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Excavating the Song:

Tools for the Modern


Singing Actor

Neal Richardson
Fall 2013
About the author
BM Piano, Belmont; MM in piano performance, Baylor, MM in music theory, Baylor;
Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music, Doctoral work in piano performance with a
cognate in music theory. I have been teaching musical theatre for the past 17 yearsNorthern
Kentucky University for 2 years and Webster University for 15 years. I entered the world of
musical theatre as a music director/pianist/conductor/vocal coach.
At Webster I teach all four levels of musical theatre, sometimes in collaboration with my
cherished colleague, Lara Teeter and sometimes alone. Ive described my teaching duties
below. In addition, I teach the sophomore advanced theory and musicianship for the musical
theatre majors.
I also work with each of our majors as vocal coach on a regular basis, working both on
their voice studio material and their classroom material. The goal for these coachings is to
bridge the divide that we have found sometimes occurs between the voice studio and the
classroom. It consists of equal parts of musical theatre vocal styles and acting work.
For the last 10 years, Ive worked freelance for Hal Leonard publishing as an arranger,
working primarily in musical theatre. I was the arranger for the vocal selections of Spamalot,
Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, Brooklyn, Jersey Boys, The Drowsy Chaperone, Grey Gardens, The
Color Purple, The Pirate Queen, Young Frankenstein, The Little Mermaid, Passing Strange,
Legally Blonde, Memphis, 9 to 5, Women on the Verge, People in the Picture, Newsies,
Ghost, A Christmas Story, NOW.HERE.THIS among others. The newest project for Hal
Leonard is The Broadway Singers Edition which are new, exhaustively researched editions
of shows along with a piano performance CD. The first batch of shows is Les Miserables,
Rent, Sound of Music, Wicked and Annie.

Other professional work


Principal arranger for Gateway Mens Chorus, Men Alive (Orange County), The Gay Mens
Chorus of Washington D.C. Others include Portland Gay Mens Chorus, Twin Cities Gay
Mens Chorus, San Francisco Gay Mens Chorus, Buffalo Gay Men's Chorus, Huntington
Men's Chorus and many others.
Musical Director at The Muny, St. Louis. The nations oldest and largest outdoor musical
theatre venue.
Church music and composer for the last 30 years.
Principal Composer and Musical Director for The St. Louis Repertoires Imaginary Theatre
Company. Original shows include The Elves and the Shoemaker, The Tortoise and the Hare,
Robin Hood, A Peter Rabbit Tale, My Fathers Dragon and Hansel and Gretel: The Next
Generation. Shows licensed through Playscripts Inc.
Music published by Yelton-Rhodes
Paper presented at the International Musical Theatre Educators Conference, January 2013.
Song Analysis as a Key to Interpretation.

Neal Richardson, Webster University Conservatory of Theatre Arts Teaching Duties

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Freshman Intro to Musical Theatre, Fall (Musical theatre and actors are combined). In this
class, we focus on learning the musical theatre literature from the 20s to today. Its not so
much a history class as a crash course in what musical theatre is, the most important
composers and shows, the changing styles, and how to listen with better understanding.
Freshman Intro to Musical Theatre, Spring (Musical theatre and actors are combined)
Introduction to singing on stage.
Sophomore, Fall (Musical theatre and actors are combined). Song study continued.
Sophomore, Spring (Musical theatre only). Advanced song study looking at more difficult
literature such as Sondheim, Rock styles, music from the 20s and 30s, and preparing a role.
Junior, Fall (Musical theatre only) Scene study with Neal and a director, currently Tim Ocel
Junior, Spring (Musical theatre only) Neal and Lara teach audition and ensemble work with a
large unit on the integration of song and dance.
Senior, Fall and Spring. These last two semesters are focused on Showcase, Senior cabaret,
auditions and various other finishing touches.

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Introduction to Excavating the Song
Excavating the Song is a multifaceted guide to modern musical theatre performance and
repertoire. It is intended for the modern musical theatre singer. I believe it is a unique book. It is
not an acting book, an audition book or a book about singing. Instead it is about all of these skills
and about the ways that you can integrate your acting, your singing and auditioning skills as you
reach your career goals. It is my hope that it will help you in many different ways to become
more secure in your craft.

This book is a companion to great new books for the serious musical theatre singer which I
highly recommend. At the top of my list of recent must-reads are Acting in Musical Theatre: A
Comprehensive Course (Routledge), Get the Callback: The Art of Auditioning for Musical
Theatre (Scarecrow Press), The Enraged Accompanist's Guide to the Perfect Audition (Hal
Leonard), Rock the Audition - How to Prepare for and Get Cast in Rock Musicals (Hal Leonard),
and The New Broadway Song Companion (Scarecrow Press). Each of these books should be on
your reading list. Its my hope that you will keep this book with your audition book and refer to it
when you are stuck or in need a bit of inspiration and encouragement. Put in your audition bag
and peruse it as youre waiting for an audition. Each topic discussed is presented in a way that
can be easily read and digested in one sitting. The book contains many repertoire lists and
reference guides that will help you find great songs that you dont yet know.

An Introduction to Song Performance

Even if you dance beautifully and have strong acting skills, in musical theatre, in most cases, the
skill that will make you stand out more than anything else is your ability to sing a song honestly,
with a strong objective and other, with a clearly devised and actable situation and sing it well. If
you can do that and make us believe the song is being created by you in the moment, you can
create a bit of magic in a small, poorly lit audition room. Of course, it doesn't guarantee you will
get cast, but it will go a long way toward getting you in the "Yes pile" more often. Your dancing
and acting skills matter a great deal, but being able to sing a song with these attributes is the
secret that will help you more than anything.

The exercises discussed in Excavating the Song were created to provide a structure and process
to insure that you leave no stone uncovered when you sing a song. It is more than a worksheet or
a "by the numbers" process, but instead, it is a tour guide to the work that can be accomplished
when studying these great songs. The word, excavating, connotes the image of an archeologist
digging deeply into their chosen subject while being curious and scientific about her work. As
singers, it is too easy to think of a great performance as something mysterious and illusive. It is
too easy to think of a great performance you admire as something like alchemy. Like magic. It is
not. It can be understood and achieved with practice, time, and thoughtful consideration.

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I begin using some of the ideas in this book when I started teaching musical theater over 20 years
ago. I would notice that often I would see strong acting in scenes from actors who could sing
well. But when called upon to sing, the character, which the actor had presented in a clear and
truthful manner, disappeared once the singing started. The quality that is so special and unique in
musicals is that you can have something highly realistic combined the something that can't be
quite explained with mere wordsmusic. When someone sings in the middle of a scene,
something special happens. The audience is allowed inside the character's mind and we are privy
to a life that goes beyond words. Songs can go deeper than words because music allows a
character to express things that he would not say aloud.

Much of what I discuss when preparing a song is influenced and inspired by David Craig's "On
Singing Onstage," published in 1978. This important book was the first to explore what it means
to sing a song in a theatrical context. I have tried to clarify, simplify and update his work to aid in
mastery. There is a progression to the steps with one step building off of what has been gained
earlier.

I wanted to take a moment to talk about the word in the titleexcavate. We can use the image of
the pyramid when talking about great works of art to connote and suggest that it takes a great
deal of effort and time to build, step-by-step, block-by-block something significant and lasting.
In the process discussed in this book, we are looking at the building blocks of creating a
meaningful and significant song performance.

But stepping back for a moment, now think of the song itself as the pyramidas something that
a composer and lyricist worked very hard to get just right. Most likely, the lyric has rhyme, has a
syntax that strikes a balance between prose and poetry, and has meanings and associations that
go beyond the surface of the words. In addition, the composer has crafted a melody and
harmonic framework that supports the lyric and helps to make its point even more clearly. Good
songs and especially good theater songs are more than just nice tunes. They support the all-
important lyric while providing a structure that the audience can take in and make sense of.
These songs deserve, even demand, to be excavated thoroughly.

Excavating the Song: A Guide to Repertoire

Considering the vast numbers of Broadway and Off-Broadway musicals not to mention theatrical
songs from un-produced or unfinished works, knowing the repertoire can be overwhelming.
Finding the right song for the right situation is daunting. In my work on the faculty of Webster
University for the past fifteen years, Ive made discovering great under-sung songs a high
priority as well as matching songs from this literature with the singer. This book will help
everyone, no matter their voice type or character type, to find songs that suit them and get them
noticed.

What Does It Take?

We all have favorite singersones who inspired us and helped us to decide to follow the dream
of musical theatre. Some of your favorites may include Judy Garland, Idina Menzel, Sutton

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Foster, Liz Callaway, Audra McDonald, Alfred Drake, Marc Kudisch, Brian Stokes Mitchell or
Gavin Creel. These singing actors are unquestionably great, but what makes their performances
so compelling? Is it simply their voices? Their acting skills? Their personality? Or is it
combination of these?

And what do they have in common? Did they attend one of the great musical theatre training
institutions? Do they share similar interpretative styles? Did they coach with great acting
coaches? Each of their journeys to greatness was different and so was their training. Your path
will be your own as well.

You may say, I am a good singer and a good actor, what else do I need except the chance for a
breakthrough role? You may have many skills in your back pocket but there are probably still
some things you have difficulty with. You may struggle with do with your hands when you sing,
or where your focus should be, or difficulty in auditions. The resource you hold in your hand will
address these things and many others.

There is a great chance that some of the things discussed here will be things you already know
well. There may be, however, other things that will inspire an ah-ha moment. Some things may
frustrate you. Some things may thrill you. Some things may bore you and some things may just
be the break-through you need in your performance. I encourage you to engage with the tasks
detailed here and give them a chance to work.

Without a doubt, the skills required of the modern singing actor pose an enormous challenge.
The objective of this resource is to simplify and clearly articulate some of the tasks you will be
doing on a daily basis during your career.

Throughout the book, there will be a need for the reader to do dig up a recording of the song
being discussed. Nowadays, people generally go to YouTube if they dont have the cast album.
Take the time to find the song and listen to it.

Rules or Guidelines?

Do we need rules for something as ephemeral and specialized as singing a song on stage? Judy
Garland breaks many of the so-called rules. Does that mean shes not a good performer? Of
course not. The guidelines here will simply give you a starting point from which you can employ
your unique creative gifts. Let me restate that, it is a starting point only. Some of the activities in
this resource may not work for every singing or acting opportunity, but, as the saying goes, you
cant break the rules unless you know what rules youre breaking. If you go into each singing
opportunity without a process, youll be reinventing the wheel with each song.

In your career you will be asked to sing many different kinds of songs. Some of these songs will
be classics. Some will be clunkers. Some songs you will get immediately and some may have

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you throwing up your hands in despair. With these resources however, you will have tools in
your tool chest to tackle many issues you will face.
Three Things

There are three things that make up a great performance of a song: singing , acting (including
physicality) and musicality. Singing pertains to the vocal sound and may include things such as
vocal color, pitch and breath support. When we speak of acting in a song, as opposed to acting in
a straight play, we mean things like, does the singer communicate the story of the song clearly,
do they inhabit the physical life of the character, and is there a connection between singer and
material? Without question, singing a theatrical song is complicated by adding the subjective,
sensuous element of music.

Musical theatre acting isnt exactly naturalistic. And yet, in the todays productions of new shows
and in revivals of classics, naturalism, or maybe more specifically, realism, is the style of our
time. Audiences today want real. If its not real then its fake. If its fake, the audience tunes
out. But naturalism and musical theatre arent exactly compatible. The scale of musical theatre is
much bigger than our daily lives, not to mention that there is an orchestra accompanying us as
we sing about the things we want from life on stage. I do believe, however, that realism and
musical theatre are a perfect match. The humanity, the warmth, the pure emotion of music is
directly related to the kinds of things we think, feel and do on a daily basis.

The third element, musicality, is one that is oftentimes the scariest for singers. You may struggle
with learning music or you may know that you are not taping into a songs full potential. The
most exciting singers are the ones who can take what the composer and lyricist have given them
a make it extra-special. A part of this intangible quality is musicality. If we were suddenly unable
to see your performance, would we still be able to understand the moments from what we were
hearing? A great performance is more than correct notes and rhythm. Sometimes singing the
correct notes and rhythm lacks musicality. This may seem like a paradox. Music notation is
highly imprecise and it takes a great deal of sensitivity and study to sing stylistically.

The Challenge

There is no other kind of singer working today that has more asked of them than the musical
theatre singer. You are asked to belt, asked to sing so-called legit, asked to sing pop and rock,
asked to sing in jazz styles, and asked to sing in a style that can only be called the Golden Age
musical theatre style, something that is an amalgamation of many styles. You are also asked to do
the work of an actor: to be in the moment, to pursue objectives, and to embody the life of your
character. This is a Herculean task and I havent even mentioned dancing!

The objective of this book is to help the singing actor become more confident in their work and
to dig deeper into a song. Its aim is no less than to help you truly excavate all the amazing things
that are waiting for you and your audience. You are on your way to greatness!

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Helpful Tools
As you read this book I would encourage you to keep a journal of your thoughts about exercises
and questions you might have. You might be able to answer them yourself in time. A computer or
smart phone will also be helpful as you will want to listen to examples I will discuss. Many
things are on YouTube but I will help you find them if they arent.

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Contents! 11
Improve these chapter titles! 11
Introduction! 11
Acting the Song! 11
An Introduction to Song Study! 11
A Guide to Preparing Your First Song! 11
Guidelines for Different Types of Songs! 11
Creating Situations! 11
Qualities of a Great Musical Theatre Performance!11
Cabaret Styles! 11
Post-millennium Style! 11
Musical and Vocal Considerations! 11
Expectations of Modern Musical Theatre Singers! 11
Musical Theatre Singers to Know! 11
Learning Songs! 11
Musical Terms to Know! 11
Vocal Colors! 11
Riffing! 11

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Important Musical Terms! 11
Analyzing Songs! 11
Other Musical Considerations! 11
Critical Listening! 11
Learning from other singers! 11
Memorizing Songs! 11
Musical Style through History! 11
Choosing Songs! 11
Creating your Audition book! 11
Include topics from Creating the perfect audition
book! 11
Audition Book Song Categories! 11
Choosing Audition Songs! 12
Choosing Songs for Cabaret ! 12
Post-millennium Composers! 12
Guide to Repertoire! 12
Repertoire Lists! 12
The Perfect Audition Book! 12
Glossary! 12

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Bibliography! 12
Acknowledgements
! ...................!
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A Guide to Preparing Your First Song! 29

Expectations of Modern Musical Theatre Singers! 68


Contents
Improve these chapter titles
Introduction

Acting the Song


An Introduction to Song Study ....................................................
A Guide to Preparing Your First Song ..........................................
Guidelines for Different Types of Songs .....................................
Creating Situations .......................................................................
Qualities of a Great Musical Theatre Performance .....................
Cabaret Styles ...............................................................................
Post-millennium Style .................................................................

Musical and Vocal Considerations


Expectations of Modern Musical Theatre Singers........................
Musical Theatre Singers to Know ................................................
Learning Songs .............................................................................
Musical Terms to Know................................................................
Vocal Colors..................................................................................
Riffing ...........................................................................................
Important Musical Terms ..............................................................
Analyzing Songs ...........................................................................
Other Musical Considerations .....................................................
Critical Listening .........................................................................
Learning from other singers .........................................................
Memorizing Songs .......................................................................
Musical Style through History .....................................................

Choosing Songs
Creating your Audition book ........................................................
Include topics from Creating the perfect audition book
Audition Book Song Categories ...................................................

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Choosing Audition Songs .............................................................
Choosing Songs for Cabaret .........................................................
Post-millennium Composers.........................................................
Guide to Repertoire.......................................................................
Repertoire Lists.............................................................................
The Perfect Audition Book ...........................................................

Glossary ........................................................................................
Bibliography .................................................................................
Acknowledgements ......................................................................
Repertoire sections:
Standard Ballads
Standard Uptempos
Movie Songs
Standard rep
Disney
Non standard rep
Sondheim songs
Operetta and Gilbert and Sullivan songs

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Excavating the Song: An Introduction to Song Study
Excavate [eks-kuh-veyt]to expose or lay bare as if by digging

Excavating the Song is about creating memorable live performances of songs, but before we get
into the nuts and bolts of how to do it, I want to share an exemplary performance with you. Do a
YouTube search for "Kate Baldwin" and "I Don't Need a Roof." As you watched, what did you
notice? Did you notice the subtle ways that she colored important words and that there was a
clear journey from beginning to end? Did you notice how she's fighting to convince her husband
that things will be alright and the way she didn't give into the sad emotion of the situation? Did
you notice the way her physicality communicated subtext? What else did you see?

I have been fortunate to see her in four great lead performances in four wildly differing
productions. Kathy in The Last Five Years at The Repertory Theatre of St. Louis, Babe in The
Pajama Game at The Muny, Sharon in Finians Rainbow on Broadway and Big Fish. From a
small black box theatre in St. Louis to an 11,000 seat outdoor auditorium to the finest Broadway
houses, Kate Baldwin has truly shown in every production. As someone who lives for great
performances, I have to ask myself if her performances were great because shes beautiful and
sings magnificently, regardless of whether shes belting or singing legit soprano. While these
characteristics are notable, what makes her performances so compelling is that she completely
lives in her character while giving her songs shape and variety while utilizing vocal colors that
communicate the inner meaning of whats shes thinking and feeling.

We could do this exercise with any number of great performances but I wanted to start with a
single, clear example of the things I will be discussing. Kate Baldwin did not read this book nor
do I know her process, but I do know that she is doing all the things that this moment in Big Fish
needs. We could be blown away and left speechless by the skill that she brings to her work or we
can learn from it. I believe the craft of theatrical singing can be broken down for examination
and that songs can be excavated for deeper meanings. My goal is to help you do that for yourself
when you sing onstage.

Nearly every written or taught system of acting theatrical songs is Stanislawski-based, asking
who, what, when, where and why questions. Based on twenty years of research and teaching, the
system Ive devised is a method of sorting through the many things that should be considered
when you prepare a song for performance. You may already be doing many of the things I'm
asking you to do, but by following these guidelines, you will have thoroughly excavated the song
and left no questions unanswered. There may be some activities that are new and might be
strange to you, but I guarantee that they will pay off.

First, we want to ask questions about the text. We want to know who the singer is, where they
are, what they're doing and who they are singing to. It's very important to start with this text
work first so that we don't allow the sensuous nature of music to cloud critical questions. We

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must start with the text, making thoughtfully considered decisions based on our insight, intuition
and instincts.

Next, we want to look at the song as a monologue, separate from its music. At this point, the
music is disregarded and we can rehearse and explore the monologue as we would if it were
from a straight play. The most important piece of the puzzle is understanding our objective,
which we will discover by asking, What am I really saying? What am I doing to my partner?
Why do I need to do it? and What do I need to accomplish by saying these words?

We will also want to pay special attention to the physicality that we bring to the monologue.
Pursuing an objective will cause the body to move and move in a manner that is congruent with
the text being communicated. If you give yourself over completely to pursuing your objective,
you won't be bothered with the common nagging question, "What do I do with my hands?"

Before we perform the song, we will do some preliminary work with the music in order to pay
special attention to phrasing, musical inflection and pacing. This is a specialized part of the
process that is not often written about or discussed. Phrasing comes quite naturally to some
people, while for other people it is more of a challenge. But phrasing is not mysterious. It is
something that can be learned with practice.

It is only at this point that we are ready to sing the song.

Before we move on, it's important to mention that while some songs will suit you well, others
will not. This is a fact that we cannot change and one that has nothing to do with talent. I like to
use this image with my students. Imagine that youve visited a department store to pick out a suit
or a dress for an important event. You go to the racks and pick out what you think will look best,
but it is only after trying on the clothes that you can tell which one looks best on you. It is the
same with songs. Give songs a period of time to settle before you sing them for an audition or
you choose to discard them. Later in the book, I will give you a broad survey of song literature
from the 1900s to today, theatrical and non-theatrical, in order to help you choose the perfect
song for every occasion.

Excavating The Song Process

In the followings pages, the Excavating the Song Process will walk you through a song and
guide you with selected activities and questions.

1. Write the lyrics in prose form, carefully observing punctuation marks.

Song title: Dancing Through Life


Composer/Lyricist: Stephen Schwartz
Show Title: Wicked

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The trouble with school is they always try to teach the wrong lesson. Believe me, Ive been kicked
out of enough to them to know. They want you to become less callow, less shallow, but I say,
Why invite stress in? Stop studying strife and learn to live the unexamined life Dancing
through life, skimming the surface, gliding where turf is smooth. Lifes more painless for the
brainless. Why think too hard when its so soothing? Dancing through life? No need to tough it
when you can slough it off as I do. Nothing matters, but knowing nothing matters. Its just life so
keep dancing through Dancing through life, swaying and sweeping, and always keeping cool.
Life is fraughtless when youre thoughtless. Those who dont try never look foolish Dancing
through lifeMindless and careless, make sure youre where less trouble is rife Woes are
fleeting, blows are glancingwhen youre dancing through life Lets go down to the Ozdust
Ballroom. Well meet there later tonight. We can dance till its light. Find the prettiest girlGive
er a whirl right on down to the Ozdust BallroomCome on follow me, youll be happy to be
thereDancing through life, down at the Ozdust, if only because dust is what we come to
Nothing matters but knowing nothing matters. Its just life so keep dancing through.

2. What are the facts of the song? In other words, looking only at the lyrics without
adding your interpretation, what can we deduce about the character and situation? This
can be called the objective interpretation.
Its about a guy who thinks that life shouldnt taken too seriously and that just having fun is
the best way to live.

3. Once we have deduced the facts of the song, now begin thinking about your
interpretation of the song by answering the following questions. This will will lead you to
your subjective interpretation of the song.

A. Who is the Singer? Describe your idea of the character using specific and precise
statements.
Hes not very bright. He is afraid of not succeeding. He is good-looking. For him, success is
having the best time with the prettiest girl. Underneath his exterior, hes insecure.
B. Who are you singing to? Choose a person or persons that will create interest and
conflict.
I am singing to the prettiest girl in my class, Samantha, who also happens to the best student
in school.
C. When is it?
At the end of last period. Ive just seen her talking and flirting with my biggest rival, Roger.
D. Where are you? The more specific your location, the more real it will be for you.
Outside the libraryshe was flirting with Roger in the library just before this.
E. Why do you need to say these words? The stronger the need, the better.
Ive just broken up with my girlfriend and the prom is this weekend. The idea of not going to
the prom is unthinkable and if I dont go, Ill consider myself a failure. So will all my friends.
F. What changes during the song?
Im able to convince her to go with me.

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G. What do you want? What will happen if you dont get it?
I want her to say yes. If I dont get it, my status as the most popular guy in school will be lost.
That is the most important thing to me and the thing that my self-worth is based on.
H. Why sing this song now and not yesterday or tomorrow?
My girlfriend just broke up with me. I cant wait until tomorrow because she might go to the
prom with Roger.

Write a defining sentence. This sentence will be, in essence, a shorthand for the actors
journey through the song.
This is a song about a boy (a girl, a man, Dr. Monroe) who _______________________.
These words should sum up in a concise sentence or two your version of what happens
during the song and what your objective is. Note that this sentence may include both the
objective observations about the lyric and your subjective interpretation.
This is a song about Frank, me, who needs to hold on to his status as the coolest guy in school. I
must convince Samantha to go with me to the prom or risk losing that status.

Notice how different this sentence is from the one above: Its about a guy who thinks that life
shouldnt taken too seriously and that just having fun is the best way to live. This is the
difference between objective and subjective interpretation.

Songs Arcs

Now that the objective of the song has been explored, its time to get more specific with the
songs moments. All novels, short stories, plays and films have an arc. Think of your song as a 3
minute one-act play that has been thought through from beginning to end so that the conclusion
is satisfying. There are four possible arcs:

The winning arc


The losing arc
The ending up where you started arc or spiral arc1
The serendipity arc - ending in a place you hadnt anticipated.

1. Winning Arc
A winning arc is the most common shape. The song ends with your character achieving their
objective and getting what theyve been fighting for. But, as in life, nothing is easy and there are
many obstacles you must face. Perhaps your other doesnt want to hear what you are saying and
you have to fight to get their attention. Or perhaps they dont believe what you are saying and
begin to walk away. Romantic comedies films share this story arc. In this kind of film, the couple
has things that they must work through to be togetherformer boyfriends, a job that requires
them to relocate or a complication with their sex life. Overcoming these obstacles gives the film

1 Joe Deer Acting in Musical Theatre: A Comprehensive Course

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shape and makes of a satisfying conclusion. There are moments of loss but in the end, there is
triumph.

2. Losing Arc
The losing arc is like the winning arc, only inverted. There is a final losing moment but there are
also some wins before that. One of my favorite examples of a losing arc song is Good Thing
Going from Merrily We Roll Along. The lyric ends with We had a good thing going, going
gone. But the ending is a bit of a surprise because throughout the song, the relationship has been
described in mostly positive terms. It started out like a song,/We started quiet and slow with no
surprise./And then one morning I woke to realize:/We had a good thing going.

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3. Spiral Arc
In the spiral arc, we end at the same place we began. The Wizard of Oz is the clearest cinematic
example of this. It starts at home and ends at home. But the journey is quite an adventure and we
go many places before we arrive back where we started. I see this as a sort of variation on the
winning arc if the beginning place is a positive one. But if the song calls for it, the beginning and
ending could be a place of struggle, making it a losing arc. The middle sections need to be the
opposite of the beginning and ending. You will need to find a maximum number of contrasts to
successfully achieve this story arc.

4. Serendipity Arc
This final story arc is rare but can be powerful. There is a logical, predictable beginning and
middle but the ending is a complete surprise. This is a variation on the winning or losing arc
depending on the ending direction.

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Further Exploration:
Im Not Afraid from Songs For a New World is a unique song in that all four types of arcs are
possible. Explore these questions:
For a winning arc, what are the obstacles, how do you overcome them and what is the nature of
the victory at the end?
For a losing arc, what do you lose at the end and what are the wins before that?
For a spiral arc, what is the beginning and ending place? Where do you go in the middle?
For a serendipity arc, what is the ending surprise? Where do you start and what does the middle
look like?

Lets move to a different song, one with a losing arc and get more specific.

I Had a Dream About You from Maury Yestons December Songs.

I had a dream about you, we were together again as we had always been. It was the happiest
dream I think I ever have had that you and Ive been in. It was a dream I dont need to explain.
Were in the care and Were driving in Maine. Its so incredibly beautiful I dont know where to
begin. Were driving into the night and from a magical height we see two orange moons, theyre
hangin up in the sky like a pair of contented balloons. And as we stare into space in
astonishment, I turn to look at your face and you kiss me All in an instant inside of a wonderful
dream. Oh, I remember two orange moons rise in the sky to sound of loons and you were there,
my dream. I had a dream about you, we were together again, an old familiar pair. It was the kind
of a dream so absolutely convincing you believe youre there. The open road and the dotted white
lines, the crispy smell in the air of the pines, the overwhelming sensation youre up and awake
everywhere And when we look in the sky, theyre getting higher and higher, those two orange

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moons. Theres one for you and for me and, impossibly, both of them gleam. And I am holding
your hand for eternity and youre beginning to say that you love me. If only it really had
happened, if only it all really happened. I had a dream about you but, of course i t was only a
dreamIt was only a dreamIt was only a dreamI had a dream about you but, of course, it
was only a dream.

What are the facts of the song?


Its about a women relating her dream to her former partner. It starts nicely but by the end, she
knows that this dream is not reality.

Who is the singer? Describe the character using definite statements.


She is 28 years old and works in a bookstore that she owns. Shes very intellectual but has
difficulty in staying in a relationship.

Who are you singing to? Choose a person or person that will create interest and conflict.
I am singing to my boyfriend, Frank. We broke-up over our disagreements about having a child.
He wanted a child. I am not ready.

When is it?
Its 11:00 AM.

Where are you?


Weve run into each other unexpectedly at Starbucks. Its like it was ordained by the stars!

Why do you need to say these words? The stronger the need, the better.
Ive just come from my therapist where we were talking about my relationship with Frank. We
did not, however, talk about the dream because we ran out of time. The dream has been going
through my mind constantly though. Ive been trying to figure out what the two moons in the
song mean. When I see him, I cant help myself. Im so happy to see him and without thinking
about the wisdom of it, I start into my dream.

What changes during the song?


I finally hits me for the first time that there is no chance for us. I see from his reaction, that he
wants to desperately leave. As I tell him the dream, I can see how uncomfortable he is. He was
never a fan of fact that I was so into my head. The meaning of of course, it was only a dream
changes during the song. The first time I say it, Im trying to make fun of myself and make light
of the fact that Im in my head again. By the end of the song, its as if Im waking from the
dream of us ever being together.

What do you want? What will happen if you dont get it?
Im 28. Im not ready to have a child but I am more than ready to have my one great love. I
thought Frank was it. I thought we could work through our issues with children. Ive placed
everything, my hope for security, my dreams for a house and financial security on Frank. If I

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dont win Frank back, and this is my last chance, I will work in the bookstore all my life and
never fulfill my dreams of becoming a writer.

Why sing this song now?


We are here together unexpectedly and must tell him how I feel quickly because I have to get
back to the store.

Write your defining sentence. These words should sum up in a concise sentence or two your
version of what happens during the song and what your objective is. Note that this sentence
may include both the objective observations about the lyric and your subjective
interpretation.
This is a story about me, Janice, who needs to seize this opportunity to win back the man I love
in order to achieve the security I am lacking.

Basis Structural Music Analysis


An examination of the songs musical structure will help you complete your work. Look for
verse and refrain in songs before 1970 and for verse, chorus and bridge in songs after 1970.
There is more about musical form in the next chapter. Also look for repeated musical sections.
Below are some additional guidelines for structural analysis that will help in breaking down the
song into beats. These places usually mark beat changes.

1. The change from verse to refrain.


2. The change between sections (i.e. from A to B or from B back to A). Most standards and
Golden Era musical theatre begin with a verse preceding the refrain. In the refrain, there are
often at least four sections of music (i.e. A, B and possible C sections). In pop/rock inflected
musical theatre, this terminology is changed to Verse, Chorus and Bridge with the most
common form being Verse/Chorus/Verse/Chorus with a possible Bridge someplace.
3. Changes in tempo
4. Changes in style
5. Changes in accompaniment

Read the lyric again and mark places that seem like appropriate beat changes. You will also want
to take musical structure and changes into consideration. The form of this song is unusual:
AABAAC.

The Song Broken Down into Beats

Having looked at the song structurally, lets break it down into beats.

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I had a dream about you, we were together The first A section, rolling accompaniment.
again as we had always been. It was the She begins telling a story, a nice story about
happiest dream I think I ever have had that her dream. She awakens him in order to get
you and Ive been in. It was a dream I dont his attention. She is successful.
need to explain. Were in the car and were
driving in Maine. Its so incredibly beautiful I
dont know where to begin.

