You are on page 1of 118

LECTURE NOTES

ON
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

II B. Tech I semester (JNTUH-R15)

A. Sathish kumar
Assistant Professor

CIVIL ENGINEERING

INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING


(AUTONOMOUS)
DUNDIGAL, HYDERABAD - 500 043
SYLLABUS

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

OBJECTIVE:
This course introduces the concepts of electrical DC and AC circuits, basic laws of
electricity, instruments to measure the electrical quantities, different methods to solve the
electrical networks, construction operational features of energy conversion devices i.e. DC
and AC machines, transformers. It also emphasis on basics of electronics, semiconductor
devices and their characteristics and operational features

UNIT-I:
Electrical Circuits: Basic definitions, Types of elements, Ohms Law, Resistive networks,
Kirchhoffs Laws, Inductive networks, capacitive networks, Series, Parallel circuits and Star-
delta and delta-star transformations.
Instruments: Basic Principle of indicating instruments permanent magnet moving coil and
moving iron instruments.

UNIT-II:
DC Machines: Principle of operation of DC Generator EMF equation - types DC motor
types torque equation applications three point starter.

UNIT-III:
Transformers: Principle of operation of single phase transformers EMF equation losses
efficiency and regulation.
AC Machines: Principle of operation of alternators regulation by synchronous impedance
method Principle of operation of induction motor slip torque characteristics
applications.

UNITIV:
Diodes: P-n junction diode, symbol, V-I Characteristics, Diode Applications, and Rectifiers
Half wave, Full wave and Bridge rectifiers (simple Problems).
Transistors: PNP and NPN Junction transistor, Transistor as an amplifier, SCR
characteristics and applications.

UNIT-V:
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope: Principles of CRT (Cathode Ray Tube), Deflection, Sensitivity,
Electrostatic and Magnetic deflection, Applications of CRO - Voltage, Current and frequency
measurements.
EEE: TEXT BOOKS:
1. Basic concepts of Electrical Engineering, PS Subramanyam, BS Publications.
2. Basic Electrical Engineering, S.N. Singh, PHI.
EEE: REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Basic Electrical Engineering, Abhijit Chakrabarthi, Sudipta nath, Chandrakumar Chanda,
Tata-McGraw-Hill.
2. Principles of Electrical Engineering, V.K Mehta, Rohit Mehta, S.Chand Publications.
3. Basic Electrical Engineering, T.K.Nagasarkar and M.S. Sukhija, Oxford University Press.
4. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering, RajendraPrasad, PHI.
5. Basic Electrical Engineering by D.P.Kothari , I.J. Nagrath, McGraw-Hill.

ECE: TEXT BOOKS:


1. Electronic Devices and Circuits, S.Salivahanan, N.Suresh Kumar, A.Vallavaraj,Tata
McGraw-Hillcompanies..
2. Electronic Devices and Circuits, K. Lal Kishore,BS Publications.

ECE: REFERENCE BOOKS:


1. Millmans Electronic Devices and Circuits,J. Millman, C.C.Halkias, and Satyabrata Jit,
TataMcGraw-Hill companies.
2. Electronic Devices and Circuits, R.L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky,PEI/PHI.
3. Introduction to Electronic Devices and Circuits, Rober T. Paynter,PE.
4. Integrated Electronics, J. Millman and Christos C. Halkias, Tata McGraw-Hill companies.
5. Electronic Devices and Circuits, Anil K. Maini, Varsha Agarwal,Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.

OUTCOME:
After going through this course the student gets a thorough knowledge on basic electrical
circuits, parameters, and operation of the transformers in the energy conversion process,
electromechanical energy conversion, construction operation characteristics of DC and AC
machines and the constructional features and operation of measuring instruments like
voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter etc...and different semiconductor devices, their voltage-
current characteristics, operation of diodes, transistors, realization of various electronic
circuits with the various semiconductor devices, and cathode ray oscilloscope, With
whichhe/she can able to apply the above conceptual things to real-world electrical and
electronics problems and applications.

UNIT I
ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS & INSTRUMENTS

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Given an electrical network, the network analysis involves various methods. The process of
finding the network variables namely the voltage and currents in various parts of the circuit is
known as network analysis. Before we carry out actual analysis it is very much essential to
thoroughly understand the various terms associated with the network. In this chapter we shall
begin with the definition and understanding in detail some of the commonly used terms. The
basic laws such as Ohms law, KCL and KVL, those can be used to analyse a given network
Analysis becomes easier if we can simplify the given network. We will be discussing various
techniques, which involve combining series and parallel connections of R, L and C elements
andStar-Delta conversion.We are also discussing the basic instruments which are used to
measure the voltage and current such as permanent magnet moving coil and moving iron
instruments.

1.2 SYSTEMS OF UNITS


As engineers, we deal with measurable quantities. Our measurement must be communicated
in standard language that virtually all professionals can understand irrespective of the
country. Such an international measurement language is the International System of Units
(SI). In this system, there are six principal units from which the units of all other physical
quantities can be derived.

Quantity Basic Unit Symbol


Length Meter M
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Electric Current ampere A
Temperature kelvin K
Luminous intensity candela Cd

One great advantage of SI unit is that it uses prefixes based on the power of 10 to relate larger
and smaller units to the basic unit.

Multiplier Prefix Symbol


12
10 Tera T
9
10 giga G
6
10 mega M
3
10 kilo K
-3
10 milli m
-6
10 micro
-9
10 nano n
-12
10 pico p
1.3 BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS

1.3.1 CHARGE
The most basic quantity in an electric circuit is the electric charge. We all experience the
effect of electric charge when we try to remove our wool sweater and have it stick to our
body or walk across a carpet and receive a shock.

Charge is an electrical property of the atomic particles of which matter consists, measured in
coulombs (C). Charge, positive or negative, is denoted by the letter q or Q.

We know from elementary physics that all matter is made of fundamental building blocks
known as atoms and that each atom consists of electrons, protons, and neutrons. We also
know that the charge e on an electron is negative and equal in magnitude to 1.602x10-19 C,
while a proton carries a positive charge of the same magnitude as the electron and the neutron
has no charge. The presence of equal numbers of protons and electrons leaves an atom
neutrally charged.

1.3.2 CURRENT
Current can be defined as the motion of charge through a conducting material, measured in
Ampere (A). Electric current, is denoted by the letter i or I.

The unit of current is the ampere abbreviated as (A) and corresponds to the quantity of total
charge that passes through an arbitrary cross section of a conducting material per unit second.
Mathematically,

Where is the symbol of charge measured in Coulombs (C), I is the current in amperes (A)
and t is the time in second (s).

The current can also be defined as the rate of charge passing through a point in an electric
circuit.
Mathematically,

The charge transferred between time t1 and t2 is obtained as

A constant current (also known as a direct current or DC) is denoted by symbol I whereas a
time-varying current (also known as alternating current or AC) is represented by the symbol
or ( ). Figure 1.1 shows direct current and alternating current.

Current is always measured through a circuit element as shown in Fig. 1.1

Fig. 1.1 Current through Resistor (R)

Two types of currents:


1) A direct current (DC) is a current that remains constant with time.
2) An alternating current (AC) is a current that varies with time.

Fig. 1.2Two common types of current: (a) direct current (DC), (b) alternative current (AC)

Example 1.1
Determine the current in a circuit if a charge of 80 coulombs passes a given point in 20
seconds (s).

Solution:

Example 1.2
How much charge is represented by 4,600 electrons?

Solution:
Each electron has - 1.602x10-19 C. Hence 4,600 electrons will have:

-1.602x10-19x4600 = -7.369x10-16 C

Example 1.3
The total charge entering a terminal is given by =5 sin4 . Calculate the current at =0.5
.

Solution:

At =0.5 .
= 31.42

Example 1.4
Determine the total charge entering a terminal between =1 and =2 if the current passing
the terminal is = (3 2 ) .
Solution:

1.3.3 VOLTAGE (or)POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE


To move the electron in a conductor in a particular direction requires some work or energy
transfer. This work is performed by an external electromotive force (emf), typically
represented by the battery in Fig. 1.3. This emf is also known as voltage or potential
difference. The voltage abbetween two points aand b in an electric circuit is the energy (or
work) needed to move a unit charge from a to b.

Fig. 1.3(a) Electric Current in a conductor, (b)Polarity of voltage ab

Voltage (or potential difference) is the energy required to move charge from one point to the
other, measured in volts (V). Voltage is denoted by the letter v or V.
Mathematically,

where w is energy in joules (J) and q is charge in coulombs (C). The voltage ab or simply V
is measured in volts (V).
1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb = 1 newton-meter/coulomb

Fig. 1.3 shows the voltage across an element (represented by a rectangular block) connected
to points a and b. The plus (+) and minus (-) signs are used to define reference direction or
voltage polarity. The ab can be interpreted in two ways: (1) point a is at a potential of ab
volts higher than point b, or (2) the potential at point a with respect to point b is ab . It
follows logically that in general

Voltage is always measured across a circuit element as shown in Fig. 1.4

Fig. 1.4 Voltage across Resistor (R)

Example 1.5
An energy source forces a constant current of 2 A for 10 s to flow through a lightbulb. If 2.3
kJ is given off in the form of light and heat energy, calculate the voltage drop across the bulb.

Solution:
Total charge dq= i*dt = 2*10 = 20 C

The voltage drop is

1.3. 4 POWER

Power is the time rate of expending or absorbing energy, measured in watts (W). Power, is
denoted by the letter p or P.
Mathematically,

Where p is power in watts (W), w is energy in joules (J), and t is time in seconds (s).

From voltage and current equations, it follows that;

Thus, ifthe magnitude of current I and voltage are given, then power can be evaluated as the
product of the two quantities and is measured in watts (W).

Sign of power:
Plus sign: Power is absorbed by the element. (Resistor, Inductor)
Minus sign: Power is supplied by the element. (Battery, Generator)

Passive sign convention:

If the current enters through the positive polarity of the voltage, p = +vi
If the current enters through the negative polarity of the voltage, p = vi

Fig 1.5 Polarities for Power using passive sign convention


(a) Absorbing Power (b) Supplying Power

1.3.5 ENERGY
Energy is the capacity to do work, and is measured in joules (J).
The energy absorbed or supplied by an element from time 0 to t is given by,
The electric power utility companies measure energy in watt-hours (WH) or Kilo watt-hours
(KWH)

1 WH = 3600 J
Example 1.6
A source e.m.f. of 5 V supplies a current of 3A for 10 minutes. How much energy is provided
in this time?
Solution:
= = 5 3 10 60 = 9
Example 1.7
An electric heater consumes 1.8Mj when connected to a 250 V supply for 30 minutes. Find
the power rating of the heater and the current taken from the supply.
Solution:
= / = (1.8106)/ (3060) = 1000
Power rating of heater = 1kW
=
Thus
= / =1000/250=4
Hence the current taken from the supply is 4A.

Example 1.7
Find the power delivered to an element at =3 if the current entering its positive terminals
is =5cos60 and the voltage is: (a) =3 , (b) =3didt.
Solution:
(a) The voltage is =3 =15cos60 ; hence, the power is: = =75cos260
At =3 ,
=75cos260 3103 =53.48

(b) We find the voltage and the power as


=3 =3 60 5sin60 =900 sin60
= =4500 sin60 cos60
At =3 ,
=4500 sin0.18 cos0.18 =6.396

1.4 OHMS LAW


Georg Simon Ohm (17871854), a German physicist, is credited with finding the relationship
between current and voltage for a resistor. This relationship is known as Ohms law.

Ohms law states that at constant temperature, the voltage (V) across a conducting material is
directly proportional to the current (I) flowing through the material.
Mathematically,
V I
V=RI
Wherethe constant of proportionality R is called the resistance of the material. The V-I
relation for resistor according to Ohms law is depicted in Fig.1.6
Fig. 1.6 V-I Characteristics for resistor

Limitations of Ohms Law:


1. Ohms law is not applicable to non-linear elements like diode, transistor etc.
2. Ohms law is not applicable for non-metallic conductors like silicon carbide.

1.5 CIRCUIT ELEMENTS


An element is the basic building block of a circuit. An electric circuit is simply an
interconnection of the elements. Circuit analysis is the process of determining voltages across
(or the currents through) the elements of the circuit.

There are 2 types of elements found in electrical circuits.

a) Active elements (Energy sources): The elements which are capable of generating or
delivering the energy are called active elements.
E.g., Generators, Batteries
b) Passive element (Loads): The elements which are capable of receiving the energy are
called passive elements.
E.g., Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors

1.5.1 ACTIVE ELEMENTS (ENERGY SOURCES)


The energy sources which are having the capacity of generating the energy are called active
elements.The most important active elements are voltage or current sources that generally
deliver power/energy to the circuit connected to them.

There are two kinds of sources


a) Independent sources
b) Dependent sources

1.5.1.1 INDEPENDENT SOURCES:


An ideal independent source is an active element that provides a specified voltage or current
that is completely independent of other circuit elements.

Ideal Independent Voltage Source:


An ideal independent voltage source is an active element that gives a constant voltage across
its terminals irrespective of the current drawn through its terminals. In other words, an ideal
independent voltage source delivers to the circuit whatever current is necessary to maintain
its terminal voltage. The symbol of idea independent voltage source and its V-I
characteristics are shown in Fig. 1.7

Fig. 1.7 Ideal Independent Voltage Source

Practical Independent Voltage Source:


Practically, every voltage source has some series resistance across its terminals known as
internal resistance, and is represented by Rse. For ideal voltage source Rse = 0. But in
practical voltage source Rse is not zero but may have small value. Because of this Rse
voltage across the terminals decreases with increase in current as shown in Fig. 1.8.

Terminal voltage of practical voltage source is given by

VL= VS - IL Rse

Fig. 1.8 Practical Independent Voltage Source

Ideal Independent Current Source:


An ideal independent Current source is an active element that gives a constant current
through its terminals irrespective of the voltage appearing across its terminals. That is, the
current source delivers to the circuit whatever voltage is necessary to maintain the designated
current. The symbol of idea independent current source and its V-I characteristics are shown
in Fig. 1.9
Fig. 1.9 Ideal Independent Current Source

Practical Independent Current Source:


Practically, every current source has some parallel/shunt resistance across its terminals
known as internal resistance, and is represented by Rsh. For ideal current source Rsh =
(infinity). But in practical voltage source Rsh is not infinity but may have a large value.
Because of this Rsh current through the terminals slightly decreases with increase in voltage
across its terminals as shown in Fig. 1.10.

Terminal current of practical current source is given by

IL = Is -Ish

Fig. 1.10 Practical Independent Current Source

1.5.1.2 DEPENDENT (CONTROLLED) SOURCES

An ideal dependent (or controlled) source is an active element in which the source quantity is
controlled by another voltage or current.

Dependent sources are usually designated by diamond-shaped symbols, as shown in Fig.


1.11. Since the control of the dependent source is achieved by a voltage or current of some
other element in the circuit, and the source can be voltage or current, it follows that there are
four possible types of dependent sources, namely:
1. A voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS)
2. A current-controlled voltage source (CCVS)
3. A voltage-controlled current source (VCCS)
4. A current-controlled current source (CCCS)

Fig. 1.11 Symbols for Dependent voltage source and Dependent current source

Dependent sources are useful in modeling elements such as transistors, operational


amplifiers, and integrated circuits. An example of a current-controlled voltage source is
shown on the right-hand side of Fig. 1.12, where the voltage 10i of the voltage source
depends on the current i through element C. Students might be surprised that the value of the
dependent voltage source is 10i V (and not 10i A) because it is a voltage source. The key idea
to keep in mind is that a voltage source comes with polarities (+ -) in its symbol, while a
current source comes with an arrow, irrespective of what it depends on.

Fig. 1.12 The source in right hand side is current-controlled voltage source

1.5.2 PASSIVE ELEMENTS (LOADS)


Passive elements are those elements which are capable of receiving the energy. Some passive
elements like inductors and capacitors are capable of storing a finite amount of energy, and
return it later to an external element. More specifically, a passive element is defined as one
that cannot supply average power that is greater than zero over a infinite time interval.
Resistors, capacitors, Inductors fall in this category.

1.5.2.1 RESISTOR
Materials in general have a characteristic behavior of resisting the flow of electric charge.
This physical property, or ability to resist the flow of current, is known as resistance and is
represented by the symbol R.The Resistance is measured in ohms ( ). The circuit element
used to model the current-resisting behavior of a material is called the resistor.
Fig. 1.13 (a) Typical Resistor, (b) Circuit Symbol for Resistor

The resistance of a resistor depends on the material of which the conductor is made and
geometrical shape of the conductor. The resistance of a conductor is proportional to the its
length ( and inversely proportional to its cross sectional area (A). Therefore the resistance
of a conductor can be written as,

The proportionality constant is called the specific resistance o resistivity of the conductor
and its value depends on the material of which the conductor is made.

The inverse of the resistance is called the conductance and inverse of resistivity is called
specific conductance or conductivity. The symbol used to represent the conductance is G and
conductivity is . Thus conductivity and its units are siemens per meter

By using Ohms Law, The power dissipated in a resistor can be expressed in terms of R as
below

The power dissipated by a resistor may also be expressed in terms of G as

The energy lost in the resistor from time 0 to t is expressed as

Or

Where V is in volts, I is in amperes, R is in ohms, and energy W is in joules


Example 1.8
In the circuit shown in Fig. below, calculate the current i, the conductance G, the power p and
energy lost in the resistor W in 2hours.

