an compan man fac ing he pe of p od c men ioned in hi a icle.

Thi a icle ha b een pee e ie ed.

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2012 Canadian Dental Association

ISSN: 1488-2159 6/6
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