Were driving into the night and from a The second A section. Same accompaniment.
magical height we see two orange moons, The dream gets stranger with the image of two
theyre hangin up in the sky like a pair of moons but concludes with a kiss. She seduces
contented balloons. And as we stare into him with this exotic story in order that he will
space in astonishment, I turn to look at your find her charming and kiss her. In the dream
face and you kiss me All in an instant inside he kisses her but in actuality, he does not. She
of a wonderful dream. is unsuccessful.

Oh, I remember two orange moons rise in the B section, the accompaniment changes. No
sky to sound of loons and you were there, my new dramatic information. She is reminding
dream. him of the image of the two moons. She
worries that she is losing his attention so she
pulls him by reminding him that this is a
magical dream with two moons, one that
represents her and one that represents him.
She is successful in the objective which
heartens her, propelling the song to a higher
key.

I had a dream about you, we were together Key change! Back to the accompaniment of
again, an old familiar pair. It was the kind of the A sections. The situation intensifies with
a dream so absolutely convincing you believe the key change. With the key change, her
youre there. The open road and the dotted objective is to encourage him to kiss her and
white lines, the crispy smell in the air of the tell her that he will love her forever. She is
pines, the overwhelming sensation youre up unsuccessful in this objective.
and awake everywhere And when we look in
the sky, theyre getting higher and higher,
those two orange moons. Theres one for you
and for me and, impossibly, both of them
gleam. And I am holding your hand for
eternity and youre beginning to say that you
love me.

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If only it really had happened, if only it all New musical material. She realizes for the
really happened. I had a dream about you but, first time that they will never be together and
of course it was only a dreamIt was only a this is less of a dream and more of a
dreamIt was only a dreamI had a dream nightmare, the repeated It was only a dream
about you but, of course, it was only a dream. is as if the singer is waking up to the reality of
the doomed relationship. She ends up in a
place she didnt know she would end up. This
is not what she expected. She realizes that she
will never get what she wants from him. She
convinces him to say that everything will be
okay. She is unsuccessful.

Avoiding Traps

Every song has a trapsomething that must be avoided when you rehearse the song so that it is
successful. The key to avoiding traps is to answer this question: What is the most obvious
interpretation of the song? The most obvious things are to be avoided. Your audience is smart
and you need to stay well ahead of them.

The danger in singing a losing arc song such as I Had a Dream About You is to play the losses
from the very beginning. The actor, who knows how the song will end, needs to be careful not to
give the ending away. The character doesnt know how it will end. Playing the end of the song
from the beginning is the trap of this song. It is your job to identify the trap of the song and not
fall into it. Good Thing Going, as discussed earlier has a similar trap. In the song, the singer
speaks of all the good things that were part of their lives together. He tempers it with some
clarifications that not everything was perfect. It is not until the very last word of the song,
going, going, gone, that the singer must face the truth of the end of the relationship. If you play
the end of the relationship at the beginning of the song, there is no arc, only a straight line.

Actions

For each beat, I ask you to choose an action verb that will give shape to your physicality for that
beat. Choose verbs that are actable that will inspire your body to move. Below you will find a list
of well-chosen verbs that work. You can begin by thinking about what you are doing to you
partner. Are you lifting them or pushing them down? Are you reaching out to them or drawing
them to you? There are four broad categories of action verbs in two pairs of opposing categories:
helping verbs vs. hurting verbs and reaching verbs vs. gathering verbs.

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Helping verbs Hurting verbs Reaching verbs Gathering verbs
to uplift to destroy to share to invite
to build to crush to open to welcome
to excite to bombard to push to seduce
to support to mock to reassure to pull
to overwhelm to annihilate to encourage to caress
to celebrate to belittle to convince to charm
to paint to punish to overwhelm to prepare
to suppress to inspire

Use a thesaurus to help you find others. Actions: The Actors Thesaurus by Marina Caldarone
and Maggie Lloyd-Williams is an especially good resource. Choose words that can be
physicalized easily. Remember, these are things that you are doing to achieve your objective.
Most of the time, your actions will be on your unseen scene parter, your other. You are mocking
them, or reassuring them or caressing them. But you may also choose actions that you are
performing to affect your partner. You could paint a picture of what your life will be together or
you could build a world that you two could share or you annihilate the obstacle that stands in
your way.

Song as Monologue
Here are the steps to explore when looking at the song as a monologue. The pianist is not
brought into the work until step 5. Ive created a pneumonic device that will help you remember
these steps and their order.

The Six Components of Preparing a Song

E-Energized speech
X-EXplore objectives through movement
CAV-Combine action and verse
A-Act. True monologue
T-Tune. Accuracy of phrasing
E-Elevate your performance. Everything combined

1. Energized speech. Using a high level of vocal energy, speak the words without inflection
with speed so that the words form on your tongue without stops and starts.
The purpose of this is to aid in memorizing and getting the words securely into your muscle
memory. Do this until you can do it without any hesitation. Do not do this, however, so
quickly that the words have no meaning or cant be understood.

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Additional activities:
A. You may also choose to speak the lyrics as a dramatic recitation, savoring the images
and biting into the words as you might bite into an apple. Imagine that youve written
the lyrics and are reading them at a poetry reading. Savor every image, rhyme and
alliteration.
B. Locate the images in your song. As you do the monologue, physicalize the images such
as love, heaven or fear. At this point, its preferable that you go too far in indicating the
images. This will help you to see the images in later steps. In other places in the book, I
discuss the pros and cons of indicating in a song. Dont worry about that for now.
2. EXplore objectives through movement. Physicalize the active verbs in each beat hearing the
lyrics in your head but without speaking them.
Once a section is finished, move on to the next verb. If it will be helpful, have a friend hold
up cue cards with that verb written on it to remind you. Start in a neutral position (focus
forward Center, weight on both feet and arms to your side) by saying to yourself the defining
sentence. Then when you see the inciting event, begin to hear the monologue in your head
while employing complete physical involvement. Don't plan what you are going to do. Let it
be spontaneous.
3. Combine action and verse. Physicalize the monologue while saying the lyrics.
Start in a neutral position (focus forward, Center, weight on both feet and arms to your side)
by saying to yourself the defining sentence. When you see the inciting event, begin to speak
the monologue with complete physical involvement. This is not a verbal exercise, it is
physical. Whisper or shout if you need to. Get down on the floor or stand on a chair if it is
appropriate. The lyrics are of secondary importance to the physical life. Be sure to make a
clear distinction between each action. To check this, have a friend watch and then list the
actions that they saw you do. If they dont tell you the correct actions, that means that you
can be more specific with them.
4. Act. Next, speak the monologue keeping in mind the active verbs you assigned to each beat.
The words to the monologue become more important than in the previous exercise but allow
your body to respond to the action of the monologue. You may use the cue cards again. Keep
your focus forward, center and on your partner. Have a friend stand in for you scene partner
if you find that helpful. Do an improvisation with a friend standing in for the scene partner to
clearly establish the moment before.
5. Tune. Having the pianist only play chords or a simple, out of tempo, accompaniment, sing
the song repeating step 4.
Take the same pauses you would take while doing the monologue. You are doing the same
monologue but simply adding pitch. This is a excellent way to work on phrasing and pacing.
The goal of this activity is to take full possession of the song and make it yours. The music in
songs can have the tendency to take over the story-telling. You must avoid this at all costs.
Songs are stories.
6. Elevate your performance. Next, have the pianist play the actual accompaniment as you sing
the song.
Physicalize each moment to the degree you feel is appropriate. Do not allow the
accompaniment to make your work less specific.

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Further Exploration:
Watch the videos on the DVD that demonstrates each step. Choose a song in your repertoire and
apply the six steps. Its important that each activity is secure before moving on to the next. When
you get to step 4 or 5, I suggest returning to earlier activities to refresh your work. Its likely that
they will be stronger now.

Moment Before

Ive mentioned repeating the defining sentence before beginning each activity. Repeating the
defining sentence before you begin is an efficient way to remind you of the objective of the song
and its arc. Once you have done that, there is another step before you begin singing, seeing the
moment before. The moment before consists of three steps:
1. Seeing the event (what do you see?)
2. Taking it in (what effect does it have on you?)
3. Responding to it (what is your response?)

In I Had a Dream About You, the inciting event is the surprise of seeing Frank at Starbucks.
Janice has been in her head after coming from the therapists office. She is still trying to put all
the pieces together and shes distracted. She sees Frank. Shes surprised and happy. Take this
moment in. Respond to it. This response is called the active first beat and this is the moment
when the pianist begins playing the introduction. In this song, the introduction is short but youll
need to fill this moment with an action. You must always remember to give some consideration
to the introduction of a song and the ride-out. The ride-out is the music after you complete your
last note. The first verb in our analysis is to awaken. You are awakening Frank during the first
chunk of the lyrics but possibly the introduction is you awakening from the haze youve been in.

I find that doing an improvisation with fellow actor helps tremendously to make this active first
beat more solid. Choose a partner and explain the situation, giving them an idea of what you
need for them to do. Play the scene before the song begins. At the appropriate time, the pianist
starts the introduction and the scene partner can stay in the scene. Your focus is on them but, just
as a gentle reminder, we dont always look at the person were talking to. Your focus, however, is
still on them. Once the moment before is secure and you are confident in knowing what this
moment is, repeat the exercise without the scene partner.

Further Exploration:
Choose a love song such as a standard ballad that is open to many types of interpretations. Do
the activities such as locating beat changes, assigning actions to each beat and deciding on the
three elements of the moment before. Youre Nearer or Our Love is Here to Stay are good
choices.

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Sing the song given these three following contrasting situations and compare the results.

Song: Love is Here to Stay by George and Ira Gershwin


Situation #1. Im going away on a work assignment for 9 months and we wont be able to see
each other during that time. The objective is convince my wife of 5 years that things will be okay
and our relationship will stay secure while Im gone. Suggested actions: to reassure, to paint, to
caress, to pull, to uplift.

Situation #2. My wife has given me hints that shes going to end the relationship. The objective
is heal over any of the problems that we have and convince her that our relationship is meant to
last. Suggested actions: to reassure, to crush, to celebrate, to open, to pull.

Situation #3. My fianc and are having dinner in our favorite restaurant and this is a proposal.
My objective is to convince her that our love can withstand any problem that we face. Suggested
actions: to prepare, to caress, to pull, to paint, to celebrate.

Love is Here to Stay


The more I read the papers the less I comprehend (Action 1)
The world with all its capers and how it all will end.
Nothing seems to be lasting. But that isn't our affair;
We've got something permanent, I mean in the way we care.
It's very clear our love is here to stay; (Action 2)
Not for a year but ever and a day.
The radio and the telephone and the movies that we know (Action 3)
May just be passing fancies, and in time may go.
But, oh my dear, our love is here to stay; (Action 4)
Together we're going a long, long way.
In time the Rockies may crumble, Gibraltar may tumble, (Action 5)
They're only made of clay, but our love is here to stay.

How did singing the song with these three differing situations change the vocal colors? The
tempo? The stakes? The transitions?

Conclusion

This process will help you to find your unique interpretation of a theatrical song taken out of
context. The process may seem long and arduous, but you will see the benefits in your work
because it will help you to personalize the material and to dig deeply into the emotional life of
the song. The more you apply this process to the songs you sing, the faster it will go. You will
discover that you will need to adjust your process with other songs in other contexts such as:

Preparing a song for a role in a full musical


Preparing songs that were not intended to be theatrical, such as pop songs

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For a cabaret setting or similar situation where you are singing as yourself

You will find worksheets for these other situations in the following pages.

Consider this process as a basic toola foundation to build your pyramid on. As you grow in your
artistry, you will develop other tools that you will find helpful and develop your own process.

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A Guide to Preparing Your First Song
Nearly every song you sing has been sung by countless other performers. You may wonder how
you can bring something new to the song or how you can make your interpretation of the song
unique and interesting. The Excavating the Song process was created in response to these
questions. Your interpretation of any song begins with a thorough understanding of the music and
lyrics as well as how these two are interrelated. A nuanced, original and specific final
performance is dependent on careful analysis, study and making smart, well-reasoned choices.

Here are some things to consider when learning a new song.

Lyric
1. What are your first impressions of the lyric? What does it say to you and does it touch on your
life experience somehow?
2. What is the story of the song? What is it about?
3. Write out the lyric in prose form in longhand. Underline rhyming words. Are the rhyming
words somehow significant? Look for internal rhyme by speaking the lyric aloud.
4. Observe the punctuation. How will the punctuation affect your phrasing?
5. Are there any words or images in the lyric that you dont understand? Look those up.
6. What are the important images in the lyric? How do they help illustrate and enrich the song?

Music
It is assumed that you know the music and can sing the correct pitches and rhythms before you
do this section.

1. Observe the musical indications such as tempo markings, style indications, dynamics,
crescendo/decrescendo, etc. How do these things support the song and help to communicate
the lyric? Look up any words you do not know.
2. How does the music tell the story of your song? Does it work with the lyric or somehow
against the lyric?
3. What is the musical form? Is there something special that happens in the B section?

Interpretation
Although you may sing a song that many other people sing, you can bring your own
interpretation to it by asking these questions.
1. How does this song reflect your personal experience? Trust that information and the unique
subtext that that information gives you.
2. While we want to personalize songs so that it will appear to the listener that you are the
character that is singing, they should not be sung as yourself. Instead, the character should be
one you have created. But I encourage you to create a character that is similar to you in some
ways.

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3. Who is your character singing to? You may not be singing it to someone who is physically
present. You must find a way to externalize your partner, even if youre singing to yourself. In
such cases, imagine that one part of yourself is singing to another part of yourself. Maybe
your timid side is singing to your braver self. Or, perhaps your intellect is singing to your
heart.
4. What do you want? Whats at stake?
5. Create a world in which your character exists and needs to say these words. Where are you?
When is it? What are you wearing? These kinds of questions are invaluable. Come up with
details that help make your situation more real and visceral to you.
6. What changes happen during the song? Musical Theatre songs are special moments in which a
character undergoes some kind of change. As we are taking these songs out of context, you
can decide what changes happen during your song. This is one of the ways that your
interpretation will differ from others.

Always begin by reading the lyric. No matter how much you like the music, a song is not a good
choice for you if you do not connect meaningfully with the lyric. For this chapter I have chosen
Evry Time We Say Goodbye by Cole Porter. Essentially, the lyric is about the effect the
others absence causes. While it is tempting to look at the lyric as a sad one and concentrate only
on the negative aspects, I encourage you to always make an attempt to find the positive in every
song. While a losing arc or a serendipity arc are possible for this song, a winning arc is nearly
always preferable.

The reason a standard from the first part of the 20th century is such a good starting point for song
study is that the dramatic layout and form of the song is so clear. This particular song, like many
other standard ballads, begins with a verse followed by a refrain with an ABAB form. The verse
sets up the circumstances and conflict within the song and the refrain allows each performer a
wide variety of variations on the basic story. Standards have a wonderful combination of specific
action and story mixed with a certain openness to interpretation.

Evry Time We Say Goodbye


From Seven Lively Arts Music and Lyrics by Cole Porter

Verse:
We love each other so deeply / That I ask you this, sweetheart
Why should we quarrel ever, / Why can't we be enough clever,
Never to part?

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Refrain:
Ev'ry time we say goodbye / I die a little
Ev'ry time we say goodbye / I wonder why a little
Why the gods above me / Who must be in the know
Think so little of me / They allow you to go
When you're near / There's such an air of spring about it
I can hear a lark somewhere / Begin to sing about it
There's no love song finer,
But how strange the change from major to minor
Ev'ry time we say goodbye
Ev'ry single time we say goodbye

Context and Situation

It is traditional to take classic American popular songs from the first half of the 20th century out
of their show contexts, even when they were written for a stage musical. Evry Time We Say
Goodbye first appeared in Seven Lively Artsan interesting musical revue that celebrated the
art forms of music, theatre, ballet and painting. The context of this song in its original setting,
while interesting, is of no real value to a modern audience. It will be much more interesting and
valuable for you to create your own story. Of course, there will be opportunities when you will
want to sing a song using the givens of the show that it is from, but for now, lets be creative with
the storytelling.

Read the lyric carefully. Look for keywords and phrases. Also look for the songs conflict. All
great dramatic literature has conflict and that conflict is the fuel for a strong performance. Great
lyrics are akin to poetry, and as such, they contain hidden treasures that you must discover
through thoughtful excavation. Failure to excavate these treasures runs the risk of a performance
lacking specificity and nuance. A few keywords or phrases in the verse are love, deeply,
sweetheart, quarrel, clever, and never to part.

It is useful to think about how the Verse/Refrain song form came about and how verses function
in relationship to the refrain. A song beginning with a verse originates in early musical theatre as
a way to transition seamlessly from dialogue into true song. Without the verse, the transition
could be awkward or even laughable. We can understand the verse as having a characteristic
more closely aligned with speechmore rhythmically free and less about melody and more
about setting up the context for the refrain.

In the following analysis, I make a clear differentiation between objective observations and
subjective observations. The objective observations are based directly on meanings inherent in
the words of the lyrics. The subjective observations are the ones you, the performer, make about
a song. You must begin with the objective observations which are in black and white in the text.
These are the ones that any singer coming to the material, no matter their stylistic differences
will or should see. From the text, we can draw the conclusion that the singer has a significant

31
love for the other, enough to use the word sweetheart. But there is a conflict involving
something that causes them to be separated. With this separation comes quarreling. The singer
wishes that they could be smart enough, or clever enough, to find a way to not be separated. This
is the objective observation. Next comes the subjective interpretation.

Subjective Interpretation

By the time you begin this step of the work, you should have written out the lyrics in longhand
and taken note of the punctuation. Punctuation is especially important later when we choose
where to take breaths. The commas in the verse after this and clever will be places that cry
out for a slight pause (if not a full breath) before the next word. The act of writing the lyrics
cannot be over emphasized. It is too easy to overlook details and slowing down to write the lyrics
will force you to take a deeper look.

Consider what questions remain that need to be answered and which answers will lead to a more
satisfying performance. Think carefully about what is not in the lyric. What is left unstated
between the lines? You may ask, Why are these two separating? and What is the nature of the
relationship? and How long have they known each other? and How long are they
separated? There are other questions that may occur to you. The big question that is among the
first that must be answered is Who is the other? The answer to this question will inform nearly
every other question and answer.

I find that many young singers choose the most obvious answers to their questions. The
conventional wisdom is that the choices with the most turmoil provide the greatest fuel for a
performance. There is a logic to this way of thinking and finding the conflict in songs is
excellent. But Evry Time We Say Goodbye, with its slow tempo and static melody, has a
musical and an emotional intensity that may lead you down the wrong path. Remember, the
positive choice is usually the better one. Some may choose a situation where the other is a
spouse and that the two are separating due to irreconcilable differences. Maybe there is a divorce
looming or maybe a lover is choosing to enter the military during a time of war to avoid a
marriage proposal. While these kinds of choices may result in a useful analysis leading to a
satisfying interpretation, I will ask you to look for positive choices.

Sample Interpretations

What follows are a couple of different possibilities for an original situation.

Situation 1: A 20-year old college student with a girlfriend of one year has to say goodbye to his
sweetheart, Grace, for summer break. Grace wanted them to stay at college during the summer
and take classes together and spend time at the beach. Fredrick needs to work to earn money for
college and the best place for him to do this is at home in his familys business. They quarrel
over this repeatedly. The reason he needs to sing this now is because it is the last day before
summer break and his father needs him for a big project in the morning. Fredrick must catch the

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train and convince his sweetheart that he will call her everyday, that he will miss her terribly and
that his love for her is real and lasting.

Lyrics such as I die a little are evidence of how enduring his love is for her. The gods who
think so little of him is perhaps not so much from a sense of desperation or sadness but a
somewhat comic hyperbole. Maybe he is using poetry and humor at the same time. It is an
excellent tactic. The lyric They allow you to go must be reinterpreted in the singers mind to
mean They allow us to be separated. You will need to do minor reinterpretations such as this
often in your work if it does not destroy the intent of the lyric.

Situation 2: A young mother must say goodbye to her 7-year-old daughter who is going to
summer camp. She must sing these words to comfort her daughter before she gets on the bus.
The daughter feels as if she is being punished by being sent away. The mother sings this song to
reassure her that shes not being punished and that she will be missed terribly. She will be
coming back in a month and everything will be the same when she returns.

The benefit in choosing a situation like this is that the moment is quite rich. The mother is upset
about having to say goodbye but must put on a brave face to comfort the child and to keep her
from crying. While there is sadness and longing, it becomes more about the love the mother has
for the daughter than the separation. It has conflict, but it is more positive than negative.

As a side note, we are often told to make life and death choices in our acting. This is wise advice,
but can lead us to a morass of angst and feeling sorry for ones self. This is a trap that is to be
avoided at all costs. Musical theatre songs are at their most powerful when they are about
working through a problem by making positive, life-affirming choices. The sunll come up
tomorrow/bet your bottom dollar that tomorrow therell be sun and Look for the silver lining/
wheneer a cloud appears in the blue are two great examples. You may think these songs are
corny but they are great theatre.

Analyzing the Refrain

Once you have created the situation for your song, the real work of interpretation begins. Often
people make the mistake of stopping their exploration and asking questions once they have
created the situation. This is only the beginning of the process. You will need to analyze the
poetry, analyze the form, consider the ways that the music and the lyrics are related, then look for
ways to keep the song in motion and active. You must find ways for the song to progress
through time such that discoveries are made and that there is a clear beginning, middle and end.
Remember, lyrics are like poetry. Lets look at the poetic devices in the refrain.

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Rhyme Musical
scheme form
Ev'ry time we say goodbye / I die a little A A
Ev'ry time we say goodbye / I wonder why a little A

Why the gods above me / Who must be in the know B B


Think so little of me / They allow you to go B

When you're near / There's such an air of spring about it C A


I can hear a lark somewhere / Begin to sing about it C

There's no love song finer, D B


But how strange the change from major to minor D
Ev'ry time we say goodbye E

Ev'ry single time we say goodbye E Coda

The refrain falls into a traditional scheme of four pairs of rhymed couplets (A,A,B,B,C,C,D,D)
with a coda. The Coda, or tag, has two lines, each of which ends with goodbye. The rhymes in
each A section are notable because they are quadruple rhymes die a little rhymes with why a
little and spring about it rhymes with sing about it. A good rhyme emphasizes important
words. The italicized words are made more important because of their rhyme. You will need to
consider why these rhymed words are important. The two B sections contain the rhyming pairs
of know/go and finer/minor.

The musical form of this song is ABAB with a tag. This means that the first section and the third
section of the refrain are closely related, or are an exact repetition (with different lyrics, of
course). The second section and the last section are also related. Note that we call this last section
a B even though it ends differently than the first B section. Cole Porter then adds an additional
4 bars of music for the lyric, Evry single time we say goodbye. Approximately 15 percent of
standards have an ABAB form. The most common form, AABA, is found so frequently that it is
referred to as Song Form.

Most American popular songs of this period were composed first and the lyrics were added later.
But since Cole Porter was both the composer and lyricist for this song, we are not sure which
came first. According to at least one source2, Porters lyrics may have come first. Whichever the
case, it is clear that there is much word painting 3 in the refrain. Each A section is notable in that

2 Forte, Allen. Interview with Andrew Ford. The Music Show. January 4, 2003
3 Word painting is the musical technique of writing music which reflects the literal meaning of a song

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the melody stays fixed on a single note (eight repetitions!) before changing pitch (figure 1). The
note change always corresponds with an important word like die and why.

Figure 1

This static melody may suggest a sense of hesitation or a desire to make time stop. The B
sections are much more melodic and higher in pitch (see measure 19 and following in the full
song reproduced in figure 2, below). This musical change is in response to the lyric, Why the
gods above me . . . Think so little of me and Theres no love song finer. At the end of the
second B section, there is a remarkable musical moment when the lyric, the change from major
to minor is reflected in a change in harmony from A-flat major to A-flat minor. Other instances
of word painting are discussed in figure 2 (below).

You might wonder why this is important or how someone without an advanced degree in music
theory can find such connections between the music and lyric. The reason this is important is that
great songs work on multiple levels. When the art forms of music and poetry are combined, the
results are complex and subtle. When you are singing a great song, it is your responsibility to
understand it to the best of your ability. Finding these kinds of connections does not take any
special knowledge but it does take time and careful listening.

Digging Deeper into the Refrain

Now that you have a better understanding of the refrains structure, you can put your actor hat
back on. You have answered many of the questions from the Actors Homework such as Who is
the singer?, Who are you singing to?, Where are you?, and Why do you need to say these
words? But we have not addressed the all-important question: What changes during the song?

Refrains generally fall into 4 sections of approximately 8 bars each. There is no fixed rule about
this, but I encourage you to give each of these sections a difference action. It is possible to
combine sections into a single action but having 5 actions, the four from the refrain plus and
additional action for the verse, will give the song more shape, more variety and more colors.

I have chosen situation #1 from above: A college student with a girlfriend of one year has to say
goodbye to her for the summer.

A 20-year old college student with a girlfriend of one year has to say goodbye to his
sweetheart, Grace, for the summer. Grace wanted them to stay at college during the

35
summer and take classes together and spend time at the beach. He needs to work to
earn money for college and the best place for him to do this is at home in his
familys business. They quarrel over this constantly. The reason he needs to sing
this now is because it is the last day before summer break and his father needs him
for a big project in the morning. He must catch the train and convince his
sweetheart that he will call her everyday, that he will miss her terribly and that his
love for her is real and lasting.

The pertinent details of this situation are:


1. I need Grace to know that I will return to her after summer break if I can make money at
home.
2. I need Grace to understand that I must earn money this summer or I cannot return to school in
the fall.
3. I know that Grace is very upset with the fact that I am leaving.
4. I dont want to fight about this anymore.
5. I must catch the train.
6. I have to tell Grace all of these things carefully or I run the risk of leaving on a sour note.
7. I want Grace to be okay and to understand that I must leave. I need for her to accept this
decision.
8. I need Grace to know that my love for her is real and lasting.

These are the givens. They are the things that I must accomplish during the song. They are my
objectives. Once you have done this work, you can create the defining sentence: This is a song
about a college student who needs my girlfriend to understand that I must work during the
summer so that I can be with her in the fall. I need her to understand that our relationship can
stand three months of separation. The defining sentence incapsulates your story in a concise
way so that you can repeat it to yourself before beginning to sing.

What follows is an example of how I might assign different actions, based on our givens, to each
section to give the song a clear shape.

We love each other so deeply To Prepare. I know this could be very difficult so I
That I ask you this, sweetheart must prepare Grace for the words I need to say by
Why should we quarrel ever assuring her that I do love her and that I do not want
Why can't we be enough clever to live my life without her. The tone of this opening
Never to part verse will be very conversational and yet loving.

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Ev'ry time we say goodbye To Convince. I must convince Grace that I have to
I die a little leave or I cannot return in the fall. I will use logic.
Ev'ry time we say goodbye While my action is to persuade, I have to be careful
I wonder why a little with my words so as not to allow her to interrupt me.
I must be firm but gentle. This will likely prompt me
to sing this passage with a great deal of legato.

Why the gods above me To Tease. I need to bring in a little humor at this point
Who must be in the know because she is beginning to get upset. I will cry out to
Think so little of me the gods about how unfair the situation is and do so in
They allow you to go an overly dramatic way to get her to laugh, or at least
smile. When I say, They allow you to go, I really
mean that the gods have created a situation where I
have to leave in order to work for my father. I hope
that by giving this a heightened tone that she will first
understand how hard this is for me and also laugh.
This will prompt me to make much of the fact that the
tune becomes much more melodic and higher. I will
milk this in a playful manner.

When you're near To Overwhelm. I will shower her with my affection


There's such an air of spring about it and the beauty of my words. I want her to know what
I can hear a lark somewhere her presence does to me and how hard it will be for
Begin to sing about it me to be away from her. I need her to know that my
love is real and lasting. This will cause me to sing
with a great deal of warmth and expression.

There's no love song finer, To Pull. I need to ready her for my departure because
But how strange the change from the train is here now. I may want to speed up this
major to minor section a bit because I have to get on the train.
Ev'ry time we say goodbye
Ev'ry single time we say goodbye

These five verbs are just some that are possible. Work to achieve a sequence of actions that vary
in texture and emotion. The verbs will delineate beats and give structure to the song. Notice that
in my sequence of verbs there is a variety of actions and tactics. Creating this kind of variety will
give your interpretation distinctive qualities that will set it apart from other interpretations.

Putting your Choices into Action


All of this work is well and good but is only theoretical until we make the song live in real
time, moment to moment. The only way to do this is by building it layer upon layer. The image
of a pyramid is helpful. All the work we have done thus far has laid the foundation of the

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pyramid. Now we must build upon this solid foundation by doing the Song as Monologue
exercises.

1. Energized speech. Using a high level of vocal energy, speak the words without inflection
with speed so that the words form on your tongue without stops and starts.
The purpose of this is to aid in memorizing and getting the words securely into your muscle
memory. Do this until you can do it without any hesitation. Do not do this, however, so
quickly that the words have no meaning or cant be understood.
Additional activities:
A. You may also choose to speak the lyrics as a dramatic recitation, savoring the images
and biting into the words as you might bite into an apple. Imagine that youve written
the lyrics and are reading them at a poetry reading. Savor every image, rhyme and
alliteration.
B. Locate the images in your song. As you do the monologue, physicalize the images such
as love, heaven or fear. At this point, its preferable that you go too far in indicating the
images. This will help you to see the images in later steps. In other places in the book, I
discuss the pros and cons of indicating in a song. Dont worry about that for now.
2. EXplore objectives through movement. Physicalize the active verbs in each beat hearing the
lyrics in your head but without speaking them.
Once a section is finished, move on to the next verb. If it will be helpful, have a friend hold
up cue cards with that verb written on it to remind you. Start in a neutral position (focus
forward Center, weight on both feet and arms to your side) by saying to yourself the defining
sentence. Then when you see the inciting event, begin to hear the monologue in your head
while employing complete physical involvement. Don't plan what you are going to do. Let it
be spontaneous.
3. Combine action and verse. Physicalize the monologue while saying the lyrics.
Start in a neutral position (focus forward, Center, weight on both feet and arms to your side)
by saying to yourself the defining sentence. When you see the inciting event, begin to speak
the monologue with complete physical involvement. This is not a verbal exercise, it is
physical. Whisper or shout if you need to. Get down on the floor or stand on a chair if it is
appropriate. The lyrics are of secondary importance to the physical life. Be sure to make a
clear distinction between each action. To check this, have a friend watch and then list the
actions that they saw you do. If they dont tell you the correct actions, that means that you
can be more specific with them.
4. Act. Next, speak the monologue keeping in mind the active verbs you assigned to each beat.
The words to the monologue become more important than in the previous exercise but allow
your body to respond to the action of the monologue. You may use the cue cards again. Keep
your focus forward, center and on your partner. Have a friend stand in for you scene partner
if you find that helpful. Do an improvisation with a friend standing in for the scene partner to
clearly establish the moment before.
5. Tune. Having the pianist only play chords or a simple, out of tempo, accompaniment, sing
the song repeating step 4.