Solution:
The voltage across the resistor is the same as the source voltage (30 V) because the resistor
and the voltage source are connected to the same pair of terminals. Hence, the current is

The conductance is

We can calculate the power in various ways

or

or

Energy lost in the resistor is

1.5.2.2 INDUCTOR

Fig. 1.14 (a) Typical Inductor, (b) Circuit symbol of Inductor

A wire of certain length, when twisted into a coil becomes a basic inductor. The symbol for
inductor is shown in Fig.1.14(b). If current is made to pass through an inductor, an
electromagnetic field is formed. A change in the magnitude of the current changes the
electromagnetic field. Increase in current expands the fields, and decrease in current reduces
it. Therefore, a change in current produces change in the electromagnetic field, which induces
a voltage across the coil according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. i.e., the
voltage across the inductor is directly proportional to the time rate of change of current.
Mathematically,

Where L is the constant of proportionality called the inductance of an inductor. The unit of
inductance is henry (H).we can rewrite the above equation as

Integrating both sides from time 0 to t, we get

From the above equation we note that the current in an inductor is dependent upon the
integral of the voltage across its terminal and the initial current in the coil .
The power absorbed by the inductor is

The energy stored by the inductor is

From the above discussion, we can conclude the following.


1. The induced voltage across an inductor is zero if the current through it is constant. That
means an inductor acts as short circuit to DC.
2. A small change in current within zero time through an inductor gives an infinite voltage
across the inductor, which is physically impossible. In a fixed inductor the current cannot
change abruptly i.e., the inductor opposes the sudden changes in currents.
3. The inductor can store finite amount of energy. Even if the voltage across the inductor is
zero
4. A pure inductor never dissipates energy, only stores it. That is why it is also called a non-
dissipative passive element. However, physical inductors dissipate power due to internal
resistance.
Example 1.9
Find the current through a 5-H inductor if the voltage across it is

Also, find the energy stored at t = 5 s. assume initial conditions to be zero.


Solution:

The power

Then the energy stored is

1.5.2.2 CAPACITOR

Fig. 1.15 (a) Typical Capacitor, (b) Capacitor connected to a voltage source, (c) Circuit
Symbol of capacitor

Any two conducting surfaces separated by an insulating medium exhibit the property of a
capacitor. The conducting surfaces are called electrodes, and the insulating medium is called
dielectric. A capacitor stores energy in the form of an electric field that is established by the
opposite charges on the two electrodes. The electric field is represented by lines of force
between the positive and negative charges, and is concentrated within the dielectric.

When a voltage source v is connected to the capacitor, as in Fig 1.15 (c), the source deposits
a positive charge q on one plate and a negative charge q on the other. The capacitor is said
to store the electric charge. The amount of charge stored, represented by q, is directly pro-
proportional to the applied voltage v so that

Where C, the constant of proportionality, is known as the capacitance of the capacitor. The
unit of capacitance is the farad (F).
Although the capacitance C of a capacitor is the ratio of the charge q per plate to the applied
voltage v, it does not depend on q or v. It depends on the physical dimensions of the
capacitor. For example, for the parallel-plate capacitor shown in Fig.1.15 (a), the capacitance
is given by

Where A is the surface area of each plate, d is the distance between the plates, and is the
permittivity of the dielectric material between the plates.
The current flowing through the capacitor is given by

We can rewrite the above equation as

Integrating both sides from time 0 to t, we get

From the above equation we note that the voltage across the terminals of a capacitor is
dependent upon the integral of the current through it and the initial voltage .
The power absorbed by the capacitor is

The energy stored by the capacitor is

From the above discussion we can conclude the following,

1. The current in a capacitor is zero if the voltage across it is constant; that means, the
capacitor acts as an open circuit to DC.
2. A small change in voltage across a capacitance within zero time gives an infinite current
through the capacitor, which is physically impossible. In a fixed capacitance the voltage
cannot change abruptly. i.e., A capacitor will oppose the sudden changes in voltages.
3. The capacitor can store a finite amount of energy, even if the current through it is zero.
4. A pure capacitor never dissipates energy, but only stores it; that is why it is called non-
dissipative passive element. However, physical capacitors dissipate power due to internal
resistance.

Example 1.10
Determine the current through a 200 capacitor whose voltage is shown in Fig. below

Solution:
The voltage waveform can be described mathematically as

Since we take the derivative of to obtain the i

Hence, the current wave form is as shown in the fig. below

1.6 NETWORK/CIRCUIT TERMINOLOGY


In the following section various definitions and terminologies frequently used in electrical
circuit analysis are outlined.

Network Elements: The individual components such as a resistor, inductor, capacitor,


diode, voltage source, current source etc. that are used in circuit are known as network
elements.
Network:The interconnection of network elements is called a network.
Circuit: A network with at least one closed path is called a circuit. So, all the circuits are
networks but all networks are not circuits.
Branch: A branch is an element of a network having only two terminals.
Node: A node is the point of connection between two or more branches. It is usually
indicated by a dot in a circuit.
Loop: A loop is any closed path in a circuit. A loop is a closed path formed by starting at
a node, passing through a set of nodes, and returning to the starting node without passing
through any node more than once.
Mesh or Independent Loop: Mesh is a loop which does not contain any other loops in it.

1.7 KIRCHHOFFS LAWS


The most common and useful set of laws for solving electric circuits are the Kirchhoffs
voltage and current laws. Several other useful relationships can be derived based on these
laws. These laws are formally known as Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) and Kirchhoffs
voltage law (KVL).

1.7.1 KIRCHHOFFS CURRENT LAW (KCL)


This is also called as Kirchhoff's first law or Kirchhoffs nodal law. Kirchhoffs first law is
based on the law of conservation of charge, which requires that the algebraic sum of charges
within a system cannot change.
Statement: Algebraic sum of the currents meeting at any junction or node is zero. The term
'algebraic' means the value of the quantity along with its sign, positive or negative.

Mathematically, KCL implies that

Where N is the number of branches connected to the node and is the nth current entering
(or leaving) the node. By this law, currents entering a node may be regarded as positive,
while currents leaving the node may be taken as negative or vice versa.

Alternate Statement: Sum of the currents flowing towards a junction is equal to the sum of
the currents flowing away from the junction.

Fig 1.16 Currents meeting in a junction


Consider Fig. 1.16 where five branches of a circuit are connected together at the junction or
node A. Currents I1, I2 and I4 are flowing towards the junction whereas currents I3 and I5 are
flowing away from junction A. If a positive sign is assigned to the currents I2 and I4 that are
flowing into the junction then the currents I3 and I4 flowing away from the junction should be
assigned with the opposite sign i.e. the negative sign.
Applying Kirchhoffs current law to the junction A
I1 + I2 - I3 + I4 - I5= 0 (algebraic sum is zero)
The above equation can be modified as I1 + I2 + I4 = I3 + I5 (sum of currents towards the
junction = sum of currents flowing away from the junction).

1.7.2 KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW (KVL)


This is also called as Kirchhoff's second law or Kirchhoff's loop or mesh law. Kirchhoffs
second law is based on the principle of conservation of energy.
Statement: Algebraic sum of all the voltages around a closed path or closed loop at any
instant is zero. Algebraic sum of the voltages means the magnitude and direction of the
voltages; care should be taken in assigning proper signs or polarities for voltages in different
sections of the circuit.

Mathematically, KVL implies that

Where N is the number of voltages in the loop (or the number of branches in the loop) and
is the nth voltage in a loop.

The polarity of the voltages across active elements is fixed on its terminals. The polarity of
the voltage drop across the passive elements (Resistance in DC circuits) should be assigned
with reference to the direction of the current through the elements with the concept that the
current flows from a higher potential to lower potential. Hence, the entry point of the current
through the passive elements should be marked as the positive polarity of voltage drop across
the element and the exit point of the current as the negative polarity. The direction of currents
in different branches of the circuits is initially marked either with the known direction or
assumed direction.

After assigning the polarities for the voltage drops across the different passive elements,
algebraic sum is accounted around a closed loop, either clockwise or anticlockwise, by
assigning a particular sign, say the positive sign for all rising potentials along the path of
tracing and the negative sign for all decreasing potentials. For example consider the circuit
shown in Fig. 1.17
Fig. 1.17 Circuit for KVL
The circuit has three active elements with voltages E1, E2 and E3. The polarity of each of
them is fixed. R1, R2, R3 are three passive elements present in the circuit. Currents I1 and I3
are marked flowing into the junction A and current I2 marked away from the junction A with
known information or assumed directions. With reference to the direction of these currents,
the polarity of voltage drops V1, V2 and V3 are marked.
For loop1 it is considered around clockwise
+ E1 - V1 + V3 - E3 = 0
+ E1 - I1 R1 + I3 R3 - E3 = 0
E1 - E3 = I1 R1 - I3 R3
For loop2 it is considered anticlockwise
+ E2+ V2+ V3 E3 = 0
+ E2 + I2 R2 + I3 R3 E3 = 0
E2 E3 = - I2 R2 - I3 R3
Two equations are obtained following Kirchhoffs voltage law. The third equation can be
written based on Kirchhoffs current law as
I1 I2 + I3 = 0
With the three equations, one can solve for the three currents I1, I2, and I3.
If the results obtained for I1, I2, and I3 are all positive, then the assumed direction of the
currents are said to be along the actual directions. A negative result for one or more currents
will indicate that the assumed direction of the respective current is opposite to the actual
direction.
Example 1.11
Calculate the current supplied by two batteries in the circuit given below

Solution:
The four junctions are marked as A, B, C and D. The current through R 1 is assumed to flow
from A to B and through R2, from C to B and finally through R3 from B to D. With reference
to current directions, polarities of the voltage drop in R1, R2 and R3 are then marked as shown
in the figure. Applying KCL to junction B
I3 =I1 + I2 ..(1)
Applying KVL to loop 1
E1 I1R1 I3R3 = 0
I1R1 + I3R3 = E1
10I1 + 25I3 = 90 (2)
Substituting Eq. (1) in Eq. (2)
10I1 + 25(I1 + I2) = 90
35I1 + 25I2 = 90 . (3)
Applying KVL to loop 2
E2 I2R2 I3R3 = 0
I2R2 + I3R3 = E2
5I2 + 25I3 = 125 (4)

Substituting Eq. (1) in Eq. (4)


5I2 + 25(I1 + I2) = 125
25I1 + 30I2 = 125 . (5)
Multiplying Eq. (3) by 6/5 we get
42I1 + 30I2 = 108 (6)

Subtracting Eq. (6) from Eq. (5)


17I1 = 17
I1 = 1 A
Substituting the value of I1 in Eq. (5) we get
I2 = 5 A
As the sign of the current I1 is found to be negative from the solution, the actual direction of
I1 is from B to A to D i.e. 90 V battery gets a charging current of 1 A.
1.8 RESISTIVE NETWORKS

1.8.1 SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVISION


Two or more resistors are said to be in series if the same current flows through all of them.
The process of combining the resistors is facilitated by combining two of them at a time.
With this in mind, consider the single-loop circuit of Fig. 1.18.

Fig.1.18 A single loop circuit with two Fig. 1.19 Equivalent Circuit of series
resistors in series resistors

The two resistors are in series, since the same current i flow in both of them. Applying
Ohms law to each of the resistors, we obtain

. (1)
If we apply KVL to the loop (moving in the clockwise direction), we have

.. (2)
Combining equations (1) and (2), we get

.. (3)
Or

.. (4)
Equation (3) can be written as

. (5)
implying that the two resistors can be replaced by an equivalent resistor ;that is

(6)
Thus, Fig. 1.18 can be replaced by the equivalent circuit in Fig. 1.19. The two circuits in Fig
1.18 and 1.19 are the equivalent because they because they exhibit the same voltage-current
relationships at the terminals a-b. An equivalent circuit such as the one in Fig. 1.19 is useful
in simplifying the analysis of a circuit.
In general, the equivalent resistance of any number of resistors connected in series is the sum
of the individual resistances.
For N resistors in series then,

(7)
VOLTAGE DIVISION:
To determine the voltage across each resistor in Fig. 1.18, we substitute Eq. (4) into Eq. (1)
and obtain

(8)

Notice that the source voltage is divided among the resistors in direct proportion to their
resistances; the larger the resistance, the larger the voltage drop. This is called the principle of
voltage division, and the circuit in Fig. 1.18 is called a voltage divider. In general, if a voltage
divider has N resistors ( ) in series with the source voltage , the nth resistor ( )
will have a voltage drop of

... (9)

1.8.2 PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVISION

Two or more resistors are said to be in parallel if the same voltage appears across each
element.Consider the circuit in Fig. 1.20, where two resistors are connected in parallel and
therefore have the same voltage across them.

Fig. 1.20 Two resistors in parallel Fig. 1.21Equivalent circuit of Fig. 1.20

(1)

. (2)

Applying KCL at node gives the total current as

.. (3)
Substituting Eq. (2) into Eq. (3), we get
(4)
where is the equivalent resistance of the resistors in parallel.

. (5)
Or

.. (6)

Thus,
The equivalent resistance of two parallel resistors is equal to the product of their resistances
divided by their sum.
It must be emphasized that this applies only to two resistors in parallel. From Eq. (6), if

We can extend the result in Eq. (5) to the general case of a circuit with N resistors in parallel.
The equivalent resistance is

(7)

Thus,
The equivalent Resistance of parallel-connected resistors is the reciprocal of the sum of the
reciprocals of the individual resistances.

Note that is always smaller than the resistance of the smallest resistor in the parallel
combination.

Current Division:
Given the total current i entering node in Fig. 1.20, then how do we obtain currents
? We know that the equivalent resistor has the same voltage, or

. (8)
Substitute (8) in (2), we get
.. (9)

This shows that the total current is shared by the resistors in inverse proportion to their
resistances. This is known as the principle of current division, and the circuit in Fig.1.20 is
known as a current divider. Notice that the larger current flows through the smaller
resistance.

1.9 INDUCTIVE NETWORKS


Now that the inductor has been added to our list of passive elements, it is Necessary to extend
the powerful tool of series-parallel combination. We need to know how to find the equivalent
inductance of a series-connected or parallel-connected set of inductors found in practical
circuits.

1.9.1 SERIES INDUCTORS


Two or more inductors are said to be in series, if the same current flows through all of them.
Consider a series connection of N inductors, as shown in Fig. 1.22(a), with the equivalent
circuit shown in Fig. 1.22(b). The inductors have the same current through them.

Fig. 1.22 (a) series connection of N inductors (b) Equivalent circuit for the series inductors

Applying KVL to the loop,

We know that the voltage across an inductor is

Therefore, Eq. (1) becomes


Where,

Thus

The equivalent inductance of series-connected inductors is the sum of the individual


inductances.

* Inductors in series are combined in exactly the same way as resistors in series.

1.9.2 INDUCTORS IN PARALLEL


Two or more inductors are said to be in parallel, if the same voltage appears across each
element. We now consider a parallel connection of N inductors, as shown in Fig. 1.23(a),
with the equivalent circuit in Fig. 1.23(b). The inductors have the same voltage across them.

Fig. 1.23 (a) Parallel connection of N inductors (b) Equivalent circuit for parallel inductors

Using KCL,

But the current through the inductor is

If we neglect the initial value of current i.e, then current through inductor becomes

Hence,
Where,

Thus,

The equivalent inductance of parallel inductors is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals
of the individual inductances.

* Note that the inductors in parallel are combined in the same way as resistors in parallel.

1.10 CAPACITIVE NETWORKS


We know from resistive circuits and inductive circuits that the series-parallel combination is
a powerful tool for reducing circuits. This technique can be extended to series-parallel
connections of capacitors, which are sometimes encountered. We desire to replace these
capacitors by a single equivalent capacitor Ceq.

1.10.1 SERIES CAPACITORS


Two or more capacitors are said to be in series, if the same current flows through all of them.
Consider a series connection of N capacitors, as shown in Fig. 1.24(a), with the equivalent
circuit shown in Fig. 1.24(b). The capacitors have the same current through them.

Fig. 1.24 (a) series connection of N capacitors (b) Equivalent circuit for the series capacitors

Applying KVL to the loop,

We know that the voltage across a capacitor is

If we neglect the initial value of voltage i.e, then voltage across the capacitor
becomes
Hence, Eq. (1) becomes

Where,

Thus,

The equivalent capacitance of series-connected capacitors is the reciprocal of the sum of the
reciprocals of the individual capacitances.

* Note that the capacitors in series are combined in the same way as resistors in parallel.

For N=2,

1.10.2 PARALLEL CAPACITORS


Two or more capacitors are said to be in parallel, if the same voltage appears across each
element. Consider a parallel connection of N capacitors, as shown in Fig. 1.25(a), with the
equivalent circuit in Fig. 1.25(b). The capacitors have the same voltage across them.

Fig. 1.25 (a) Parallel connection of N capacitors (b) Equivalent circuit for parallel capacitors

Applying KCL to Fig. 1.25(a)


We know that the current through capacitor is

Therefore, Eq. (1) becomes

Where,

Thus

The equivalent capacitance of parallel-connected capacitors is the sum of the individual


capacitances.

* Capacitors in parallel are combined in exactly the same way as resistors in series.

1.21 STARS DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS


Situations often arise in circuit analysis when the resistors are neither in parallel nor in series.
In such a case the circuit can be simplified by using three-terminal equivalent networks.
These are the wye (Y) or tee (T) network shown in Fig. 1.26 and the delta () or pi ()
network shown in Fig.1.27. These networks occur by themselves or as part of a larger
network. They are used in three-phase networks, electrical filters, and matching networks.
Our main interest here is in how to identify them when they occur as part of a network and
how to apply wye-delta transformation in the analysis of that network.