38
Take the same pauses you would take while doing the monologue. You are doing the same
monologue but simply adding pitch. This is a excellent way to work on phrasing and pacing.
The goal of this activity is to take full possession of the song and make it yours. The music in
songs can have the tendency to take over the story-telling. You must avoid this at all costs.
Songs are stories.
6. Elevate your performance. Next, have the pianist play the actual accompaniment as you sing
the song.
Physicalize each moment to the degree you feel is appropriate. Do not allow the
accompaniment to make your work less specific.

Use this pneumonic device to help you remember the order of the monologue steps.

E-Energized speech
X-EXplore objectives through movement
CAV-Combine action and verse
A-Act. True monologue
T-Tune. Accuracy of phrasing
E-Elevate your performance. Everything combined

Conclusion
Doing all of this work is crucial in making your performance more specific, detailed and
nuanced. It may seem time-consuming and may be frustrating. But if you do it, step-by-step, and
build it layer upon layer, it will show in your performance. You will find that the song will be
shaped organically, moment to moment with a clear beginning, middle and end. There will be a
clear pursuit of objective. You will also find that being specific will keep you from getting
distracted with thoughts such as, How am I doing? or Do I sound okay? or What do I do
with my hands? Your singing will be more effortless and your work more specific.

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Figure 2

40
41
Guidelines for Different Types of Songs:
The Actors Homework
The three sets of questions which follow will guide you in preparing three different kinds of
songs for three different contexts. The first is for creating an original situation. It is
recommended that you do this for most of your songs, including songs for an audition. The
second is for preparing a role in a show. The story and situation is supplied for you and it is your
job to bring the character to life and for the song to make sense at that exact location in the show.
The last is for a kind of song I call the I Am song. The process described for this kind of song
is for such situations as a cabaret or simply when it is desirable for the character in the song to be
YOU. This kind of work is especially beneficial when you need to personalize a song no matter
what context.

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The Actors Homework:
A Song With a New Context and Situation

Song title:
Composer/Lyricist:
Show title:

Write the lyrics in prose form, carefully observing punctuation marks.

Objective Interpretation
What is this song about objectively? Looking at the lyrics, and without adding your
interpretation, what is the song about and what happens? One or two sentences.

Subjective Interpretation
A. Who is the singer? Describe the singer using clear, definite statements.

B. Who are you singing to? Choose a person or persons that will create interest and conflict.

C. When is it?

D. Where are you? The more specific your location, the more real it will be for you.

E. Why do you need to say these words? Obviously, the stronger the need, the better.

F. What changes during the song?

G. What do you want? What will happen if you dont get it?

H. Why sing this song now, and not yesterday or tomorrow?

Your Created Situation


Write the details of the situation you have created. If you are using the situation from the show,
use the next set of questions.

Defining Sentence
This is a song about_____________________that (continue the sentence below)

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Song Analysis
What is the arc of your song? Winning, losing, ending up where you started, or a serendipity
arc?

Looking at the sheet music, do an analysis of the music making specific note of the relationship
between the lyric and the music. Make mention of the songs formal structure, changes in tempo,
changes in style, and changes in accompaniment.

Read the lyric and make decisions as to where beat changes occur. Deciding where beat changes
happen is a delicate balance between musical understanding, dramatic understanding and
intuition. Summarize the beats below. You may want to include a few lyrics that indicate beat
changes. Choose a strong, active verb for each beat.

Helping verbs Hurting verbs Reaching verbs Gathering verbs


to uplift to destroy to share to invite
to build to crush to open to welcome
to excite to bombard to push to seduce
to support to mock to reassure to pull
to overwhelm to annihilate to encourage to caress
to celebrate to belittle to convince to charm
to paint to punish to overwhelm to prepare
to suppress to inspire

Describe the three moment before events: seeing the event (what do you see?), taking it in (what
effect does it have on you?) and responding to it (what is your response?).

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The Actors Homework:
Using the Givens from the Musical

Before you complete this sheet, it is assumed that you have read the libretto and are
able to sing the song in the correct style with the correct pitches and rhythms.

Song title:
Show title:
Year of the shows opening:
Composer/Lyricist:
List a few of the important musicals this team wrote:

Write the lyrics in prose form, carefully observing punctuation marks.

Character Analysis
1. List and briefly describe the significant relationships your character has with other characters
in the musical. (For example: Curley in OKLAHOMA!)
Laurie - the love of my life.
Judd - my adversary. He's the guy that stands in the way of my happiness with Laurie.
Aunt Eller

2. In one paragraph, write the essential story of your character from their first entrance to their
last scene. What is their story arch and super objective?

3. Describe the important details about the location and time period of the events in the musical.

Song Analysis
1. Why have the show's creators decided that this moment in the musical is better sung than
spoken? This question is, of course, subjective but nonetheless important to consider.

2. What information about the character and situation is revealed in the song?

3. What information do we get about the character and/or situation from the music (without the
lyrics)? You will want to listen just to the piano accompaniment.

Who, What, When, Where & Why


Describe your character using clear, definitive statements.

Who are you singing to?

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When is it?

Where are you?

Why do you need to say these words?

What changes during the song?

What do you want during the song? What will happen if you dont get it?

Why sing this song now and not yesterday or tomorrow?

Defining Sentence
The form of the defining sentence is slightly different for book musicals. Follow this model.
Soliloquy is the moment where Billy decides that he will do whatever it takes to provide for
his child.

The Bigger Picture


What is the arc of your song? Winning, losing, ending up where you started, or a serendipity
arc?

Looking at the sheet music, do a simple analysis of the form. What does the music
communicate about the character and the situation?

Read the lyric where the beat changes occur. Look for musical changes as well as changes in
the lyric. Summarize the events of the song in one or two paragraphs making note of the beat
changes.

Considering what you now know about the character, situation and the songs arch, choose a
strong, active verb for each beat and write that verb next to the beat in the section just above. I
would advise you to choose verbs that are what the character is actually doing with their words
and body for each beat. Actions such as caress are fine if that is actually what your character is
doing. In other words, dont choose caress if it is a metaphorical caress.

Describe the three moment before events: seeing the event, taking it in, and responding to it. Also
consider your characters history, story arch and super objective as you think about the moment
before.

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The Actors Homework
The I Am Song

Define the I Am Song

When singing an "I Am" Song I suggest choosing a real-life situation you can sing about. One
caveat, please don't choose truly painful situations. This will likely lead to a performance that is
too inward looking and the discomfort it will bring up will not helpful to your work. Really
recent events are also problematic. An actor friend of mine calls this "picking wounds." When
working on this kind of song, you'll want to steer clear of playing mood or emotion. It's easy to
fall into the trap of thinking, "This song is sentimental" or "This song is sad." Instead, you will
be much more specific and the song will be more interesting if it has a conflict, an objective and
has a beginning, middle and ending.

But I am not saying that you should only use happy situations for an "I Am" Song. Tears may
come in your work and that is not a bad thing. But crying during a performance is not a good
thing for all the obvious reasons. Tears come either when we make a connection to something or
someone or a connection is broken. These things aren't necessarily bad. My best advice about
tears during a song is that you should allow the tears to come if you're singing about a lost
connection but only during your rehearsal. Let them flow freely because in doing so, you'll be
able to work through the situation in a healthy manner that will help the song. The feelings you
felt in your rehearsal will still be evident in the final performance but you'll be able to avoid
them. I like this image. Think of tears and situations that cause them as a fire. If you feel cold,
move toward the fire or the feelings. If you feel too warm, move away from them by thinking of
something less painful and more positive.

I want to share a beautiful cabaret video by Karen Mason illustrating this point beautifully.
Youtube: Karen Mason We Never Ran Out of Love

Youll want answer the questions and do the associated activities keeping the work very
personal, so personal that youll want to keep it private.

This set of questions can be used when you prepare a song for a cabaret.

Song title:
Composer/Lyricist:

Write the lyrics in prose form, carefully observing punctuation marks.

47
Beginning Questions
Why are you the perfect person to sing this song? What it is about you that makes this song a
good choice for you?

What do you need to say through this song?

What are the traps of this song?

Are there ways that the music, accompaniment or melody, could or should be adjusted for the
story you want to tell?

Describe the situation.

Who, What, When, Where & Why


Who are you singing to?

When is it?

Where are you?

Why do you need to say these words?

What changes during the song?

What do you want during the song? What will happen if you dont get it?

Why sing this song now and not yesterday or tomorrow?

What is the arc of your song?

Describe the three moment before events: seeing the event, taking it in, and responding to it.

1.

2.

3.

Defining Sentence
Write your defining sentence in a form that makes sense for your situation. You might begin
with: This song is about . . . or This song is the moment where . . .

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Inner Monologue

Power of Two by the Indigo Girls

This is a song about me in which I must awaken my partner of 2 years, Francis, to the depression
shes in that is affecting our relationship. We must both break out of the patterns weve been
following or risk having an unhappy life together. Ive been under a lot of stress at work because
my job might be eliminated. I also have recently been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Im
singing to Francis who is very distracted by the long hours at work and a rigorous travel
schedule.

The trap of the song is that since its so positive I could just make this a straight ahead love song
and forget about the conflict. I had to remember a time where it would make sense for me to say
these words

It is the morning of our drive to her parents for Thanksgiving.

I need to say these words because we are stuck. We arent going to see each other for the next
two weeks. We both feel the weight of each of our lives impacting us to the point of despair.
When I woke up, I had a moment of clarity where I know we need to put everything aside for a
period so that we can get our lives figured out and make plans for a more productive existence.

During the song, Im able to get Francis to admit to her depression and for us both to begin
making plans for our future.

I need real peace and happiness for us both and for us to spend more time together.

I need to seize this moment to confront the situation because I cant continue in the way were
living. Weve both been complaining about our lives but not doing anything about it.

The moment before is when I hear Francis say that hes going to be traveling for 2 weeks and
when she gets back she has a huge project that must be completed. At first this makes me mad
but then it lights a fire in my heart to try to make some changes. My response is unlike my
typical response. Instead of being sad, I decide I have to take action. Its a winning arc because I
am able to awaken Francis and create a space where we can talk about the changes we need to
make.

I will ask my Musical Director/Pianist to make the song a little more gentle than the original
version. I also think it would be smart to simplify the accompaniment in both of the verses so
that I can tell the story and not feel like Im just singing a pop song.

49
Now the parking lot is empty, everyones gone Francis, I have To paint
someplace. Ill pick you up and in the trunk something serious that I
Ive packed a cooler and a two-day suitcase. need to talk about. I Im painting the
Cause theres a place we like to drive way out know you hate talking picture of how
in the country. And five miles out of the the about work but you have our life is right
city limit were singing and your hands upon to admit that its coming now and how it
my knee between us. Can we use needs to change.
this time to reconnect?

So were okay, were fine. Baby Im here to You and made a To caress
stop youre crying. Chase all the ghosts from commitment to each
your head. Im stronger than the monster other 2 years ago that we Im reminding
beneath your bed. Im smarter than the tricks would stick together and Francis of our
played on your heart. Well look at them work our our problems. commitment and
together and well take them apart. Adding up In that time youve telling her that
the total of a love thats true. Multiply life by helped me make more things will be
the power of two. sense of my life and Im okay. Things
happier with you. I often arent going to be
feel like youre the only perfect but they
person whos understood can be perfectly
me. fine. I need to
caress her in a
way that comforts
his heart and soul
and reaches into
her core.

Now were talking bout a difficult thing and I dont know whats to lay bare.
your eyes are getting wet. But I took us for going to happen with my
better and I took us for worse. Dont you ever health. I dont know how Im laying bare
forget. The steel bars between me and a its going to affect me my heart and
promise suddenly bend with ease. And the but through it all, I can saying I dont
closer Im bound in love with you, the closer I be strong with your help. know what the
am to free. And I can help you with future is going to
your struggles too if we hold for us and
could just talk about it. that we have to
You give me the take hold of the
moment and
make our lives
into what we
truly want.

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So were okay, were fine. Baby Im here to I love you and I want to to Celebrate
stop youre crying. Chase all the ghosts from spend the rest of our
your head. Im stronger than the monster lives together. What am i doing?
beneath your bed. Im smarter than the tricks
played on your heart. Well look at them
together and well take them apart. Adding up
the total of a love thats true. Multiply life by
the power of two.

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Creating Situations for Songs
In a musical, songs exist in a specific context within the story. All the details about the character,
the situation, the characters relationship to other people and the reason for singing the song are
given to you. Just because you are given this information doesnt mean that singing the song is
easy. You will still need to do a great deal of excavation to make the song believable and youll
need to explore what is really going on with the character beyond the surface level. Great Pop
music also has an associated story but its not always as obvious or clear.

Why do we need to create situations for songs if most of the songs we sing are theatrical?
Creating your own story for a song will make it more personal and make it more as if you are
saying these words and making them up as you go. You will be telling your story and not the
story of character that someone else created. Youll be better able to live in the moment because
youve made it personal. A great situation does a lot of the work for you. Work toward creating a
situation that gets your juices flowing.

What follows is a discussion of what makes a great situation for a song. There are a number of
traps youll want to learn to steer clear of. For instance, using a best friend as a partner is
usually a trap as it doesnt have enough conflict. In addition, try to steer clear of making the song
and your story too negative. Its very difficult if your situation has too much negativity in it.

What makes a good situation?


1. It has conflict.
2. It has interesting details (location and characters).
3. It has a strong other (the person you are singing to).
4. It must give your character a chance to change during the song.
5. It must have a why. It should give you a strong need to say these words.

Conflict
Conflict is an important aspect of every good story. Without it, the story is without a reason to
exist. Conflict comes in many different forms. The conflict could be that your intended lover is
interested in someone else. The conflict could be that it seems that no one truly understands you
and you need for them to understand why you feel the way you do. Be aware that conflict does
not need to take your song into a negative space. Overcoming obstacles is wonderful and
something to be celebrated.

Interesting details
The devil is in the details. If you know where you are, who you are and what time of day it is, it
will be more real to you and easier to perform. You will sing the song differently if your
character is a hero than if they are cowardly. You will sing the song differently if the time is 3:00
in the morning than if the time is 3:00 in the afternoon. You will also sing the song differently if
you are in the street than if you are in your lovers apartment.

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It has a strong other
Choose a partner that will add great detail and stir your creativity. If your other is yourself,
something that is common in many musical theatre songs, you must, in a sense, separate yourself
into two parts and have one part sing to another part. Have the intellect sing to the heart or
the other way around. Or have the brave side sing to the more cowardly side.

Change happens within the character


Composers, lyricists and book writers create songs for moments of volatility. Change is always
in the air. The nature of songs, because they are exceptional, begs for emotional change within
characters.

It must have a Why


Because music is involved, the stakes will need to be high. If the situation is too prosaic or
ordinary, doing something as exceptional as singing is not required. You will often hear acting
teachers to say, Raise the stakes. This is why it is important. The moment where a song, any
song occurs, is intrinsically of great importance.

Throughout the preceding chapters you have read some situations for songs I have created.
Perhaps you are already getting the hang of it. Lets look at a song specifically with the idea of
creating a situation that brings life to the song and stirs your creative juices.

I Got the Sun in the Morning from Annie Get Your Gun

Taking stock of what I have and what I haven't


What do I find?
The things I got will keep me satisfied
Checking up on what I have and what I haven't
What do I find?
A healthy balance on the credit side
Got no diamond, got no pearl
Still I think I'm a lucky girl
I got the sun in the morning and the moon at night
Got no mansion, got no yacht
Still I'm happy with what I got
I got the sun in the morning and the moon at night
Sunshine, gives me a lovely day
Moonlight, gives me the Milky Way
Got no checkbooks, got no banks
Still I'd like to express my thanks
I got the sun in the morning and the moon at night
And with the sun in the morning

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And the moon in the evening
I'm all right

What is the song about objectively?


Its about a person declaring their good fortune in life despite not having much of what people
might think makes them happy.

Who might say these words?


This is where things begin to get tough. Be careful to choose someone who can say these words
and mean them truthfully. It makes the most sense for your other to be someone who needs to
hear these words. Try singing to a family member who is wealthy, someone you love who needs
to enjoy the simpler things in life as you do. You are worried about the way their life is going. If
you dont convince him to change his ways, hell continue to be a workaholic without deep love.

Or perhaps your other is yourself. You are very sad because you fear that you arent as successful
as you could be. The song affirms that success is measured by many standards and that you dont
need money to be happy. Your heart could sing to your head.

A choice that isnt as strong is that you are singing to your best friend who has lost his job. If you
arent careful these words could make him feel as if you think you are better than he is because
you understand life better.

For now, lets choose the first situation and flesh it out.

Conflict
The conflict is found in your fear that your brother is living his life without the rewards of love
and happiness.

Interesting details
Youve invited your brother and his wife over for dinner. Youve spent most of dinner hearing
him brag about how much money he makes even though he doesnt have the opportunity to
spend much time with his wife or doing the things he used to enjoy. You are a visual artist who
tries her best to live life to its fullest in good times and bad times. He has criticized you because
you dont have a retirement plan and only a small savings account. You want to convince him
that even through this is true you are as happy as you can imagine being.

It has a strong other


The other in this situation, your workaholic brother is strong because of contrast between the two
of you. He needs to hear these words and you need to say them because you love him and are
concerned about what might happen to him.

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Change happens within the character
The change could be in your character because you understand your convictions in a deeper way
about what is important in life. In addition, perhaps you are able to change, if only in a small
way, how your brother sees his life in relationship to his work and the people he loves.

It must have a Why


This is probably obvious by now but the why is your need to change your brothers mindset. Its
vitally important because you fear he is headed toward a life of great unhappiness.

What have we learned by creating this particular situation?


Its important that we understand what the song is really about.
Its important to choose someone who can say these things and mean them truthfully,
Its important to create details that flesh out the story and make it interesting for you.
Its important to have conflict.
Its important to have an other that intensifies the conflict.
Its important that change happens in the song.
Its important that there is a strong Why that these words are sung in this moment.

Now Id like to talk about creating a situation that isnt strong for a song. Discuss Im Old
Fashioned and making it about I dont want to have sex with you until we are married. This
story line is very modern and while I celebrate setting older songs in a modern story, this takes
the song in a very negative direction. The song is about reaching out to someone and celebrating
old-fashioned qualities.

Im Old Fashioned
I am not such a clever one
About the latest fads
I admit I was never one
Adored by local lads
Not that I ever try to be a saint
Im the type that they classify as quaint
Im old fashioned
I love the moonlight
I love the old fashioned things
The sound of rain
Upon a window pane
The starry song that April sings
This years fancies
Are passing fancies
But sighing sighs holding hands
These my heart understands
Im old fashioned
But I don't mind it

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That's how I want to be
As long as you agree
To stay old fashioned with me.

Here I would do some additional situations for other songs:


Johnny One-Note
This is a song about appreciating the quirky things in each of usour special gifts. Its about
loving the things that make us special. Maybe youre singing to someone who feels that they
arent gifted in a way that makes them unique. Your job is to convince them that they are special
so that they will decide to do something extraordinary. You cant make fun of Johnny, you must
love him. Decide that this is a story you are making up in order to give courage to your other.
What are some possibilities?

Create a situation for I Remember. This is a very good song to do because its such an unusual
song from an unusual show. You would never sing the song in the context of the show.

Further Exploration:
Choose a song to create a great situation for. Check to see that you can covered all the bases for
creating a strong situation.

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Cabaret Styles
You may have an opportunity to perform a Cabaret at various times in your career. Cabaret
is a very special art form where you can explore what is unique and special about you as a
performer and as a person. This chapter will help you understand the art form, what it is and
what it is not.
Your skills as an actor and a singer are vital to a great performance and yet what you do in
this opportunity is very different from performing in a show or doing an audition. You are not
preparing a role or presenting a character. You are you on the stage. This can be scarylike
working without a net. But, it can be thrilling for you and your audience.

What is a Cabaret?
Cabaret has meant many things at different times to different people. In general, the term
today simply means a solo singer with piano singing songs in a small room. There are a limited
number of cabaret houses in New York and other big cities that host cabaret singers. They
usually seat fewer than 100 people. The intimacy of these smaller rooms is important in
contemporary cabaret.
One of the best ways to think of cabaret is as a great first date. It is as if someone who you
really like has said, So tell me about yourself. Im really interested. On a first date there are
things that are appropriate to reveal and things you want to save for later. One common trap is to
share too much intimate detail about you. Instead, keep it light, interesting, authentic, genuine,
and most of all, you. In an interview with Playbill, Sherie Rene Scott said about her
autobiographical show, which in many respects is a cabaret, Everyday Rapture, everything is
true it's the whole truth, nothing but the truth, only better. In other words, its okay to take
some liberties to tell your story in an entertaining way. Another example is Sutton Foster who in
her cabaret of songs from her album, Wish, did not mention her recent divorce, but instead shared
her feelings in the songs.
A cabaret is not a concert or a one-person show and it is not about your voice. The cabaret
audience wants to hear your thoughts more than hear you sing. Cabaret is about the lyrics and the
story that you tell through the lyrics. No matter what you sing, you must have a personal
connection to it and a point of view.
A cabaret needs to be personal but it does not have to be exclusively about you. If it is too
much about your life then it runs the risk of appearing selfish. You should always being thinking
of how the lyrics and patter intersect with the lives of your audience. One way to look at it is to
think about what is universal about what you want to say. Without being preachy, it is helpful to
think about the life lessons you've learned or are learning and weave them into your show. Some
of the themes I am referring to could be to take time to appreciate the good things about life or
celebrating what is unique about each of us or we can learn to take the bad with the good in
life without letting it get us down. You can personalize the material while still allowing the
audience to find themselves in your work.
Your relationship with the music director is very important in helping you tell your story
better. Share your story with your music director and allow them to create a backdrop that allows
you to tell your unique story. Its important that you listen to what the piano is giving you and

57
respond to it. You will prepare with your music director arrangements for your show, which may
be very different from the way we are used to hearing a particular song. This is one of the great
joys in seeing a showfor the audience to hear a song in a brand new way that is from your
unique perspective.

The First Question


The first thing you need to ask yourself is, What do I want to say? What is special about
my life experience that can hold the attention of someone that does not know me? This last
thing is very important since there is nothing worse than a cabaret of inside jokes and stories
about things that an audience member may not know anything about. The difficulty is in editing
your patter and presenting it in a way that is interesting, compelling and entertaining. There isnt
time to tell your complete life story. Instead, choose one or two specific things to share that you
think will be interesting.
You will be doing your show for an audience that includes many of your friends. Put that
aside for this opportunity and prepare your cabaret as if you dont know anyone. Do your cabaret
for the people you do not know. Look for ways that you can tell positive stories that are universal
in nature so that the audience can relate to you.

Song Selection
The songs you choose for your cabaret can come from anywheremusical theatre,
standards, modern standards, contemporary pop, childrens songs, folk songs, etc. You will need
to shape your ideas so that every song is there for a reason, tells a specific story and fits into the
arc of your cabaret. There needs to be a beginning, middle and an end to your cabaret. A variety
of styles, tempos and moods is crucial. Dont choose too many ballads. It is good to choose a
mixture of well-known and less well-known material. Present familiar songs in ways that the
listener can hear it afresh and such that it tells your story.
In choosing your songs, it is recommended that you start first with a list of songs you like
and want to sing. Get with a coach, music director or voice teacher and just sing many songs.
Allow the other person to respond to what suits you and doesn't. This approach is preferable to
devising a theme and choosing songs that fit that theme. Once you have selected a large number
of songs, more than you could actually sing, begin looking for themes. For each song, ask
yourself, What do I want to say through this song?, Why is it important to me? and Do I
need this song?
Song selection is everything. There should be a mixture of both the familiar and the
surprising. Allow us to hear something we've heard before in a new way. Please have a mixture
of tempos and please not too many ballads. Include at least a couple of comedic moments in your
songs or patter.

Patter
Patter is the spoken material used to link song to song. It should be well-written and
memorized. Do not try to improvise your patter. It should be a mixture of funny and serious.
Don't give away too much about a song in the patter before. Don't interpret the song or give away
the ending. If you don't need patter between two songs, don't use it. Patter shouldn't be too long

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at any given time.
One useful tip for writing patter is to write stream of conscious about what a song means to
you and how it touches your life and reflects your experience. Then, hone it down to the barest
minimum of information. The edited writing you've done then becomes the subtext of the songs
performance. Stop short of telling us what the song will be and how we should understand it. Let
the audience draw its own conclusion.

Vocal Style and Performance


In keeping with the axiom that cabaret is the art of being yourself, on purpose, your
singing style needs to match your speaking timbre. Use your true, authentic voice unless you
choose to do an impersonation or something for comedic effect.
In cabaret, we use a microphone so that one doesnt need to project in the same way you
must do if you are in a big theatre. Think of the audience as being very close to you. It is an
intimate art form. Keep these things in mind as you are preparing your show vocally. Your
blocking and movement choices need to be informed by the use of a microphone. Economy of
movement is key. Less is more.
There are essentially four positions for cabaret singing:

Standing with the microphone in your hand. This position has a certain performance energy that
is especially good for the opening song.
Standing with the microphone in the stand. This is perhaps the most powerful position best
reserved for your most powerful moment.
Seated with the microphone in your hand. This communicates a casual intimacy with the
audience.
Seated with the microphone in the stand. This communicates that the lyric is very important.
Nothing in this position distracts from the ideas in the song.

Things to consider for each song:


1. Focus (full audience, single audience person, point beyond the audience, other)
2. Mic position (Standing/mic stand, Standing/mic in hand, Seated/mic in stand, seated/mic in
hand)
3. Interpretation (Is the story you're sharing, your story? Is it clear?)
1.Patter (is patter needed? Is there too much patter? Too little patter? Is it clear?)

Emotion
There is a delicate balance at work in terms of emotional display. We, the audience, want to
know there is a living, breathing human, like us, on stagesomeone that has experienced the full
range of life's ups and downs. But too much sad emotion is out of place and can make the
audience uncomfortable. In terms of emotional colors, once again, variety is encouraged. The last
thing you want from your show is to allow self-indulgence to creep in.

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A Final Word
The audience wants to be moved, wants their hearts be touched, and may even want to be
moved to tears. Mostly though, they want to be entertained. We might think of entertaining as
a bad word or an unworthy objective. But most audience members who go to a show go to hear a
few good tunes, to laugh and to have a few drinks. They want to feel, but mostly, they want to be
entertained. Your audience should be your first priority.

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Song Types and Structure in Modern Cabaret

Think of a cabaret as a great meal thats extravagant, prepared with great care, nutritious and
good for the soul. During such a meal, one expects balance and varietysavory and sweet,
familiar and perhaps unfamiliar with a variety of textures and flavors. The corollary in cabaret is
that you want both familiar and unfamiliar songs, both humorous and serious songs, as well as
songs of different tempos and styles. Whether your show is three songs or 15 songs, these same
principles apply. A good Cabaret wants a well thought-out progression of ideas and songs with a
through-line from the beginning to the end.

The New York Cabaret scene is quite alive and thriving these days and new artists are producing
shows at a healthy rate. These singers as well as local performers do shows regionally that are
supported by Cabaret series across the country. Training workshops lead by master teachers such
as Sally Mayes, Amanda McBroom, Faith Prince, Nancy Wilson, Jason Graae and Andrea
Marcovicci are highly successful at the Cabaret conferences at Yale, Santa Fe, Chicago, St.
Louis and many other places.

But since the New York venues for the shows are quite small and shows are usually only in
metropolitan areas, you might not have seen a true cabaret performed in the style discussed here.
Fortunately, there have been many albums by artists released in the last few years that illustrate
many of the things discussed in this article. Listen to these albums for song types, arrangement
ideas and interpretative styles. Of special note are recordings by Victoria Clark, Sutton Foster,
Audra McDonald, Liz Callaway, Stephanie J. Block, Rebecca Luker, Andrea Burns, Malcolm
Gets, Nancy Lamott, Christine Ebersole, Andrea Marcovicci, Christine Andreas, Brian Stokes
Mitchell, as well as many others.

Song Types
It's important to include a variety of song types when you do a cabaret set. The cabaret audience
is very savvy about songs. They know standards, musical theatre songs and great pop music. You
must do at least a few songs that an audience member 30-70 years old knows. You must also
avoid doing two songs in the same category.

Story song
Story songs can be quite powerful in a Cabaret, but the story must be told in a way that you hold
peoples attention completely. Does the story have to be your story precisely? No, but we need to
think it might be. Some of the Post-millennium songs work great here. Avoid the songs that
sound like they are excerpted from a show, like Runaway with Me and Not Afraid. Some
good ones are Lovely Lies, Toll, To Excess, I Took the Filter Off, My Heart Was Set
On You, The Boy with Dreams and Sweet Dreams. Avoid I'm Not Afraid and other songs
by Jason Robert Brown. His songs, like the songs by Stephen Sondheim, are just a bit too much
to take in for a cabaret (with the possible exception of Stars and Moon). There are lots of great
pop and folk songs that tell beautiful stories. Love at the Five and Dime by Nancy Griffith,

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Celluloid Heros by the Kinks, What If We Went to Italy? by Mary Chapin Carpenter and
Dont Forget To Remember Me by Carrie Underwood are excellent examples. Country songs
are an especially rich storehouse of great story songs.

A familiar ballad done with an interesting new arrangement


This is perhaps the one category you should strongly consider including. As an audience, we
need one ballad that we know. It puts us at ease and makes us relax and really listen. The new
arrangement is because we know these songs so well that it needs to have have something in
place that will make us forget we've heard it many times. Think of creating new, tailor-made
setting that suits your take on the story. Sutton Fosters My Romance and Victoria Clarks
Right as the Rain are great examples.
There are three major kinds of ballads:
1. Ballad of love or love lost. Standards like Someone to Watch Over Me, Long Before I
Knew You, On My Way To You, It Might Be You or Pop songs like Make You Feel
My Love and Shes Got a Way About Her.

2. Introspective/Disclosure/I Want Ballads. The Man I Love, If Only, River, It


Might As Well Be Spring.

3. The Message Ballad, that says something important about the world. Coney Island,
Whats the Use of Wondering, Something Wonderful, What a Wonderful World, and
Rainbow Connection.

In planning the sequence of your show, take the kind of ballad youre singing into consideration.
For instance, the disclosure ballad fits better toward the beginning and the message ballad fits
better at the end.

Familiar Up-tempos (not Pop/Rock) before 1965 (or sound like they are)
These should be done in a jazz or cabaret style and not a musical theatre style. On the Sunny
Side of the Street, Shall We Dance?, Im Beginning to See The Light, Route 66, The
Acheson, Topeka and the Santa Fe, and Its De-lovely are good examples. Songs from the
standard musical theatre literature like A Cock-eyed Optimist, A Little Brains, a Little
Talent, and I Got the Sun In the Morning and the Moon At Night fit here as well if they are
sung in a new setting.

Modern Cabaret standards


Songs by John Bucchino (Grateful, Unexpressed, Sweet Dreams), Craig Carnelia
(Flight, The Kid Inside, Nothing Really Happened), Jeff Blumenkrantz (Toll, Lovely
Lies, Take the Filter Off), Maury Yeston (I Had a Dream About You, New Words,
Danglin), Michel LeGrand (A Piece of Sky, How Do You Keep the Music Playing, You
Must Believe In Spring, On My Way To You) , David Friedman (Listen to My Heart, We
Can Be Kind, We Live On Borrowed Time) and a few other composers are core literature for
the cabaret audience. Songs from this category are most welcome.

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Torch songs
Women only and best if done by seasoned performers.

Pop songs done in a cabaret style.


Pop songs are most welcome in the cabaret scene but you should be aware of some things. The
song must be very strong lyrically and musically. Sometimes, when stripping a song to its
simplest form with just piano and voice, the craftsmanship is revealed to be lacking. No matter
how much you love the original recording, please dont do a song because of the recording. You
must re-interpret these songs vocally and musically so that the lyric is of primary importance and
the music is interesting and helps to tell your specific story. A pop song done straight forward in
the original style is probably not a good fit.

Comedy Songs
Most performers struggle with this area but all shows need humor. Try to find humor in
unexpected ways. Jason Graae has made a killing doing "Popular" and it works because it's so
unexpected to have a man do the song. It would not work for a woman in the same way. Avoid
gimmicky hooks like doing "On the Street Where You Live" like a slasher. Start with the kinds of
the things that make you laugh. Look for ways to make a song that wasnt originally comic into
something funny. An excellent example Ive done recently was Part of Your World done in the
voices of the great divas like Ethyl Merman, Celine Dion, Barbara Streisand, Brittany Spears and
Liza Minnelli.

Contemporary Theatre Song


These are outstanding choices for your show, but if you do one, you must strip it of all of the
expectations associated with it. If it is an Eleven-OClock number, do it as an intimate ballad.
If it is a belt number, avoid belt. In other words, take it far away from what we are used to so that
we can hear the lyric in a fresh way. Remember that cabaret is never about the voice. It is about
the lyric and connecting the lyric to your personal experience and well as the experiences of your
audience. I've seen "Corner of the Sky", "Astonishing", "Gimme, Gimme", and "Just Around the
Riverbend" work when it was taken in unexpected directions musically and not performed as if
they were part of a show.

Sondheim
Sondheim deserves his own unique category. Because the songs are incredibly well written,
sophisticated and complex musically and lyrically, they can be a little difficult for an audience.
But as Ive said, the cabaret audience knows this literature. Ive seen major portions of shows
devoted to Sondheim as Liz Callaway did in Even Stephen, and it can work beautifully. But
please, do these songs only if you have a very strong reason to and do it exceptionally well.

What is the Cabaret Style?


The most important consideration when setting the style of a song is that the lyric is the most
important thing. Often songs are lowered so that they are in the speaking range. The role of the

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piano is to help tell the story. The accompaniment is often changed to help illustrate the specific
story the singer is telling. Good music director/pianists support the artist without distracting from
them with too much filagree but with a lot of color and nuance. The role of the pianist cannot be
underestimated in a great show.

Changing Styles
Changing the musical setting of a song works wonders in a show by providing something
fresh and surprising. Faith Prince does a faster, jazzier version of If I Were a Bell and Liz
Callaway does an exciting arrangement of Somethings Coming thats very different from West
Side Storys setting. Why is it important not to do a song in the style of the musical its from?
Remember that a Cabaret is a show youve written for yourself to showcase your best attributes.
If you do a song just as its done in the musical, you put yourself into the role of the shows
character and not your unique self.

Im Old-Fashioned, written by Jerome Kern and Johnny Mercer in 1942, is one of the great
standard ballads. But, it can also work beautifully in other styes such as a charm Song or mid-
tempo swing. A singer I worked with wanted to include this song but needed not to have another
ballad. She also needed an introductory number at the top of her show. A light, charming swing
was a perfect solution. Look for ways that up-tempos can become ballads and vice versa.

If you're famous, you can do nearly anything you want. Sutton Foster sings the greatest belter
songs no one should sing (Defying Gravity, The Story Goes On, And I Am Telling You
(Im Not Going) and Meadowlark). Her show is warm, personal and understated but then she
sings these iconic belt numbers by introducing these out-of-left-field songs is very funny way.
Jason Graae sings Mrs. S.L. Jacobowsky from Grand Tour in the context of the show. But until
you're more established, be careful making these kinds of choices.
Variety is the key. Please don't want more than one song-type in a show.

Creating an arrangement with a Musical Director: An example


Talk to your Music Director about creating new arrangements for some if not all of your songs.
This has become a hallmark of the modern cabaret scene. It's expected and maybe even
demanded by modern audiences.

You begin creating a new arrangement by having a very clear idea about the story you want to
tell. Communicate this clearly to the Music Director. Where are you in the story? What time of
day is it? How old are you? What are the emotions associated with your story?

How Are Things in Glocca Morra?


An experienced male cabaret singer I worked with wanted to do a song about home. The core
idea is that home never leaves you no matter how far away you are. His idea was to do "How Are
Things in Glocca Morra" but he didn't want it to remind anyone of Finian's Rainbow. It also had
to look and sound good in a mans voice. These are the kinds of songs cabaret audience love
taking a familiar song and making it seem brand new.

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His input:
I go on a lot of trips for work and feel disconnected sometimes. I feel as if Im getting further
away from home physically and spiritually. I want to return to the idea of home in many different
ways.

Questions to ask.
What is the intrinsic structure of the song? Its a straight ahead 4/4 ballad in AAB form with an
introductory verse. How do we make it different from the expectations associated with the song?
What do you want it to look like? Feel like? What do you want to say with this song?

His response.
It's like the end if Wizard of Ozwhat is of value was there at home all along. Can we quote
lines from Wizard of Oz to tie the two together? This could be hokey but it's that tight rope
walking that creates brilliance.

When working on a new song, first, say the lyrics as yourself and think about how it relates to
your personal story and life. Second, paraphrase the lyrics but keep the general structure of the
song. Now sing it with piano playing simple chords, colla voce, so that you can sing the pitches
but without singing the song as its usually sung stylistically and rhythmically. Emotional truth is
important. The lyrics are what matters most, not the music or the vocal.
This exercise will help guide you toward creating the arrangement. Perhaps the singer is a
classical musician and the idea of a classical setting feels right. (Victoria Clark's "I Got Lost in
His Arms" does this). Or perhaps the singer is from a rural background and a more folky setting
feels right. Arpeggiated eighth notes on the piano will evoke images of him playing the guitar on
his porch late at night. Perhaps the singer has a daughter and wants to assure her that he and she
are safe as he travels so far away. A lullaby setting would be lovely. Perhaps quote some famous
lullabies. The piano would be voiced high and played with steadiness like a music box. Because
it might be tiresome to do the full song this way, maybe change at the B section to something
different that furthers the story.
He settled on the Folk setting to great success. He started with the refrain accompanied by a
simple guitar-like intro. At the end of the refrain, he did the verse out of tempo and very free. He
then moved back to the B section (So I ask each weeping willow...) with passion and strength.

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Some Basic Rules to be Aware of In Creating Your Show
Dont say anything that could sound like bragging. Use phrases like I was so fortunate
to . . .

Don't make your patter too much about yourself but completely personalize the songs
performance, using it to tell your story.
Don't make it chronological. Its too easy to lose your audience by saying something like,
And then when I was twelve . . .
In patter, don't give too many details of your story as you introduce a song. Instead give just
enough detail to peak the audiences curiosity. Put the little details and the emotion into the
actual song.
One of the goals of Cabaret is to allow each audience member to find themselves in the
songs you sing. Make your goal to reach audience members, not to impress them. Thats
why its important not to spend too much time speaking about your own autobiography.
According to Andrea Marcovicci, the perfect patter is one or two lines that ends with a
laugh.
Humor is essential. If your songs arent funny, your patter must be.
Dont laugh at your jokes. You can laugh at yourself after the audience laughs.
Liz Callaway tells a story about being the stand-by for Barbara Streisands Concert tour.
While Ms. Streisand wanted to see how the show looked, Liz would stand in and sing. As
she tells this story, she doesnt brag about it but only talks of how amazing it was to be a
part of the once-in-a-lifetime experience.
Jason Graae is the voice of Lucky Charms commercials. When he tells the story of getting
the job, he doesnt brag about it but makes himself into the buffoon. Its like a stand-up
routine.
Overt religious talk must be avoided as well as anything that separates people into different
groups. But Cabaret can be quite spiritual in the ways it can remind us of what we have in
common and about the wonderful world of nature and people we are fortunate to live in.
This is tricky ground and its important to steer clear of the traps.
The Cabaret audience is likely to be the most open, diverse, and affirming groups you could
imagine. Assume that sexual orientation is not an issue. You do not need to tell us if you are
gay. And being gay does not give permission to break the rules of privacy.
Avoid the phrase, "This next song."
There is an unwritten rule that you're not allowed to steal someone else's
arrangement. While arrangements are not copy written, they belong to the original
performer. You can create something just as good thats unique to you.

Cabaret Structure for Shows between 5 and 20 songs

1. The Opening number sets the tone. It should be welcoming and well-known. Probably
uptempo and positive. It shouldnt be romantic unless you're romancing the audience. Avoid
introspective songs and story songs. In a cabaret show, you must must allow time for us to get to
know you. Don't assume you have us too soon by sharing something too personal at the top. A

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cabaret is like a first date. You get dressed up and share only the most charming, entertaining
aspects of your life.
2. The second song is perhaps the most difficult to chose. It should be in a different style than the
first. It can be comedic, light and charming song, or ballad thats not too heavy. Remember, the
audience is still getting to know you.
3. The progression from here to the end can be just about anything as long as there is variety of
tempos, style and tone.
4. Next to last song. This is the strongest position in the show. You can put your deepest, most
heartfelt song here, or it can be the most performative song. It should be the climax.
5. Finale. The closer should rap your show in a nice package and send people away feeling good.
Its possible that this could be a ballad such as What a Wonderful World if your previous
song wasnt a ballad. Or it could be an uptempo like Thats Life. Its best if it is lighter in
tone than the penultimate song.

For longer shows of more than 10 songs.


6. For longer shows, an Encore is expected.The encore should be short and special, or fun and
light. An encore can be a ballad or uptempo. If its a ballad, keep it short. Think of it as an
after dinner mint--a sweet finisher.

Further Exploration
Listen to some great cabaret recordings. I would suggest Sutton Fosters Wish, Victoria Clarks
Fifteen Seconds of Grace and Audra McDonalds How Glory Goes. These three CDs are
excellent examples of modern cabaret performances with interesting arrangements of some
familiar material along with newer material.

There are also a few recordings of full shows. Patti LuPones Far Away places, Laura
Osnes ???? and Kate Baldwin ???? are some. These will give you a sense of patter and flow.

Plan your cabaret show. Start with the question, what do I have to say thats unique to me and
would be interesting to an audience who doesnt know me. What songs help to tell that story? Do
have have an interesting, captivating opener. Some comedy? Something more serious? Choose a
song or two and do the internal monologue exercise.

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Expectations of Modern Musical Theatre Singers

If you are one of the growing numbers of folks who have the dream of doing professional or
amateur musical theatre, I'm sure youve listened to lots of cast albums, seen as many shows in
New York and regionally as you can, watched DVDs and spent hours on YouTube. If you
haven't, what are you waiting for? Watching and listening is the best way to learn and get
inspired, but perhaps it has also left you a bit confused or frustrated. You might wonder, How
could I ever sing with as much beauty as he does, or How could I ever belt as high as she
can? Or you might wonder how some actors could have landed the role in the first place?

Have you ever wondered what the expectations of Musical Theatre singers are today? If youve
listened to cast albums from the past, you must have observed that there have been some great
singers as well as some singers who, lets face it, were not great. Does that mean that anything
goes and that you just have to be in the right place at the right moment? The vocal standards of
the past were different than today. Today, the standards are exceedingly high. But do not fret.
This chapter will help you identify the important skills for you to be aware of as you continue
your training. No one expects you to have all of these skills when you are in the early stages of
training.

Forty or fifty years ago, Musical Theatre performers usually were either actors or singers or
dancers or personalities. The ideal of the so-called Triple-Threat did not exist as it does today.
Performers from earlier generations might have been actors who could sing (Alfred Drake,
Barbara Cook, Mary Martin, Angela Lansbury) or dancers who could sing (Ray Bolger, Gwen
Verdon), or they might be personalities who could sing (Ethyl Merman, Carol Channing). But in
the last 20 years, the art of musical theatre has changed. In most cases, performers are expected
to be singer, actors and dancers with high skill. The expectations for singers today has especially
risen because we are inundated with music and because there are so many young performers to
choose from in auditions. Musical Theatre, as an art form, isnt something that people studied
until about 25 years ago.

What are the expectations are for younger artists entering the business today? First, you must
know the singing actors who are working and have worked in at least the last twenty years. Their
recordings and videos can be your guide. Become a student of live performances, cast albums
and video recordings. Ill help you break down the expectations so you can know what to work
for.

The Necessary Musical Skills

Strong musicianship
In order to be a professional, you will need a solid understanding the mechanics of music and
have the ability to translate notation into a compelling performance. Of course, there have been
many examples of working professionals who didn't read a bit of music. But now, with the rising

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costs of mounting a production and the speed at which shows are rehearsed, things are much
different today. You are not expected to sight read music flawlessly, but you are expected to read
music (and understand all the symbols and terminology) and to be able to learn music
independently. If you cannot do this, it is expected that you will hire a coach to help you. There
simply isn't enough time for a musical director to teach you every note. A good rule of thumb is
that you should be able to learn a new song, not memorized necessarily, in two days or less. If
you can't, you will frustrate yourself and the folks who hire you.

Pitch accuracy and intonation


Musical Theatre is live art form. In the last 20 or 30 years, the quality and accuracy of singing
has risen to a very high level. Audiences, raised on television and the internet are more
sophisticated and demanding.

Vocal Range and Style


In most cases, the dividing line between soprano and mezzo and between tenor and baritone
which we have all grown up with are blurred in modern musical theatre practice. Don't
misunderstand me. People still are sopranos, mezzos, tenors or baritones but everyone is
expected to be able to sing nearly everything within reason. If you really want to be marketable,
everyone will need a very strong classical technique that allows the voice to move freely with
resonance and vibrancy. In addition, it is also highly desirable for you to be able to sing without
vibrancy as well as with minimal vibrancy. You will need this skill in passages that require a
more speech-like, parlando approach (as in Standard or some Golden Age verses) or in modern
pop-rock influenced music. It is also highly desirable to be able to transition from a non-vibrant
sound to full vibrancy as this frequently required in mix-belt songs on sustained pitches.

Sopranos should be able to sing comfortably from G3 (below middle C) to C6 or D6 (above


the staff) in Bel Canto style. Bel Canto is a style of singing characterized by beauty of tone.
Legato and evenness across the registers are its trademarks. Sopranos should also have a very
strong mix able to carry the chest voice up moderately high with volume and minimum vibrancy
but without pushing. If you are able to move over into belt, that's great but a very strong,
powerful mix that can sound like belt is the bread and butter for the modern soprano.

Mezzos should be able to sing comfortably from E3 (below middle C) to A6 or B6 (at the top
of the staff) in Bel Canto. They should also have a very strong mix able to carry the chest voice
up moderately high with volume and minimum vibrancy but without pushing. Belt is expected
with true mezzos but avoid pushing at all costs.

Tenors should be able to sing comfortably from G2 to C5 or D5 in Bel Canto style. The
challenge for tenors is singing above the staff. Work to be able to produce a variety of sounds in
the upper range including a lyrical sound, a soft/tender sound (approaching falsetto without being
too flute-y) and a powerful sound. This powerful sound is sometimes called male-belt. Some
reject this term. Whatever you call it, strong singing at the top of the range is what we most want
to hear from tenors today.

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Baritones should be able to sing comfortably from E2 to Bb5 in Bel Canto. Okay young
baritones, are you sitting down? This might seem like bad news, but it doesn't have to be.
Traditionally, the baritone is usually either one of these older character types like the anti-hero
(Billy in Carousel, Sweeney in Sweeney Todd, Paul in Carnival, Coalhouse in Ragtime) or the
buffo (Trevor Greydon in Thoroughly Modern Millie, Ivan in Women on the Verge of a Nervous
Breakdown). These roles usually go to men in their 40s or older. But there are many working
younger baritones who have found a new, more youthful approach that is closer to what we
generally think of from tenors. Sometimes this range is referred to as the Bari-tenor. The Bari-
tenor is one of the most frequent ranges in modern theatre. Its something in the middle of the
two and combines the best qualities of eachstrong singing in the lower range mixed with the
ability to extend the range above the staff. If you are a true baritone, don't try to be a tenor but,
unless you are singing one of these older roles, lighten up as you go
higher.

For most modern shows, the ensemble is required to have a wide range. And dance! In recent
years, ensemble singing in such shows as Wicked, In the Heights and The Book of Mormon, vocal
arrangers are asking the ensemble to singer higher than in the past. Sopranos will need an easy C
or D, tenors are kept above the staff much of the time and baritones are treated like second
tenors.

Part Singing
All singers should to be able to sing parts and hold down their part securely. Men should be able
to sing both tenor and bass depending on the range of the part and women need to be able to sing
soprano and alto. Creating a balanced ensemble can be challenging for musical directors since
casts aren't assembled with an eye toward equal forces on each part. Most of the time you won't
be asked to sing outside your range in an ensemble but you will be expected to be flexible.

Rock Styles
In most cases now, singers are expected to be able to sing in Rock styles and be able to riff. You
might think that you simply are gifted with the Rock sound but this is a singing style, like others,
that can be learned. I would encouraged you to pick up Sherry Saunders book, Rock the
Audition, for more information about this style.

Vocal Colors
In the chapter that follows, I discuss Vocal Colors in great detail. Vocal colors is a term I like to
use when describing the virtually infinite ways the voice can produce sound. The changes in

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dynamics, vibrancy, resonance, intention and host of other things create dramatically different
versions of the song. In dramatic singing, vocal colors are an incredibly powerful tool in
communicating meaning and subtext.

In classical singing, there is traditionally a focus on unity across registers with a similar color
throughout that is fully vibrant and resonant. The better opera and art song singers are aware of
the power of changing the colors for the sake of communication in such ways a varying the rate
of vibrato, the brilliance, prominence of consonants and others ways. But, by and large, the Bel
Canto style is to obtain beauty at all costs.

But for the musical theatre singer, character, situation and text are more important than pure
sound. Beauty of sound is valued if the moment calls for it. More than anything, the singer must
sing in a manner that is consistent with their character's truth in that moment. If the character is
fearful, the voice can and should reflect that. If they are triumphant, the voice will reflect that.

Conclusion

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Learning from the Other Singers
Ive compiled a list of important musical theatre performers from today and from the past. This is
a tool for you to use as you develop as a singer.
Blah blah about how to learn from recordings. Give an example by dissecting a recording.
Youtube search: Obsessed Seth Rudetsky

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Musical Theatre Singers You Should Know
Before we commence with the female singers you should be aware of, Ill start with the singers I
assume everyone knows. These women have have long and significant careers on Broadway,
and/or in film and in television that a large majority of folks, in the theatre and out, know them.
Taken as a whole, their voices represent a wide variety of voice types and character types. If you
dont know them, do yourself a big favor by spending an afternoon listening to them. It will
inspire you. These women are legendary.

Ive listed one song that, for each performer, I believe is essential listening. (R) indicates a
revival. Make note of the actors who have won a Tony award.

Legendary Female Singers

Angela Lansbury Sweeney Todd (Tony), Mame (Tony), Anyone Can Whistle, The Worst Pies in London (Sweeney Todd)
Gypsy (Tony) (R), Dear World (Tony), A Little Night Music
(R)
Audra McDonald Ragtime (Tony), Carousel (Tony), Marie Christine, 110 in Your Daddys Son (Ragtime)
the Shade, The Gershwins Porgy and Bess (Tony)
Bernadette Peters Sunday in the Park With George, Into the Woods, The Everybody Loves Louis (Sunday in the
Goodbye Girl, Song and Dance (Tony), Gypsy, Follies (R), Park With George)
Annie Get Your Gun (Tony) (R), Mack & Mabel, A Little
Night Music (R) (replacement), Dames at Sea, George M!
Kristin Chenoweth Wicked, Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown (Tony) (R), Popular (Wicked)
Steel Pier, The Apple Tree (R), Promises, Promises (R)
Ethel Merman Gypsy, Annie Get Your Gun, Call Me Madam (Tony), Roses Turn (Gypsy)
Panama Hattie, Du Barry Was a Lady, Anything Goes,
George Whites Scandals, Girl Crazy
Idina Menzel Rent, Wicked (Tony), If/Then, See What I Wanna See, The Defying Gravity (Wicked)
Wild Party
Kelli OHara The Light in the Piazza, South Pacific (R), The Pajama The Beauty Is (The Light in the Piazza)
Game (R), Nice Work If You Can Get It, The Bridges of
Madison County, Far From Heaven, Sweet Smell of Success,
Dracula, The Musical
Liza Minnelli The Act (Tony), The Rink, Lizas At the Palace, Flora, The Maybe This Time (Cabaret, film
Red Menace (Tony), Best Foot Forward (R) soundtrack)
Mary Martin South Pacific (Tony), The Sound of Music (Tony), Peter Pan A Wonderful Guy (South Pacific)
(Tony), One Touch of Venus, I Do! I Do!, Leave It To Me!,
Lute Song
Patti LuPone Evita (Tony), Gypsy (Tony) (R), Sweeney Todd (R), Dont Cry For Me Argentina (Evita)
Anything Goes (Tony) (R), Les Miserables (West End), The
Bakers Wife, Oliver! (R), Women on the Verge of a Nervous
Breakdown, Candide (R), Working, Robber Bridegroom, The
Beggars Opera
Sutton Foster Anything Goes (Tony) (R), Thoroughly Modern Millie Gimme Gimme (Thoroughly Modern
(Tony), Little Women, The Drowsy Chaperone, Shrek the Millie)
Musical, Violet (R)

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Female Singers You Should Know

Alice Ripley Next To Normal (Tony), The Rocky Horror Show (R), Side I Miss the Mountains (Next to Normal)
Show, King David, The Whos Tommy
Alison Fraser Gypsy (R), The Secret Garden, Romance, Romance, The Hold On (The Secret Garden)
Mystery of Edwin Drood
Amy Spanger Elf, Rock of Ages, Urinetown, The Wedding Singer, Kiss Right In Front of Your Eyes (The Wedding
Me, Kate (R) Singer)
Andrea Burns In the Heights, Songs for a New World, Saturday Night (R), Im Not Afraid (Songs For a New World)
Its Only Life
Andrea Martin Pippin (R) (Tony), Young Frankenstein, Fiddler on the Roof No Time At All (Pippin, revival))
(R), Oklahoma! (R), My Favorite Year (Tony), Candide (R)
Angela Christian The Woman in White, Thoroughly Modern Millie How the Other Half Lives (Thoroughly
Modern Millie)
Anika Noni Rose Caroline Or Change (Tony), The Cradle Will Rock (R) I Hate the Bus (Caroline, Or Change)
Annaleigh Ashford Kinky Boots, Legally Blonde, Rent (R), Wicked The History of Wrong Guys (Kinky Boots)
(replacement)
Ashley Brown Mary Poppins, On the Record, Beauty and the Beast If I Were a Bell (Speak Low, album)
(replacement)
Barbara Cook She Loves Me, The Music Man (Tony), Candide, Plain and My White Knight (The Music Man)
Fancy Sondheim on Sondheim, The Grass Harp
Barbara Walsh Company (R), Big, Blood Brothers, Falsettos Stop, Time (Big)
Bebe Neuwirth Chicago (R) (Tony), The Addams Family, Fosse. Damn A Little Brains, A Little Talent (Damn
Yankees (R), Sweet Charity (R) (Tony) Yankees, revival))
Beth Fowler The Boy from Oz, Bells are Ringing (R), Beauty and the Patterns (Baby)
Beast, Baby, A Little Night Music
Beth Leavel The Drowsy Chaperone (Tony), Elf, the Musical, Baby Its As We Stumble Along (The Drowsy
You!, The Civil War Chaperone)
Betsy Wolfe The Last Five Years (R), The Mystery of Edwin Drood (R), Climbing Uphill (The Last Five Years,
Merrily We Roll Along (R), Everyday Rapture. Bullets Over revival)
Broadway
Betty Buckley Elegies, Triumph of Love, Sunset Boulevard (replacement), He Plays the Violin (1776)
Carrie, The Mystery of Edwin Drood, Cats (Tony), Promises,
Promises, 1776
Capathia Jenkins Newsies, Martin Short, Fame Becomes Me, Caroline, Or Thats Rich (Newsies)
Change, Godspell (R), The Civil War
Carolee Carmello Scandalous, Parade, The Addams Family, Rags, Lestat, You Dont Know This Man (Parade)
Elegies, A Class Act, The Scarlet Pimpernel, john and jen,
Hello Again, Falsettos
Celeste Holm Oklahoma!, Bloomer Girl, The King and I (replacement) I Caint Say No (Oklahoma!)
Celia Keenan Bolger The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee, Merrily We Like It Was (Merrily We Roll Along,
Roll Along (R), Les Miserable (R), Summer of 42 revival)
Charlotte dAmboise A Chorus Line (R), Pippin (R), Sweet Charity (R), Chicago The Music and the Mirror (revival)
(R) (replacement), Damn Yankees (R) (replacement), Carrie
Chita Rivera Chicago, Bye Bye Birdie, West Side Story, The Rink (Tony), Kiss of the Spider Woman (Kiss of the
Kiss of the Spider Woman (Tony), The Mystery of Edwin Spider Woman)
Drood (R), Nine (R), Merlin, Jerrys Girls
Christiane Noll Chaplin, Ragtime (R), Jekyll & Hyde Back to Before (Ragtime, revival)
Christine Andreas La Cage aux Folles (R), The Scarlet Pimpernel, On Your When I Look At You (The Scarlet
Toes (R), Oklahoma! (R), My Fair Lady (R) Pimpernel)
Christine Ebersole Grey Gardens (Tony), 42nd Street (Tony), Camelot (R), The Revolutionary Costume For Today
Oklahoma! (R) (Grey Gardens)
Daphne Rubin-Vega Rent, The Rocky Horror Show (R), Les Miserables (R) Out Tonight (Rent)
Debbie Gravitte Jerome Robbins Broadway (Tony), Zorba (R), Theyre Mr. Monotony (Jerome Robbins
Playing Our Song Broadway)
Debra Monk Curtains, Steel Pier, Nick & Nora, Pump Boys and Dinettes Everybodys Girl (Steel Pier)
Dee Hoty Bye Bye Birdie (R), Footloose, The Best Little Whorehouse My Unknown Someone (The Will Rogers
Goes Public, The Will Rogers Follies, City of Angels Follies)
Dolores Gray 42nd Street (replacement), Destry Rides Again, Carnival in If You Hadnt But You Did (Two on the
Flanders (Tony), Two on the Aisle, Seven Lively Arts Aisle)
Donna Lynne Champlin Sweeney Todd (R), First Lady Suite, My Life With The Contest (Sweeney Todd, revival)
Albertine, By Jeeves

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Donna McKechnie Chorus Line (Tony), Company, State Fair, Annie Warbucks, Music and the Mirror (A Chorus Line)
Promises, Promises
Donna Murphy Passion (Tony), The King and I (R) (Tony), Wonderful Town I Read (Passion)
(R) (Tony), Lovemusik, The People in the Picture
Dorothy Loudon Ballroom, Annie (Tony), Sweeney Todd (replacement), Little Girls (Annie)
Jerrys Girls
Eden Espinosa Brooklyn, Wicked (replacement), Rent (replacement) Once Upon a Time (Brooklyn)
Elaine Paige Evita (West End), Cats (West End), Follies (R), Sunset Im Still Here (Follies, revival)
Boulevard (replacement), Anything Goes (West End)
Elaine Stritch Company, Show Boat (R), A Little Night Music (R), Call Me The Ladies Who Lunch (Company)
Madam, Sail Away
Elizabeth Stanley Cry Baby, Million Dollar Quartet, Company (R) Fever (Million Dollar Quartet)
Emily Skinner Side Show, James Joyces The Dead, The Full Monty Life With Harold (The Full Monty)
Erin Davie Grey Gardens, A Little Night Music (R), Curtains Daddys Girl (The World She Writes)
(replacement), The Glorious Ones
Erin Dilly A Christmas Story: The Musical, Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, Doll on a Music Box/Truly Scrumptious
Into the Woods (R) (replacement), Thoroughly Modern Milly(Reprise) (Chitty Chitty Bang Bang)
(replacement)
Faith Prince Guys and Dolls (R) (Tony), Nick & Nora, A Catered Affair, Its a Perfect Relationship (Bells Are
Bells Are Ringing (R), Little Me (R), Jerome Robbins Ringing, revival)
Broadway, Falsettoland
Florence Lacey Hello Dolly (R), Follies (R), Evita (replacement) Ribbons Down My Back (Hello Dolly,
revival)
Gwen Verdon Redhead (Tony), Damn Yankees (Tony), Chicago, Sweet Whatever Lola Wants (Damn Yankees)
Charity, Can-Can (Tony)
Heather Headley Aida (Tony), The Lion King, The Bodyguard (West End) Easy As Life (Aida)
Jan Maxwell Follies (R), Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, The Sound of Music Could I Leave You (Follies, revival)
(R)
Jane Krakowski Grand Hotel, Starlight Express, Nine (R) (Tony), Company I Want to Go To Hollywood (Grand Hotel)
(R). Once Upon a Matress (R)
Jenn Gambatese Tarzan, All Shook Up, Wicked (replacement) One Night With You (All Shook Up)
Jennifer Damiano Spider-Man: Turn Off The Dark, Next to Normal, Spring If The World Should End (Spider-Man:
Awakening Turn Off The Dark)
Jessica Molaskey Parade, Sunday in the Park with George (R), Chess Sweet Dreams (Its Only Life)
Jill Paice The Woman in White, Curtains, Death Takes a Holiday, How Will I Know? (Death Takes a
Matilda: The Musical (replacement) Holiday)
Joanna Gleason Into the Woods (Tony), Nick & Nora, Dirty Rotten Moments in the Woods (Into the Woods)
Scoundrels, I Love My Wife
Judith Blazer Titanic, LoveMusik, Bernarda Alba, Hello Again, Company The Mistress Of The Senator (Hello
(R), Lucky Stiff Again)
Judy Kaye Nice Work If You Can Get It (Tony), On the Twentieth Looking For a Boy (Nice Work If You Can
Century, The Phantom of the Opera (Tony), Ragtime, Get It)
Mamma Mia!
Judy Kuhn Chess, Rags, Les Miserables, She Loves Me (R), Passion Nobodys Side (Chess)
(R), The Mystery of Edwin Drood
Julia Murney The Wild Party, Lennon, Queen of the Mist, Wicked Maybe I Like It This Way (The Wild
(replacement) Party)
Karen Akers Grand Hotel, Nine Be On Your Own (Nine)
Karen Olivo West Side Story (R) (Tony), In the Heights, Brooklyn, It Wont Be Long Now (In The Heights)
Murder Ballad, Rent (replacement)
Karen Ziemba Steel Pier, Contact (Tony), Never Gonna Dance, Curtains, Thinking of Him (Curtains)
42nd Street (replacement)
Kate Baldwin Finians Rainbow (R), Big Fish, Giant, Wonderful Town (R) How Are Things In Glocca Morra?
(replacement) (Finians Rainbow, revival)
Kate Shindle Wonderland, Legally Blonde, Cabaret (R) (replacement) Legally Blonde Remix (Legally Blonde)
Kecia Lewis-Evans Once on This Island, The Drowsy Chaperone, Leap of Faith, Mama Will Provide (Once On This Island)
Dessa Rose
Kerry Butler Xanadu, Rock of Ages, Catch Me If You Can, Hairspray, Fly, Fly Away (Catch Me If You Can)
Prodigal, Little Shop of Horrors (R),
LaChanze The Color Purple (Tony), Once on This Island, If/Then, Im Here (The Color Purple)
Dessa Rose, The Bubby Black Girl Sheds Her Chameleon
Skin
Laura Bell Bundy Legally Blonde, Hairspray, Wicked (replacement), Ruthless! So Much Better (Legally Blonde)