Fig. 1.26 Two forms of the same network (a) wye (Y) (b) tee (T)

Fig. 1.27 Two forms of the same network (a) delta () (b) pi ()
1.21.1 DELTA () TO WYE (Y) CONVERSION
Suppose it is more convenient to work with a wye network in a place where the circuit
contains a delta configuration. We superimpose a wye network on the existing delta network
and find the equivalent resistances in the wye network. To obtain the equivalent resistances in
the wye network, we compare the two networks and make sure that the resistance between
each pair of nodes in the (or ) network is the same as the resistance between the same pair
of nodes in the Y (or T) network. For terminals 1 and 2 in Figs. 1.26 and 1.27, for example,

Setting gives

Similarly,

Subtracting Eq. (5) from Eq. (3), we get

Adding Eq. (4) and Eq. (6) gives

And subtracting Eq. (6) from Eq. (4) yields

Subtracting Eq. (7) from Eq. (3), we obtain

We do not need to memorize Eqs. (7) to (9). To transform a network to Y, we create an


extra node n as shown in Fig. 1.28 and follow this conversion rule:

Each resistor in the Y network is the product of the resistors in the two adjacent branches,
divided by the sum of the three resistors.
Fig. 1.28 superposition of Y and networks as an aid in transforming one to the other

1.21.2 WYE (Y) TO DELTA () CONVERSION


To obtain the conversion formulas for transforming a wye network to an equivalent delta
network, we note from Eqs. (7) to (9) that

Dividing Eq. (10) by each of Eqs. (7) to (9) leads to the following equations:

From Eqs. (11) to (13) and Fig. 1.28, the conversion rule for Y to is as follows:

Each resistor in the network is the sum of all possible products of Y resistors taken two at a
time, divided by the opposite Y resistor.

The Y and networks are said to be balanced when,

Under these conditions, conversion formulas become

Note that in making the transformation, we do not take anything out of the circuit or put in
anything new. We are merely substituting different but mathematically equivalent three-
terminal network patterns to create a circuit in which resistors are either in series or in
parallel, allowing us to calculate Req if necessary.

Example 1. 12
Obtain the equivalent resistance Rab for the circuit in Fig. below

Solution:
The circuit given in problem has two Y networks and three networks. Transforming just
one of these will simplify the circuit. If we convert the Y network comprising the 5-, 10-,
and 20- resistors, we may select
Thus from Eqs. (11) to (13) we have

With Y converter to , the equivalent circuit (with the voltage source removed for now) is
shown in Fig. (a) above.
Combining the three pairs of resistors in parallel, we obtain
So that equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. (b), hence we find

Then

1.22 INTRODUCTION TO MEASURING INSTRUMENTS


The measurement of a given quantity is the result of comparison between the quantity to be
measured and a definite standard. The instruments which are used for such measurements are
called measuring instruments. The three basic quantities in the electrical measurement are
current, voltage and power. The measurement of these quantities is important as it is used for
obtaining measurement of some other quantity or used to test the performance of some
electronic circuits or components etc.

The necessary requirements for any measuring instruments are:


1. With the introduction of the instrument in the circuit, the circuit conditions should
not be altered. Thus the quantity to be measured should not get affected due to the
instrument used.
2. The power consumed by the instruments for their operation should be as small as
possible.

The instrument which measures the current flowing in the circuit is called ammeter while the
instrument which measures the voltage across any two points of a circuit is called voltmeter.
But there is no fundamental difference in the operating principle of analog voltmeter and
ammeter. The action of almost all the analog ammeters and voltmeters depends on the
deflecting torque produced by an electric current. In ammeters such a torque is proportional
to the current to be measured. In voltmeters this torque is decided by a current which is
proportional to the voltage to be measured. Thus all the analog ammeters and voltmeters are
basically current measuring devices. The instruments which are used to measure the power
are called power meters or wattmeters.

1.23 CLASSIFICATIONS OF ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS


Electrical instruments are broadly classified into two types

1) Absolute instruments
Absolute instruments are those which give the value of the quantity to be measured in terms
of the constants of the instrument and their detection only. No previous calibration or
comparison is necessary in their case. The example of such an instrument is tangent
galvanometer, which gives the value of current, in terms of the tangent of deflection produced
by the current, the radius and number of turns of wire used and the horizontal component of
earth's field.

2) Secondary instruments
Secondary instruments are those, in which the value of electrical quantity to be measured can
be determined from the deflection of the instruments, only when they have been pre-
calibrated by comparison with an absolute instrument. Without calibration, the deflection of
such instruments is meaningless. Secondary instruments are most generally used in everyday
work; the use of the absolute instruments being merely confined within laboratories, as
standardizing instruments.

The secondary instruments are again divided into the following three types

a) Indicating instruments
b) Recording instruments
c) Integrating instruments

a) Indicating instruments:
Indicating instruments are those which indicate the instantaneous value of the electrical
quantity being measured at the time at which it is being measured. Their indications are given
by pointers moving over calibrated dials. Ordinary ammeters, voltmeters and wattmeters
belong to this class.

b) Recording instruments:
These instruments give a continuous record of the given electrical quantity which is being
measured over a specific period. The examples are various types of recorders. In such
recording instruments, the readings are recorded by drawing the graph. The pointer of such
instruments is provided with a marker i.e. pen or pencil, which moves on graph paper as per
the reading. The X-Y plotter is the best example of such an instrument.

c) Integrating instruments:
These instruments measure the total quantity of electricity delivered over period of time. For
example a household energy meter registers number of revolutions made by the disc to give
the total energy delivered, with the help of counting mechanism consisting of dials and
pointers.

1.24 ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT


In case of measuring instruments, the effect of unknown quantity is converted into a
mechanical force which is transmitted to the pointer which moves over a calibrated scale. The
moving system of such instrument is mounted on a pivoted spindle. For satisfactory operation
of any indicating instrument, following systems must be present in an instrument.

1) Deflecting system producing deflecting torque Td


2) Controlling system producing controlling torque Tc
3) Damping system producing damping torque
Let us see the various ways in which these torques are obtained in an indicating instrument.

1.24.1 DEFLECTING SYSTEM:


In most of the indicating instruments the mechanical force proportional to the quantity to be
measured is generated. This force or torque deflects the pointer. The system which produces
such a deflecting torque is called deflecting system and the torque is denoted as Td.
The deflecting system uses one of the following effects produced by current or voltage, to
produce deflecting torque.

a) Magnetic Effect: When a current carrying conductor is placed in uniform magnetic field,
it experiences a force which causes to move it. This effect is mostly used in many
instruments like moving iron attraction and repulsion type, permanent magnet moving
coil instruments etc.
b) Thermal Effect: The current to be measured is passed through a small element which
heats it to cause rise in temperature which is converted to an e.m.f. by a thermocouple
attached to it.
When two dissimilar metals are connected end to end to form a closed loop and the two
junctions formed are maintained at different temperatures, then e.m.f. is induced which
causes the flow of current through the closed circuit which is called a thermocouple.
c) Electrostatic Effect: When two plates are charged, there is a force exerted between them,
which move one of the plates. This effect is used in electrostatic instruments which are
normally voltmeters.
d) Induction Effect: When a non-magnetic conducting disc is placed in a magnetic field
produced by electromagnets which are excited by alternating currents, an e.m.f. is
induced in it.
If a closed path is provided, there is a flow of current in the disc. The interaction between
induced currents and the alternating magnetic fields exerts a force on the disc which
causes to move it. This interaction is called an induction effect. This principle is mainly
used in energy meters.
e) Hall Effect: If a bar of semiconducting material is placed in uniform magnetic field and
if the bar carries current, then an e.m.f. is produced between two edges of conductor. The
magnitude of this e.m.f. depends on flux density of magnetic field, current passing
through the conducting bar and Hall Effect co-efficient which is constant for a given
semiconductor. This effect is mainly used in flux-meters.

Thus the deflecting system provides the deflecting torque or operating torque for movement
of pointer from its zero position. It acts as the prime mover for the deflection of pointer.

1.24.2 CONTROLLING SYSTEM


This system should provide a force so that current or any other electrical quantity will
produce deflection of the pointer proportional to its magnitude. The important functions of
this system are,

1) It produces a force equal and opposite to the deflecting force in order to make the
deflection of pointer at a definite magnitude. If this system is absent, then the pointer will
swing beyond its final steady position for the given magnitude and deflection will become
indefinite.
2) It brings the moving system back to zero position when the force which causes the
movement of the moving system is removed. It will never come back to its zero position in
the absence of controlling system.
The controlling torque in indicating instruments may be provide by one of the following two
methods.

1) By weighting of moving parts i.e., Gravity Control


2) By one or more springs i.e., Spring Control
1) GRAVITY CONTROL

Fig. 1.29 Gravity Control

This type of control consists of a small weight attached to the moving system whose position
is adjustable. This weight produces a controlling torque due to gravity. This weight is called
control weight. The Figs. 1.29(a) shows the gravity control system. At the zero position of the
pointer, the controlling torque is zero. This position is shown as position A of the weight in
the Fig. 1.29(b). If the system deflects, the weight position also changes, as shown in the
Fig.1.29(b).

The system deflects through an angle . The control weight acts at a distance from the
center. The component W sin of this weight we try to restore the pointer back to the zero
position. This is nothing but the controlling torque Tc.

Thus,

Here

Generally all meters are current sensing meters, where deflecting torque is proportional to
current. i.e.,

Where K= constant
In equilibrium position,
Thus the deflection is proportional to current i.e. quantity to be measured. But as it is a
function of , the scale for the instrument using gravity control is not uniform.

Advantages:
1) Its performance is not time dependent.
2) It is simple and cheap.
3) The controlling torque can be varied by adjusting the position of the control weight.
4) Its performance is not temperature dependent.

Disadvantages:
1) The scale is non-uniform causing problems to record accurate readings.
2) The system must be used in vertical position only and must be properly levelled.
Otherwise it may cause serious errors in the measurement.
3) As delicate and proper leveling required, in general it is not used for indicating
instruments and portable instruments.

2) SPRING CONTROL

Fig. 1.30 Spring Control

Two hair springs are attached to the moving system which exerts controlling torque. To
employ spring control to an instrument, following requirements are essential.

1) The spring should be non-magnetic.


2) The spring should be free from mechanical stress.
3) The spring should have a small resistance, sufficient cross-sectional area.
4) It should have low resistance temperature co-efficient.
The arrangement of the springs is shown in the Fig. 1.30. The springs are made up of non-
magnetic materials like silicon bronze, hard rolled silver or copper, platinum silver and
german silver. For most of the instruments, phosphor bronze spiral springs are provided. Flat
spiral springs are used in almost all indicating instruments. The inner end of the spring is
attached to the spindle while the outer end is attached to a lever or arm which is actuated by a
set of screw mounted at the front of the instrument. So zero setting can be easily done.

The controlling torque provided by the instrument is directly proportional to the angular
deflection of the pointer.

Now, deflecting torque is proportional to current

At equilibrium

Thus the deflection is proportional to the current. Hence the scale of the instrument using
spring control is uniform. When the current is removed, due to spring force the pointer comes
back to initial position. The spring control is very popular and is used in almost all indicating
instruments.

1.24.3 DAMPING SYSTEM


The deflecting torque provides some deflection and controlling torque acts in the opposite
direction to that of deflecting torque. So before coming to the rest, pointer always oscillates
due to inertia, about the equilibrium position. Unless pointer rests, final reading cannot be
obtained. So to bring the pointer to rest within short time, damping system is required. The
system should provide a damping torque only when the moving system is in motion.
Damping torque is proportional to velocity of the moving system but it does not depend on
operating current. It must not affect controlling torque or increase the friction.

Fig 1.31 time response of damping system

The quickness with which over damped the moving system settles to the final steady position
Time depends on relative damping. If the moving system reaches to its final position rapidly
but smoothly without oscillations, the instrument is said to be critically damped. If the
instrument is under damped, the moving system will oscillate about the final steady position
with decreasing amplitude and will take some timeto come to rest. The instrument is said to
be over damped, if the moving system moves slowly to its final steady position. In over
damped case the response of the system is very slow and sluggish. In practice slightly under
damped systems are preferred. The time response of damping system for various types of
damping conditions is shown in the Fig. 1.31.

The following methods are used to produce damping torque.


1) Air friction damping
2) Fluid friction r damping
3) Eddy current damping.

1) AIR FRICTION DAMPING


This arrangement consists of a light aluminium piston which is attached to the moving
system, as shown in the Fig. 1.32.

Fig. 1.32 Air friction damping

The piston moves in a fixed air chamber. It is close to one end. The clearance between piston
and wall chambers is uniform and small. The piston reciprocates in the chamber when there
are oscillations. When piston moves into the chamber, air inside is compressed and pressure
of air developed due to friction opposes the motion of pointer. There is also opposition to
motion of moving system when piston moves out of the chamber. Thus the oscillations and
the overshoot gets reduced due to and fro motion of the piston in the chamber, providing
necessary damping torque. This helps in settling down the pointer to its final steady position
very quickly.

2) FLUID FRICTION DAMPING


Fluid friction damping may be used in some instruments. The method is similar to air friction
damping, only air is replaced by working fluid. The friction between the disc and fluid is used
for opposing motion. Damping force due to fluid is greater than that of air due to more
viscosity. The disc is also called vane.
The arrangement is shown in the Fig. 1.33. It consists of a vane attached to the spindle which
is completely dipped in the oil. The frictional force between oil and the vane is used to disc
produce the damping torque, which opposes the oscillating behavior of the pointer.

Fig 1.33 Fluid friction damping

Advantages:
1. Due to more viscosity of fluid, more damping is provided.
2. The oil can also be used for insulation purposes.
3. Due to up thrust of oil, the load on the bearings is reduced, thus reducing the frictional
errors.

Disadvantages:
1. This can be only used for the instruments which are in vertical "position.
2. Due to oil leakage, the instruments cannot be kept clean.

3) EDDY CURRENT DAMPING

Fig. 1.34 Eddy current damping

This is the most effective way of providing damping. It is based on the Faraday's law and
Lenz's law. When a conductor moves in a magnetic field cutting the flux, e.m.f. gets induced
in it and the direction of this e.m.f. is so as to oppose the cause producing it.

In this method, an 'aluminium disc is connected to the spindle. The arrangement of disc is
such that when it rotates, it cuts the magnetic flux lines of a permanent magnet. The
arrangement is shown in the Fig. 1.34. When the pointer oscillates, aluminium disc rotates
under the influence of magnetic field of damping magnet. So disc cuts the flux which causes
an induced e.m.f. in the disc. The disc is a closed \path hence induced e.m.f. circulates current
through the disc called eddy current. The direction of such eddy current is so as oppose the
cause producing it. The cause is relative motion between disc and field. Thus it produces an
opposing torque so as to reduce the oscillations of pointer. This brings pointer to rest quickly.
This is most effective and efficient method of damping.

1.25 PERMANENT MAGNET MOVING COIL (PMMC) INSTRUMENT

Principe:
When a current carrying coil is placed in the magnetic field produced by permanent magnet,
the coil experiences a force and moves. The amount of force experienced by the coil is
proportional to the current passing through the coil.

Construction:

Fig. 1.35 PMMC instrument

The construction of PMMC instrument is as shown in the Fig. 1.35. It consists of a moving
coil which is either rectangular or circular in shape. It has number of turns of fine wire. The
coil is suspended so that it is free to turn about its vertical axis. The coil is placed in uniform,
horizontal and radial magnetic field of a permanent magnet in the shape of a horse-shoe. As
the coil is moving and the magnet is permanent, the instrument is called permanent magnet
moving coil instrument. The controlling torque is provided by two phosphor bronze hair
springs. The damping torque is provided by eddy current damping. It is obtained by
movement of the aluminium former, moving in the magnetic field of the permanent
magnet.The pointer is carried by the spindle and it moves over a graduated scale. The pointer
has light weight so that it can deflect rapidly. The mirror is placed below the pointer to get
the accurate reading by removing the parallax error. The scale markings of the basic PMMC
instruments are usually linearly spaced as the deflecting torque and hence the pointer
deflection is directly proportional to the current passing through the coil.

Operation:
Whenever the PMMCinstrument is connected in the electric circuit to measure the current or
voltage, current flows through the moving coil. As the current carrying coil is placed in the
magnetic field produced by the permanent magnet, a mechanical force acts on the coil. As the
coil is attached to the moving systemthe pointer moves in a clockwise direction over a
graduated scale to indicate the value of current or voltage being measured. Therefore, the
mechanical force is responsible for producing the deflecting torque in the clockwise
direction. The two hair springs provided in the spindle will generate the necessary controlling
torque. When the controlling torque equals to the deflecting torque the pointer comes to the
rest and indicate the current through the coil. The damping torque is provided by the eddy
current damping, it is obtained by the movement of the aluminium former moving in the
magnetic field of permanent magnet.

If we reverse the direction of current through the coil, then the pointer tends to rotate in anti
clockwise direction. But a stopper or observer is provided to protect the pointer tends to
rotate in the anticlockwise direction. The resultant deflecting torque in the coil for AC input
current is zero. Hence the PMMC meter cannot measure AC quantities and measure DC only.

TORQUE EQUATION OF PMMC


When the current of I ampere flows through the coil, the coil experiences a force of F Newton
which is given by
F = NBIl newton

Deflecting torque
Td = F * Perpendicular Distance (d)
= NBIl*d
= NBIA

Where N = Number of turns of the coil


B = Flux density in air gap (wb/m2)
A = Effective coil area (m2)
I = Current flowing in moving coil (A)
Td= Deflecting torque (N-m)

For a given instrument N, B and A are constant, thus


Td I
Td = K I

Since spring control has been used,


Tc
Tc = Kc
Under equilibrium conditions,
Td = Tc
K I = Kc
= (K/Kc) I
Therefore,
I

Thus the deflection of the pointer is directly proportional to the current passing through the
coil.

Advantages:
1. The scale is uniformly divided as the current is directly proportional to deflection of
the pointer. Hence it is very easy to measure the quantities from the instruments.
2. Power consumption is also very low.
3. The torque to weight ratio is high
4. The sensitivity is high
5. Extension of instrument range is possible
6. The eddy currents induced in the metallic former on which coil is wound, provide
effective damping.

Disadvantages:
1. Suitable for only D.C. measurements.
2. The cost is high due to delicate construction and accurate machining.
3. Ageing of permanent magnet and control springs introduces the errors.

ERRORS IN PMMC INSTRUMENT:


The basic sources of errors in PMMC instruments are friction, temperature and aging of
various parts. To reduce the frictional errors ratio of torque to weight is made very high.