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Laura Benanti Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown (Tony), Model Behavior (Women on the Verge of a
Gypsy (Tony), The Wedding Singer, Nine (R), Into the Nervous Breakdown)
Woods (R), Swing!, The Sound of Music (R) (replacement)
Laura Osnes Cinderella (Tony), Bonnie & Clyde, Anything Goes (R), Dyin Aint So Bad (Bonnie & Clyde)
Grease (R), South Pacific (R) (replacement)
Lauren Bacall Woman of the Year (Tony), Applause (Tony) Welcome To the Theatre (Applause)
Lauren Kennedy Vanities, Monty Pythons Spamalot (replacement), Sunset Fly Into The Future (Vanities)
Boulevard (replacement), Disaster
Lauren Ward Matilda: The Musical, 1776 (R), Follies (R), Violet, Saturday Pathetic (Matilda: The Musical)
Night
Lea Salonga Miss Saigon (Tony), Flower Drum Song (R), Les Miserables Id Give My Life For You (Miss Saigon)
(replacement)
Leslie Kritzer Sondheim on Sondheim, A Catered Affair, Rooms: A Rock One White Dress (A Catered Affair)
Musical, Legally Blonde, Elf, The Great American Trailer
Park Musical, Godspell (R)
Lillias White Fela!, The Life (Tony), How To Succeed In Business The Oldest Profession (The Life)
Without Really Trying (R), Dreamgirls (R),
Linda Balgord The Pirate Queen, Death Takes a Holiday, La Cage aux The Role Of The Queen (The Pirate
Folles (R), Passion, Queen)
Lindsay Mendez Godspell (R), Everyday Rapture, Dogfight, Grease (R), Pretty Funny (Dogfight)
Wicked (replacement)
Lisa Howard The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee, South Pacific Infinite Joy (Songs of Innocence &
(R), 9 to 5, Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (replacement) Experience, album)
Liz Callaway Baby, Miss Saigon, The Look of Love, Brownstone, The The Story Goes On (Baby)
Spitfire Grill, Merrily We Roll Along
Madeline Kahn Two by Two, On the Twentieth Century Never (On The Twentieth Century)
Mandy Gonzalez In the Heights, Lennon, Wicked (replacement), Dance of the Breathe (In The Heights)
Vampires
Mara Davi Death Takes a Holiday, Irving Berlins White Christmas (R), Shimmy Like They Do In Paree (Death
A Chorus Line (R), The Drowsy Chaperone (replacement), Takes a Holiday)
Toxic Avenger
Maria Schaffel Jane Eyre, Titanic (replacement) Painting Her Portrait (Jane Eyre)
Marin Mazzie Ragtime, Passion, Kiss Me Kate (R), Man of La Mancha (R),Back to Before (Ragtime)
Next to Normal (replacement), Bullets Over Broadway
Mary Beth Peil King and I (R), Follies (R), Sunday in the Park with George Ah, Paris! (Follies, revival)
(R), Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown
Mary Louise Wilson Grey Gardens (Tony), Cabaret (R), Gypsy (R), Flora, the What Would You Do? (Cabaret, revival)
Red Menace
Mary Testa Guys and Dolls (R), Xanadu, 42nd Street (R), Marie Change (A New Brain)
Christine, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the
Forum (R), Queen of the Mist, See What I Wanna See, A
New Brain
Megan Hilty 9 to 5, Wicked (replacement) Lets Be Bad (The Music of Smash,
album)
Megan McGinnis Little Women, Thoroughly Modern Millie (replacement), Les Some Things Are Meant To Be (Little
Miserables (R) Women)
Megan Mullally Young Frankenstein, How to Succeed in Business Without Happy To Keep His Dinner Warm (How
Really Trying (R), Grease (R) To Succeed In Business)
Melissa Errico Amour, Dracula, The Musical, Irving Berlins White Dusoleil in Jail (Amour)
Christmas, Passion (R), High Society, My Fair Lady (R),
Anna Karenina
Michele Pawk Seussical, Reefer Madness, Bounce, Cabaret (R), Triumph of Amayzing Mayzie (Seussical)
Love, Hello Again, Crazy For You
Montego Glover Memphis, The Color Purple (replacement) Colored Women (Memphis)
Nancy Opel Urinetown, Fiddler on the Roof (R), Triumph of Love, Toxic Its a Privilege to Pee (Urinetown)
Avenger, Evita (replacement), Personals
Nancy Walker On the Town, Best Foot Forward, Do Re Mi I Can Cook Too (On The Town)
Natascia Diaz The Capeman, Seussical, Man of La Mancha (R), Jacques My Death (Jacques Brel Is Alive and Well
Brel is Alive and Well and Living in Paris (R) and Living in Paris)
Nikki M. James The Book of Mormon (Tony), Les Miserables (R), All Shook Sal Tlay Ka Siti (The Book of Mormon)
Up
Orfeh Saturday Night Fever, Legally Blonde, Footloose Ireland (Legally Blonde)
(replacement)
Pam Myers Company, Into the Woods (R), Snoopy Another Hundred People (Company)

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Patina Miller Pippin (R) (Tony), Sister Act Sister Act (Sister Act)
Priscilla Lopez A Chorus Line, Nine, In the Heights, A Day in Hollywood/A What I Did For Love (A Chorus Line)
Night in the Ukraine (Tony)
Rachel York City of Angels, Victor/Victoria, The Scarlet Pimpernel Lost & Found (City of Angels)
(replacement), Dessa Rose, Summer of 42,
Randy Graff City of Angels (Tony), High Society, A Class Act, Fiddler on You Can Always Count On Me (City of
the Roof (R), Angels)
Rebecca Luker The Secret Garden, Show Boat (R), The Sound of Music (R), I Have Confidence (The Sound Of Music,
The Music Man (R), Nine (R), Mary Poppins revival)
Sally Mayes She Loves Me (R), Urban Cowboy, Das Barbecu, Closer A Trip To The Library (She Loves Me)
Than Ever
Sally Murphy Carousel (R), The Wild Party, Fiddler on the Roof (R), Whats The Use Of Wondrin (Carousel,
Bernarda Alba, A Man of No Importance revival)
Sara Ramirez Spamalot (Tony), A Class Act, The Capeman Divas Lament (Whatever Happened To
My Part) (Spamalot)
Sarah Brightman The Phantom of the Opera Think of Me (The Phantom of the Opera)
Sarah Uriarte Berry Taboo, The Light in the Piazza, Next to Normal The Joy You Feel (The Light In The
(replacement) Piazza)
Sherie Rene Scott Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, Everyday Lovesick (Women on the Verge of a
Rapture, The Little Mermaid, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, Aida, Nervous Breakdown)
The Whos Tommy, The Last Five Years, Debbie Does
Dallas
Shoshana Bean Wicked (replacement), Hairspray, Godspell (R) Bless The Lord (Godspell, revival)
Sierra Boggess The Little Mermaid, The Phantom of the Opera Part of Your World (The Little Mermaid)
(replacement), Love Never Dies
Stephanie DAbruzzo Avenue Q, I Love You Because Theres a Fine, Fine Line (Avenue Q)
Stephanie J. Block The Mystery of Edwin Drood, The Boy from Oz, The Pirate The Writing On the Wall (The Mystery Of
Queen, 9 to 5, Anything Goes (R) (replacement) Edwin Drood, revival)
Susan Egan Beauty and the Beast, Triumph of Love, Cabaret (R) Anything (Triumph of Love)
(replacement),
Terri White Follies (R), Finians Rainbow (R), Barnum Necessity (Finians Rainbow, revival)
Theresa McCarthy Titanic, Queen of the Mist I Remember (The Frogs - Evening
Primrose (2001 Studio Cast album)
Tonya Pinkins Caroline, or Change, The Wild Party, Jellys Last Jam Lots Wife (Caroline, Or Change)
(Tony), Merrily We Roll Along
Vanessa Williams Sondheim on Sondheim, Into the Woods (R), Kiss of the Last Midnight (Into The Woods, revival)
Spider Woman (replacement)
Victoria Clark The Light in the Piazza (Tony), Cinderella, Sister Act, Dividing Day (The Light In the Piazza)
Titanic, How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying
(R), Guys and Dolls (R)

77
Male Singers You Should Know

Aaron Lazar The Light in the Piazza, Les Miserables (R), A Tale of Two In Praise of Women (A Little Night
Cities, A Little Night Music (R) Music, revival)
Aaron Tveit Catch Me If You Can, Next To Normal, Wicked (replacement) Im Alive (Next To Normal)
Adam Pascal Rent, Aida, Memphis (replacement) One Song Glory (Rent)
Alexander Gemignani Les Miserables (R), Sweeney Todd (R), Sunday In the Park Ladies in Their Sensitivities
With George (R), Assassins (R), The People in the Picture, (Sweeney Todd, revival)
Pump Boys and Dinettes (R), Road Show
Alfred Drake Oklahoma!, Beggars Holiday, Kiss Me, Kate, Kismet (Tony), Oh, What a Beautiful Morning
Gigi (Oklahoma!)
Anthony Crivello Kiss of the Spider Woman (Tony), Les Miserables, Marie Marta (Kiss of the Spider Woman)
Christine, Golden Boy (R), Evita (R)
Barrett Foa Godspell (R), Avenue Q (replacement) God Save the People (Godspell)
Ben Vereen Jesus Christ Superstar, Pippin (Tony), Grind, Jellys Last Simple Joys (Pippin)
Jam, Fosse, Wicked (replacement)
Billy Porter Kinky Boots (Tony), Grease (R), Miss Saigon (replacement), Hold Me In Your Heart (Kinky
Its Only Life Boots)
Bobby Steggert Big Fish, Ragtime (R), 110 in the Shade, A Ministers Wife Shallops and Scrubbing Brushes (A
Ministers Wife)
Boyd Gaines Gypsy (R) (Tony), Contact (Tony), Company (R), She Loves Tonight at Eight (She Loves Me,
Me (Tony) (R) revival)
Brent Barrett Closer Than Ever, Silence! The Musical, Grand Hotel New Words (The Maury Yeston
Songbook, recording)
Brent Carver Parade (Tony), Kiss of the Spider Woman (Tony), My Life Its Hard to Speak My Heart
With Albertine, Jesus Christ Superstar (R), (Parade)
Brent Spiner Sunday In The Park With George, Big River, 1776 (R) Is Anybody There? (1776)
Brian d'Arcy James Shrek, The Sweet Smell of Success, Titanic, The Apple Tree At the Fountain (The Sweet Smell
(R), Giant, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels (replacement) of Success)
Brian Stokes Mitchell Ragtime, Kiss Me, Kate (R) (Tony), Man of La Mancha (R), Coalhouse's Soliloquy (Ragtime)
Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown
Brooks Ashmanskas Martin Short: Fame Becomes Me, Promises, Promises (R), On My Bedside Table (Its Only
Bullets Over Broadway, Its Only Life Life)
Chad Kimball Memphis, Lennon, Good Vibrations, Into the Woods (R). My Memphis Lives In Me
Life With Albertine, Godspell (R) (Memphis)
Cheyenne Jackson All Shook Up, Xanadu, Finians Rainbow, Altar Boyz, Roustabout (All Shook Up)
Chip Zien Into The Woods, Falsettos, The Boys From Syracuse (R), A No More (Into the Woods)
New Brain, The People In the Picture, Chitty Chitty Bang
Bang
Christian Borle Legally Blonde, Mary Poppins (replacement, Spamalot, When the Earth Stopped Turning
Elegies, Prodigal, Jesus Christ Superstar (R) (Elegies)
Christopher Fitzgerald Finians Rainbow (R), Young Frankenstein, Wicked, Amour When I'm Not Near the Girl I Love
(Finians Rainbow)
Christopher Sieber Triumph of Love, Spamalot, Into the Woods (R), Shrek The Issue in Question (Triumph of Love)
Musical, The Kid
Chuck Cooper The Life (Tony), Finians Rainbow (R), Lennon, Caroline, The Bus (Carolin, Or Change)
Or Change
Chuck Wagner Into The Woods, Dracula, The Musical, Les Miserables Agony (Into the Woods)
(replacement)
Colm Wilkinson Les Miserables, Jesus Christ Superstar (West End) Bring Him Home (Les Miserables)

Constantine Maroulis Rock of Ages, Jekyll & Hyde (R), The Wedding Singer This is the Moment (Jekyll & Hyde,
(replacement) revival)
Danny Burstein The Drowsy Chaperone, South Pacific (R), Women on the The Right Girl (Follies, revival)
Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, Follies (R), Cabaret (R)
Darius de Haas Marie Christine, The Gershwins Fascinating Rhythm, Kiss of In Whatever Time We Have
the Spider Woman (replacement) (Children of Eden)

David Hyde Pierce Spamalot, Curtains (Tony) Coffee Shop Nights (Curtains)
Dick van Dyke Bye Bye Birdie (Tony), The Music Man (R) Put on a Happy Face (Bye Bye
Birdie)
Douglas Sills The Scarlet Pimpernel, Little Shop of Horrors (R) Into the Fire (The Scarlet Pimpernel)

78
Eddie Korbich The Little Mermaid, The Drowsy Chaperone, Carousel (R), Geraniums in the Winder (Carousel,
Sweeney Todd (R), Assassins (R), Seussical, A Christmas revival)
Story, A Gentlemans Guide To Love and Murder
Euan Morton Taboo, Sondheim on Sondheim Pretty Lies (Taboo)
Gary Beach La Cage aux Folles (R), The Producers (Tony), Les Miserables Springtime for Hitler, Pt. II (The
(R), Beauty and the Beast, Doonesbury, Somethins Afoot Producers)
Gavin Creel Thoroughly Modern Millie, La Cage aux Folles (R), Hair (R), What Do I Need With Love?
Bounce (regional) (Thoroughly Modern Millie)
George Hearn La Cage aux Folles (Tony), Sunset Boulevard (Tony), Putting I Am What I Am (La Cage aux
It Together, Wicked (replacement), Scandalous, Meet Me in St. Folles)
Louis
Gregg Edelman City of Angels, Anna Karenina, Passion, 1776 (R), Into the A Quiet Girl (Wonderful Town,
Woods (R), Wonderful Town (R), A Tale of Two Cities, The revival)
Mystery of Edwin Drood, Cabaret (R)
Gregory Hines Jellys Last Jam (Tony), Sophisticated Ladies, Eubie!, The Girl In My Day (Jellys Last Jam)
in the Pink Tights
Gregory Jbara Billy Elliot: The Musical (Tony), Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, Deep Into the Ground (Billy Elliot:
Victor/Victoria, Damn Yankees (R) The Musical)
Harry Connick The Pajama Game (R), On A Clear Day You Can See Forever Hey There (The Pajama Game,
(R) revival)
Hinton Battle The Tap Dance Kid (Tony), Miss Saigon (Tony), Sophisticated Bui Doi (Miss Saigon)
Ladies (Tony), The Wiz, Dreamgirls (replacement)
Howard Keel Carousel (R), Saratoga, Ambassador, Oklahoma! (replacement)Where is the Life That Late I Led?
(Kiss Me Kate, film soundtrack)
Howard McGillin She Loves Me (R), Anything Goes (R), The Mystery of Edwin Ilona (She Loves Me, revival)
(replacement),
Drood
Hugh Jackman The Boy From Oz (Tony), Oklahoma (West End) The Lives Of Me (The Boy From
Oz)
Hugh Panaro Lestat, Side Show, Show Boat (R) (replacement), The Red Sail Me Away (Lestat)
Shoes
Hunter Foster Urinetown, Million Dollar Quartet, Little Shop of Horrors (R), Run, Freedom, Run (Urinetown)
Hands on a Hardbody, Happiness, The Bridges of Madison
County, Frankenstein, a New Musical
James Barbour Jane Eyre, Assassins (R), A Tale of Two Cities, CyranoThe As Good As You (Jane Eyre)
Musical
James Naughton Chicago (Tony) (R), City of Angels (Tony), I Love My Wife
Jarrod Emick Damn Yankees (Tony) (R), The Rocky Horror Show (R), The I Honesty Love You (The Boy From
Boy From Oz, Ring of Fire Oz)
Jason Danieley The Full Monty, Curtains, Next to Normal (replacement), I Miss the Music (Curtains)
Candide (R)
Jason Graae A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to The Forum (R), No, Mary Ann (Unsung Sondheim,
Lucky Stiff, Falsettos (replacement), Do Black Patent Leather album)
Shoes Really Reflect Up?
Jeff McCarthy The Pirate Queen, Urinetown, Side Show, Smile, Beauty and Only At Night (Anna Karenina)
the Beast (replacement), Anna Karenina
Jeremy Jordan Newsies, Bonnie & Clyde, West Side Story (R) (replacement) Santa Fe (Newsies)

Jerry Orbach Chicago, Promises, Promises (Tony), 42nd Street, The Half As Big As Life (Promises,
Fantasticks, Guys and Dolls (R), Carnival Promises)
Joel Grey Cabaret (Tony), Chicago (Tony) (R), George M!, Wicked, Mister Cellophane (Chicago)
Goodtime Charley, The Grand Tour, Anything Goes (R)
John Cameron Mitchel Big River, The Secret Garden, Hedwig and the Angry Inch, Winters On the Wing (Big River)
Hello Again
John Cullum Shenandoah (Tony), On the Twentieth Century (Tony), Molasses To Rum (1776, film
Urinetown, 110 in the Shade (R), Scottsboro Boys, 1776 soundtrack)
(replacement)
John Gallagher Jr. Spring Awakening (Tony), American Idiot Dont Do Sadness (Spring
Awakening)
John Lithgow Sweet Smell of Success (Tony), Dirty Rotten Scoundrels Love Sneaks In (Dirty Rotten
Scoundrels)
John Raitt Carousel, The Pajama Game, A Joyful Noise, Carnival in Soliloquy (Carousel)
Flanders
John Rubenstein Pippin, Ragtime (replacement), Wicked (replacement) Corner of the Sky (Pippin)

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Keith Byron Kirk The Civil War, King David, Elegies, A New Brain These Two (This Ordinary
Thursday: The Songs of Georgia
Stitt, album)
Ken Page Cats, Aint Misbehavin, Guys and Dolls (R) My City (Page by Page, album)
Kevin Chamberlin The Addams Family, Seussical, Triumph of Love, Chicago (R) The Moon and Me (The Addams
(replacement) Family)
Kevin Earley A Tale of Two Cities, Death Takes a Holiday, Les Miserables I Thought That I Could Live (Death
(replacement) Takes a Holiday)
Kevin Kline On the Twentieth Century (Tony), The Pirates of Penzance Oh, Better Far to Live and Die (The
(Tony), The Beggars Opera Pirates of Penzance)
Larry Kert West Side Story, Rags, Company (replacement) Side By Side Maria (West Side Story)
By Sondheim, A Family Affair
Lee Roy Reams Hello Dolly!, Sweet Charity, Applause, Lorelei, 42nd Street, Dames (42nd Street)
Beauty and the Beast, An Evening With Jerry Herman
Len Cariou Sweeney Todd (Tony), A Little Night Music, Applause, Dance Epiphany (Sweeney Todd)
a Little Closer
Malcolm Gets Amour, A New Brain, Hello Again, The Story of My Life, And Theyre Off (A New Brain)
Juno (R)
Mandy Patinkin Evita (Tony), Sunday in the Park With George, The Secret Finishing the Hat (Sunday in the
Garden Park With George)
Marc Kudisch Bells are Ringing (R), Thoroughly Modern Millie, Assassins I Met a Girl (Bells are Ringing,
(R), The Wild Party, The Apple Tree, Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, revival)
9 to 5, A Ministers Wife, The Glorious Ones, See What I
Wanna See, The Thing About Men
Mark Jacoby Show Boat (R), Ragtime, Sweeney Todd (R), Elf, Sweet Johanna (Sweeney Todd, revival)
Charity (R), Man of La Mancha (R)
Matt Cavanaugh West Side Story (R), Grey Gardens, Urban Cowboy, A Catered Somethings Coming (West Side
Affair, Death Takes a Holiday Story, revival)
Matthew Broderick How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (Tony) I Believe In You (How To Succeed
(R), The Producers, Nice Work If You Can Get It In Business Without Really Trying,
revival)
Matthew Morrison The Light in the Piazza, South Pacific (R), Hairspray Love To Me (The Light in the
Piazza)
Michael Ball The Woman in White, Aspects of Love, Les Miserables (West Empty Chairs and Empty Tables
End) (Les Miserables)
Michael Cerveris Sweeney Todd (R), Evita (R), LoveMusik, Assassins (R) Epiphany
(Tony), Road Show, Titanic, Fun Home, Hedwig and the (Sweeney Todd.
Angry Inch (replacement), The Whos Tommy revival)
Michael Crawford The Phantom of the Opera (Tony), Dance of the Vampires Music of the Night (The Phantom of
the Opera)
Michael McElroy The Wild Party, Big River (R), The Whos Tommy, Violet Let It Sing (Violet)
Michael McGrath Nice Work If You Can Get It (Tony), Memphis, Spamalot, By Strauss/Sweet and Lowdown
Little Me (R), The Goodbye Girl, My Favorite Year, Swinging (Nice Work If You Can Get It)
on a Star
Michael Rupert Legally Blonde, Falsettos, Sweet Charity (Tony) (R), Putting It Marry Me a Little (Putting It
Together, The Happy Time, Elegies, March of the Falsettos Together)
Nathan Lane The Producers (Tony), A Funny Thing Happened on the Way The King of Broadway (The
to the Forum (Tony), Guys and Dolls (R), The Addams Family, Producers)
The Frogs, Merlin
Norbert Leo Butz Wicked, Big Fish, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels (Tony), Catch Me Moving Too Fast (Last Five Years)
If You Can (Tony), Thou Shalt Not, The Last Five Years
Norm Lewis The Gershwins Porgy and Bess (R), Sondheim on Sondheim, I Got Plenty of Nothing (The
The Little Mermaid, Amour, The Wild Party, Side Show, The Gershwins Porgy and Bess)
Whos Tommy
Raul Esparza Company (R), Leap of Faith, Taboo, Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, Marry Me a Little (Company,
The Rocky Horror Show, Tick, Tick... Boom! revival)
Richard Kiley Man of La Mancha (Tony), Her First Roman, Redhead (Tony), The Impossible Dream (Man of La
No Strings, Kismet Mancha)
Robert Cuccioli Jekyll & Hyde, Les Miserables (replacement), Jacques Brel is This is the Moment (Jekyll & Hyde)
Alive and Well and Living in Paris (R), The Threepenny Opera
(R), And the World Goes Round
Robert Goulet Camelot, The Happy Time (Tony), La Cage aux Folles Cest Moi (Camelot)
(replacement)
Robert Morse How To Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (Tony), I Believe In You (How To Succeed
Sugar, So Long, 174th Street, Take Me Along In Business Without Really Trying)

80
Robert Preston The Music Man (Tony), Ben Franklin in Paris, I Do! I Do! I Wont Send Roses (Mack &
(Tony), Mack & Mabel Mabel)
Robert Westenberg Into The Woods, The Secret Garden, Company (R), 1776 (R), Agony (Into the Woods)
Zorba (R), Violet
Roger Bart Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown (Tony), Triumph of Love, Go the Distance (Hercules, movie
Young Frankenstein, The Frogs, The Producers soundtrack)
Ron Bohmer The Woman in White, Ragtime (R), Fiddler on the Roof (R), Free, Easy Guy (The Thing About
The Scarlet Pimpernel (replacement), The Thing About Men Men)
Ron Raines Show Boat (R), Follies (R), Newsies (replacement), Annie (R) The Road You Didnt Take (Follies)
(replacement)
Shuler Hensley Oklahoma (Tony) (R), Tarzan, Young Frankenstein, The Great No Other Way (Tarzan)
American Trailer Park Musical
Stephen Bogardus Falsettos, Irving Berlins White Christmas, King David, High You Got To Die Some Time
Society, James Joyces The Dead, Man of La Mancha (R), (Falsettos)
Falsettoland
Stephen Buntrock Jane Eyre, Oklahoma! (R) (replacement), Grease (R), A Little A Voice Across the Moors (Jane
Night Music (R) Eyre)
Steve Kazee Once (Tony), 110 in the Shade (R), Spamalot (replacement) Gold (Once)
Steven Pasquale A Man of No Importance, The Bridges of Madison County, Far The Streets of Dublin (A Man of No
From Heaven, The Spitfire Grill, The Wild Party, Little Fish, Importance)
Terrence Mann The Addams Family, Les Miserables, Pippin, Lennon, The Stars (Les Miserables)
Rocky Horror Show, The Scarlet Pimpernel, Beauty and the
Beast, Assassins, Rags, Cats, Barnum
Theodore Bikel The Sound of Music Edelweiss (The Sound of Music)
Titus Burgess Guys and Dolls (R), The Little Mermaid, Jersey Boys, Good All I Need (Comfortable, album)
Vibrations
Tom Hewitt The Rocky Horror Show (R), The Boys from Syracuse, Quiet Life (Dracula, The Musical)
Dracula, The Musical, Jesus Christ Superstar (R)
Tom Wopat Catch Me If You Can, Sondheim on Sondheim, A Catered I Stayed (A Catered Affair)
Affair, Annie Get Your Gun (R)
Tony Yazbeck Gypsy (R), Irving Berlins White Christmas, A Chorus Line All I Need is The Girl (Gypsy,
(R) revival)
Tyler Maynard The Little Mermaid, Mary Poppins, On a Clear Day You Can Epiphany (Altar Boyz)
See Forever (R), The Kid, Miracle Brothers, Altar Boyz
Victor Garber Sweeney Todd, Assassins, Little Me (R), Damn Yankees (R) Johanna (Sweeney Todd)
Will Chase High Fidelity, The Mystery of Edwin Drood (R), The Story of Top 5 Desert Island Breakups (High
My Life, Lennon, Nice Work If You Can Get It (replacement) Fidelity)
Will Swenson Hair (R), Priscilla, Queen of the Desert: The Musical, Murder Hair (Hair,
Ballad, Little Miss Sunshine, Les Miserables (R) revival)
Zero Mostel Fiddler on the Roof (Tony), A Funny Thing Happened on the If I Were a Rich Man (Fiddler on the
Way to the Forum (Tony), Beggars Holiday Roof)

Further Exploration:
Who are you like? Research the performers of your gender and decide which ones you are most
like. Your decision could be based on their personality type, skills or vocal type. Search for the
songs they performed on stage. If you read and listen to interviews theyve given, you might also
be able to discover other songs they sang as well as songs they used in auditions.Watch as many
videos of them as you can find. What can you learn by listening to them?

81
Learning Songs
The goal of this chapter is to give some helpful suggestions for preparing a song
musically for performance or audition.
The order of the steps you take as you begin exploring a new song is up to you but you
must find a process that you are comfortable with and one that leaves no stone uncovered. There
are those that advocate starting with music and those that say you must begin with the lyrics. My
preference is to begin with learning the basics of the song (pitches, rhythms and form) before
moving to the process outlined in the previous chapter. Then I like for singers to come back tothe
music and work on things such as phrasing and exploring how the musical information in the
song can inform the overall performance.
I will describe learning a song from two perspectives. The first is for those who do not
read music. The second is for those who understand basic music theory and have at least
rudimentary skills at the piano. At whatever skill level you are currently, do your best to improve
your skills and knowledge in music theory, musicianship and piano. It will benefit you greatly
and make learning a new song much easier.

Learning a new song for those who do not read music

Have a pianist record your melody on to a recording device at a moderate tempo and very
precisely. Then have the pianist record the accompaniment. Oftentimes sheet music is published
with the melody in the piano accompaniment. If that is the case, this accompaniment will be
easier to follow as you will be able to hear the melody. If this is not the case, they should record
the actual accompaniment or add some melody if they have that skill. Listen for a sense of style,
beat, rhythm and tempo. You may want the pianist to record just the introduction to the song in
addition so you can isolate the music you will hear before you sing.

1. On your own while looking at the sheet music, sing to the recording of the melody on a
neutral syllable such as lah or dee. Choose an open vowel with a preceding consonant.
We do this to separate music from lyrics and to concentrate solely on the melody. It is very
easy to move too quickly and miss a step along the way.
2. When you have mastered this, begin singing the lyrics with the melody-only recording.
3. Now move to the recording of full accompaniment. Sing with this recording on a neutral
syllable.
4. Then sing the lyrics with the full accompaniment.

Additional activities with a pianist may include the following once you have done these steps:
1. Sing a word or syllable and have the pianist play the pitch on the piano after you sing it.
Move to the next word or syllable, gradually increasing tempo. We do this to check pitch
accuracy.
2. Explore singing the song at different tempos. Faster for ballads, slower for up tempo songs.
Dont go too fast or slow. We do this to make sure you musicianship is secure.

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Learning a song for those with moderate to advanced musical skills

When beginning a new song, I suggest starting with rhythm. Study the song in small
chunks before doing the whole song. If anything is confusing for you, take the time to figure it
out before moving on. You must be able to speak the rhythm in tempo. Many people find it
helpful to study rhythms by assigning numbers corresponding to their placement in the bar such
as 1, 2, 3, 4 in 4/4 time. Eighth-notes are subdivided by placing an and between each number.
1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &. Sixteenth-notes are further subdivided in this manner: 1 e & a, 2 e & a, and so
forth.

83
1. Speak the words in rhythm.
2. Write either numbers or Solfge syllables above the pitches. See below for using Solfge.
Sing the pitches slower, out of tempo until you can do this easily.
3. Next, combine melody with rhythm, starting slowly for accuracy and building in tempo.

84
4. Record or have a pianist record the accompaniment. Listen for a sense of style, beat, rhythm
and tempo. Study, or better yet, play the introduction of the song so that you know what you
will hear before you sing.
5. Sing the song with accompaniment on a neutral syllable.
6. Sing the song with accompaniment using the lyrics.

Singing with Solfge or numbers

Space does not allow for a full investigation of Solfge but this system is not difficult.
Essentially, every pitch of a scale has a Solfge syllable or number. Im sure you know Do-Re-
Mi from The Sound of Music which uses this system in a clever and memorable way. Use either
Solfge or numbers, depending on which seems easier to you.

Example 1 shows how the system works in different keys. Be sure to identify the correct key
before numbering your music by examining the flats and sharps in the key signature. The chart
will assist you.

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86
Example 2 offers some warm up exercises. Do these exercises slowly until you feel comfortable
and can find the pitches easily. Check your accuracy at the keyboard.

Finally, example 3 is a song with Solfge and numbers. I hope the familiarity of the song might
aid you in mastering this skill.

87
You will notice that some of the pitches in this example have an accidental before it. The pitch
and the syllable, but not the number change due to the accidental. I dont think it too important to
know these new syllables but if youre interested, here is the full system

Scale degree Name Pitch in C major Pitch in Eb major Pitch in A major


1 Do C Eb A
Raised 1 Di C# E A#
Lowered 2 Ra Db Fb Bb
2 Re D F B
Raised 2 Ri D# F# B#
Lowered 3 Me Eb Gb C
3 Mi E G C#
4 Fa F Ab D
Raised 4 Fi F# A D#
Lowered 5 Se Gb B-double flat Eb
5 So G Bb E
Raised 5 Si G# B E#
Lowered 6 Le Ab Cb F
6 La A C F#
Raised 6 Li A# C# F-double sharp
Lowered 7 Te Bb Db G
7 Ti B D G#

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Scale degree Name Pitch in C major Pitch in Eb major Pitch in A major
8 Do B Eb A

To practice these skills, choose songs that you know well and write the syllables above. This will
help you connect the sound of the syllable to its name.

Further Exploration
1. Choose a song and sit with the sheet music at the piano. Sing a word or syllable and play the
pitch on the piano after you sing it. Move to the next word or syllable gradually increasing
tempo. We do this to check pitch accuracy.
2. Explore singing the song at different tempos. Faster for ballads, slower for up tempo songs.
Dont go too fast or too slow. We do this to make sure you musicianship is secure.
3. If the sheet music has chord symbols that you can interpret, accompany yourself with simple
chords.

More Solfege exploration:


List some songs that are challenging to work on with solfege. On the Steps of the Palace is a
good choice. Others Anyone Can Whistle

Too often, singers do not take adequate time in learning a song accurately. It is crucial to your
success that you do this. Directors and music directors have little patience with someone who
should be ready to sing a song but is singing a passage with wrong notes. You will be working
with professional musicians and you are expected to interact with them as colleagues and as the
professional musician you need to be.

Once you have successfully completed these activities, you will have the skill to tackle the
challenges you will face once you begin your acting work.

89
Musical Terms To Know
Sheet music is populated with many different kinds of indications that the composer or editor has
placed in the music to communicate how the song should go. In time, you will learn and
memorize these terms, but for now, refer to this section anytime you see something in the music
you dont understand.

Tempi
Largo Very slow (quarter note c. 40-60)
Larghetto Less slow than Largo (c. 60-70)
Adagio Slow (between Largo and Andante)
Andante a walking tempo (c. 76-108)
Moderato Moderate tempo
Allegretto Moderately fast, often playful in nature
Allegro Fast (c. 110-130)
Presto Very fast (c. 125-160)
Maestoso Majestic, usually medium slow

Tempo-related terms
Lunga Long, generally referring to a long pause
Caesura (//) Indicates a break or stop before proceeding
Listesso tempo The same tempo as before
Ritardando Getting slower (rit.)
Ritenuto (riten.) Getting slower but more sudden and extreme than rit.
Rallentando (rall.) Gradual slowing of the tempo
Accelerando (accel.) Gradually getting faster
A tempo Returning to original tempo, usually after a rit. or rall.
Alla Breve Two beats per measure with the half-note getting the beat (cut-time)
Pi mosso More motion

Articulations
Fermata Indicates a note is to be prolonged beyond its normal duration
Legato Smoothly, connected
Staccato Detached (.)
Accent Emphasis, usually to play louder than the current dynamic (>)
Marcato marked, stressed, emphasized
Sforzando Forced or accented. Stronger than an accent. (Sfz. or Sf.)
Tenuto (ten.) Held or sustained, a note is given its full value
Trill Rapid alternation between the note and the note above
G.P. Grand pause. A complete stop
Arpeggio The playing of successive members of a chord separately

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Form
Da Capo Indication to return to the beginning (D.C.). D.C al Coda means go back to the
beginning and then at the indication (to Coda), skip to the Coda.
D.S. al Coda Dal Segno al Coda. Indication to return to the sign and then to Coda at the
indication (to Coda).
Coda The ending of a piece indicated by the symbol below.
Verse The first part of a Standard song, setting up the dramatic situation
Refrain The main body of a Standard song, almost always carrying the title
Vamp A repeated accompanimental phrase

Symbols

U
Fermata
% Segno. Sign, or structural signpost used to indicate form. See
fi Coda

Style
Con moto With motion
A piacere Literally, as you please, similar to ad lib. but referring to tempo rather than pitch
Ad libitum Left to the performers discretion (ad lib.), often implying improvisation
Risoluto Resolute, energetic
Sempre Always
Rubato Rhythmically free, literally means robbed
Animato Lively, spirited, animated
Con brio With fire and dash, spirited
Dolce Sweetly
Divisi Divided, indication of divided parts, the opposite of unison
Molto Very (molto rit., becoming very slow)
Parlando Indication that the singer should take on a more speech-like manner

Dynamics
Forte f, loud
Fortissimo ff, very loud
Mezzo forte mp,medium loud
Piano p, soft
Pianissimo mp, very soft
Mezzo piano pp, medium soft
Crescendo getting louder
Decrescendo getting softer
Diminuendo (dim.) getting softer
Morendo Dying away, getting softer
A niente Dying away to nothing

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Other Terms
Con With (con moto)
Poco Little (poco a poco crescendo)
Moto motion
Assai Much, very much (Allegro Assai)
Hemiola A musical gesture wherein a rhythmic figure with a duple metric pulse replaces
one with a triple metric pulse.
Colla Voce Literally with the voice. Indication that the accompaniment should allow
freedom for the soloist

You may wish to purchase an inexpensive dictionary of musical terms such as The Hal Leonard
Pocket Music Dictionary. New York: Hal Leonard, 1993.

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Other Musical Considerations

Form

An analysis of form in the songs you sing will help you in many ways. It will assist you
in memorizing the song musically and lyrically and it will help you to understand and map out
the dramatic arc of the song. Fortunately, most songs fall into two categories:
1. Verse/Refrain, the dominant song form from 1900 through much of the theatre songs of
today.
2. Pop form, or Verse/Chorus/Bridge form. This became the primary song organizing form for
songs in the Rock and Roll era (1950s to today).

Verse/Refrain Songs

For most songs in the so called Great American Songbook, the verse is the musical
passage that sets up the dramatic action of the refrain. In many ways, this form owes its structure
to the operatic convention of recitative and aria where the recitative advances the plot and the
aria explores the emotions of the characters. In theatre music for most of the 20th century, the
verse was used to help bridge the gap between spoken dialogue and full song. The verse lies
someplace between speech and song and is often freer in rhythm. If you moved directly from
dialogue to full song with no transition, the results may be laughable. The refrain always contains
the title of the song, either at the beginning or at the end of the first section. It is also the melody
one remembers most frequently.

Here is an example, Rodgers and Harts Youre Nearer from Too Many Girls (1939).

VERSE
Time is a healer but it cannot heal my heart.
My mind says I've forgotten you and then I feel my heart.
The miles lie between us, but your fingers touch my own.
You're nearer far away from me, for you're too much my own.

REFRAIN
You're nearer than my head to my pillow.
Nearer than the wind is to the willow.
Dearer than the rain is to the earth below.
Precious as the sun to the things that grow.
You're nearer than the ivy to the wall is.
Nearer than the winter to the fall is.
Leave me, but when you're away you'll know
You're nearer for I love you so.

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Refrains are usually 32 bars and can usually be divided into four sections. The similarity
or dissimilarity of the music in these sections helps us to determine the form. Most refrains are
AABA or ABAB in form. This means that every A section is more or less the same music with
only a few differences. The B sections are contrasting musically.
It is worth noting that the AABA form is perfectly suited to theatre music since
composers assume that their audience does not know a song before entering the theatre thus you
are given two chances to hear the same music (and often with a similar lyrical idea) before
moving on to something contrasting. The B section introduces contrasting music material and is
often a chance for a change in the dramatic action to occur. When the final familiar A section
returns, a new resolve or change of perspective has occurred in the B section. This combination
of familiar music with heightening of the dramatic arc is incredibly satisfying and a very useful
tool in story telling.

Pop-inflected Song Forms

The basic building blocks of Pop-inflected song forms are the verse, chorus and bridge.
Please note that the verse in this form functions differently than verse in the previous form.
Obviously this form comes from popular music from the Rock era, beginning in the 1950s. It is
the dominant form for most radio music to today.
Often the verse presents the situation while the chorus presents the resolution of the
situation. Then there is usually a repeated verse with the same music but with new lyrics. This is
followed by a repeat of the chorus. A bridge may or may not be introduced in order to present
new material. The difficulty with this form in a theatrical context is that we have been presented
with the resolution of the situation early in the songby the first chorus. The dramatic arc is
somewhat disappointing when it comes so early. This is a challenge to the singer and one you
must keep in mind when singing a song with this form.
When recently seeing Rock of Ages, the jukebox musical of 1980s pop songs, I was
pleased in the way the creators managed to keep songs from peaking too early through some
ingenious methods such as introducing new singers into a song or by allowing the choruses to
have different meanings and/or purposes.

Musicality

After you have learned a song musically and done your actors homework, it is a good
idea to go back to do some work on the musicality of your song. This may include working with
a pianist to make sure that musical details such as pitches and rhythm have not been lost as you
were focusing on the acting work. It will also mean looking at phrasing. It also may mean
looking deeper in the musical information that the accompaniment and melody contain. Music,
all music, contains many kinds of subjective emotional and story-telling information that is
worth exploring. The music of a well-written song is the music of your character in the given
situation. The music is you. You must take this into account when putting the finishing touches
on your song.

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For instance, the flowing music in I Had a Dream About You may represent the
constant forward motion of a car ride. The repeated two-note figure in Just a Housewife may
be the boredom of the character. The accompanimental figure in Talent may be both the
motion of the train and the ambitious drive of the character.
Arrangements of show music are set. The actor does not have the liberty of changing the
accompaniment, the harmony or the style of a song in a musical. In cabaret styles, however, you
are completely free to reinterpret songs in order to make them your very own. That is what we
want in a cabaret setting and if you are fortunate enough to work with a talented pianist/arranger/
music director, you can do an infinite number of treatments to well-known songs and make them
completely new. When you are asked to sing a song in a musical (i.e., not in a cabaret setting),
you must look for the musical details that the composer has given you which inform both the
character and the situation. It must appear as if you, the character, are spontaneously creating the
words and the music in the moment as a result of the dramatic action. This idea will be explored
in great detail in the song analysis chapter which follows.

Phrasing

We use this term to refer to the small and large decisions a singer makes regarding how
one sings the melody. As well-phrased song communicates the characters situation, their
decisions, their tactics and their objective. We want everything that we do to cumulatively tell the
same story. For instance, a breath in the middle of a phrase about what a character wants may
disrupt the thought and confuse the audience. Singing a song about ones love of another with a
staccato articulation may confuse the audience as this articulation communicates something
different entirely.
Some of the following steps may seem like a repeat from earlier activities but since our
focus is now on phrasing, the steps are helpful to repeat.

Steps toward creating a well-phrased song:


1. Silently read the lyric while making observations about rhyme and alliteration. These
two devices serve to make these words more important. Is there a reason that these words are
more important? Good lyricists dont rhyme unimportant words.
2. You may wish to do the first five monologue activities on page 23??.
3. Without accompaniment, sing the song following the dramatic action of the lyric. If the
action speeds up, allow the melody to speed up. If the action calls for a whispered tone, sing
the melody with a whispered voice. The purpose of this activity is to match the action of song
with your vocal choices. At this point, it is a good idea to decide, if you havent already,
where you will breathe. Making choices based on the lyric rather than the necessity for air is
preferable.
4. Repeat this step asking the pianist to follow you and the dramatic action. If the action is
harsh, ask them to play harshly. If the action is gentle, ask them to play gently.
5. Sing the song again with the printed accompaniment while retaining all of the colors
you have found in previous steps. The danger when doing this step is to lose all the subtle
variations in timber and articulation you had earlier. Do not allow the tyranny of the printed

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page to overtake you. I like to refer to these changes in timbre and articulation simply as
Vocal Color. You will find much more about Vocal Colors in a chapter to follow.

Additional activities:
1.Imagine your song played by an instrument. What instrument would that be? What information
about style and articulation does this give you?
2.Try singing your song at a different tempo or in a different style. This can help to free up your
phrasing and/or give you different options.

Preparing your Music for a Pianist

Music for audition and study should be placed in a moderately sized three-ring binder. You
should not use a published book for an audition because often they do not stay open at the
piano.
Please do not use the extremely large binders.
Music should be copied double-sided onto heavier paper or placed in plastic sheets. If you use
plastic sheets, purchase non-glare sheets.
If the music is just two pages, present it such that the pianist does not need to turn pages.
Check the tops and bottoms of the page carefully to ensure that no music is cut off. Reduce the
copy ratio as needed. 89% generally works.
If you are going to do a shortened cutting of a song, prepare this cutting such that there is no
other music on the page. This will help avoid confusion at an audition.
Any cutting of a song should also include a separate copy of the full version of the song in case
you are asked to sing the whole song.
Eliminate extraneous markings on your music.
Clearly indicate introductions and endings.
Create a table of contents and use tabs so that you can quickly find any song.

Cast Albums

I often find that singers adhere to one of these two extremes regarding listening to cast
albums when preparing a song. The first extreme is to learn the song exclusively by listening.
This is to be avoided because the singer on the recording may sing wrong notes or they may
phrase the song differently than what is written on the page, or worse. You always need to go
back to the printed music to see what that composer has written. This is your most important
source.
The other extreme is to avoid recordings all together for fear of imitation. This is
understandable, but unnecessary. The best option is to learn a song musically and then listen to
the cast album (or revivals or other great singers singing your song) for clues about performance
practice such as style, tempo, and vocal timbre. Stay open to as many options as possible.

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Vocal Colors
Someplace in this chapter I need to talk about the need for classical technique. You wont be able
to achieve as many colors as you will want without it.

The human voice is an amazing instrument capable of a nearly infinite variety of sounds.
Because of unique makeup of each persons anatomy, no two voices are acoustically alike. In
addition to our physical makeup which would include each singers voice type (such as Lyric
Soprano, Dramatic Soprano or Mezzo), our sound is influenced by the kinds of music we listen
to, our favorite singers which we knowingly or unknowingly emulate and regionalisms.

In classical singing, there is traditionally a focus on unity across registers with a similar color
throughout that is fully vibrant and resonant. The better opera and art song singers are aware of
the power of allowing the text and the music to influence subtle or not so subtle changes to the
sound for the sake of better communication. These changes may include varying the rate of
vibrato, the brilliance, prominence of consonants, the ratio of head voice to chest voice and any
number of others ways. But, by and large, the classical Bel Canto aesthetic is concerned with
obtaining beauty and uniformity of sound above all else.

But for the musical theatre singer, character, situation and text are of supreme importanceof
perhaps more importance than beauty of sound. Beautiful singing is valued, even demanded, if
the moment calls for it but there would be very little worse than singing a song like "You Could
Drive a Person Crazy" or "You Can Always Count On Me" with the beauty you find in a
classical art song or aria. More than anything, the singer must sing in a manner that is consistent
with their character's truth in that moment. If the character is fearful, or mocking, or in love, the
voice can and should reflect that. If they are triumphant, hopeful, or in the pit of despair, the
voice should reflect that.

Vocal colors is a term I like to use when describing the virtually infinite ways the voice can
produce sound. Imagine a simple song such as "Happy Birthday" sung by an operatic soprano, or
as a young boy, or as a folk song, or as Marilyn Monroe famously sang to John F. Kennedy. The
changes in dynamics, vibrancy, resonance, intention and host of other things create dramatically
different versions of the song. In dramatic singing, vocal colors are an incredibly powerful tool in
communicating meaning and subtext.

In my experience, it is common for singers to be handicapped if they begin to think too


technically about the sounds they are making, especially in performance. Singing actors must
give themselves over completely to the objective they are pursuing and not allow their brains and
bodies to be divided by also thinking critically about the sounds they are making. I encourage
you instead to think about the images and colors in the song's lyrics and music and allow those
images and colors to influence the sounds you make.

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When describing a singers vocal colors , some people might choose to use actual colors like
bright yellow, vibrant orange or deep navy blue. Or you might use words like bright, dark, warm,
clear, brilliant, breathy, vibrant, crisp or accented. Both kinds of descriptors are perfectly valid.
Use the words that are clearest and most meaningful to you.

Further Exploration:
Choose a recording by a singer you greatly admire of your gender.
1. What colors do you hear?
2. How easily do they change between colors or does the sound stay largely the same
throughout?
3. Do color choices seem to correspond to images in the lyrics? To the tessitura? Do they
correspond to something else?
4. Now answer the same questions for singers of the opposite gender or singers who are not your
favorite.

I would like to discuss an example of excellent use of vocal colorGimme, Gimme, sung by
Sutton Foster in Thoroughly Modern Millie.

Lyric Vocal Color Use of Vocal Color


check punctuation

A simple choice, nothing Head-heavy mix, non- This is the verse of the song
more. This or that, either or. vibrato. Bright and clear. Soft and by keeping things very
Marry well, social whirl, dynamic. Yellow simple, she helps set up the
business man, clever girl. conflict of the song.

Or pin my future on a green The color grows richer here. The change of color helps to
glass love. Here there is a bit more chest differ between to two options
What kind of life am I voice in the mix. Just a bit for love Millie is weighing.
dreaming of? louder.

I say gimme, gimme... Softer, as before. Yellow or At the beginning of the


gimme gimme.. beige. Head-heavy mix. Very refrain, knowing that there is
gimme gimme.. pale, slightly timid vocal an epic journey ahead, she
that thing called love. color. A bit more vibrato, again is very simple and soft.
I want it. especially on longer notes. The addition of vibrato helps
gimme gimme.. to underscore the fact thats
that thing called love. shes talking about the kind of
I need it. love she most desires.

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Lyric Vocal Color Use of Vocal Color
check punctuation

Highs and lows, tears and More chest in the mix. Even The image of this love seems
laughter, gimme happy ever more warmth. Blue. to warm the voice.
after. Gimme gimme that
thing called love.

gimme gimme Soft Belt. More chest voice Growing confidence in


that thing called love. than head. Vibrato only on knowing what she wants.
I crave it. sustained notes. Louder
gimme gimme dynamic.
that thing called love
I'll brave it.
Think 'n thin, rich or poor
time.
Gimme years, and I'll want
more time.
Gimme gimme that thing
called love.

Gimme gimme that thing Full Belt. Red. Very warm.


called love.
I'm free now.
Gimme gimme that thing
called love.
I see now.
Fly, dove! Sing, sparrow!
Gimme cupid's famous arrow.
gimme gimme that thing
called love.

I don't care if he's a nobody. Determination. Strength and


In my heart, he'll be a confidence. Vibrato except
somebody, for the notable straight-tone
somebody to love me! on the last word of this
section over the instrumental.

I need it.
gimme that thing called love.
I wannit!

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Lyric Vocal Color Use of Vocal Color
check punctuation

here I am, St. Valentine!


My bags are packed; I'm first
in line!

Aphrodite, don't forget me,


Romeo and Juliet me!
Fly, dove! Sing, sparrow!
Gimme fat boy's famous
arrow!
gimme gimme that thing
called love!

Of course, we can not know what Sutton Foster was thinking about when she recorded this. We
can only speculate. But we can be fairly certain that she was imagining the difference between
the two types of love that are possible in her life and the world she could imagine with the one
she choose. Using imagery will help you find new colors and new ways to bring life to a song.

Further Exploration:
Examine the following songs for changes in vocal colors. What are the colors? How are they
achieved? Speculate about why the colors are used. What do they communicate?
1.Painting Her Portrait - Maria Schaffel (Jane Eyre)
2.Simple Little Things - Audra McDonald (110 in the Shade)
3.At the Fountain - Brian dArcy James (Sweet Smell of Success)

Some of the factors that influence vocal color are dynamics, resonance, nasality, diction,
brightness/darkness, the amount of vibrancy and the amount of breath in the voice. As I
mentioned earlier, there are some vocal attributes in very singer that are intrinsic to them based
on anatomy. But every voice is capable of a wide variety of colors. Our goal at this point is to
find more colors and to explore ways we can utilize them.

Further Exploration:
1. Sing a passage softly then loudly. A song like Oklahoma or something similar uptempo is a
good choice.
2. Sing a passage with no vibrancy (i. e. Straight-tone), then with minimal vibrancy then full
vibrancy. Choose your favorite ballad like Once Upon a Dream.
3. Sing a passage at differing ages 5, 16, 25, 45, 65. A comedy song like Broadway Baby is a
good choice.
4. Sing a passage with complete connection using the syllable, "loo." Then sing it with a "Tat"
syllable. Oh What a Beautiful Morning a great on to use for this. Try another ballad. With this
exercise we are exploring articulation or how a note is attacked and whether it is sustained or not.

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In these activities, you have explored many of the different kinds of colors that are possible.
Altering the dynamics will affect resonance and possibly diction and vibrancy. In order to sing
loudly, the voice will usually increase the amount of vibrato. Louder singing also tends to use a
greater amount of diction as we do when we really want to be understood. Singing without
vibrancy can also lead singers toward adding more breath in the sound. Singing at differing ages
will affect articulation, vibrancy, breath/tone ratio, nasality , and resonance. Little kids tend to
sing with more nasality. We're you more nasal when you sang like a 5 year old? Did you use less
nasality when you sang as a 65 year old. Older singers, in general, tend to place the voice farther
back with less nasality.

The last exercise above is primarily about articulation--the ways that pitches are begun, end and
the way they connect to each other. In ballads, the most common articulation is completely
connected or legato. In up tempos, especially uptempos from 1910 to 1945, the articulation is
often not legato or non legato. A legato articulation can communicate things like love or
determination, while a non legato articulation can communicate such things as playfulness or
anger.

So, how do we apply this to our work as a singer? Do we decide to make the first passage orange
and the next magenta? I don't think that this is the most productive way because it can put us in
our head and be distracting. Instead, I think the better way is to examine the song for images and
emotions.

Let's look at Much More, the great ingnue song from The Fantasticks. What are the images
you find? Do you see specific colors? What are the emotions in this song?
Youtube: Much More The Fantasticks

I'd like to swim in a clear blue stream


Where the water is icy cold.
Then go to town
In a golden gown,
And have my fortune told.
Just once,
Just once,
Just once before I'm old.
I'd like to be not evil,
But a little worldly wise.
To be the kind of girl designed
To be kissed upon the eyes.
I'd like to dance till two o'clock,
Or sometimes dance till dawn,
Or if the band could stand it,
Just go on and on and on

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Just once,
Just once,
Before the chance is gone!
I'd like to waste a week or two
And never do a chore.
To wear my hair unfastened
So it billows to the floor.

To do the things I've dreamed about


But never done before!
Perhaps I'm bad, or wild, or mad,
With lots of grief in store,
But I want much more than keeping house!
Much more, much more, much more.

In this song you have two specific opening images with associated colors.
A. Clear blue stream, icy cold
B. Town, golden gown, fortune teller

The first image could be sing with a sound that is brighter (suggested by ice), less vibrant (light
blue), and legato (suggested by the flowing stream). The second image could be sung with a
slightly darker tone (with the change of location from rural to urban and the color gold), more
vibrant (suggested by royalty and worldliness). I think it too much for the singer to think about
all these things technically. Instead, simply see the images and changes will naturally occur. Let's
look for other clues in the lyric or music for colors.

With the lyric, "I'd like to dance till two o clock" the music makes a dramatic shift from a
flowing legato to more non legato, separated sound in the accompaniment. Also notice that the
character of the melody transitions from a beautifully contoured tune to this passage that is
largely on a single pitch. Why is that? I can only speculate that the notion of dancing suggests a
more articulated, rhyming quality while the idea in this section of the lyric is about getting out of
of her fantasies and into the world and more into her body. The melody is lower and rhythmic.
What colors are consistent with these qualities. I would suggest a much less legato articulation
with increased diction which will help to make the interesting, syncopated rhythm stand out.

Further Exploration:
List other songs to examine for vocal colors in the lyric.

Questions:
Who is the character? How old are they? Education? Life experience. (Contrast Louisa and
Petra). What are you wearing? Where are you? Outside is a different color than in a library.
Music. What does the music communicate? Soliloquy is a case study in this. There a many
different colors in one song.

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A. Questioning
B. Playful
C. Disgusted
D. Loving
E. Determined
Images
What are the images in the lyric and do they suggest specific vocal timbres?

DISCUSS BELT AND MIX. IM TALKING ABOUT THIS LAST BECAUSE MOST PEOPLE
THINK OF THIS FIRST.

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Creating Your Audition Book
Part I
In the twenty-five years Ive been teaching, nearly every young artist has asked me some
variation of this question at one time or another. What kinds of songs should I put in my
audition book? or How many different options should I have? When creating your audition
book, you could rely on the songs youve studied in you voice lessons. After all you sing them
well and you like them. Perhaps they are excellent for your voice. Or you could rely on the songs
from the roles you've performed. The are time-tested and you know them like the back of your
hand. But if you're under 25, you've probably been cast in roles that aren't the kind of roles you
want to present in a professional setting. Maybe they aren't you anymore or maybe youd never
do that kind of role in a professional setting.

I'm sure you know there are many different kinds of auditions. Here are the three most common
types.

1. Cattle calls for summer stock such as MidWest Theatre Auditions, Wagon Wheel Theatre, or
The Muny. These auditions are for a season of specific shows or for a large number of summer
stock companies.
2. You could be auditioning for a specific show. There are wide variety of shows that are done
today, from Operetta (popular in medium sized summer stock companies), Early Musical
comedy, Golden Age, then contemporary shows of all types. This could be at the professional
or semi-professional like community theatre.
3. Agent calls where you've been called into an agents office to see if there's a place for you in
their agency.

How the heck could I ever possible hope to find the perfect song for all those situations?

First off, don't try to imagine the 300+ auditions you might do in your first year and try to pick
out songs that will suit all those crazy situations. Instead, let's look at a few of the most useful
kinds of songs for a wide variety of situations and then when we're ready, we can go deeper with
more unusual songs and songs that are suited to your specific talent. This last quality is very
important. You will want to find songs that show off who you are, your special attributes and
skills. say more about this

When you audition, try to imagine what are folks behind the table are looking for? A good voice?
A good actress? The X factor? Let me state unequivocally that people are not looking just for the
best singers. Why? Because a successful productions, even productions of warhorses like
Oklahoma, My Fair Lady, or Brigadoon, require much more than pretty voices. The audience
must be able to give themselves over to the belief that the person on stage IS Laurie or Curlie or

104
whoever. This is a challenge in straight plays but it's even harder for musicals because we add the
technically challenging aspect of singing which can make believability even tougher.

Ultimately you want something between 10 and 18 songs. I've met with people who have a lot of
experience that I respect who say you can get by with just a handful of songs. One very
successful actress told me she got everything she ever got with "You Took Advantage of Me"by
Rodgers and Hart. I say, if that works for you, "full steam ahead."

For most of us, a bit more variety is going to serve us in several ways. Maybe the most important
thing to think of is a variety of songs will help keep you from becoming bored with a song. It
will also give is a variety of material to choose from so that what you present in this audition is
specific to the show or shows. And last, it will provide us the opportunity to show different
colors and skills. Imagine that after you sing, the director says, "That's great but do do you have
something that's a little more lyrical? Or humorous? Or serious? Or higher? Or older? Or more
contemporary? Or more classical? I could go on and on. In most cases, the people you audition
for have a pretty good idea of what they are looking for as to skills that actor needs to possess but
how those skills combine and in what proportion makes the process of carrying on an audition a
difficult art. It's an art and not a science.

Have I mentioned that you must love every song in your book? You MUST love every song in
your book These songs are the tools that will get you hired but if you and your song aren't in a
loving relationship, the chance of that song opening doors is much lower.

I can help you by suggesting some starting points of the kind of songs everyone needs in their
book. Then we can then go deeper by exploring some more specific types of songs that will
work in specific instances. Are you ready?

A Standard ballad about love or love lost. (Approximately 1920-1947)


What is it?
These beautiful songs are well known by the population at large and yet they are open to a vast
variety of interpretations. That are called standards because they have been sung over and over
again without loosing their charm and beauty. They have never left the literature. Some of them
have verses while a few don't. I think choosing one with a verse is good because singing verses
requires a great deal of sophistication. It's also a chance to show that you can handle both text
and music with intelligence and grace. These songs are generally either from musical comedies
or films.

Why should I sing it?


By singing a well-known song, you will help the panel be able to hear how well you sing. Doing
well known songs is important because you take center stage and not the song.

How do I prepare it?

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That we have already looked at preparing Standards in an earlier chapter. Make sure you sing
the song well with correct pitches and rhythms and do your acting homework. The EXCavATE
work will help you discover nuances that are important for this song since they are so wide open
for interpretation.
Discuss singing verses.

How do I use it?


Because these songs are so well known and have strong melodies, they are great for a wide
variety of auditions where you want the panel to hear that you are a good singer. I can imagine
using this for an open call for singers for the Muny or Music Theatre of Wichita. Or perhaps it
could also be used for a leading role in a golden age musical. Perhaps the best use of this kind of
song is when after singing your first song and showing them that you are both a singer AND
actor, the panel asks if you have something a little more simple or more lyrical. That's when you
pull this bad boy out and let her rip. If you have the time, sing the verse too. In the verse, let your
skills as an actor come to the fore and make it much more about the lyric. Then when the refrain
begins, open up and sing it for all it's worth. They will be impressed with the levels in your
performance and that you can sing simple material well.

Here is a list of great standard ballads about love. Of these have verses. If you look hard, you
will discover other ones by these same composers.

See the Standard Ballads list in the appendix.

Rock Uptempo from the 50s or 60s


What is it?
As the title says, this song is an energetic moderately fast or fast pop/rock song. The best songs
will come between 1950 and 1967. The cut off date is approximately in the middle of the
Beatles career-pre-St. Peppers lonely Hearts Club Band. Before this time, essentially The Beatles
were doing great, though complex pop songs. After ST. Peppers their music and the music of the
radio was either too experimental or too mature for the songs to be useful.

The energy of this genre is youthful, teenage to early 20s. It is energetic, happy music where the
subtext of sex is there but not as obviously as later in the late 60s. Space dies not allow me to list
all of the possibilities but I will give you some examples that will lead you to the perfect song.