The most serious errors are produced by the heat generated or by changes in the temperature.
This changes the resistance of the working coil, causing large errors. In case of voltmeters, a
large series resistance of very low temperature coefficient is used. This reduces the
temperature errors.

The aging of permanent magnet and control springs also cause errors. The weakening of
magnet and springs cause opposite errors. The weakening of magnet cause less deflection
while weakening of the control springs cause large deflection, for a particular value of
current. The proper use of material and pre-ageing during manufacturing can reduce the
errors due to weakening of the control springs.

1.26 MOVING IRON (MI) INSTRUMENT


Moving iron type instruments are of mainly two types.
1. Moving Iron Attraction Type Instrument
2. Moving Iron Repulsion Type Instrument.

1) MOVING IRON ATTRACTION TYPE INSTRUMENT


Principle:
The basic working principle of these instruments is very simple that a soft iron piece if
brought near the magnet gels attracted by the magnet.
Construction:
The construction of the attraction type instrument is shown in the Fig. 1.36. It consists of a
fixed coil C and moving iron piece D. The coil is flat and has a narrow slot like opening. The
moving iron is a flat disc which is eccentrically mounted on the spindle. The spindle is
supported between the jewel bearings. The spindle carries a pointer which moves over a
graduated scale. The numbers of turns of the fixed coil are dependent on the range of the
instrument. For passing large current through the coil only few turns are required.

Fig. 1.36 Moving Iron Attraction Type Instrument

The controlling torque is provided by the springs but gravity control may also be used for
vertically mounted panel type instruments. The damping torque is provided by the air
friction. A light aluminium piston is attached to the moving system. It moves in a fixed
chamber. The chamber is closed at one end. It can also be provided with the help of vane
attached to the moving system. The operating magnetic field in moving iron instruments is
very weak. Hence eddy current damping is not used since it requires a permanent magnet
which would affect or distort the operating field.

Operation:
When the instrument is connected in a circuit to measure the current, then the fixed coil
develops a magnetic field. The coil behaves like a magnet and attracts the moving iron piece
towards it. As an moving iron piece is attached to the moving system, the pointer moves over
a graduated scale.

If the current in the coil is reversed, direction of magnetic field produced is also reverse and
attracts the iron piece toward the centre of the coil and the pointer moves. Hence the moving
iron instrument can be used o measure both DC and AC quantities.

2) MOVING IRON REPULSION TYPE INSTRUMENT

Principle:
Two iron pieces are kept with close proximity in a magnetic field get magnetized with the
same polarity. Hence a repulsive force is developed. If one of the two iron pieces is made
movable, the repulsive force will act on it and move it one side. This movement is used
measure voltage or current which produces the field.

Construction:

Fig. 1.37 Moving Iron Repulsive Type Instrument

The construction of the attraction type instrument is shown in the Fig. 1.37. It consists of a
fixed hallow cylindrical coil which carries the operating current. Two iron pieces (iron vanes)
are available inside the coil, one iron piece is fixed and the other is movable. The fixed iron
piece is attached to the coil, while the moving iron piece is attached to the moving system.
When the moving iron is replulsed from the fixed iron piece the pointer moves over a
graduated scale.
Operation:
When the voltage is applied to the coil the magnetic field will be developed inside the coil.
Then the two iron pieces are magnetized with same polarity. Due to the same polarity in
between them, the moving iron piece get repulsive from the fixed iron piece. As the pointer is
attached to the moving iron, with the movement of the moving iron the pointer also moves
and show the reading. Here the controlling torque is provided by the spring control or gravity
control and damping torque is provided by the air friction damping.

TORQUE EQUATION OF MOVING IRON INSTRUMENT


Then the deflection torque produced due to the current flowing through the coil is given by,

Where I = Current through the coil

L = Inductance of the coil

= angular deflection

dL =change in inductance

d = change in angular deflection

The controlling torque provide by the spring control is

Where is spring constant

Under equilibrium condition,

Hence, the deflection of the moving iron instrument is directly proportional to the square of
the current flowing through the coil.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MOVING IRON INSTRUMENTS

Advantages:
1) These instruments can be used to measure the both DC and AC quantities.
2) These are less expensive, robust and simple in construction.
3) These instruments have high operating torque.
4) These instruments have the high torque to weight ratio, hence frictional error is very less.

Disadvantages:
1) Scale of these instruments is non-uniform.
2) Power consumption is higher for low voltage ratings.
3) There are serious errors due to hysteresis, frequency changes and stray magnetic fields.
4) These instruments are less sensitive than PMMC instruments.

ERRORS IN MOVING IRON INSTRUMENT:


The various errors in the moving iron instruments are,
1) Hysteresis error: Due to hysteresis effect, the flux density for the same current while
ascending and descending values is different. While descending, the flux density is higher
and while ascending it is lesser. So meter reads higher for descending values of current or
voltage. So remedy for this is to use smaller iron parts which can demagnetize quickly or to
work with lower flux densities
2) Temperature error: The temperature error arises due to the effect of temperature on the
temperature coefficient of the spring. This error is of the order of 0.02% per C change in
temperature. Errors can cause due to self heating of the coil and due to which change in
resistance of the coil. So coil and series resistance must have low temperature coefficient.
Hence manganin is generally used for the series resistances.
3) Stray magnetic field error: The operating magnetic field in case of moving iron
instruments is very low. Hence effect of external i.e. stray magnetic field can cause error.
This effect depends on the direction of the stray magnetic field with respect to the operating
field of the instrument.
4) Frequency error: These are related to a.c. operation of the instrument. The change in
frequency affects the reactance of the working coil and also affects the magnitude of the eddy
currents. This causes errors in the instrument.
5) Eddy current error: When instrument is used for a.c. measurements the eddy currents are
produced in the iron parts of the instrument. The eddy current affects the instrument current
causing the change in the deflecting torque. This produces the error in the meter reading. As
eddy currents are frequency dependent, frequency changes cause eddy current error.
UNIT II
DC MACHINES

2.1 Introduction

Converters that are used to continuously translate electrical input to mechanical output or
vice versa are called electric machines. The process of translation is known as
electromechanical energy conversion. An electric machine is therefore a link between an
electrical system and a mechanical system. In these machines the conversion is reversible. If
the conversion is from mechanical to electrical energy, the machine is said to act as a
generator. If the conversion is from electrical to mechanical energy, the machine is said to
act as a motor. In these machines, conversion of energy from electrical to mechanical form
or vice versa results from the following two electromagnetic phenomena:

When a conductor moves in a magnetic field, voltage is induced in the conductor.


(Generator action)

When a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor


experiences a mechanical force. (Motoraction)

These two effects occur simultaneously whenever energy conversion takes place from
electrical to mechanical or vice versa. In motoring action, the electrical system makes current
flow through conductors that are placed in the magnetic field. A force is produced on each
conductor. If the conductors are placed on a structure free to rotate, an electromagnetic torque
will be produced, tending to make the rotating structure rotate at some speed. If the
conductors rotate in a magnetic field, a voltage will also be induced in each conductor. In
generating action, the process is reversed. In this case, the rotating structure, the rotor, is
driven by a prime mover (such as a steam turbine or a diesel engine). A voltage will be
induced in the conductors that are rotating with the rotor. If an electrical load is connected to
the winding formed by these conductors, a current i will flow, delivering electrical power to
the load. Moreover, the current flowing through the conductor will interact with the magnetic
field to produce a reaction torque, which will tend to oppose the torque applied by the prime
mover.
Note that in both the motor and generator actions, the coupling magnetic field is involved in
producing a torque and an induced voltage.

2.2 Construction of a DC Machine:

A DC generator can be used as a DC motor without any constructional changes and vice
versa is also possible. Thus, a DC generator or a DC motor can be broadly termed as a DC
machine. These basic constructional details are also valid for the construction of a DC motor.
Hence, let's call this point asconstruction of a DC machine instead of just 'construction of a dc
generator'.

Figure 2.1 DC Machine construction


The above figure shows the constructional details of a simple 4-pole DC machine. A DC
machine consists of two basic parts; stator and rotor. Basic constructional parts of a DC
machine are described below.

1. Yoke: The outer frame of a dc machine is called as yoke. It is made up of cast iron or
steel. It not only provides mechanical strength to the whole assembly but also carries the
magnetic flux produced by the field winding.
2. Poles and pole shoes: Poles are joined to the yoke with the help of bolts or welding.
They carry field winding and pole shoes are fastened to them. Pole shoes serve two
purposes; (i) they support field coils and (ii) spread out the flux in air gap uniformly.
3. Field winding: They are usually made of copper. Field coils are former wound and
placed on each pole and are connected in series. They are wound in such a way that, when
energized, they form alternate North and South poles.

Figure 2.2 Armature core (rotor)

4. Armature core: Armature core is the rotor of the machine. It is cylindrical in shape with
slots to carry armature winding. The armature is built up of thin laminated circular steel
disks for reducing eddy current losses. It may be provided with air ducts for the axial air
flow for cooling purposes. Armature is keyed to the shaft.
5. Armature winding: It is usually a former wound copper coil which rests in armature
slots. The armature conductors are insulated from each other and also from the armature
core. Armature winding can be wound by one of the two methods; lap winding or wave
winding. Double layer lap or wave windings are generally used. A double layer winding
means that each armature slot will carry two different coils.
6. Commutator and brushes: Physical connection to the armature winding is made
through a commutator-brush arrangement. The function of a commutator, in a dc
generator, is to collect the current generated in armature conductors. Whereas, in case of a
dc motor, commutator helps in providing current to the armature conductors. A
commutator consists of a set of copper segments which are insulated from each other. The
number of segments is equal to the number of armature coils. Each segment is connected
to an armature coil and the commutator is keyed to the shaft. Brushes are usually made
from carbon or graphite. They rest on commutator segments and slide on the segments
when the commutator rotates keeping the physical contact to collect or supply the current.
Figure 2.3 Commutator

2.3 Classifications of DC Machines: (DC Motors and DC Generators)

Each DC machine can act as a generator or a motor. Hence, this classification is valid
forboth: DC generators and DC motors. DC machines are usually classified on the basis
oftheir field excitation method. This makes two broad categories of dc machines; (i)
Separately excited and (ii) Self-excited.

Separately excited: In separately excited dc machines, the field winding is supplied


from a separate power source. That means the field winding is electrically separated
from the armature circuit. Separately excited DC generators are not commonly used
because they are relatively expensive due to the requirement of an additional power
source or circuitry. They are used in laboratories for research work, for accurate speed
control of DC motors with Ward-Leonard system and in few other applications where
self-excited DC generators are unsatisfactory. In this type, the stator field flux may also
be provided with the help of permanent magnets (such as in the case of a permanent
magnet DC motors). A PMDC motor may be used in a small toy car.

Self-excited: In this type, field winding and armature winding are interconnected in
various ways to achieve a wide range of performance characteristics (for example, field
winding in series or parallel with the armature winding).
In self-excited type of DC generator, the field winding is energized by the current
produced by themselves. A small amount of flux is always present in the poles due to
the residual magnetism. So, initially, current induces in the armature conductors of a dc
generator only due to the residual magnetism. The field flux gradually increases as the
induced current starts flowing through the field winding.
Self-excited machines can be further classified as
Series wound In this type, field winding is connected in series with the
armature winding. Therefore, the field winding carries whole load current
(armature current). That is why series winding is designed with few turns of thick
wire and the resistance is kept very low (about 0.5 Ohm).
Shunt wound Here, field winding is connected in parallel with the armature
winding. Hence, the full voltage is applied across the field winding. Shunt
winding is made with a large number of turns and the resistance is kept very high
(about 100 Ohm). It takes only small current which is less than 5% of the rated
armature current.
Compound wound In this type, there are two sets of field winding. One is
connected in series and the other is connected in parallel with the armature
winding. Compound wound machines are further divided as -
Short shunt field winding is connected in parallel with only the armature
winding
Long shunt field winding is connected in parallel with the combination
of series field winding and armature winding

Figure 2.4 Classifications of DC Machines


DC GENERATOR

2.4 Working Principle of A DC Generator:

According to Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction, whenever a conductor is placed in


a varying magnetic field (OR a conductor is moved in a magnetic field), an emf
(electromotive force) gets induced in the conductor. The magnitude of induced emf can be
calculated from the emf equation of dc generator. If the conductor is provided with the closed
path, the induced current will circulate within the path. In a DC generator, field coils produce
an electromagnetic field and the armature conductors are rotated into the field. Thus, an
electromagnetically induced emf is generated in the armature conductors. The direction of
induced current is given by Flemings right hand rule.

Figure 2.5 Principle of DC generator

According to Flemings right hand rule, the direction of induced current changes whenever
the direction of motion of the conductor changes. Lets consider an armature rotating
clockwise and a conductor at the left is moving upward. When the armature completes a half
rotation, the direction of motion of that particular conductor will be reversed to downward.
Hence, the direction of current in every armature conductor will be alternating. If you look at
the above figure, you will know how the direction of the induced current is alternating in an
armature conductor. But with a split ring commutator, connections of the armature
conductors also gets reversed when the current reversal occurs. And therefore, we get
unidirectional current at the terminals.

2.5 EMF Equation of A DC Generator

Consider a DC generator with the following parameters,

P = number of field poles


= flux produced per pole in Wb (weber)
Z = total no. of armature conductors
A = no. of parallel paths in armature
N = rotational speed of armature in revolutions per min. (rpm)

Now,

Average emf generated per conductor is given by d/dt (Volts) ... eq. 1
Flux cut by one conductor in one revolution = d = P .(Weber),
Number of revolutions per second (speed in RPS) = N/60
Therefore, time for one revolution = dt = 60/N (Seconds)
From eq. 1, emf generated per conductor = d/dt = PN/60 (Volts) ..(eq. 2)

Above equation-2 gives the emf generated in one conductor of the generator. The conductors
are connected in series per parallel path, and the emf across the generator terminals is equal
to the generated emf across any parallel path.

Therefore, Eg = PNZ / 60A

For simplex lap winding, number of parallel paths is equal to the number of poles (i.e. A=P),
Therefore, for simplex lap wound dc generator, Eg = PNZ / 60P

For simplex wave winding, number of parallel paths is equal to 2 (i.e P=2),
Therefore, for simplex wave wound dc generator, Eg = PNZ / 120

2.6 Types of DC Generators:

DC generators can be classified in two main categories, viz; (i) Separately excited and (ii)
Self-excited.
(i) Separately excited: In this type, field coils are energized from an independent external
DC source.
(ii) Selfexcited: In this type, field coils are energized from the current produced by the
generator itself. Initial emf generation is due to residual magnetism in field poles. The
generated emf causes a part of current to flow in the field coils, thus strengthening the field
flux and thereby increasing emf generation. Self excited dc generators can further be divided
into three types

(a) Series wound - field winding in series with armature winding


(b) Shunt wound - field winding in parallel with armature winding
(c) Compound wound - combination of series and shunt winding

2.7 Characteristics of DC Generators


Generally, following three characteristics of DC generators are taken into considerations: (i)
Open Circuit Characteristic (O.C.C.), (ii) Internal or Total Characteristic and (iii) External
Characteristic. These characteristics of DC generators are explained below.

Open Circuit Characteristic (O.C.C.) (E0/If)

Open circuit characteristic is also known as magnetic characteristic or no-load saturation


characteristic. This characteristic shows the relation between generated emf at no load (E0)
and the field current (If) at a given fixed speed. The O.C.C. curve is just the magnetization
curve and it is practically similar for all type of generators. The data for O.C.C. curve is
obtained by operating the generator at no load and keeping a constant speed. Field current is
gradually increased and the corresponding terminal voltage is recorded. The connection
arrangement to obtain O.C.C. curve is as shown in the figure below. For shunt or series
excited generators, the field winding is disconnected from the machine and connected across
an external supply.
Figure 2. 6 OCC characteristics of DC generator
Now, from the emf equation of dc generator, we know that Eg = k. Hence, the generated
emf should be directly proportional to field flux (and hence, also directly proportional to the
field current). However, even when the field current is zero, some amount of emf is generated
(represented by OA in the figure below). This initially induced emf is due to the fact that
there exists some residual magnetism in the field poles. Due to the residual magnetism, a
small initial emf is induced in the armature. This initially induced emf aids the existing
residual flux, and hence, increasing the overall field flux. This consequently increases the
induced emf. Thus, O.C.C. follows a straight line. However, as the flux density increases, the
poles get saturated and the becomes practically constant. Thus, even we increase the
If further, remains constant and hence, Eg also remains constant. Hence, the O.C.C. curve
looks like the B-H characteristic.
The above figure shows a typical no-load saturation curve or open circuit characteristics for
all types of DC generators.

Internal Or Total Characteristic (E/Ia)

An internal characteristic curve shows the relation between the on-load generated emf (Eg)
and the armature current (Ia). The on-load generated emf Eg is always less than E0 due to
the armature reaction. Eg can be determined by subtracting the drop due to demagnetizing
effect of armature reaction from no-load voltage E0. Therefore, internal characteristic curve
lies below the O.C.C. curve.

External Characteristic (V/IL)

An external characteristic curve shows the relation between terminal voltage (V) and the load
current (IL). Terminal voltage V is less than the generated emf Eg due to voltage drop in the
armature circuit. Therefore, external characteristic curve lies below the internal characteristic
curve. External characteristics are very important to determine the suitability of a generator
for a given purpose. Therefore, this type of characteristic is sometimes also called
as performance characteristic or load characteristic.
Internal and external characteristic curves are shown below for each type of generator.

2.7.1 Characteristics of Separately Excited DC Generator


If there is no armature reaction and armature voltage drop, the voltage will remain constant
for any load current. Thus, the straight line AB in above figure represents the no-load voltage
vs. load current IL. Due to the demagnetizing effect of armature reaction, the on-load
generated emf is less than the no-load voltage. The curve AC represents the on-load
generated emf Eg vs. load current IL i.e. internal characteristic (as Ia = IL for a separately
excited dc generator). Also, the terminal voltage is lesser due to ohmic drop occurring in the
armature and brushes. The curve AD represents the terminal voltage vs. load current i.e.
external characteristic.