Why should I sing it?


So many musicals are inspired by this music that I believe that everyone needs to know
it. Everything from little shop to smokey joes to hairspray to Memphis. Beehive.

This is also the beginning of the rock era. Rock music has of course made a lasting imprint on
musical theatre since Hair. Starting with one of these early rock songs will help you with the
fundamentals of singing rock music and you'll have an easy transition into modern rock.

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List some songs.

How do I prepare it?


The groove of these songs is strong. You may not consider yourself a a rock singer but you can
become one. It requires the involvement of your body and understanding where the backbeat is.
Play a recording of your song and simply move to the music while clapping or snapping on beats
2 and 4. Getting the groove into your body is crucial because this music is physical. Springsteen
famously said that the subtext of all rock music is "Will you pull your pants down?" That doesn't
mean you have to put overt sex in every rock song but you must remember that rock is the music
of discontent youth. I will add that the subtext, if it's not about sex it's "my parents are so stupid.
They will never understand me."

http://immoderate.wordpress.com/2006/01/03/bruce-springsteen-on-rock-music/

recently listened to Terry Gross interview Bruce Springsteen, in which he said, The subtext of
all rock songs is, Will you pull your pants down? It wasnt one of her better interviews, she
was atypically fawning. In addition, Gross never once mentioned whether her pants were up or
down.

Please don't misunderstand me. I'm not asking you to play anger. Sherre Saunders wisely says,
"anger is not an emotion." But there is a restlessness in rock music, even the innocent sounding
50s rock.

How do I use it?


You'll want to use it at auditions for the shows I mentioned above or anything like it. It might
even be appropriate for modern rock shows if the character you're auditioning for has a similar
story to the character in your song.

Golden Age song sung by a character you could play


What is it?
As you probably already know, most people agree that the Golden Age begins with Oklahoma
(1943), although some also include Show Boat (1927). The ending date is arguable. Some say
Gypsy (1959), some say Hair (1968). Essentially you want to look for songs from a score from
approximately 1943-1968 where the song advances the plot. Not only do the songs advance the
plot but the music functions in complex ways to tell the story of the character and/or the
situation. The music of "Lonely House" expresses the loneliness and frustration of Judd just as
much as the lyric does. The music of "Will He Like Me" expresses the hesitant, halting hope of
Amalia as much as the lyric.

Before 1943, composers weren't concerned with being a storyteller as much as they were with
writing great songs, usually inspired by the popular music of the time. Well, it was often inspired
but the pop music of the time but broadway music also influenced pop music.

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Why should I sing it?
It will let the panel know you are both an actor and a singer.

How do I prepare it?


You must understand the full range of the character within the scope of the entire show. Study the
libretto and know how the moment of the song you are singing fits into the big picture of the
character's story arc. Also analyze the musical structure of the song to see how the music and the
lyric work to tell the story.

The Golden Era singing style is much more complex than people often realize. Often folks think
of the style simply as the one you would use when singing "If I Loved You" or "Some Enchanted
Evening." Something more toward classical singing than the earlier shows and possibly a little
more static physically. But wait a minute. In this period, you have a wide variety of characters.
Think of contrasting characters of Laurie and Ado Annie in Oklahoma or Ruth and Eileen in
Wonderful Town. Think of how different the voices of Lancelot and Mordrid need to be in
Camelot or Curlie and Will in Oklahoma.

I would say that in this period, the most important thing vocally is that the voice needs to sound
like the character. If I'm playing Tevye, my voice should communicate paternal and middle aged.
If I'm playing Curlie, my voice needs to communicate an honest, straight forward and unstudied
quality. Before 1943, actors didn't need to think in this way. They just sang.

For the original productions of the standard Golden Age shows like Oklahoma, I think its fair to
say that actors were cast who naturally fit the role they would play. Their style and their vocal
style created the model most productions still try to achieve. The model we must be aware of is
the original cast recording, the OCR.

The OCR is the closest we can get to productions dating from the 50s or before. Serious students
of musical theatre know these recordings and probably own many of them. If you can't afford to
purchase recordings, go to the library and check them out. The local St. Louis library has nearly
everything. In today's world, it has become customary to rely on YouTube if you want to hear a
recording of something, but most OCR are not on YouTube.

Ive called this section Golden Age song sung by a character you could play, not sung by a
character you could sing. Why is that? While the actual music of this style is quite important as
well as good, stylistic singing, the most important thing is that everything, actor, singer and song
all work together in a believable way to tell the same story. You should definitely sing all manner
of songs in your voice lessons, but just because you sing it well doesn't mean it's a good choice
for an audition.

How do I unify my understanding of the character with my voice? First you must read the
libretto and understand the character and their full story. Then listen to the OCR and several

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other cast albums for comparison. Analyze the song for ways the music helps to tell the story.
The question I always return to is, "what story is the music telling."

Then think about the vocal colors that will be useful in telling that story. Full vibrato? Legato?
Classical voice soprano? Etc.

How do I use it?

The I Am song
You may have never heard of his kind of song but essentially it is simply a song that says
something true about you. Let me explain.The I am song doesn't need to "encapsulate your
essence or be the definitive word about your personality. It just needs to say something true
about you. Maybe just one thing. One thing is more than enough. The song could communicate
your love for children (a song like children will listen, Sondheim), or your passion for peace in
the world ( a song like with god on our side, bob Dylan) or your love for your partner (something
like the power of two, the indigo girls). Notice that the song is about something that's important
without being specifically about you or your personality. By sharing just one aspect, you will be
allowing an audience to get a glimpse into who you are without going too far. Surely you've seen
a performance when the singer shares too deeply or exposes them self too much. If the subtext of
the song is, "Look how great, or beautiful, or important I am," the song will fail it's intended
purpose. There are a surprising number of contemporary pop songs that have just this as their
subtext. (I'm a bitch, I'm a lover, I'm a child, I'm a mother/I'm a sinner, I'm a saint, I do not feel
ashamed/I'm your hell, I'm your dream, I'm nothing in between/You know you wouldn't want it
any other way)

I developed my thinking about this kind of song from two completely different locations and
situations. The first was my desire to teach my students how to personalize a song to the degree
that it seemed as if they were creating the song in the moment. I've been fortunate to witness
very special moments of this in live professional theatre. (List a few, glocca mora, will you,
mama who bore me etc, no more). You might say that these are simply examples of good
performances by strong actors. I think there's a truth to that statement but I saw something above
and beyond that which I wanted to quantify and understand. For me it came down to the sense
that the actor, character, song and performance melded into one. It seemed as if the song I was
hearing was being written on the spot, complete with full orchestration! In these rare and
precious moments, time seems to stop and I become part of something bigger than myself. I feel
as if I meld with the character and know the important things about him. That's quite a special
thing when what we are talking about is standing onstage and singing a song that, truthfully,
many other people could do.

The second place that gave rise to the process was my work as a cabaret musical director. I was
working with many pre-professional and professional singers who were putting together shows.
They wanted to sing songs as themselves onstage. This is a risky endeavor considering that most

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of us are used to having a character that a playwright created between us and the audience. I
wanted to understand and quantify why the cabaret singers I admire so much, Barbara Cook, Liz
Callaway, Andrea Marcovicci, affected me the way the did. When they are onstage, the work
they are doing seems like anything but work. It looks effortless. But if course it's not. They were
essentially doing a special kind of performance style that, while related to acting technique I
knew, was also quite different from it.

The process I want to share with you is an approach to tackling this goal, but it is only one. My
hope is that as you read it and begin working on the skills, that you personalize your technique as
much as you personalize the material you sing. You might find other techniques that this process
opens you to. It can work for either theatre songs that demand personalization or cabaret
performances when it really is you, and not a character, that is delivering material before an
audience.

Why should I sing it?

How do I prepare it?

How do I use it?

Filling Out Your Book


Look at the list of the kinds of songs you should have at the end of this book. It will guide you
toward completing your book.

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Creating Your Audition Book
Part II
in this section, talk about moving on from the core pieces in your book and filling out the rest of
the songs youll need. Its going to be best to divide this into two sections.

The search for a perfect audition song can seem an arduous task with so many songs to choose
from. Do I choose a well-known song or an unfamiliar one? Do I choose an uptempo or a ballad?
Do I choose a musical theatre song or a Pop/Rock song? This chapter will guide you through the
steps of choosing an appropriate song in nearly every situation. Your job is to find the song that
is perfect for you and one that will show that you are a smart singer and have carefully
considered your song choice. This is your first chance to impress the folks behind the table.
Choose wisely.

Add this: Can I sing Sondheim? Youll hear that you cant sing Sondheim at auditions but dont
listen to them. Of course you can if its the right song for the right situation.

Ask the right questions at the start

It is crucial that you ask the right questions before you start looking for a song. Consider these
questions.

1. What are they looking for? Research the show or shows for the vocal style and range you
should present. You will also need to know where the show falls historically and choose your
material accordingly.

2. Where do I fit in this production? In a lead, ensemble, or primarily as a dancer? If you are
right for a lead in the musical you are auditioning for, you should choose a song that is similar in
vocal demands and sung by a character that is similar (i.e. a romantic character, a comic
character, an ingnue, a villain, etc.). If you are a better singer than dancer auditioning for the
ensemble, choose an uptempo song or ballad that matches the demands of the show. See below
for more instructions on choosing songs in varying situations. If you are a better dancer than
singer, choose an uptempo song that will allow your body to move, but not necessarily dance.

3. What are my strengths? What can I show them that will get their attention? What kinds of
skills does the show require? If the show is an operetta or operetta-like musical where the singing
is of highest priority, sing something that shows your best classical vocal skills. If the show is
comedic, you might consider presenting something that shows your comedic chops if you have
them. Note that this doesnt mean that your song has to be an absolute comedy song, just
something with a laugh or two. You get the idea. Look for what the show needs and how you fit
into that need. Remember, you are there to solve their problem, not the other way around.

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4. Should I sing an uptempo, a ballad, a charm song, a rock song? This is not a question that can
be answered easily. If you are a singer-singer (someone who sings very well), consider choosing
a ballad if the show has a high degree of lyricism. If you are not a singer-singer, you might
consider singing an uptempo. If you get to sing two songs, the primary thing you should concern
yourself with is contrast. The contrast will come from the tempo change but it should also be in
other areas too, such as a change in character between the two songs, a change in affect (comedy
and serious, for example), a change in style (Standard musical theatre literature verses earlier
musical comedy styles like George Gershwin verses rock styles).

5. What guidelines are given? Does the breakdown ask for a song from a certain period, a certain
style or a certain length? It is unwise to go against these guidelines. Period. One qualification
must be made when it comes to 16- and 32-bar cuttings. These numbers are, for most people,
relative. Your cut needs to feel like a 16-bar cutting rather than be exactly 16 bars. One to three
bars under or over is not a problem in most cases. Eight to ten bars over is a problem. Be aware
that for songs in cut-time or in 2/4, if may be more appropriate to sing a cut that is double the
length of your desired cut. You must use your discretion and, again, it must feel like a 16- or 32-
bar cut. See Finding Cuts below.

Starting Points

There are several places to begin your search. They are all useful in some circumstances but not
all are useful in every circumstance. Never limit yourself to one of these starting points. You will
become stuck very easily.

Of course, the more research your do, the better your results. You must buy music and CDs and
you must be familiar with a wide range of shows. This is simply part of being a professional.
Over time, you will develop an audition book that will contain songs that you know and perform
well at a moments notice that are appropriate for most auditions. However, no audition book
contains something for every situation. You must continue to maintain and build your repertoire.
Here are some of the starting points you can use to focus your research.

The same composer


The same vocal style
The same historical period or location that the show takes place in
The same show theme
Other roles that the originating actor played
A similar character

A good first step is to look for material by the same composer. This is especially true for musical
from the 20s to the 60s. During this time, the successful composers wrote many shows with
similar styles and themes. Some even have similar characters. From the 70s on, there are a
greater number of successful composers with smaller bodies of work. You must look for different

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starting points for this period. Say you are auditioning for Hair. While there are other Galt
McDermot shows, very little of this material is right for this audition. You should look for a song
from another early Pop/Rock musical or even a Pop/Rock song not from a musical. If you are
auditioning for Pippin, there are a number of shows by Stephen Schwartz to choose from but
very little of it is right for the Pop/Rock sound of Pippin.

Another good early starting place is to look for songs from musicals that share a similar musical
style. You should be aware of the musical similarity between Rodgers and Hart, George
Gershwin and Cole Porter, between Rodgers and Hammerstein and Lerner and Loewe, and
between Leonard Bernsteins shows and Jule Stynes. When auditioning for Kander and Ebbs
Chicago, however, its best not to do a song from a musical but instead to do a vaudeville song
from the 20s since that is the music that is closest in style to Chicago. Look for songs from other
musicals that share a similar musical style and esthetic. You can find a list of shows that are
similar below.

Shows that share a common musical style.

Oklahoma! Music Man Legally Blonde

Carousel Oliver! The Wedding Singer

Brigadoon Hello, Dolly! Big

Finians Rainbow Mame Footloose

King and I

South Pacific Fiddler on the Roof Jane Eyre

Allegro She Loves Me Scarlet Pimpernel

Camelot The Rothchilds Cyrano

My Fair Lady Plain and Fancy

Sound of Music A Tale of Two Cities

State Fair Phantom of the Opera Martin Guerre

Jekyll and Hyde Les Miserables

Wonderful Town Sunset Boulevard Miss Saigon

Bells are Ringing Woman in White

Lestat Chess

Annie Get Your Gun Evita

Best Foot Forward Beauty and the Beast Jesus Christ Superstar

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Call Me Madam Little Mermaid

Meet Me in St. Louis Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Damn Yankees

Mary Poppins Lil Abner

Pajama Game

Aida Ragtime

Lion King Titanic

Billy Elliot Boys from Syracuse

Carnival Can Can Babes In Arms

Fantasticks High Society Good News

110 In the Shade Kiss Me Kate Crazy for You

Silk Stockings Girl Crazy

DuBarry was a Lady Lady Be Good

Anything Goes Funny Girl Pal Joey

Fifty Million Frenchmen Gypsy Strike Up the Band

Panama Hattie Fade Out Fade In

Mexican Hayride

Seesaw

Sweet Charity

The Life

Little Me

A veritable treasure trove of ideas can open to you when you look at other musicals set in the
same period or location. This could be Victorian London, late 19th- or early twentieth century
American West, New York of the 20s or 30s. When auditioning for 1776, you might consider
looking for a song from Ben Franklin in Paris since both musicals are concerned with historical
figures from the same period. Seven Brides for Seven Brothers and OKLAHOMA! are both about
the settling of America. La Cage aux Follies, Falsettos, When Pigs Fly all concern gay characters
in about the same historical period. Clue, Somethings Afoot, Sherlock Holmes: The Musical and
Baker Street are all musical mysteries.

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You might also look for shows with a similar theme such as a tragic love, operatic love at a grand
scale, a comic mismatch, historical shows, shows that use Country music, shows pertaining to
sports, or shows for young audiences.

You might find some interesting information by knowing the originating actor for the role youre
auditioning for and to research other roles that that actor played. It has been common for actors
to play similar roles in their career unless their career is very long and by necessity change the
kinds of roles they play. Ibdb.com is the best place to find this information.
The last, and one of the best places to research is to look for another character with similar traits
and characteristic. Most characters can be seen as an archetype. If you know your characters
archetype, you can find other songs sung by a character that shares the same archetype.

Character Archetypes

Describe each of these types and their characteristics

Female ingnue (Laurey in OKLAHOMA!, Luisa in The Fantasticks, Julie in Carousel, Peggy
in 42nd Street, Anne in A Little Night Music, Belle in Beauty and the Beast, Maria in West Side
Story, Sally in Cabaret, Fiona in Brigadoon, Maria in The Sound of Music, Young Little Edie in
Grey Gardens, Janie in Catered Affair, Sharon in Finians Rainbow, Mary Lennox in The Secret
Garden, Cosette in Les Miserables, Julia in The Wedding Singer, Elle in Legally Blonde)
Male ingnue (Matt in The Fantasticks, Billy in 42nd Street, Henrik in A Little Night Music, Lt.
Cable in South Pacific, Robert in Drowsy Chaperone, Lun Tha in The King and I, Freddie in My
Fair Lady, Arpad in She Loves Me, Marius in Les Miserables, Robbie in The Wedding Singer?)
Hero, how is he different from male ingnue? (Joe Hardy in Damn Yankees, Tony in West Side
Story, John Adams in 1776, Woody in Finians Rainbow)
Comic Villain or Villainess (Carl-Magnus in A Little Night Music, Gaston in Beauty and the
Beast, Ursula in Little Mermaid, Fagin in Oliver!, Kodaly in She Loves Me, Bud Frump in How
to Succeed, Thenardier and Madame Thenardier in Les Miserables, Glen in The Wedding Singer,
Professor Callahan in Legally Blonde)
Dramatic Villain or adversary (Judd in OKLAHOMA!, Jigger in Carousel, Bill Sikes in
Oliver!, Dickinson in 1776, Javert in Les Miserables, Chauvelin in Scarlet Pimpernel)
Temptress (Lola in Damn Yankees, Appassionata von Climax in Lil Abner, The Baroness in
Sound of Music, Linda Low in Flower Drum Song, Heddy in How to Succeed, Linda in The
Wedding Singer)
Prince Charming (Beast/Young Prince in Beauty and the Beast, Lancelot in Camelot, Prince in
Cinderella)
Trickster (Henry in The Fantasticks, Mr. Applegate in Damn Yankees, The Emcee in Cabaret,
Og in Finians Rainbow, Uncle Max in Sound of Music, The Leading Player in Pippin)
Girl back home (Meg in Damn Yankees, Helen Chao in Flower Drum Song, Eponine in Les
Miserables)
Fool (Maurice in Beauty and the Beast, Sipos in She Loves Me, Hines in Pajama Game, Nicely-
Nicely in Guys and Dolls, Sancho in Man of La Mancha)

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Storyteller (El Gallo in The Fantasticks, The Man in the Chair in Drowsy Chaperone)
Best friend also sometimes called Soubrette, often comic (Ado Annie in OKLAHOMA!,
Carrie in Carousel, Ann in 42nd Street, Petra in A Little Night Music, Anita in West Side Story,
Ilona in She Loves Me, Gladys in Pajama Game, Minnie Fay in Hello Dolly!, Adelaide in Guys
and Dolls, Smitty in How to Succeed, Hildy in On the Town, Martha in The Secret Garden,
Holly in The Wedding Singer. Paulette in Legally Blonde)
Leading lady (Dorothy in 42nd Street, Dolly in Hello, Dolly!, Frulein Schneider in Cabaret,
Anna in King and I, Mrs. Malloy in Hello Dolly!, Marin in Music Man, Guenevere in Camelot,
Rosie in Bye, Bye Birdie, Sarah Brown in Guys and Dolls, Fantine in Les Miserables, Mame in
Mame, Rose in Gypsy, Fannie in Funny Girl)
Chorine, Female singer or dancer in a Musical Comedy, usually not bright and comedic.
(Drowsy Chaperone, Adding Machine, Kiss Me Kate, Curtains)
Leading man (Curley in OKLAHOMA!, Billy in Carousel, Joe Boyd in Damn Yankees,
Fredrik in A Little Night Music, Herr Schultz in Cabaret, Sky Masterson in Guys and Dolls,
Harold Hill in Music Man, Jean Valjean in Les Miserables, Emile in South Pacific)
Antihero (Javert, Shrek, Sweeney, Carnival character)
Sidekick AKA Second Banana (Will Parker in Oklahoma!, Marcellus Washburn in Music Man,
Nathan Detroit in Guys and Dolls, Jeff Douglas in Brigadoon, Chip in On the Town)
Wise old man or woman or Earth mother (Aunt Eller in OKLAHOMA!, Nettie in Carousel,
Madame Armfeldt in A Little Night Music, Mrs. Potts in Beauty and the Beast, Mother Superior
in Sound of Music, Lady Thiang in King and I, Ben in Secret Garden, Arvide in Guys and Dolls)
Child (Chip in Beauty and the Beast, Sad Girl in Bye, Bye Birdie, Amaryllis in Music Man,
Gavroche in Les Miserables, Oliver in Oliver!, Annie in Annie, Colin in The Secret Garden,
Louis in The King and I)

You must know the age and sociological associations of the role you are auditioning for and
choose material that is appropriate. Also be aware that casting in musicals doesnt always follow
the kind of casting your find most often in film. You dont necessarily need to be 16 to play a 16
year-old. The material you choose needs to have the age of the character in mind, however.

Locating Sheet Music

The first place to look for auditioning material is in the Singers Musical Theatre Anthologies
published by Hal Leonard. Five volumes for each of the four voice types contain an amazing
wide variety of literature. Consider these songs the standard literature. You must own these
books and know these songs. It is crucial. These songs should be at the heart of your audition
book. You might think that these songs are all overdone, and maybe they are, but they are the
songs that the people behind the tables need to hear. There is another 2-volume collection for
each voice type published by Alfred. There are some things in these that are not in the Hal
Leonard books.

Of course, you must also look beyond these songs to enrich your choices. These songs,
depending on the situation, are going to be sung by many other people that day. It is prudent that

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you find other resources. Large public and university libraries often have many musical theatre
full scores, especially those from the 20s to the 70s. They also will have vocal selections.

Vocal selections are the smaller folios that are published for the home consumer. These books
will generally have only the most popular songs as they are for public consumption. If you are
looking for more minor songs from shows, these songs may not be included. Vocal selections
contain arrangements of the songs meant for amateur singers to sing at home or small gatherings.
As such, the arrangements may differ from the show slightly or the keys may be altered to be
easier to play on the piano. Vocal selections are nevertheless wonderful resources for audition
material.

For Pop/Rock songs, visit your local music store for individual sheets or collections by artist or
theme (such as The Greatest Hard Rock Songs Ever or Great 80s Ballads). The other place to
look is at sheet music websites such as musicnotes.com. You can buy single sheets and often
transpose them to your key!

If a song is not published, something that is often the case for more recent or less popular shows,
you may be able to hire someone to transcribe the song from a recording or you might know
someone who has done the show and has the score. Leave no stone uncovered. Finding the right
song is worth searching for and it is rarely an easy task.

Auditioning for the ensemble

If you believe that you will not be considered for a leading role, what do you sing? The first
place to start is with the vocal demands and style of the show. Your choice or choices should help
those you are auditioning for see you in the musical. Your choice should also consider the
physical life of the characters in the ensemble. The ensemble for OKLAHOMA! and On the Town
have very different expectations even though the shows opened less than a year apart. Remember
that at a singing audition, the primary thing people are looking for is if you can sing the score
and if you fit into the directors vision of the shows world.

Finding cuts

Creating a great 16- or 32-bar cutting isnt as difficult as you might think. The first thing to look
for is the most musically or lyrically special or identifiable moments of the song. You will also
most likely want to sing the songs climax. The second thing is to sing the parts of the song that
are the best for your voice. If, however, you dont sing the last high note well, you should
probably choose a different song.

The origin of the 16- or 32-bar cut comes from a time when most refrains were 32 bars long. A
32-bar cut then would mean to sing the refrain, but not the verse. A 16-bar cut would mean to
sing the last half of the refrain. If your song is not in a standard form, as is the case for many

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contemporary songs, it is still preferable to start at the end of the song and work your way
backwards. By the way, if the last note is sustained for several bars, only count that bar once.

It is crucial that you mark your music clearly so that the pianist cannot be confused by your cut.
The best way is to present your music with only the bars you are singing. Nothing else should be
visible. This will take extra time on your part but it is worth it. An exception to this rule is when
you are doing a standard that has a first and second ending at the conclusion of the piece. The
pianist will assume that you are singing the second ending.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is it a good idea to choose unknown material? Probably not in most situations. It may seem
like a good idea to do a rare song to assure that you are unique, but it is often not a good idea. If
you are singing a song from an unknown or rarely performed musical, the people behind the
table may spend your audition wondering what the song is or why you chose this song. It may
seem counterintuitive, but you want your audition to be focused on you, not your song. Most
people do not tire of hearing If I Loved You, Almost Like Being in Love or Unusual Way.
2. Should I do a special fancy arrangement? Imagine that you have a friend who is a gifted
arranger who has done a special treatment of your Standard Ballad or maybe you have found an
interesting arrangement that a recording artist has done. It is not a good idea to do these
arrangements because, again, you want the focus to be on you and not the song or arrangement.
A traditional arrangement is preferred especially if you are doing a so-called Standard or a
musical theatre song.
3. Should I choreograph my audition? No. A singing auditions primary purpose is to see if you
sing well enough for the production and to see if you fit into the world of the musical. Leave
your dance skills to the dance audition. You also should not have a great deal of movement in
your audition. All movement should be based in the character and situation and should not
distract from your singing.
4. Are there certain composers I should avoid? If you are auditioning for a Sondheim show, it is
acceptable to sing Sondheim. Otherwise, its probably not a good idea. His songs are complex for
the singer, the pianist and the listener. Due to the difficulty of the piano part, Jason Robert
Brown, Adam Guettel and Michael John LaChiusa songs are probably not good ideas either.
Their songs are often extended story songs as well.

Choosing Pop/Rock songs for auditions

In increasingly greater situations these days, people would rather hear Pop/Rock songs rather
than Musical Theatre songs. Everything from Hair to Les Miserables to Next to Normal to Rock
of Ages to The Lion King to All Shook Up, Pop/Rock songs are being asked for.

Here are some qualities that make a good Pop/Rock audition song:

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1. A good Pop/Rock song is melodic. If the song is pleasant to sing and recognizable withou t
accompaniment, it is probably a good choice. Dont choose a song with a limited pitch range.
You want a song that can show off your voice.
2. A good Pop/Rock song should be well-known or at least somewhat well know. It is wise to
choose a song that was released as a single and charted fairly highly.
3. A good Pop/Rock song should work with piano accompaniment only. Dont choose songs
whose best attribute is its groove. If the songs best quality is rhythm, its likely not a good
choice. Look instead for songs with a strong harmony.
4. A good Pop/Rock song has real Rock energy with a strong back-beat. The drums should be
playing for most of the song.
5. A good Pop/Rock song is better if it is more positive than negative.

You will need several Pop/Rock songs in your book. These include at least one uptempo song
from the 50s or 60s with a fun Rock or Motown groove. You will also need an uptempo and a
ballad from the 80s to today. Its not a bad idea to look for piano-based songs by Billy Joel, Elton
John, Carley Simon and Ben Folds. Guitar based songs can work as well if they are strong
melodically and harmonically. The Beatles songs, although often guitar-based are wonderful
because they are well-crafted and melodic with strong, interesting harmonies.

Here is a short list of the artists that have a discography of great choices for auditions. Whitney
Houston, Stevie Wonder, Bonny Raitt, Aretha Franklin, Mariah Carey, Rick Springfield, Melissa
Ethridge, Phil Collins, Queen, Donna Summer, Sheena Easton, Janis Joplin, The Beach Boys,
The Beatles, Kelly Clarkson, Diane Warwick, Tina Turner, Styx, Journey, Christopher Cross,
Bon Jovi, Neil Diamond, Barry Manilow, Kenny Loggins and Michael Jackson.

In choosing a Country song, many of the same guidelines apply. Choose something with a good
melody, something that charted and something that will sound good with a piano. Many of the
Country songs of the last 15 years or so have much more in common with Pop/Rock songs. It is
better if you find a song in a real Country style. Dont neglect the songs from the early days of
Country music. List artists.

Special Situations

What if you are auditioning for a season of 5 or 6 musicals? The first thing to remember is that
you cannot hope to show something for every show in a 16-bar cutting. If you will most likely be
considered for the ensemble, follow the suggestions above for an ensemble audition. If there is a
lead you are right for, follow the suggestions for auditioning for a lead above.

What if you are doing an audition such as Midwest where you are auditioning for many different
companies? Sing something that shows that you understand your type and how you will likely be
cast. If you could fit into several types of shows easily, you must simply make a choice. You
must also choose something that you sing extremely well.

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Audition Case Study
Here are a few real life examples of finding the perfect audition song.

I was coaching a young women who was interesting Martha Jefferson in 1776. She was perfect.
She had the classical acting background as well as the vocal power needed for He Plays the
Violin. The challenge was finding the right song that would allow the panel to see and hear this.
Since Martha Jefferson is a historical figure, we struggled with finding material that could fit into
the world of Colonial America. The song is a sweeping, rapturous waltz of the characters
immense joy in the love she has for her husband. Marthas essence is youthful but classic. We
decided that the emotional sweep of the song was the primary thing we needed to capture. A
waltz would be outstanding. And if it had the opportunity for high mix/belt, that would be even
better. The song we landed on was Wonderful Guy from South Pacific. There were some
things we had to look at with this song though to make it fit. In South Pacific, Nelly is running
around the beach in 1944 in shorts. Martha would be wearing petticoats and her world would be
more formal. The actor was able to live in the world of 1776 while singing Wonderful Guy by
imagining herself in the surroundings and clothes of the character. Her body language would be
different than Nellies but she could sing the song with the sound she wanted for He Plays the
Violin. It worked beautifully.

Auditioning for Sondheim

I was coaching a beautiful soprano with real comic abilities. She was interested in Cinderella in
Into the Woods. Okay, lets all stop and consider how difficult it is to audition for a Sondheim
show. You cant sing from the song youre auditioning for and there are no two shows that have
remotely similar sounds. So where do you start? You start with the character and then consider
what she has to sing.

This Cinderella is different from other Cinderellas. Shes more grounded and funnier. Shes a bit
clumsy and seems to find herself in embarrassing situations. The role calls for a soprano, but a
unique kind of sopranoone that has to sing quickly and make quick beat changes. We asked
ourselves: What are the best Sondheim soprano songs? The most obvious is Green Finch and
Linnet Bird but Johanna is very differentyounger and less experienced. I Remember and
Take Me To the World were also wrong. Does she panic? No. She knows she needs to be
aware of the character above all else. She most wanted to find Cinderellas strong desire for
something better while at the same time questioning herself. After singing nearly every female
(and some male) Sondheim songs, the one she felt most related to her sense of the character was
Isnt It? from Saturday Night. The song is about the conversation two young people who are
dancing have. The girl is trying to get to know the boy but she questions everything, mostly
herself. The idea of meeting at a dance had, of course, immediate resonance. The challenge was
to remove the song from suburban New York and put it into the world of Into the Woods. The
range is lower than she wanted optimally and she considered raising it a step or two. But
ultimately she decided she would just sing it as written. She sang with the voice she heard as

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Cinderellas voice while seeing the characters world around her. It couldnt have been more
Cinderella-ish.

Of course, she could have decided not to sing a Sondheim song and thats perfectly okay, though
perhaps not ideal. The reason its not ideal is that there is very little out there that matches his
quick wit and musical sophistication. But, I do believe that it is okay to not sing Sondheim for
one of his shows if your best option is someone elses music. Please do try to stop all the crazy
thinking Ive experienced when people talk about Sondheim. While his music is brilliant, we
cant, as his interpreters, actively worship his music while we sing. We will only get in our way.
Love the music. For goodness sake, study it throughly to understand its intricacies. But just look
at it as any other song you are to sing. Be smart about it but dont worship it.