2.7.2 Characteristics of DC Shunt Generator

To determine the internal and external load characteristics of a DC shunt generator the
machine is allowed to build up its voltage before applying any external load. To build up
voltage of a shunt generator, the generator is driven at the rated speed by a prime mover.
Initial voltage is induced due to residual magnetism in the field poles. The generator builds
up its voltage as explained by the O.C.C. curve. When the generator has built up the voltage,
it is gradually loaded with resistive load and readings are taken at suitable intervals.
Connection arrangement is as shown in the figure below.

Unlike, separately excited DC generator, here, ILIa. For a shunt generator, Ia=IL+If. Hence,
the internal characteristic can be easily transmitted to Eg vs. IL by subtracting the correct
value of If from Ia.
During a normal running condition, when load resistance is decreased, the load current
increases. But, as we go on decreasing the load resistance, terminal voltage also falls. So,
load resistance can be decreased up to a certain limit, after which the terminal voltage
drastically decreases due to excessive armature reaction at very high armature current and
increased I2R losses. Hence, beyond this limit any further decrease in load resistance results
in decreasing load current. Consequently, the external characteristic curve turns back as
shown by dotted line in the above figure.

2.7.3 Characteristics of DC Series Generator

The curve AB in above figure identical to open circuit characteristic (O.C.C.) curve. This is
because in DC series generators field winding is connected in series with armature and load.
Hence, here load current is similar to field current (i.e. IL=If). The curve OC and OD
represent internal and external characteristic respectively. In a DC series generator, terminal
voltage increases with the load current. This is because, as the load current increases, field
current also increases. However, beyond a certain limit, terminal voltage starts decreasing
with increase in load. This is due to excessive demagnetizing effects of the armature reaction.

2.7.4 Characteristics of DC Compound Generator

The above figure shows the external characteristics of DC compound generators. If series
winding amp-turns are adjusted so that, increase in load current causes increase in terminal
voltage then the generator is called to be over compounded. The external characteristic for
over compounded generator is shown by the curve AB in above figure.
If series winding amp-turns are adjusted so that, the terminal voltage remains constant even
the load current is increased, then the generator is called to be flat compounded. The external
characteristic for a flat compounded generator is shown by the curve AC.
If the series winding has lesser number of turns than that would be required to be flat
compounded, then the generator is called to be under compounded. The external
characteristics for an under compounded generator are shown by the curve AD.
DC MOTOR

A same DC machine can be used as a motor or generator. Construction of a DC motor is


same as that of a DC generator.

2.8 Working Principle of A DC Motor

A motor is an electrical machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The principle of working of a DC motor is that "whenever a current carrying conductor is
placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force". The direction of this force is
given by Fleming's left hand rule and it's magnitude is given by F = BIL. Where, B =
magnetic flux density, I = current and L = length of the conductor within the magnetic field.

Fleming's left hand rule: If we stretch the first finger, second finger and thumb of our left
hand to be perpendicular to each other AND direction of magnetic field is represented by the
first finger, direction of the current is represented by second finger then the thumb represents
the direction of the force experienced by the current carrying conductor.

Working of DC Motor

When armature windingsare connected to a DC supply, current sets up in the winding.


Magnetic field may be provided by field winding (electromagnetism) or by using permanent
magnets. In this case, current carrying armature conductors experience force due to the
magnetic field, according to the principle stated above.
Commutator is made segmented to achieve unidirectional torque. Otherwise, the direction of
force would have reversed every time when the direction of movement of conductor is
reversed the magnetic field.

Back EMF

According to fundamental laws of nature, no energy conversion is possible until there is


something to oppose the conversion. In case of generators this opposition is provided by
magnetic drag, but in case of dc motors there is back emf.

When the armature of the motor is rotating, the conductors are also cutting the magnetic flux
lines and hence according to the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, an emf induces
in the armature conductors. The direction of this induced emf is such that it opposes the
armature current (Ia) . The circuit diagram below illustrates the direction of the back emf
and armature current. Magnitude of Back emf can be given by the emf equation of DC
generator.

Significance Of Back Emf:

Magnitude of back emf is directly proportional to speed of the motor. Consider the load on a
dc motor is suddenly reduced. In this case, required torque will be small as compared to the
current torque. Speed of the motor will start increasing due to the excess torque. Hence, being
proportional to the speed, magnitude of the back emf will also increase. With increasing back
emf armature current will start decreasing. Torque being proportional to the armature current,
it will also decrease until it becomes sufficient for the load. Thus, speed of the motor will
regulate.
On the other hand, if a dc motor is suddenly loaded, the load will cause decrease in the speed.
Due to decrease in speed, back emf will also decrease allowing more armature current.
Increased armature current will increase the torque to satisfy the load requirement. Hence,
presence of the back emf makes a dc motor self-regulating.

2.9 Types of DC Motors

DC motors are usually classified of the basis of their excitation configuration, as follows -
Separately excited (field winding is fed by external source)
Self excited -
Series wound (field winding is connected in series with the armature)
Shunt wound (field winding is connected in parallel with the armature)
Compound wound -
Long shunt
Short shunt

2.10Torque Equation of A DC Motor

When armature conductors of a DC motor carry current in the presence of stator field flux, a
mechanical torque is developed between the armature and the stator. Torque is given by the
product of the force and the radius at which this force acts.

Torque T = F r (N-m) where, F = force and r = radius of the armature


Work done by this force in once revolution = Force distance = F 2r (where, 2r
= circumference of the armature)
Net power developed in the armature = word done / time
= (force circumference no. of revolutions) / time
= (F 2r N) / 60 (Joules per second) .... eq. 2.1
But, F r = T and 2N/60 = angular velocity in radians per second. Putting these in the
above equation 2.1
Net power developed in the armature = P = T (Joules per second)
Armature Torque (Ta)

The power developed in the armature can be given as, Pa = Ta = Ta 2N/60


The mechanical power developed in the armature is converted from the electrical
power,
Therefore, mechanical power = electrical power
That means, Ta 2N/60 = Eb.Ia
We know, Eb = PNZ / 60A
Therefore, Ta 2N/60 = (PNZ / 60A) Ia
Rearranging the above equation,
Ta = (PZ / 2A) .Ia (N-m)
The term (PZ / 2A) is practically constant for a DC machine. Thus, armature torque is
directly proportional to the product of the flux and the armature current i.e. Ta .Ia

Shaft Torque (Tsh)

Due to iron and friction losses in a dc machine, the total developed armature torque is not
available at the shaft of the machine. Some torque is lost, and therefore, shaft torque is
always less than the armature torque.

Shaft torque of a DC motor is given as,

Tsh = output in watts / (2N/60) ....(where, N is speed in RPM)

2.11Characteristics of DC Motors

Generally, three characteristic curves are considered important for DC motors which are, (i)
Torque vs. armature current, (ii) Speed vs. armature current and (iii) Speed vs. torque. These
are explained below for each type of DC motor. These characteristics are determined by
keeping the following two relations in mind.

Ta .Ia and N Eb/


These above equations can be studied at - emf and torque equation of dc machine. For a DC
motor, magnitude of the back emf is given by the same emf equation of a dc generator i.e.
Eb = PNZ / 60A. For a machine, P, Z and A are constant, therefore, N Eb/
2.11.1 Characteristics of DC Series Motors

Torque Vs. Armature Current (Ta-Ia)


This characteristic is also known as electrical characteristic. We know that torque is directly
proportional to the product of armature current and field flux, Ta .Ia. In DC series motors,
field winding is connected in series with the armature, i.e. Ia = If. Therefore, before magnetic
saturation of the field, flux is directly proportional to Ia. Hence, before magnetic saturation
Ta Ia2. Therefore, the Ta-Ia curve is parabola for smaller values of Ia.

After magnetic saturation of the field poles, flux is independent of armature current Ia.
Therefore, the torque varies proportionally to Ia only, T Ia.Therefore, after magnetic
saturation, Ta-Ia curve becomes a straight line.

The shaft torque (Tsh) is less than armature torque (Ta) due to stray losses. Hence, the curve
Tsh vs Ia lies slightly lower.

In DC series motors, (prior to magnetic saturation) torque increases as the square of armature
current, these motors are used where high starting torque is required.

Speed Vs. Armature Current (N-Ia)

We know the relation, N Eb/

For small load current (and hence for small armature current) change in back emf Eb is small
and it may be neglected. Hence, for small currents speed is inversely proportional to . As we
know, flux is directly proportional to Ia, speed is inversely proportional to Ia. Therefore,
when armature current is very small the speed becomes dangerously high. That is why a
series motor should never be started without some mechanical load.

But, at heavy loads, armature current Ia is large. And hence, speed is low which results in
decreased back emf Eb. Due to decreased Eb, more armature current is allowed.

Speed Vs. Torque (N-Ta)

This characteristic is also called as mechanical characteristic. From the above


two characteristics of DC series motor, it can be found that when speed is high, torque is
low and vice versa.
2.11.2 Characteristics of DC Shunt Motors

Torque Vs. Armature Current (Ta-Ia)

In case of DC shunt motors, we can assume the field flux to be constant. Though at heavy
loads, decreases in a small amount due to increased armature reaction. As we are neglecting
the change in the flux , we can say that torque is proportional to armature current. Hence,
the Ta-Ia characteristic for a dc shunt motor will be a straight line through the origin.
Since heavy starting load needs heavy starting current, shunt motor should never be started
on a heavy load.

Speed Vs. Armature Current (N-Ia)

As flux is assumed to be constant, we can say N Eb. But, as back emf is also almost
constant, the speed should remain constant. But practically, as well as Eb decreases with
increase in load. Back emf Eb decreases slightly more than , therefore, the speed decreases
slightly. Generally, the speed decreases only by 5 to 15% of full load speed. Therefore, a
shunt motor can be assumed as a constant speed motor. In speed vs. armature current
characteristic in the following figure, the straight horizontal line represents the ideal
characteristic and the actual characteristic is shown by the dotted line.
2.11.3 Characteristics of DC Compound Motor

DC compound motors have both series as well as shunt winding. In a compound motor, if
series and shunt windings are connected such that series flux is in direction as that of the
shunt flux then the motor is said to be cumulatively compounded. And if the series flux is
opposite to the direction of the shunt flux, then the motor is said to be differentially
compounded. Characteristics of both these compound motors are explained below.

(a) Cumulative compound motor

Cumulative compound motors are used where series characteristics are required but the load
is likely to be removed completely. Series winding takes care of the heavy load, whereas the
shunt winding prevents the motor from running at dangerously high speed when the load is
suddenly removed. These motors have generally employed a flywheel, where sudden and
temporary loads are applied like in rolling mills.

(b) Differential compound motor

Since in differential field motors, series flux opposes shunt flux, the total flux decreases with
increase in load. Due to this, the speed remains almost constant or even it may increase
slightly with increase in load (N Eb/). Differential compound motors are not commonly
used, but they find limited applications in experimental and research work.
2.12 Starting of A DC Motor

Basic operational voltage equation of a DC motor is given as


E = Eb + IaRa and hence Ia = (E - Eb) / Ra
Now, when the motor is at rest, obviously, there is no back emf Eb, hence armature current
will be high at starting.
This excessive current will
1. blow out the fuses and may damage the armature winding and/or commutator brush
arrangement.
2. produce very high starting torque (as torque is directly proportional to armature current),
and this high starting toque will produce huge centrifugal force which may throw off the
armature windings.
Thus to avoid above two drawbacks, starters are used for starting of DC machine.

Starting Methods of a DC Motor

Thus, to avoid the above dangers while starting a DC motor, it is necessary to limit the
starting current. For that purpose, starters are used to start a DC motor. There are various
starters like, 3 point starter, 4 point starter, No load release coil starter, thyristor starter etc.
The main concept behind every DC motor starter is, adding external resistance to the
armature winding at starting.
a) 3 Point Starter
The internal wiring of a 3 point starter is as shown in the figure.

When motor is to be started, the lever is turned gradually to the right. When lever touches
point 1, the field winding gets directly connected across the supply, and the armature
winding gets connected with resistances R1 to R5 in series. Hence at starting full resistance is
added in series with armature. Then as the lever is moved further, the resistance is gradually
is cut out from the armature circuit. Now, as the lever reaches to position 6, all the resistance
is cut out from the armature circuit and armature gets directly connected across the supply.
The electromagnet E (no voltage coil) holds the lever at this position. This electromagnet
releases the lever when there is no (or low) supply voltage.
When the motor is overloaded beyond a predefined value, overcurrent release electromagnet
D gets activated, which short circuits electromagnet E , and hence releases the lever and
motor is turned off.

b) 4 Point Starter:
The main difference between a 3 point starter and a 4 point starter is that the no voltage
coil is not connected in series with field coil. The field gets directly connected to the supply,
as the lever moves touching the brass arc. The no voltage coil (or Hold on coil) is connected
with a current limiting resistance Rh. This arrangement ensures that any change of current in
the shunt field does not affect the current through hold on coil at all. This means that
electromagnet pull of the hold-on coil will always be sufficient so that the spring does not
unnecessarily restore the lever to the off position.

This starter is used where field current is to be adjusted by means of a field rheostat.

c) DC series motor starter:

Construction of DC series motor starters is very basic as shown in the figure. A start arm
is simply moved towards right to start the motor. Thus at first maximum resistance is
connected in series with the armature and then gradually decreased as the start arm moves
towards right.
The no load release coil holds the start arm to the run position and leaves it at no load.
2.13Losses in A DC Generator and DC Motor

A dc generator converts mechanical power into electrical power and a dc motor converts
electrical power into mechanical power. Thus, for a dc generator, input power is in the form
of mechanical and the output power is in the form of electrical. On the other hand, for a dc
motor, input power is in the form of electrical and output power is in the form of mechanical.
In a practical machine, whole of the input power cannot be converted into output power as
some power is lost in the process. This causes the efficiency of the machine to be reduced.
Efficiency is the ratio of output power to the input power. Thus, in order to design rotating dc
machines with higher efficiency, it is important to study the losses occurring in
them. Various losses in a rotating DC machine (DC generator or DC motor) can be
characterized as follows:

Copper losses
Armature Cu loss
Field Cu loss
Loss due to brush contact resistance
Iron Losses
Hysteresis loss
Eddy current loss
Mechanical losses
Friction loss
Windage loss
The above tree categorizes various types of losses that occur in a dc generator or a dc motor.
Each of these is explained in details below.

a) Copper Losses

These losses occur in armature and field copper windings. Copper losses consist of Armature
copper loss, Field copper loss and loss due to brush contact resistance.

Armature copper loss = Ia2Ra (where, Ia = Armature current and Ra = Armature


resistance)
This loss contributes about 30 to 40% to full load losses. The armature copper loss is variable
and depends upon the amount of loading of the machine.
Field copper loss = If2Rf (where, If = field current and Rf = field resistance)
In the case of a shunt wounded field, field copper loss is practically constant. It contributes
about 20 to 30% to full load losses.

Brush contact resistance also contributes to the copper losses. Generally, this loss is included
into armature copper loss.

b) Iron Losses (Core Losses)

As the armature core is made of iron and it rotates in a magnetic field, a small current gets
induced in the core itself too. Due to this current, eddy current loss and hysteresis loss occur
in the armature iron core. Iron losses are also called as Core losses or magnetic losses.

Hysteresis loss is due to the reversal of magnetization of the armature core. When the core
passes under one pair of poles, it undergoes one complete cycle of magnetic reversal. The
frequency of magnetic reversal if given by, f=P.N/120 (where, P = no. of poles and N =
Speed in rpm)

The loss depends upon the volume and grade of the iron, frequency of magnetic reversals and
value of flux density. Hysteresis loss is given by, Steinmetz formula:
Wh=Bmax1.6fV (watts)
where, = Steinmetz hysteresis constant

V = volume of the core in m3

Eddy current loss: When the armature core rotates in the magnetic field, an emf is also
induced in the core (just like it induces in armature conductors), according to the Faraday's
law of electromagnetic induction. Though this induced emf is small, it causes a large current
to flow in the body due to the low resistance of the core. This current is known as eddy
current. The power loss due to this current is known as eddy current loss.

c) Mechanical Losses

Mechanical losses consist of the losses due to friction in bearings and commutator. Air
friction loss of rotating armature also contributes to these.

These losses are about 10 to 20% of full load losses.


Stray Losses

In addition to the losses stated above, there may be small losses present which are called as
stray losses or miscellaneous losses. These losses are difficult to account. They are usually
due to inaccuracies in the designing and modeling of the machine. Most of the times, stray
losses are assumed to be 1% of the full load.

2.14 Power Flow Diagram

The most convenient method to understand these losses in a dc generator or a dc motor is


using the power flow diagram. The diagram visualizes the amount of power that has been lost
in various types of losses and the amount of power which has been actually converted into the
output. Following are the typical power flow diagrams for a dc generator and a dc motor.
2.15 Applications of DC Motors

1. D.C. Shunt Motors:


It is a constant speed motor. Where the speed is required to remain almost constant from
noload to full load. Where the load has to be driven at a number of speeds and any one of
which is nearly constant.
Industrial use:
Lathes
Drills
Boring mills
Shapers
Spinning and weaving machines.
2. D.C. Series motor:
It is a variable speed motor. The speed is low at high Page on torque at light or no load ,the
motor speed attains dangerously high speed. The motor has a high starting torque.(elevators,
electric traction)

Industrial Uses:
Electric traction
Cranes
Elevators
Air compressor
Vacuum cleaner
Hair drier
Sewing machine

3. D.C. Compound motor: Differential compound motors are rarely used because of its poor
torque characteristics.
Industrial uses:
Presses Shears
Reciprocating machine.
UNIT III
TRANSFORERS & AC MACHINES

3.1 INTRODUCTION TO TRANSFORMERS

A TRANSFORMER is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by
electromagnetic induction (transformer action). The electrical energy is always transferred
without a change in frequency, but may involve changes in magnitudes of voltage and
current. Because a transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction, it must
be used with an input source voltage that varies in amplitude. There are many types of power
that fit this description; for ease of explanation and understanding, transformer action will be
explained using an ac voltage as the input source.

As you know, the amount of power used by the load of an electrical circuit is equal to the
current in the load times the voltage across the load, or P = EI. If, for example, the load in
an electrical circuit requires an input of 2 amperes at 10 volts (20 watts) and the source is
capable of delivering only 1 ampere at 20 volts, the circuit could not normally be used with
this particular source. However, if a transformer is connected between the source and the
load, the voltage can be decreased (stepped down) to 10 volts and the current increased
(stepped up) to 2 amperes. Notice in the above case that the power remains the same. That is,
20 volts times 1 ampere equals the same power as 10 volts times 2 amperes.

3.2 BASIC OPERATION OF A TRANSFORMER

In its most basic form a transformer consists of:

A primary coil or winding.


A secondary coil or winding.
A core that supports the coils or windings.

Refer to the transformer circuit in figure 3.1 as you read the following explanation: The
primary winding is connected to a 60 hertz ac voltage source. The magnetic field (flux) builds
up (expands) and collapses (contracts) about the primary winding. The expanding and
contracting magnetic field around the primary winding cuts the secondary winding and
induces an alternating voltage into the winding. This voltage causes alternating current to
flow through the load. The voltage may be stepped up or down depending on the design of
the primary and secondary windings.
Figure 3.1 Basic transformer action

3.3 THE COMPONENTS OF A TRANSFORMER

Two coils of wire (called windings) are wound on some type of core material. In some cases
the coils of wire are wound on a cylindrical or rectangular cardboard form. In effect, the core
material is air and the transformer is called an AIR-CORE TRANSFORMER. Transformers
used at low frequencies, such as 60 hertz and 400 hertz, require a core of low-reluctance
magnetic material, usually iron. This type of transformer is called an IRON-CORE
TRANSFORMER. Most power transformers are of the iron-core type. The principle parts of
a transformer and their functions are:

The CORE, which provides a path for the magnetic lines of flux.
The PRIMARY WINDING, which receives energy from the ac source.
The SECONDARY WINDING, which receives energy from the primary winding and
delivers it to the load.
The ENCLOSURE, which protects the above components from dirt, moisture, and
mechanical damage.

3.5 CORE CHARACTERISTICS

The composition of a transformer core depends on such factors as voltage, current, and
frequency. Size limitations and construction costs are also factors to be considered.
Commonly used core materials are air, soft iron, and steel. Each of these materials is suitable
for particular applications and unsuitable for others. Generally, air-core transformers are used
when the voltage source has a high frequency (above 20 kHz). Iron-core transformers are
usually used when the source frequency is low (below 20 kHz). A soft-iron-core transformer
is very useful where the transformer must be physically small, yet efficient. The iron-core
transformer provides better power transfer than does the air-core transformer. A transformer
whose core is constructed of laminated sheets of steel dissipates heat readily; thus it provides
for the efficient transfer of power. The majority of transformers you will encounter in Navy
equipment contain laminated-steel cores. These steel laminations (see figure 3.2) are
insulated with a no conducting material, such as varnish, and then formed into a core. It takes
about 50 such laminations to make a core an inch thick. The purpose of the laminations is to
reduce certain losses which will be discussed later in this chapter. An important point to
remember is that the most efficient transformer core is one that offers the best path for the
most lines of flux with the least loss in magnetic and electrical energy.

Figure 3.2 Hollow-core transformer construction

3.6 TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS

There are mainly two types of transformers they are

Core type transformers


Shell type transformers

3.6.1 Hollow-Core Transformers

There are two main shapes of cores used in laminated-steel-core transformers. One is the
HOLLOW-CORE, so named because the core is shaped with a hollow square through
the centre. Figure 3.2 illustrates this shape of core. Notice that the core is made up of many
laminations of steel. Figure 3.3 illustrates how the transformer windings are wrapped around
both sides of the core.

Figure 3.3 Windings wrapped around laminations.


3.6.2 Shell-Core Transformers

The most popular and efficient transformer core is the SHELL CORE, as illustrated in figure
3.4. As shown, each layer of the core consists of E- and I-shaped sections of metal. These
sections are butted together to form the laminations. The laminations are insulated from each
other and then pressed together to form the core.

Figure 4.4 Shell-type core construction

3.7 TRANSFORMER WINDINGS

As stated above, the transformer consists of two coils called WINDINGS which are wrapped
around a core. The transformer operates when a source of ac voltage is connected to one of
the windings and a load device is connected to the other. The winding that is connected to the
source is called the PRIMARY WINDING. The winding that is connected to the load is
called the SECONDARY WINDING. (Note: In this chapter the terms "primary winding" and
"primary" are used interchangeably; the term: "secondary winding" and "secondary" are also
used interchangeably.)

Figure 3.5 shows an exploded view of a shell-type transformer. The primary is wound in
layers directly on a rectangular cardboard form.

Figure 3.5 Exploded view of shell-type transformer construction


In the transformer shown in the cutaway view in figure 3.6, the primary consists of many
turns of relatively small wire. The wire is coated with varnish so that each turn of the winding
is insulated from every other turn. In a transformer designed for high-voltage applications,
sheets of insulating material, such as paper, are placed between the layers of windings to
provide additional insulation.

Figure 3.6 Cutaway view of shell-type core with windings

When the primary winding is completely wound, it is wrapped in insulating paper or cloth.
The secondary winding is then wound on top of the primary winding. After the secondary
winding is complete, it too is covered with insulating paper. Next, the E and I sections of the
iron core are inserted into and around the windings as shown.

The leads from the windings are normally brought out through a hole in the enclosure of the
transformer. Sometimes, terminals may be provided on the enclosure for connections to the
windings. The figure shows four leads, two from the primary and two from the secondary.
These leads are to be connected to the source and load, respectively.

3.8 SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS FOR TRANSFORMERS

Figure 3.7 shows typical schematic symbols for transformers. The symbol for an air-core
transformer is shown in figure 3.7(A). Parts (B) and (C) show iron-core transformers. The
bars between the coils are used to indicate an iron core. Frequently, additional connections
are made to the transformer windings at points other than the ends of the windings. These
additional connections are called TAPS. When a tap is connected to the center of the
winding, it is called a CENTER TAP. Figure 3.7(C) shows the schematic representation of a
center-tapped iron-core transformer.
Figure 3.7 Schematic symbols for various types of transformers.

3.9 HOW A TRANSFORMER WORKS

Up to this point the chapter has presented the basics of the transformer including transformer
action, the transformer's physical characteristics, and how the transformer is constructed.
Now you have the necessary knowledge to proceed into the theory of operation of a
transformer.

3.9.1 NO-LOAD CONDITION

You have learned that a transformer is capable of supplying voltages which are usually higher
or lower than the source voltage. This is accomplished through mutual induction, which takes
place when the changing magnetic field produced by the primary voltage cuts the secondary
winding.

A no-load condition is said to exist when a voltage is applied to the primary, but no load is
connected to the secondary, as illustrated by figure 3.8. Because of the open switch, there is
no current flowing in the secondary winding. With the switch open and an ac voltage applied
to the primary, there is, however, a very small amount of current called EXCITING
CURRENT flowing in the primary. Essentially, what the exciting current does is "excite" the
coil of the primary to create a magnetic field. The amount of exciting current is determined
by three factors: (1) the amount of voltage applied (Ea), (2) the resistance (R) of the primary
coil's wire and core losses, and (3) the XL which is dependent on the frequency of the
exciting current. These last two factors are controlled by transformer design.
Figure 3.8 Transformer under no-load conditions.

This very small amount of exciting current serves two functions:

Most of the exciting energy is used to maintain the magnetic field of the primary.
A small amount of energy is used to overcome the resistance of the wire and core
losses which are dissipated in the form of heat (power loss).

Exciting current will flow in the primary winding at all times to maintain this magnetic field,
but no transfer of energy will take place as long as the secondary circuit is open.

3.9.2 PRODUCING A COUNTER EMF

When an alternating current flows through a primary winding, a magnetic field is established
around the winding. As the lines of flux expand outward, relative motion is present, and a
counter emf is induced in the winding. This is the same counter emf that you learned about in
the chapter on inductors. Flux leaves the primary at the north pole and enters the primary at
the south pole. The counter emf induced in the primary has a polarity that opposes the applied
voltage, thus opposing the flow of current in the primary. It is the counter emf that limits
exciting current to a very low value.

3.9.3 INDUCING A VOLTAGE IN THE SECONDARY

To visualize how a voltage is induced into the secondary winding of a transformer, again
refer to figure 3.8. As the exciting current flows through the primary, magnetic lines of force
are generated.

During the time current is increasing in the primary, magnetic lines of force expand outward
from the primary and cut the secondary. As you remember, a voltage is induced into a coil
when magnetic lines cut across it. Therefore, the voltage across the primary causesa voltage
to be induced across the secondary.

3.10 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PHASE RELATIONSHIP

The secondary voltage of a simple transformer may be either in phase or out of phase with
the primary voltage. This depends on the direction in which the windings are wound and the
arrangement of the connections to the external circuit (load). Simply, this means that the two
voltages may rise and fall together or one may rise while the other is falling.

Transformers in which the secondary voltage is in phase with the primary are referred to as
LIKE-WOUND transformers, while those in which the voltages are 180 degrees out of phase
are called UNLIKE-WOUND transformers

Dots are used to indicate points on a transformer schematic symbol that have the same
instantaneous polarity (points that are in phase).
The use of phase-indicating dots is illustrated in figure 3.9. In part (A) of the figure, both the
primary and secondary windings are wound from top to bottom in a clockwise direction, as
viewed from above the windings. When constructed in this manner, the top lead of the
primary and the top lead of the secondary have the SAME polarity. This is indicated by the
dots on the transformer symbol. A lack of phasing dots indicates a reversal of polarity.

Figure 3.9 Instantaneous polarity depends on direction of winding.

Part (B) of the figure illustrates a transformer in which the primary and secondary are wound
in opposite directions. As viewed from above the windings, the primary is wound in a
clockwise direction from top to bottom, while the secondary is wound in a counterclockwise
direction. Notice that the top leads of the primary and secondary have OPPOSITE polarities.
This is indicated by the dots being placed on opposite ends of the transformer symbol. Thus,
the polarity of the voltage at the terminals of the secondary of a transformer depends on the
direction in which the secondary is wound with respect to the primary.

COEFFICIENT OF COUPLING

The COEFFICIENT OF COUPLING of a transformer is dependent on the portion of the total


flux lines that cuts both primary and secondary windings.

Ideally, all the flux lines generated by the primary should cut the secondary, and all the lines
of the flux generated by the secondary should cut the primary.

The coefficient of coupling would then be one (unity), and maximum energy would be
transferred from the primary to the secondary. Practical power transformers use high-
permeability silicon steel cores and close spacing between the windings to provide a high
coefficient of coupling.
Lines of flux generated by one winding which do not link with the other winding are called
LEAKAGE FLUX. Since leakage flux generated by the primary does not cut the secondary,
it cannot induce a voltage into the secondary.

The voltage induced into the secondary is therefore less than it would be if the leakage flux
did not exist. Since the effect of leakage flux is to lower the voltage induced into the
secondary, the effect can be duplicated by assuming an inductor to be connected in series
with the primary. This series

LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE is assumed to drop part of the applied voltage, leaving less
voltage across the primary.

3.11 TURNS AND VOLTAGE RATIOS

The total voltage induced into the secondary winding of a transformer is determined mainly
by the RATIO of the number of turns in the primary to the number of turns in the secondary,
and by the amount of voltage applied to the primary. Refer to figure 3.10. Part (A) of the
figure shows a transformer whose primary consists of ten turns of wire and whose secondary
consists of a single turn of wire. You know that as lines of flux generated by the primary
expand and collapse, they cut BOTH the ten turns of the primary and the single turn of the
secondary. Since the length of the wire in the secondary is approximately the same as the
length of the wire in each turn in the primary, EMF INDUCED INTO THE SECONDARY
WILL BE THE SAME AS THE EMF INDUCED INTO EACH TURN IN THE PRIMARY.
This means that if the voltage applied to the primary winding is 10 volts, the counter emf in
the primary is almost 10 volts. Thus, each turn in the primary will have an induced counter
emf of approximately one-tenth of the total applied voltage, or one volt. Since the same flux
lines cut the turns in both the secondary and the primary, each turn will have an emf of one
volt induced into it. The transformer in part (A) of figure 3.10 has only one turn in the
secondary, thus, the emf across the secondary is one volt.
Figure 3.10 Transformer turns and voltage ratios

The transformer represented in part (B) of figure 3.10 has a ten-turn primary and a two-turn
secondary. Since the flux induces one volt per turn, the total voltage across the secondary is
two volts. Notice that the volts per turn are the same for both primary and secondary
windings.

Since the counter emf in the primary is equal (or almost) to the applied voltage, a proportion
may be set up to express the value of the voltage induced in terms of the voltage applied to
the primary and the number of turns in each winding. This proportion also shows the
relationship between the number of turns in each winding and the voltage across each
winding. This proportion is expressed by the equation:

Notice the equation shows that the ratio of secondary voltage to primary voltage is equal to
the ratio of secondary turns to primary turns.

The equation can be written as:

The following formulas are derived from the above equation:

If any three of the quantities in the above formulas are known, the fourth quantity can be
calculated.
Example: A transformer has 200 turns in the primary, 50 turns in the secondary, and 120
volts applied to the primary (Ep). What is the voltage across the secondary (E s)?

Example: There are 400 turns of wire in an iron-core coil. If this coil is to be used as the
primary of a transformer, how many turns must be wound on the coil to form the secondary
winding of the transformer to have a secondary voltage of one volt if the primary voltage is
five volts?

Note: The ratio of the voltage (5:1) is equal to the turns ratio (400:80). Sometimes, instead of
specific values, you are given a turns or voltage ratio. In this case, you may assume any value
for one of the voltages (or turns) and compute the other value from the ratio. For example, if
a turn ratio is given as 6:1, you can assume a number of turns for the primary and compute
the secondary number of turns (60:10, 36:6, 30:5, etc.).
The transformer in each of the above problems has fewer turns in the secondary than in the
primary. As a result, there is less voltage across the secondary than across the primary. A
transformer in which the voltage across the secondary is less than the voltage across the
primary is called a STEP-DOWN transformer. The ratio of a four-to-one step-down
transformer is written as 4:1. A transformer that has fewer turns in the primary than in the
secondary will produce a greater voltage across the secondary than the voltage applied to the
primary. A transformer in which the voltage across the secondary is greater than the voltage
applied to the primary is called a STEP-UP transformer. The ratio of a one-to-four step-up
transformer should be written as 1:4. Notice in the two ratios that the value of the primary
winding is always stated first.

3.12 EFFECT OF A LOAD

When a load device is connected across the secondary winding of a transformer, current
flows through the secondary and the load. The magnetic field produced by the current in the
secondary interacts with the magnetic field produced by the current in the primary. This
interaction results from the mutual inductance between the primary and secondary windings.

MUTUAL FLUX

The total flux in the core of the transformer is common to both the primary and secondary
windings. It is also the means by which energy is transferred from the primary winding to the
secondary winding. Since this flux links both windings, it is called MUTUAL FLUX. The
inductance which produces this flux is also common to both windings and is called mutual
inductance.

Figure 3.11 shows the flux produced by the currents in the primary and secondary windings
of a transformer when source current is flowing in the primary winding.
Figure 3.11 Simple transformer indicating primary- and secondary-winding flux relationship

When a load resistance is connected to the secondary winding, the voltage induced into the
secondary winding causes current to flow in the secondary winding. This current produces a
flux field about the secondary (shown as broken lines) which is in opposition to the flux field
about the primary (Lenz's law). Thus, the flux about the secondary cancels some of the flux
about the primary. With less flux surrounding the primary, the counter emf is reduced and
more current is drawn from the source. The additional current in the primary generates more
lines of flux, nearly re-establishing the original number of total flux lines.

TURNS AND CURRENT RATIOS

The number of flux lines developed in a core is proportional to the magnetizing force (IN
AMPERE-TURNS) of the primary and secondary windings.

The ampere-turn (I X N) is a measure of magnetomotive force; it is defined as the


magnetomotive force developed by one ampere of current flowing in a coil of one turn. The
flux which exists in the core of a transformer surrounds both the primary and secondary
windings. Since the flux is the same for both windings, the ampere-turns in both the primary
and secondary windings must be the same.

Therefore:

By dividing both sides of the equation by IpNs, you obtain:


Notice the equations show the current ratio to be the inverse of the turns ratio and the voltage
ratio. This means, a transformer having less turns in the secondary than in the primary would
step down the voltage, but would step up the current. Example: A transformer has a 6:1
voltage ratio.

Example: Find the current in the secondary if the current in the primary is 200 milliamperes.
The above example points out that although the voltage across the secondary is one-sixth the
voltage across the primary, the current in the secondary is six times the current in the
primary.

T transformer TURNS RATIO and may be expressed as a single factor. Remember, the turns
ratio indicates the amount by which the transformer increases or decreases the voltage
applied to the primary. For example, if the secondary of a transformer has two times as many
turns as the primary, the voltage induced into the secondary will be two times the voltage
across the primary. If the secondary has one-half as many turns as the primary, the voltage
across the secondary will be one-half the voltage across the primary. However, the turns ratio
and the current ratio of a transformer have an inverse relationship. Thus, a 1:2 step-up
transformer will have one-half the current in the secondary as in the primary. A 2:1 step-
down transformer will have twice the current in the secondary as in the primary.

Example: A transformer with a turns ratio of 1:12 has 3 amperes of current in the secondary.
What is the value of current in the primary?

3.13 POWER RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY


WINDINGS

As just explained, the turns ratio of a transformer affects current as well as voltage. If voltage
is doubled in the secondary, current is halved in the secondary. Conversely, if voltage is
halved in the secondary, current is doubled in the secondary. In this manner, all the power
delivered to the primary by the source is also delivered to the load by the secondary (minus
whatever power is consumed by the transformer in the form of losses). Refer again to the
transformer illustrated in figure 5-11.

The turns ratio is 20:1. If the input to the primary is 0.1 ampere at 300 volts, the power in the
primary is P = E X I = 30 watts. If the transformer has no losses, 30 watts is delivered to the
secondary. The secondary steps down the voltage to 15 volts and steps up the current to 2
amperes. Thus, the power delivered to the load by the secondary is P = E X I = 15 volts X 2
amps = 30 watts.

The reason for this is that when the number of turns in the secondary is decreased, the
opposition to the flow of the current is also decreased.

Hence, more current will flow in the secondary. If the turns ratio of the transformer is
increased to 1:2, the number of turns on the secondary is twice the number of turns on the
primary. This means the opposition to current is doubled. Thus, voltage is doubled, but
current is halved due to the increased opposition to current in the secondary. The important
thing to remember is that with the exception of the power consumed within the
transformer, all power delivered to the primary by the source will be delivered to the
load. The form of the power may change, but the power in the secondary almost equals the
power in the primary.

3.14 TRANSFORMER LOSSES

Practical power transformers, although highly efficient, are not perfect devices. Small power
transformers used in electrical equipment have an 80 to 90 percent efficiency range, while
large, commercial powerline transformers may have efficiencies exceeding 98 percent.

The total power loss in a transformer is a combination of three types of losses. One loss is
due to the dc resistance in the primary and secondary windings. This loss is called COPPER
loss or I2R loss.

The two other losses are due to EDDY CURRENTS and to HYSTERESIS in the core of the
transformer. Copper loss, eddy-current loss, and hysteresis loss result in undesirable
conversion of electrical energy into heat energy.

Copper Loss

Whenever current flows in a conductor, power is dissipated in the resistance of the conductor
in the form of heat. The amount of power dissipated by the conductor is directly proportional
to the resistance of the wire, and to the square of the current through it. The greater the value
of either resistance or current, the greater is the power dissipated. The primary and secondary
windings of a transformer are usually made of low-resistance copper wire.
The resistance of a given winding is a function of the diameter of the wire and its length.
Copper loss can be minimized by using the proper diameter wire. Large diameter wire is
required for high-current windings, whereas small diameter wire can be used for low-current
windings.

Eddy-Current Loss

The core of a transformer is usually constructed of some type of ferromagnetic material


because it is a good conductor of magnetic lines of flux.

Whenever the primary of an iron-core transformer is energized by an alternating-current


source, a fluctuating magnetic field is produced. This magnetic field cuts the conducting core
material and induces a voltage into it. The induced voltage causes random currents to flow
through the core which dissipates power in the form of heat. These undesirable currents are
called EDDY CURRENTS.

To minimize the loss resulting from eddy currents, transformer cores are LAMINATED.
Since the thin, insulated laminations do not provide an easy path for current, eddy-current
losses are greatly reduced.

Hysteresis Loss

When a magnetic field is passed through a core, the core material becomes magnetized. To
become magnetized, the domains within the core must align themselves with the external
field. If the direction of the field is reversed, the domains must turn so that their poles are
aligned with the new direction of the external field.

Power transformers normally operate from either 60 Hz, or 400 Hz alternating current. Each
tiny domain must realign itself twice during each cycle, or a total of 120 times a second
when 60 Hz alternating current is used. The energy used to turn each domain is dissipated as
heat within the iron core. This loss, called HYSTERESIS LOSS, can be thought of as
resulting from molecular friction. Hysteresis loss can be held to a small value by proper
choice of core materials.

3.15 TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY

To compute the efficiency of a transformer, the input power to and the output power from the
transformer must be known. The input power is equal to the product of the voltage applied to
the primary and the current in the primary. The output power is equal to the product of the
voltage across the secondary and the current in the secondary. The difference between the
input power and the output power represents a power loss. You cancalculate the percentage
of efficiency of a transformer by using the standard efficiency formula shown below:
Example: If the input power to a transformer is 650 watts and the output power is 610 watts,
what is the efficiency?

Hence, the efficiency is approximately 93.8 percent, with approximately 40 watts being
wasted due to heat losses.

3.16 TRANSFORMER RATINGS

When a transformer is to be used in a circuit, more than just the turns ratio must be
considered. The voltage, current, and power-handling capabilities of the primary and
secondary windings must also be considered.

The maximum voltage that can safely be applied to any winding is determined by the type
and thickness of the insulation used. When a better (and thicker) insulation is used between
the windings, a higher maximum voltage can be applied to the windings.

The maximum current that can be carried by a transformer winding is determined by the
diameter of the wire used for the winding. If current is excessive in a winding, a higher than
ordinary amount of power will be dissipated by the winding in the form of heat. This heat
may be sufficiently high to cause the insulation around the wire to break down. If this
happens, the transformer may be permanently damaged.

The power-handling capacity of a transformer is dependent upon its ability to dissipate heat.
If the heat can safely be removed, the power-handling capacity of the transformer can be
increased. This is sometimes accomplished by immersing the transformer in oil, or by the use
of cooling fins. The power-handling capacity of a transformer is measured in either the volt-
ampere unit or the watt unit.

Two common power generator frequencies (60 hertz and 400 hertz) have been mentioned, but
the effect of varying frequency has not been discussed.
If the frequency applied to a transformer is increased, the inductive reactance of the windings
is increased, causing a greater ac voltage drop across the windings and a lesser voltage drop
across the load. However, an increase in the frequency applied to a transformer should not
damage it. But, if the frequency applied to the transformer is decreased, the reactance of the
windings is decreased and the current through the transformer winding is increased. If the
decrease in frequency is enough, the resulting increase in current will damage the
transformer. For this reason a transformer may be used at frequencies above its normal
operating frequency, but not below that frequency.

3.17 TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSFORMERS

The transformer has many useful applications in an electrical circuit. A brief discussion of
some of these applications will help you recognize the importance of the transformer in
electricity and electronics.

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Power transformers are used to supply voltages to the various circuits in electrical equipment.
These transformers have two or more windings wound on a laminated iron core. The number
of windings and the turns per winding depend upon the voltages that the transformer is to
supply. Their coefficient of coupling is 0.95 or more.

You can usually distinguish between the high-voltage and low-voltage windings in a power
transformer by measuring the resistance. The low-voltage winding usually carries the higher
current and therefore has the larger diameter wire. This means that its resistance is less than
the resistance of the high-voltage winding, which normally carries less current and therefore
may be constructed of smaller diameter wire.

So far you have learned about transformers that have but one secondary winding. The typical
power transformer has several secondary windings, each providing a different voltage. The
schematic symbol for a typical power-supply transformer is shown in figure 3.12. For any
given voltage across the primary, the voltage across each of the secondary windings is
determined by the number of turns in each secondary. A winding may be center-tapped like
the secondary 350 volt winding shown in the figure. To center tap a winding means to
connect a wire to the center of the coil, so that between this center tap and either terminal of
the winding there appears one-half of the voltage developed across the entire winding. Most
power transformers have colored leads so that it is easy to distinguish between the various
windings to which they are connected. Carefully examine the figure which also illustrates
the color code for a typical power transformer. Usually, red is used to indicate the high-
voltage leads, but it is possible for a manufacturer to use some other color(s).
Figure 3.12 Schematic diagram of a typical power transformer.

There are many types of power transformers. They range in size from the huge transformers
weighing several tons-used in power substations of commercial power companies-to very
small ones weighing as little as a few ounces-used in electronic equipment.

AUTOTRANSFORMERS

It is not necessary in a transformer for the primary and secondary to be separate and distinct
windings. Figure 3.13 is a schematic diagram of what is known as an
AUTOTRANSFORMER. Note that a single coil of wire is "tapped" to produce what
iselectrically a primary and secondary winding. The voltage across the secondary winding
has the same relationship to the voltage across the primary that it would have if they were
two distinct windings. The movable tap in the secondary is used to select a value of output
voltage, either higher or lower than E p, within the range of the transformer. That is, when the
tap is at point A, Es is less than Ep; when the tap is at point B, Es is greater than E p.

Figure 3.13 Schematic diagram of an autotransformer


AUDIO-FREQUENCY TRANSFORMERS

Audio-frequency (af) transformers are used in af circuits as coupling devices. Audio-


frequency transformers are designed to operate at frequencies in the audio frequency
spectrum (generally considered to be 15 Hz to 20kHz).

They consist of a primary and a secondary winding wound on a laminated iron or steel core.
Because these transformers are subjected to higher frequencies than are power transformers,
special grades of steel such as silicon steel or special alloys of iron that have a very low
hysteresis loss must be used for core material. These transformers usually have a greater
number of turns in the secondary than in the primary; common step-up ratios being 1 to 2 or 1
to 4. With audio transformers the impedance of the primary and secondary windings is as
important as the ratio of turns, since the transformer selected should have its impedance
match the circuits to which it is connected.

RADIO-FREQUENCY TRANSFORMERS

Radio-frequency (rf) transformers are used to couple circuits to which frequencies above
20,000 Hz are applied. The windings are wound on a tube of nonmagnetic material, have a
special powdered-iron core, or contain only air as the core material. In standard broadcast
radio receivers, they operate in a frequency range of from 530 kHz to 1550 kHz. In a short-
wave receiver, rf transformers are subjected to frequencies up to about 20 MHz - in radar, up
to and even above 200 MHz.

IMPEDANCE-MATCHING TRANSFORMERS

For maximum or optimum transfer of power between two circuits, it is necessary for the
impedance of one circuit to be matched to that of the other circuit. One common impedance-
matching device is the transformer.

To obtain proper matching, you must use a transformer having the correct turns ratio. The
number of turns on the primary and secondary windings and the impedance of the
transformer have the following mathematical relationship

Because of this ability to match impedances, the impedance-matching transformer is widely


used in electronic equipment.
AC MACHINES

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

A synchronous machine operates at constant speed in the steady state. Under steady
state conditions, the rotating air gap field and the rotor in a synchronous machine rotate at the
same speed, called the synchronous speed which depends on the frequency of the armature
current and the number of field poles. Synchronous machines are used primarily as
gemerators of electric power. In this case they are called alternators. Synchronous generators
are the primary energy conversion devices of the worlds electric power systems today.

3.18 CONSTRUCTION OF THREE PHASE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

A synchronous machine consists of two main parts namely, an armature winding and
a magnetic field, similar to a dc machine. The following are the main advantages of rotating
field type synchronous machines.

(b) Two slip rings are required for the supply of direct current to the rotor while in
stationary field type 3 to 4 slip rings would be needed.
(c) The power used in exciting the field system may be only about two percent of the ac
output of the machine and that too is supplied at low voltage, thus it is easier and
economical to design slip rings to carry this smaller power for the rotating field.

(d) The voltage generated in the armature is much higher and therefore greater insulation
is required for the armature winding. Thus it is much easier to insulate the high
voltage winding when it is mounted on a stationary structure.

(e) Note that by the use of stationary armature this high voltage insulation is not
subjected to mechanical stress due to centrifugal forces. The end conductors of the
armature winding can be braced securely in position thereby making it fit to withstand
the large forces by sudden short circuit.

(f) The main connecting cables can be connected directly with the armature winding.
With rotating armature, the current would have to be calculated by means of slip rings
and with high voltage and large power, such collection, would pose serious problems.

(g) Rotating field is comparatively light and can be constructed for high speed operation.

(h) Cooling systems are comparatively easier.


Stator

The stator of a three phase synchronous machine consists of a stator frame, a slotted
stator, which provides a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux. It has a distributed
winding embedded in the slots similar to that of three phase induction machine.

Rotor

The rotor has a winding called the field winding, which carries direct current. The field
winding on the rotating frame is normally fed from an external dc source through slip rings
and bruses. Two types of rotors are used in synchronous machines, the cylindrical rotor and a
salient pole rotor. Depending on the type of rotor used synchronous machines are broadly
divided into two groups as follows:

High speed machines with cylindrical (non- salient pole) rotors


Low speed machines with salient pole rotors

The cylindrical rotor has one distributed winding and an essentially uniform air gap.
These rotors are used in large generators with two or sometimes four poles and are usually
driven by steam turbines. The rotors are long and have a small diameter. The features are,

They have small diameters and very long axial length.


Dynamic balancing is better.
Operation is quieter and windage losses are less.
The speed is 1000 to 3000 rpm.
Used with steam turbines and steam engines.

The rotors of salient pole machines have concentrated winding on the poles and a
non-uniform air gap. Salient pole generators have a large number of poles, sometimes as
many as 50, and operate at lower speed. The alternators in hydroelectric power stations are of
the salient pole type and are driven by water turbines. The rotors are shorter in length but
have a large diameter. The speed is 120 to 400 rpm.

3.19 EMF EQUATION OF AN ALTERNATOR

Consider the following = flux per pole in wb


P = Number of poles
Ns = Synchronous speed in rpm

f = frequency of induced emf in Hz


Z = total number of stator conductors

Zph = conductors per phase connected in series Tph = Number of turns per phase
Assuming concentrated winding, considering one conductor placed in a slot According to
Faradays Law electromagnetic induction,

The average value of emf induced per conductor in one revolution


eavg = d /dt eavg = Change of Flux in one revolution/ Time taken for one revolution

Change of Flux in one revolution = p x


Time taken for one revolution = 60/Ns seconds

Hence eavg = (p x ) / ( 60/Ns) = p x x Ns / 60 We know f = PNs /120


hence PNs /60 = 2f

Hence eavg = 2 f volts


Hence average emf per turn = 2 x 2 f volts = 4 f volts
If there are Tph, number of turns per phase connected in series, then average emf induced in
Tph turns is

Eph, avg = Tph x eavg = 4 f Tph volts


Hence RMS value of emf induced E = 1.11 x Eph, avg
= 1.11 x 4 f Tph volts

= 4.44 f Tph volts

This is the general emf equation for the machine having concentrated and full pitched
winding.

In practice, alternators will have short pitched winding and hence coil span will not be 1800,
but on or two slots short than the full pitch.
Short-Pitch Winding
Advantages
Copper in end connection can be saved.
Harmonics are reduced
Iron losses will be reduced
Efficiency will be increased
Generated voltage waveform will be improved is more sinusoidal.

Disadvantages:
The magnitude of the induced voltage will be reduced
Distributed Winding
Advantages
The generated voltage waveform will be improved, is more sinusoidal.

Disadvantage
The magnitude of induced voltage will be reduced

3.20 REGULATION OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR

Voltage Regulation

When an alternator is subjected to a varying load, the voltage at the armature terminals varies
to a certain extent, and the amount of this variation determines the regulation of the machine.
When the alternator is loaded the terminal voltage decreases as the drops in the machine stars
increasing and hence it will always be different than the induced emf.

Voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the change in terminal voltage from no load
to full load expressed as a percentage of rated voltage when the load at a given power factor
is removed with out change in speed and excitation. Or The numerical value of the regulation
is defined as the percentage rise in voltage when full load at the specified power-factor is
switched off with speed and field current remaining unchanged expressed as a percentage of
rated voltage.
Hence regulation can be expressed as

% Regulation = (Eph Vph / Vph ) x 100


where Eph = induced emf /phase, Vph = rated terminal voltage/phase

Methods of finding Voltage Regulation: The voltage regulation of an alternator can be


determined by different methods. In case of small generators it can be determined by direct
loading whereas in case of large generators it cannot determined by direct loading but will be
usually predetermined by different methods. Following are the different methods used for
predetermination of regulation of alternators.

1. Direct loading method


2. EMF method or Synchronous impedance method
3. MMF method or Ampere turns method
4. ASA modified MMF method
5. ZPF method or Potier triangle method

All the above methods other than direct loading are valid for non salient pole machines only.
As the alternators are manufactured in large capacity direct loading of alternators is not
employed for determination of regulation. Other methods can be employed for
predetermination of regulation. Hence the other methods of determination of regulations will
be discussed in the following sections.
3.21 SYNCHRONOUS IMPEDANCE METHOD (EMF METHOD)

In this method the magneticcircuit is assumed to be unsaturated. In this method the MMFs
(fluxes) produced by rotor and stator are replaced by their equivalent emf, and hence called
emf method.

To predetermine the regulation by this method the following informations are to be


determined. Armature resistance /phase of the alternator, open circuit and short circuit
characteristics of the alternator.

OC & SC test on alternator

Figure: 3.14. Circuit Diagram for OC & SC test on alternator

Open Circuit Characteristic (O.C.C.)


The open-circuit characteristic or magnetization curve is really the B-H curve of the complete
magnetic circuit of the alternator. Indeed, in large turbo-alternators, where the air gap is
relatively long, the curve shows a gradual bend. It is determined by inserting resistance in the
field circuit and measuring corresponding value of terminal voltage and field current. Two
voltmeters are connected across the armature terminals. The machine is run at rated speed
and field current is increased gradually to If1 till armature voltage reaches rated value or even
25% more than the rated voltage. Figure 32 illustrates a typical circuit for OC and SC test and
figure 33 illustrates OC and SC curve. The major portion of the exciting ampere-turns is
required to force the flux across the air gap, the reluctance of which is assumed to be
constant. A straight line called the air gap line can therefore be drawn as shown, dividing the
excitation for any voltage into two portions, (a) that required to force the flux across the air
gap, and (b) that required to force it through the remainder of the magnetic circuit. The
shorter the air gap, the steeper is the air gap line.
Procedure to conduct OC test:
(i) Start the prime mover and adjust the speed to the synchronous speed of the
alternator.
(ii) Keep the field circuit rheostat in cut in position and switch on DC supply.
(iii) Keep the TPST switch of the stator circuit in open position.

(iv) Vary the field current from minimum in steps and take the readings of field
current and stator terminal voltage, till the voltage read by the voltmeter reaches
up to 110% of rated voltage. Reduce the field current and stop the machine.
(v) Plot of terminal voltage/ phase vs field current gives the OC curve.

Short Circuit Characteristic (S.C.C.)

The short-circuit characteristic, as its name implies, refers to the behaviour of the alternator
when its armature is short-circuited. In a single-phase machine the armature terminals are
short-circuited through an ammeter, but in a three-phase machine all three phases must be
short-circuited. An ammeter is connected in series with each armature terminal, the three
remaining ammeter terminals being short-circuited. The machine is run at rated speed and
field current is increased gradually to If2 till armature current reaches rated value. The
armature short-circuit current and the field current are found to be proportional to each other
over a wide range, as shown in Figure 33, so that the short-circuit characteristic is a straight
line. Under short-circuit conditions the armature current is almost 90 out of phase with the
voltage, and the armature mmf has a direct demagnetizing action on the field. The resultant
ampere turns inducing the armature emf are, therefore, very small and is equal to the
difference between the field and the armature ampere turns. This results in low mmf in the
magnetic circuit, which remains in unsaturated condition and hence the small value of
induced emf increases linearly with field current. This small induced armature emf is equal to
the voltage drop in the winding itself, since the terminal voltage is zero by assumption. It is
the voltage required to circulate the short-circuit current through the armature windings. The
armature resistance is usually small compared with the reactance.

Figure: 3.15 OC & SC Characteristics of an alternator


Short-Circuit Ratio:
The short-circuit ratio is defined as the ratio of the field current required to produce rated
volts on open circuit to field current required to circulate full-load current with the armature
short-circuited.

Short-circuit ratio = f1/If2

Determination of synchronous impedance Zs:


As the terminals of the stator are short circuited in SC test, the short circuit current is
circulated against the impedance of the stator called the synchronous impedance. This
impedance can be estimated form the oc and sc characteristics.

The ratio of open circuit voltage to the short circuit current at a particular field current, or at a
field current responsible for circulating the rated current is called the synchronous
impedance.

synchronous impedance Zs = (open circuit voltage per phase)/(short circuit current per phase)
for same If

Hence Zs = (Voc) / (Isc) for same If


From figure 33 synchronous impedance Zs = V/Isc

Armature resistance Ra of the stator can be measured using Voltmeter Ammeter method.
Using synchronous impedance and armature resistance synchronous reactance and hence
regulation can be calculated as follows using emf method.
Zs = (Ra)2 + (XS)2 and Synchronous reactance Xs = ( Zs)2 - (Ra)2

Hence induced emf per phase can be found as Eph = [ (V cos + IRa)2 + (V sin
IXS)2] where V = phase voltage per phase = Vph , I = load current per phase

in the above expression in second term + sign is for lagging pwer factor ans sign is for
leading power factor.

% Regulation = [(Eph Vph / Vph )] x 100


where Eph = induced emf /phase, Vph = rated terminal voltage/phase

Synchronous impedance method is easy but it gives approximate results. This method gives
the value of regulation which is greater (poor) than the actual value and hence this method is
called pessimistic method. The complete phasor diagram for the emf method is shown in
figure
Figure: 3.16. Phasor diagram of alternator.
3.32 THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
Induction Motors are the most commonly used motors in most of the applications.
These are also called as Asynchronous Motors, because an induction motor always runs at a
speed lower than synchronous speed. The induction motor is made up of the stator, or
stationary windings, and the rotor. The stator consists of a series of wire windings of very low
resistance permanently attached to the motor frame. When a voltage is applied to the stator
winding terminals, a magnetic field is developed in the windings. By the way the stator
windings are arranged, the magnetic field appears to synchronously rotate electrically around
the inside of the motor housing.

Depending upon the input supply there are basically two types of induction motor,

(A) Single phase induction motor


Split phase induction motor
Capacitor start induction motor
Capacitor start capacitor run induction motor
Shaded pole induction motor

(B) Three phase induction motor


Squirrel cage induction motor
Slip ring (or phase wound) induction motor

Figure: 3.17 Three Phase Induction motor

Construction of Three Phase Induction motor

An induction motor has two main parts:


a) A Stationary Stator
It consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow, cylindrical core, constructed from
stacked laminations having a number of evenly spaced slots, providing the space for
the stator winding.
Fig.3.18 Stator

b) A Revolving Rotor
It composed of punched laminations, stacked to create a series of rotor slots,
providing space forthe rotor winding. There are two types of rotors, squirrel cage type
and slip ring type.

- Squirrel-cage: conducting bars laid into slots and shorted at both ends by
shorting rings.

- Slip ring: complete set of three-phase windings exactly as the stator. Usually
Y-connected, the ends of the three rotor wires are connected to 3 slip rings on
the rotor shaft. In this way, the rotor circuit is accessible.

Fig.3.19 Squirrel cage rotor


Fig.3.20 Slip ring rotor

3.33 Basic Working Principle of an Induction Motor

As a general rule, conversion of electric power into mechanical power takes place in
the rotating part of an electric motor. In a DC motor, the electric power is conducted directly
to the armature through brushes and commutator. Hence, in this sense a dc motor can be
called a conduction motor. However, in ac motors, the rotor does not receive electric power
by conduction but by induction in exactly the same way as the secondary of a two winding
transformer receives its power from the primary. That is why such motors are known as
induction motors.

When the three phase stator windings are fed by a three phase supply then, a magnetic
flux of constant magnitude, but rotating at synchronous speed, is set up. The flux passes
through the air gap, sweeps past the rotor surface and so cuts the rotor conductors which, as
yet, are stationary. Due to the relative speed between the rotating flux and stationary
conductors, an emf is induced in the later, according to Faradays laws of electro-magnetic
induction. The frequency of the induced emf is same as the supply frequency. Its magnitude
is proportional to the relative velocity between the flux and the conductors and its direction is
given by Flemings Right-hand rule. Since the rotor bars or conductors form a closed circuit,
rotor current is produced whose direction, as given by Lenzs law, is such as to oppose the
very cause producing it. In this case, the cause which produces the rotor current is the relative
velocity between the rotating flux of the stator and the stationary rotor conductors. Hence, to
reduce the relative speed, the rotor starts running in the same direction as that of the flux and
tries to catch up with the rotating flux.
Synchronous speed

Where f = frequency and P is the number of poles The speed of induction motor is given by,

Where N is the speed of rotor of induction motor, Ns is the synchronous speed, S is the slip.

Slip

In practice, the motor never succeeds in catching up with the stator fiel. If it really did
so, then there would be no relative speed between the two, hence no rotor emf, no rotor
current and so there will be no torque to maintain rotation. That is why the rotor runs at a
speed which is always less than yhe speed of the stator field. The difference in speed depends
upon the load on the motor.

The difference between the synchronous speed and the actual speed of the rotor is
known as slip. It is expressed as a percentage of the synchronous speed.
% Slip = (Ns-Nr)/Ns x100

Ns= Synch speed


Nr= Rotor Speed
S=Slip
Slip increase with increase of mechanical load.

Sometimes, Ns - Nr is called the slip speed.

The rotor speed is Nr =Ns (1-s)

It may be noted here that revolving flux is rotating synchronously, relative to the
stator (i.e. stationary space) but at slip speed relative to the motor.

Frequency of Rotor Current

When the rotor is stationary, the frequency of rotor current is same as the supply
frequency. But when the rotor starts revolving, then the frequency depends upon the relative
speed or on slip speed. Letat any slip-speed, the frequency of the rotor current be fr.

Then, rotor current have a frequency of

fr= sf
3.34 TORQUE EQUATION OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

The torque produced by three phase induction motor depends upon the following
three factors: Firstly the magnitude of rotor current, secondly the flux which interact with the
rotor of three phase induction motor and is responsible for producing emf in the rotor part of
induction motor, lastly the power factor of rotor of the three phase induction motor.
Combining all these factors together we get the equation of torque as-

Where, T is the torque produced by induction motor,


is flux responsible for producing induced emf,
I2 is rotor current, cos2 is the power factor of rotor circuit.

The flux produced by the stator is proportional to stator emf E1.


E1

We know that transformation ratio K is defined as the ratio of secondary voltage (rotor
voltage) to that of primary voltage (stator voltage).

Rotor current I2 is defined as the ratio of rotor induced emf under running condition , sE2 to
total impedance, Z2 of rotor side,

and total impedance Z2 on rotor side is given by ,

Putting this value in above equation we get,

s= slip of Induction motor

We know that power factor is defined as ratio of resistance to that of impedance. The power
factor of the rotor circuit is
Putting the value of flux , rotor current I2, power factor cos2 in the equation of torque we
get,

Combining similar term we get,

Removing proportionality constant we get,

Where ns is synchronous speed in r. p. s, ns = Ns / 60. So, finally the equation of torque


becomes,

Derivation of K in torque equation.

In case of three phase induction motor, there occur copper losses in rotor. These rotor copper
losses are expressed as Pc = 3I22R2 We know that rotor current,

Substitute this value of I2 in the equation of rotor copper losses, Pc. So, we get

The ratio of P2 : Pc : Pm = 1 : s : (1 - s) Where, P2 is the rotor input, Pc is the rotor copper


losses, Pm is the mechanical power developed.

Substitute the value of Pc in above equation we get,


On simplifying we get,

The mechanical power developed Pm = T,

Substituting the value of Pm

We know that the rotor speed N = Ns(1 - s) Substituting this value of rotor speed in above
equation we get,

Ns is speed in revolution per minute (rpm) and ns is speed in revolution per sec (rps) and the
relation between the two is

Substitute this value of Ns in above equation and simplifying it we get

Comparing both the equations, we get, constant K = 3 / 2ns

Equation of Starting Torque of Three Phase Induction Motor


Starting torque is the torque produced by induction motor when it is started. We know that at
start the rotor speed, N is zero.

So, the equation of starting torque is easily obtained by simply putting the value of s = 1 in
the equation of torque of the three phase induction motor,

The starting torque is also known as standstill torque.


Maximum Torque Condition for Three Phase Induction Motor
In the equation of torque,

The rotor resistance, rotor inductive reactance and synchronous speed of induction motor
remains constant . The supply voltage to the three phase induction motor is usually rated and
remains constant so the stator emf also remains the constant. The transformation ratio is
defined as the ratio of rotor emf to that of stator emf. So if stator emf remains constant then
rotor emf also remains constant.
If we want to find the maximum value of some quantity then we have to differentiate that
quantity with respect to some variable parameter and then put it equal to zero. In this case we
have to find the condition for maximum torque so we have to differentiate torque with respect
to some variable quantity which is slip, s in this case as all other parameters in the equation of
torque remains constant. So, for torque to be maximum

Now differentiate the above equation by using division rule of differentiation. On


differentiating and after putting the terms equal to zero we get,

Neglecting the negative value of slip we get

So, when slip s = R2 / X2, the torque will be maximum and this slip is called maximum slip
Sm and it is defined as the ratio of rotor resistance to that of rotor reactance.

NOTE:At starting S = 1, so the maximum starting torque occur when rotor resistance is
equal to rotor reactance.

Equation of Maximum Torque


The equation of torque is

The torque will be maximum when slip s = R2 / X2 Substituting the value of this slip in above
equation we get the maximum value of torque as
,
In order to increase the starting torque, extra resistance should be added to the rotor circuit at
start and cut out gradually as motor speeds up.

From the above equation it is concluded that


1. The maximum torque is directly proportional to square of rotor induced emf at the
standstill.
2. The maximum torque is inversely proportional to rotor reactance.
3. The maximum torque is independent of rotor resistance.
4. The slip at which maximum torque occur depends upon rotor resistance, R2. So, by
varying the rotor resistance, maximum torque can be obtained at any required slip.

3.35 TORQUE-SLIP CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOOR

As the induction motor is located from no load to full load, its speed decreases hence slip
increases. Due to the increased load, motor has to produce more torque to satisfy load
demand. The torque ultimately depends on slip as explained earlier. The behaviour of motor
can be easily judged by sketching a curve obtained by plotting torque produced against slip of
induction motor. The curve obtained by plotting torque against slip from s = 1 (at start) to s =
0 (at synchronous speed) is called torque-slip characteristics of the induction motor. It is very
interesting to study the nature of torque-slip characteristics.
We have seen that for a constant supply voltage, E2 is also constant. So we can write
torque equations as,

Now to judge the nature of torque-slip characteristics let us divide the slip range (s = 0 to
s = 1) into two parts and analyse them independently.

i) Low slip region:


In low slip region,s is very very small. Due to this, the term (s X2)2 is so small as
compared to R22 that it can be neglected.

Hence in low slip region torque is directly proportional to slip. So as load increases,
speed decreases, increasing the slip. This increases the torque which satisfies the load
demand.
Hence the graph is straight line in nature.
At N = Ns , s = 0 hence T = 0. As no torque is generated at N = Ns, motor stops if it tries
to achieve the synchronous speed. Torque increases linearly in this region, of low slip values.

ii) High slip region :


In this region, slip is high i.e. slip value is approaching to 1. Here it can be assumed that
the term R22 is very very small as compared to (s X2)2. Hence neglecting from the
denominator, we get

So in high slip region torque is inversely proportional to the slip. Hence its nature is like
rectangular hyperbola.
Now when load increases, load demand increases but speed decreases. As speed
decreases, slip increases. In high slip region as T 1/s, torque decreases as slip increases.
But torque must increases to satisfy the load demand. As torque decreases, due to extra
loading effect, speed further decreases and slip further increases. Again torque decreases as
T 1/s hence same load acts as an extra load due to reduction in torque produced. Hence
speed further drops. Eventually motor comes to standstill condition. The motor can not
continue to rotate at any point in this high slip region. Hence this region is called unstable
region of operation.

So torque - slip characteristics has two parts,


1. Straight line called stable region of operation
2. Rectangular hyperbola called unstable region of operation.

Now the obvious question is upto which value of slip, torque - slip characteristics
represents stable operation ?

In low slip region, as load increases, slip increases and torque also increases linearly.
Every motor has its own limit to produce a torque. The maximum torque, the motor can
produces as load increases is Tm which occurs at s = sm. So linear behaviour continues till s =
sm.
If load is increased beyond this limit, motor slip acts dominantly pushing motor into high
slip region. Due to unstable conditions, motor comes to standstill condition at such a load.
Hence i.e. maximum torque which motor can produce is also called breakdown torque or pull
out torque. So range s = 0 to s = sm is called low slip region, known as stable region of
operation. Motor always operates at a point in this region. And range s = s m to s = 1 is called
high slip region which is rectangular hyperbola, called unstable region of operation. Motor
can not continue to rotate at any point in this region.

At s = 1, N = 0 i.e. start, motor produces a torque called starting torque denoted as Tst.
Fig.3.21 Torque - Slip characteristics

Full load torque


When the load on the motor increases, the torque produced increases as speed decreases
and slip increases. The increases torque demand is satisfied by drawing motor current from
the supply.
The load which motor can drive safely while operating continuously and due to such
load, the current drawn is also within safe limits is called full load condition of motor. When
current increases, due to heat produced the temperature rise. The safe limit of current is that
which when drawn for continuous operation of motor, produces a temperature rise well
within the limits. Such a full load point is shown on the torque-slip characteristics torque as
TF.L.
The interesting thing is that the load on the motor can be increased beyond point C till
maximum torque condition. But due to high current and hence high temperature rise there is
possibility of damage of winding insulation, if motor is operated for longer time duration in
this region i.e. from point C to B. But motor can be used to drive loads more than full load,
producing torque upto maximum torque for short duration of time. Generally full load torque
is less than the maximum torque.
So region OC upto full load condition allow motor operation continuously and safely
from the temperature point pf view. While region CB is possible to achieve in practice but
only for short duration of time and not for continuous operation of motor. This is the
difference between full load torque and the maximum or breakdown torque. The breakdown
torque is also called stalling torque.

Generating and Braking Region


When the slip lies in the region 0 and 1 i.e. when 0 s 1, the machine runs as a motor
which is the normal operation. The rotation of rotor is in the direction of rotating field which
is developed by stator currents. In this region it takes electrical power from supply lines and
supplies mechanical power output. The rotor speed and corresponding torque are in same
direction.
When the slip is greater than 1, the machine works in the braking mode. The motor is
rotated in opposite direction to that of rotating field. In practice two of the stator terminals are
interchanged which changes the phase sequence which in turn reverses the direction of
rotation of magnetic field. The motor comes to quick stop under the influence of counter
torque which produces braking action. This method by which the motor comes to rest is
known as plugging. Only care is taken that the stator must be disconnected from the supply to
avoid the rotor to rotate in other direction
To run the induction machine as a generator, its slip must be less than zero i.e. negative.
The negative slip indicates that the rotor is running at a speed above the synchronous speed.
When running as a generator it takes mechanical energy and supplies electrical energy from
the stator.
Thus the negative slip, generation action takes place and nature of torque - slip
characteristics reverses in this generating region.
The Fig. below shows the complete torque - slip characteristics showing motoring,
generating and the braking region.

Fig. 3.21 Complete torque-speed characteristic of a three phase induction


machine

3.36 APPLICATIONS OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

Squirrel cage induction motor

Squirrel cage induction motors are simple and rugged in construction, are relatively cheap
and require little maintenance. Hence, squirrel cage induction motors are preferred in most of
the industrial applications such as in
Lathes
Drilling machines
Agricultural and industrial pumps
Industrial drives.
Slip ring induction motors

Slip ring induction motors when compared to squirrel cage motors have high starting torque,
smooth acceleration under heavy loads, adjustable speed and good running characteristics.

They are used in


Lifts
Cranes
Conveyors , etc.,