Summary

Finding the perfect audition song is never easy. It is vitally important that you are familiar with
as much of the repertoire as possible. Always be on the hunt for new songs. For Musical Theatre
songs, you must be familiar with the original cast recordings for style and performance practice.
That doesnt mean you have to follow the cast album slavishly. It also doesnt mean you should
learn the song by listening to the cast album. For songs such as the so-called Post-millennium
repertoire, the best place to go is YouTube. But YouTube shouldnt be the place you go to to
listen for original cast albums, unless you find those there.

Choose many songs and try them all out with a friend or a teacher. While you may think a song
is perfect, it is only perfect for you if it fits your voice, your personality and your type. Dont put
songs in your book unless you love them. Work diligently on developing an audition book that
has songs for many, if not most, situations and do not forget to have a wide variety of songs.
Include comedy songs, standards, uptempos and ballads, as well as the many types of
contemporary literature.

Overused Songs

Here is a list of overused songs. Overused songs come and go. What is fashionable one season
may be okay in 4 or 5 years.

Adelaides Lament Guys and Dolls


All That Jazz Chicago
Anthem Chess
Astonishing Little Women
Big Spender Sweet Charity
Broadway Baby Follies
Cant Help Lovin Dat Man of Mine Show Boat
Corner of the Sky Pippin
Dont Cry For Me Argentina Evita

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Embraceable You Girl Crazy
Gimme, Gimme Thoroughly Modern Millie
Good Morning Baltimore Hairspray
Gorgeous The Apple Tree
I Dont Know How to Love Him Jesus Christ Superstar
I Enjoy Being a Girl Flower Drum Song
I Get a Kick Out of You Anything Goes
I Hate Men Kiss Me, Kate
I Know Things Now Into the Woods
Im Gonna Wash That Man Right Out South Pacific
of My Hair
Im Holding Out for a Hero Footloose
Im Not That Girl Wicked
In My Own Little Corner Cinderella
Lets Hear It For the Boy Footloose
Little Girls Annie
Maybe Annie
Music of the Night Phantom of the Opera
My New Philosophy Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown
New York, New York New York, New York (movie)
Not for the Life of Me Thoroughly Modern Millie
Over the Rainbow The Wizard of Oz
Part of Your World The Little Mermaid
Ribbons Down My Back Hello Dolly
Seasons of Love Rent
Shy Once Upon a Mattress
Someone Like You Jekyll and Hyde
Someone to Watch Over Me Oh, Kay!
Somewhere Thats Green Little Shop of Horrors
Summertime Porgy and Bess
Take Me Or Leave Me Rent
This is the Moment Jekyll and Hyde
Tomorrow Annie
What I Did For Love A Chorus Line
You Can Always Count On Me City of Angels

Some shows to avoid:


Wicked
Phantom of the Opera
Cats
Grease
Les Miserables
Annie
Anything by Jason Robert Brown
Jekyll and Hyde

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Thoroughly Modern Millie
Any show in the current season of the company you are auditioning for.

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Qualities of a Great Musical Theatre
Performance
During my years of teaching musical theatre and coaching actors, I began to compile what I
consider the crucial attributes of a great performance. Use this list while preparing a song and
evaluating a performance.

A great musical theatre performance has these qualities.

Musical
All pitches and rhythms are correct 4
The performer is aware of indications such as fermatas, tenutos, caesuras and dynamics
The changes in the music are motivated by the actor
There is an absence of decrescendos at the end of a long pitches, especially at the end
The last note has length and is sung without a decrescendo
The ending of the song has a button, especially in up-tempos

Vocal
Vocal colors change in response to the lyric and acting choices
The singer does not listen to themselves while singing.
The vocal energy affects the partner and, as a result, reaches the audience.
There is a clarity of diction that does not draw attention to itself
The singing style is appropriate to the song
When a spoken lyric happens during a song, the energy is greater than the sung lyric, not
lesser.
When vocal licks are employed, there is a spontaneity in them and they support the lyric
and moment.

Text Analysis
There is specificity in the songs story 5
The phrasing takes the lyrics punctuation into consideration
The performer knows their super-objective
The performer knows what the conflict of the song and their situation
The performer knows the journey of the song and is able to live the life of the song
moment-to-moment
There is a beginning, middle and end

4 In special cases, sometimes rhythms may be altered if the lyrical phrasing mandates a change
5 The listener may not know all the details of your situation, but they will understand the essentials.

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There is knowledge of the songs original context, even if the song is sung with a newly
created situation
The images in the song are clear to the audience

Physicality
There is physical energy
The energy of the performance matches the energy of the song
The physicality is that of the character, not the singer.
The physicality does not distract from the song
The arms are not disconnected from the body
There is breath in the body that supports the singing voice
The physicality is spontaneous and not choreographed
The action and physicality of the character is present and specific even if there is no
singing
The physicality has variety
The moment before launches the song
The physicality does not distract or draw attention away from the face
There is a lack of tension, especially in the eyebrow, forehead, and hands

Performance
The breaths that are the breaths of the character, not the singer
There is specificity in focus that is not too high, too low or too off center
There are changes in action that respond to and motivate the musical changes
Avoids finding the negative but instead fights for the positive outcome
Does not play emotion
There are a variety of emotions
The action precedes the corresponding lyric, not the reverse
Has proper scale, not too big for the song or too small
Has stakes that are appropriate for the song and situation
Energy and volume are not equated.6
There is joy in the act of singing

Other
Clothes do not distract from the song or performance
Hair is not allowed to distract from the face and eyes
The eyes are not closed, except in special cases

6 Soft can be energetic and all moments do not need to be loud.

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Analytical Tools for Song Performance
Parts of this chapter are in outline form only

I. Introduction to Critical Listening and Thinking about music


A. Why is it important?
B. Where do I start? The best place to start is with listening with an open mind and
attentive ears. It doesnt require an advanced understanding of music theory.

II. Critical Listening: Soliloquy

III. Musical Components


A. Melody
B. Tempo
C. Rhythm
D. Orchestration
E. Form
F. Harmony
G. Musical symbols

IV. Analysis: listening while looking at lyrics. Sample #1: Will He Like Me?

V. Analysis: listening while looking at sheet music. Sample #2: Painting Her Portrait

VI. Conclusions

Musical Components for Analysis

Use these Six components to guide you as you look for meaning in music.

1. Melody and melodic contour. This melody goes up while that melody goes down. This
melody is high while this melody is lower. A melody can be considered melodic if there is a
balance of contour (up motion and down motion) and step-wise motion contrasting with
leaps. Sometimes, as in the opening of Will He Like Me?, there is a purposeful lack of
traditional melody.
2. Tempo. This tempo is fast. This tempo is slower.
3. Rhythm can be predictable or smooth (In My Own Little Corner from CINDERELLA) or it
can be unpredictable or syncopated (Somethings Coming from WEST SIDE STORY). The
heartbeat rhythm is such a fundamental life-rhythm that when utilized can have powerful
meanings in songs like Tonight (West Side Story) or The Story Goes On (Baby). Rhythm
is an important component in understanding music that can sometimes be overlooked.
4. Orchestration can suggest moods and feelings. A flute can be sweet. A trumpet can be strong
and powerful. Timpani drums can be suggest majesty. A saxophone often is used to suggest

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the sexual. A lone, high violin can suggest a plaintive quality. Listen to Peter and the Wolf
by Sergei Prokofiev for the ways that instruments can help to tell a story.
5. Form. Looking at the way a song unfolds in time with differing melodies and harmonies can
be a powerful tool for understanding a song. Before 1943, songs were fairly simple in
structure, usually in an AABA or ABAB form. After OKLAHOMA!, theatre songs like
Lonely Room and Soliloquy were often more complex as the situations and story-telling
grew in complexity.
6. Harmony. This can be intimidating to a lot of people but it doesnt have to be. If you can do in
depth harmonic analysis, thats great. But start by observing things like, This is in a minor
mode or This music is dissonant or This music sounds exotic.
7. Musical Symbols and representations. Music can represent or suggest things is time and
space. For instance, music that sounds like a March can represent a parade while a Waltz can
represent a genteel social gathering. A clock ticking can be represented in music because it is
essentially a musical figure of pitch and rhythm.

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Will He Like Me? (She Loves Me)

Lyric divided by beat Action Musical notes


Will he like me when we Amalia questions if she will The simple, non-melodic
meet? Will the shy and quiet be attractive to the man she melody at the beginning is a
girl he's going to see be the has been writing. perfect analogue to the
girl the he's imagined me to questioning lyric. Ill call the
be? Will he like me? motive back and forth
between D and E the
questioning motive. Shes
working out her problem. The
melody opens up and
encompasses a full octave. It
moves from non-melodic to
highly melodic within the
span of only 8 bars! This
soaring melody in the second
half of this section is Amalia
letting out her true feelings,
desires and hopes out into the
world.

Will he like the girl he sees? She re-states her question in a An exact melodic repeat. She
If he doesn't, will he know new way. goes back to the problem.
enough to know that there's The lyrics go deeper into her
more of me than I may always worries and fears. She puts
show? Will he like me? the lid back on her hopes and
goes back to working out the
problem.

Will he know that there's a She opens up her heart about The B section starts with the
world of love waiting to what she has to offer the same melodic motive but an
warm him? How I'm hoping relationship and her wish that octave higher. The melodic
that his eyes and ears won't he will see that within her. idea that was first presented
misinform him. at the beginning is now
allowed to fully flower. It has
grown into a fully developed
melody.

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Lyric divided by beat Action Musical notes
Will he like me, who can say? She re-states her question and Back to the A material. The
How I wish that we could responds to the question for penultimate line in the A
meet another day. Its absurd the first time. section, Will he like me is a
for me to carry on this way. fully step higher, intensifying
I'll try not to. Will he like me? the question. The end of the
He's just got to. Will he like section, the melody is not
me? He's just got to. allowed to resolve. Hes just
got to ends on a dissonant
note, the second scale degree
of G major. A new
accompanimental idea is
introduced here, the steady
8th flow corresponds to the
ease she has when she writes
alone.

When I am in my room alone Amalia describes how easy it Here, Amalia takes stock of
and I write, thoughts come is to write when shes by the difference between the
easily, words come fluently herself and faces the fact that two situations, writing when
then. Thats how it is when things will be much different shes alone and the terrifying
Im alone, but tonight, theres when shes face to face with thought of actually talking to
no hiding behind my paper him. him. Shes much more at ease
and pen. when she writes to him alone.
Theres no hiding behind my
paper and pen has a steady
quarter note accompaniment.
This leads her back into the
last section of the song. The
accompaniment leading us
back is the questioning
motive, this time used to
broaden and expand.

Will he know that theres a She returns to her thoughts Like before, the B section
world of love waiting to about how much she can allows us to see and hear the
warm him? How Im hoping offer this man. full depth of her desires.
that his eyes and ears wont
misinform him.

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Lyric divided by beat Action Musical notes
Will he like me? I dont know. Back to the initial questions; Back to questioning. The
All I know is that Im tempted questions that build in questions Will he like me
not to go. Its insanity for me intensity to the end. get progressively higher in
to worry so. Ill try not to. pitch, ending with the songs
Will he like me? Hes just got apex, F#. This dissonant note
to. Will he like me? Will he helps to emphasize the lack
like me? of resolution in the song. This
song has an ending where
you start arc.

Analysis you can use

The questioning motive at the beginning should be performed parlando, in a


rhythmically free, slightly non-legato manner. Its a non-melody that opens up as she
moves higher and the question gets more passionate. There is a return to the questioning
motive as she goes back to working things out. Then there is a soaring melody as she
expresses her deepest wishes which can be more legato and non rubato. The rhythm in
the middle section is more flowing to express the ease she has when shes alone. She
allows herself to express a completely different side to her character. As it moves back to
the low questioning motive we understand that she hasnt really solved anything. This
music tells us that the arc is a returning back where you start arc or spiral arc. Be
aware that much of the melodic material is developed out of the two-note questioning
motive, reminding us that this moment is about her questions.

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Lonely Room (Oklahoma)

Lyric divided by beat Action Musical notes


The floor creaks, Judd describes his world. There is a repeated half-step
The door squeaks, in the orchestra that suggests
There's a field-mouse Judds conflict and tension
a-nibblin on a broom supporting a small melodic
And I sit by myself range indicative of Judds
Like a cobweb on the shelf world. There is a
By myself in a lonely room preponderance of downward
melodic motion.

But when there's a moon in But indicates that he has The accompaniment responds
my winder secret longings for something to these images with 16th
And it slants down a better than his hum-drum notes. This is the dream
beam'crost my bed existence. dancing in his head.
Then the shadder of a tree
starts a-dancin on the wall
And a dream starts a-dancin
in my head
And all the things I wish fer
Turn out like I want them to
be
And I'm better'n that smart
aleck cowboy
Who thinks he is better'n me!

And the girl that I want He allows himself to This new section becomes
Ain't afraid of my arms, verbalize the what he most much more melodic,
And her own soft arms keep wishes. responding to the images of
me warm love and embracing Laurey.

And her long,yeller hair, falls This is the best thing he can There is a swell in dynamics
a-crost my face, Jist like the imagine. It is a simple, supporting the passion he
rain in a storm! human desire. feels. The melodic motive,
F#, G, A B, ends on the
melodys apex, C#.

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Lyric divided by beat Action Musical notes
The floor creaks, The door But, here he is, as always, in Almost an exact repeat of the
squeaks a drab room realizing that this first A section. He is back in
And the mouse starts a- dream is not a reality. his room, facing his
nibblin on the broom existence.
And the sun flicks my eyes
It was all a pack o'lies!
I'm awake in a lonely room.

I ain't gonna dream 'bout her He makes his decision: to Here, at the climax of the
no more! persue his hearts desire and song, we hear new music. A
I ain't gonna leave her alone! not just dream about it. melodic motive, (F#, G, A B),
Goin' outside, Git myself a is used on Goin outside/Git
bride, myself a bride,. The song
Git me a womern to call my ends on the melodic apex,
own. C#. This is a non-chord tone
of the home key, B minor.
The final chord is B, C#, F#,
an incomplete triad
corresponding to Judds
emotional state.

Analysis you can use

The use the tension of the 1/2 steps and the non-melodic melody create Judds existence.
Because the opening melody is a non-melody, it should be closer to speech. When the
orchestra opens up in the B section, thats a clue for a more expansive vocal production and
active character choices. For the first time, we see Judds hopes and dreams. It builds to the first
climax on Jist like the rain in a storm.. There is then an important return to the initial emotion
placeJudds life is the same as it always was. But after returning there for a little while, theres
an abrupt change with I aint gonna dream bout her arms no more! Judd makes a decision to
act on his wishes.

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Maybe This Time Analysis
Kander and Ebb from the musical, Cabaret (movie, then revival)

In the sophomore Music Theory for Musical Theatre majors, I require students to write a short
essay on a song of their choosing with these guidelines. What follows is an example I use in
class and then a few sample essays from the students.

Structure for your three-page paper


1. An introduction which gives a context for the song and gives us an overview of what your
thesis is.
2. Supporting evidence for this thesisthe body of the paper.
3. A conclusion which gives specific ways you can use this analysis in a performance.

This song is a perfect pairing of music, lyrics, character and situation. Sally Bowles is the cabaret
singer who has had few breaks and fewer successes in her life. When she discovers shes
pregnant with Cliffs child, she begins to believe that her life can turn around.

The songs vamp is a snapshot of her life to this placeit crawls up (by half-steps) and just as we
think its going to continue, it returns to where it begins. But this is just the beginning of her
epic journey.

Some points to consider:


The song is in an ABAC form. After a half-step modulation the second half of the song repeats.
The songs form helps to reinforce this journey by increasing the intensity little by little as the
song progresses.
The quarter note in the bass suggests the Sallys determination.
The first 4 bars are repeated in the next 4 bars at a higher pitch level, suggesting Sallys success
and determination
In the B section, He will hold me fast is supported by embrace motive of half-steps above
and below b3

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The C section is a development of the B material which takes the melody higher than before.

Theres a half-step modulation to A-flat and the last two sections from before are repeated.

The vamp at the end changes to one of hopefulness by moving up to f3 instead of down as
before.

Analysis you can use

John Kanders music and Fred Ebbs lyrics are an especially strong example of a perfect
marriage of the two components. The song was not part of the original production but was
instead added for the movie, written specially for Liza Minnelli, and as such, is one of the rare
cases where an added song is as unforgettable as the original material. Maybe This Time is
essentially Sallys I Want song and its surprising that there wasnt a moment like this in the
original production.
Both the music and the lyrics tell the same storythe story of a person who has been
down on her luck but is fighting to overcome the odds and will succeed.

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Audition Book Song Categories
The following song types should appear in your well-organized audition book.

1. Operatic aria or classical art song. The piece should be something that shows technique and
range.
2. Operetta. The Merry Widow, The Desert Song, The Student Prince and others by Romberg,
Friml and Victor Herbert.
3. Gilbert and Sullivan. These songs show diction, vocal technique and a sense of humor.
Women, select a song that fits your vocal range and color. Men, choose a patter song and a
ballad. Young mezzos can skip this category as all the mezzo arias are for the older, character
actor.
4. Early Musical Comedy/Tin Pan Alley or a Vaudeville Novelty Song. Choose an up-tempo
song that is catchy and straightforward that shows your charm, personality and sense of humor.
This is especially important for character men and women.
5. Standard Ballad and Up-tempo, pre-1943. George Gershwin, Jerome Kern, Rodgers and
Hart, Cole Porter and Irving Berlin are the places to start. You want to find something that you
can both act and sing wellsomething that shows your voice and your essence. Up tempos
should be something that allows your body to respond to the rhythm of the song.
6. Golden Age ballad and up tempo. Rodgers and Hammerstein, Lerner and Loewe, Loesser,
late Porter, late Irving Berlin and many, many others. Choose something from a book musical
between 1943 and the late-1960s that fits your type. Depending on your type, its not a bad idea
to have several in each category.
7. Top 40 songs from these eras not from musicals:

A) Early Rock and Roll Uptempo. Elvis Presley, Buddy Holly, Early Beatles, Girl Groups

B) 1960s/1970s pop/rock. Joni Mitchell, Carole King, Simon and Garfunkel, Stevie Wonder,
mid- to late-Beatles and others. This category is not absolutely essential to your book but is a
helpful addition.

C) Country. From any period, by keep it faithful to the original. Don't make fun of the style.
Choose something that's real Country and not pop/rock Country of the last few years.
That style should go into one of the next categories.

D) 1980s Pop hit Uptempo and Ballad. Some suggestions include Elton John,
BillyJoel,Whitney Houston, Stevie Wonder, Bonny Raitt, Aretha Franklin, Mariah Carey,
Rick Springfield, Melissa Ethridge, Phil Collins, Queen, Carly Simon, Donna Summer,
Sheena Easton, Janis Joplin, Beach Boys, Kelly Clarkson, Diane Warwick, Tina Turner,
Styx, Christopher Cross, Bon Jovi, Neil Diamond, Barry Manilow, Kenny Loggins and
Michael Jackson.

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E) Contemporary Pop/Rock, two contrasting songs from the last 15 years or so. Perhaps one
song is a Pop song from the radio and the other is from a less-popular Rock band. There are
many, many modern shows that require a wide variety of different styles. Try to find songs that
are suitable for shows such as Spring Awakening, Rent, High Fidelity, and American Idiot.

8. Sondheim. Choose a song that shows intelligence, maturity and strong musicianship. N.B.
Funny Thing...Forum doesn't qualify for this category as it is so different from the style of the
rest of his shows.

9. Rock Musical (Ballad and up-tempo)from the late 60s to the mid-80s. Jesus Christ Superstar,
Pippin, Godspell, Hair, Dreamgirls, Chess, etc. This is about the combination of singing style
and acting skills. This category is becoming less important as most Pop/Rock show auditions
would prefer you to sing an actual Pop/Rock song.
10. 1960s/1970s Show tunes (Ballad and up-tempo, not pop/rock) Kander and Ebb, Cy
Coleman, Jule Styne, Jerry Hermann.
11. Contemporary musical theatre (Ballad and up-tempo). Jason Robert Brown, William Finn,
Ahrens & Flaherty, Andrew Lippa, Michael John LaChiusa and others. Choose songs that reveal
something true about you.
12. Disney or film tune. Alan Menken and Stephen Schwartz songs are often over-sung. Its
better to choose an earlier Disney song like the Sherman Brothers or any great song from a
movie (especially 1960s to 1980s). These songs are often very straightforward and well known.
The point is to sing a well-known song well so that they can really hear the strength your voice.
Avoid songs from Beauty and the Beast, The Little Mermaid and Pocahontas. Look for songs
from earlier Disney shows. Really well know Film tunes, like Moon River or It Might Be
You can also be great for this category.
13. Contemporary Art Song. Ricky Ian Gordon, Adam Guettel, Georgia Stitt, John Bucchino.
Something that shows both acting skills, singing skills and strong musicianship.
14. Post-millennium (since 2000). Please be aware that not everything since 2000 qualifies for
this category. The Post-millennium style is best represented by folks like Kerrigan &
Lowdermilk, Joe Iconis, Peter Mills, Seth Bisen-Hersh, Chris Miller, Scott Alan and many
others. See Appendix 3.
15.Specialty number. This could be anything that shows something unique and special about
your abilities. Yodel, high soprano, comedy, patter, super high belt are some possibilities. Be
creative and outside the box.
16.African-Americans should have a Gospel song in their book.
17. The Money Cutting. Regardless of style or period, this short cutting (you need a 32-bar
version, a 16-bar version and an 8-bar version) shows you at your very best vocally and matches
your personality and strengths as a performer.

Some final thoughts and instructions


Depending on your vocal and character type, it may not be necessary to have absolutely
every one of these categories. Some exceptions can be made for having Gilbert and

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Sullivan and/or Operetta. However, everyone should have something that allows your
singing technique to shine.
Prepare each song in its complete form (60 to 120 seconds. You don't need to do repeats), a
32-bar cutting and a 16-bar cutting.
Music should be copied double-sided. If the music is on just two pages, present it in your
book such that the pianist doesn't need to turn pages.
To avoid confusion, eliminate extraneous markings on your music. Clearly indicate
introductions and endings.
None of the music should be cut off the page. Check the tops and bottoms of the pages
carefully. Reduce the copy ratio as needed. 90% generally works.

Follow these guidelines with assembling your audition book.

Make all marks in dark pencil or black pen. Write legibly and do not use cursive as it can
be difficult to read.
Audition books should be three-ring binders, no bigger than 2 inches wide. The super-large
binders make turning pages difficult.
Write indications such as ritards and fermatas in the piano part, not the vocal part.
Nothing should be cut off the page! This includes chords symbols at the top of the page
and the left hand piano staff at the bottom of the page.
Reduce music, when copying from music books, to 90% to 92%. Most sheet music folios
are larger that 8 1/2 X 11.
All music should be double-sided. If your cutting is only 2 pages, present the music
without a page turn.
When making cuts in a song, present the music so the pianist sees only what she will be
playing. In other words, dont just make Xs through the music or draw arrows where the
pianist needs to go.
Be sure that the title, show, tempo, style (such as Swing) and composer/lyricist are at the
top of the page. This is especially important if youve made cuts where this information is
left off.
When purchasing music from musicnotes.com or a similar website, make several copies so
you will have a clean copy as a back up.

Use handwritten scores only when they are the only resource available.
You may be fortunate to have access to Piano/Conductor scores. Please use these only if
they are not heavily marked up or if it is the only resources you can find.
The best way to double-side music is to place single-sided music, blank sides facing each
other, taping the sides at the top and bottom and three-hole punching the music.
Please do not use staples. They make turning pages difficult.

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Advanced:
Include different copies of each song you sing marked clearly with each cutting. Songs you sing
frequently sing should have a 16-bar, a 32-bar and the full song as separate copies.

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Learning to Riff
Learning to embellish on a melody, frequently called riffing, can be an intimidating thing to try
but its not as difficult as you might think. Riffing has increasingly become a skill that is needed
by the musical theatre performer as more and more shows are in a pop/rock style. This chapter
will help you with the basics of riffing. It is important that you begin slowly and resist the
temptation to try to have a finished product too quickly.

Riffing is a style of vocal embellishment that came out of African American work songs from the
early 19th century as well as early Blues and black Gospel singers in the early part of the 20th
century. It was further developed by R&B and Soul singers in the 50s and 60s. Elvis Presley
famously took Hound Dog, first recorded by Big Mama Thornton, an African American
Rhythm and Blues singer, and made it his own. The influence of an African American singing
style was then employed by Pop and Rock singers in the 60s and 70s to today.

It is crucial that the serious students listens to early great Blues singers such as Bessie Smith,
Robert Johnson, and Ma Rainey. Some of the great Gospel singers to listen to are Mahalia
Jackson, Shirley Caesar, Bertha Houston and others. Soul singers to listen to are Ray Charles,
Aretha Franklin, Eta James, Solomon Burke, Otis Redding, Fats Domino and James Brown.
More recent Soul-inspired singers are Prince, Sade, Eryhah Badu, Macy Gray, India.Arie, Alicia
Keys, Bettye LaVette, Maria Carey, Beyonce and Lauryn Hill.

In the late 80s and 90s, a new kind of riffing occurs in pop music characterized by very fast vocal
melismas done to the extreme. Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Justin Timberlake, NSync
and the Backstreet Boys are examples. While this kind of riffing can be exciting, it can feel dated
and minimize the importance of the lyric.

Riffing should come from a need to express the text more fully. In Musical Theatre, most of the
time you need to have a strong reason and need to embellish the melody. This isnt always the
case in purely pop music where riffing can sometimes be simply what is expected.

The first step is to sing the melody softly, simply and accurately, without embellishments. It is
only then will you know what to embellish on. Knowing what the actual melody is can
sometimes be difficult because sheet music is often published today with the riffs written out. If
you have learned a song by listening to a recording first, you must use your intuition and musical
judgement to decide what the unadorned melody is. Try to simplify and smooth out the melody.
For this chapter, we will begin with the Gospel song, His Eye is On the Sparrow (Fig. 1)
because the melody is published and because so many singers have` found ways to make their
performance unique.

As you sing, have a pianist play simple chords. Sing slowly and notice which tones are chord
tones and which are non-chord tones. The non-chord tones are labeled in the given example.

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Learn the three primary types of non-chord tones as they will be useful to you as you create your
version of the melody. A basic understanding of harmony and chords will be very helpful as you
do this.

Neighbor tone - a non-chord tone which steps away from a chord tone and back to a chord tone
Passing tone - a non-chord tone which steps between two chord tones
Appoggiatura - a skip from one chord tone that resolves by step to a chord tone

Fig. 1

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Once you have mastered the basic song, it is time to begin looking at some ways to
change the melody. The most fundamental embellishments are found in Fig. 2.

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After you have mastered these six techniques, you can begin experimenting with free
compositiona recomposition of the melody using the above techniques with additional liberties.
Be careful that the new melody agrees with the harmony. Sing slowly and listen carefully. (Fig.
3)

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Notice that many of the original pitches are present at the same moments and that the
shape of the melody stays largely the same.

In example 1, eye is on the is treated with simple neighboring tones, above and below,
then sparrow moves downward like the original melody, but not as far. In example 2, why
should I feel is recomposed by moving in the opposite direction. Discouraged is also
recomposed. Why should the shadows come is first embellished by moving upward more
quickly, and then reversing direction before moving up to C. Come is treated with a simple
neighbor tone.

Blue Notes
The flat 3rd, flat 5th (or sharp 4) and the flat 7th are pitches which give the Blues its
flavor. In the key of His Eye is On the Sparrow, C major, the flat 3rd is E-flat, the flat 5th is F-
sharp (or enharmonically G-flat) and the flat 7th is B-flat. You should always know the key you
are singing in and know what the blue notes are as they are especially expressive.
Theoretically, Blue Notes may be sung closer to a semitone away from their closest
neighbor note. For example, the E-flats in Fig. 4 may be closer to the D neighbor tone than they
would be in other situations. This alteration from standard tuning systems evokes the pain that
is inherent in Blues.

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Figure 5 shows one possible riff melody created from the various techniques. Try to
identify each of them. Notice that there are several places where a word or two has been added.
Also notice the places where the melody stays the same but the rhythm has been changed
slightly.

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Now it is your turn to create your own version of His Eye is On the Sparrow. Again, dont try
to go too quickly. Have a copy of Fig. 2 close by so that you can recall and incorporate each of
the six techniques. Combining techniques will yield interesting and fresh results. Let your
imagination and voice be free and dont try to be too complex at first. Once you have done this,
listen to the recordings of the song by Marvin Gaye, Mahalia Jackson, The Five Blind Boys of
Mississippi and Lauryn Hill.

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After doing this work, feel free to move on to these Musical Theatre songs. For women
Whatever Happened To My Part? (Spamalot), Find Your Grail (Spamalot), I Am
Changing (Dreamgirls), And I Am Telling You Im Not Going (Dreamgirls), Too Beautiful
For Words (The Color Purple), Raven (Brooklyn: The Musical), Once Upon a
Time (Brooklyn: The Musical), Small Town Girl (Debbie Does Dallas), Feels Like
Home (Randy Newmans Faust), I Got Love (Purlie), I'm Just Movin' (Working) Take Me
Or Leave Me (Rent) and Im Not Alone (Carrie). For men All Good Gifts (Godspell),
Go the Distance (Hercules), Beethoven Day (Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown Revival),
Let Me Drown (Wild Party), Heaven on their Minds (Jesus Christ Superstar), Boy with
Dreams (Edges), Lost in the Wilderness (Children of Eden), Memphis Lives in
Me (Memphis) and Someone Elses Life (Tales From the Bad Years).

Some pop songs that are especially good to explore riffing are Hero (Maria Carey), (You Make
Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman (Aretha Franklin), If I Were a Boy (Beyonc). I Believe I Can
Fly (R. Kelly), Signed, Sealed, Delivered (Im Yours) (Stevie Wonder), You Are the Sunshine of
My Life (Stevie Wonder) and Ill Be There (Jackson 5).

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New and Notable Young Composers: The
Post-Millennium Generation
If you're under 25, I'm sure you're aware of the burgeoning, creative Musical Theatre
scene centered in New York city. Much of this creativity comes out of the NYU musical Theatre
writing program. There are hundreds even thousands of great post-millennium videos on
YouTube to watch. There are many many creative teams writing this music and producing
showcases of their music Unfortunately not very much of this has made it to Broadway and only
a few to Off-Broadway.

YOUTUBE: Natalie Weiss, Pasek and Paul, Kerrigan and Lowdermilk

The music of these composers represents a new style, a new stream, in musical theatre writing
that, while sharing some commonalities with earlier styles, is unique. Some of these songs and
composers might be lumped in with other contemporary composers like Jason Robert Brown or
Andrew Lippa, but this music is a different kind of literature than composers of the preceding
generation. It is often more a straight-forward, melodic pop style that tells stories of modern life.
The vocal style is usually mix/belt for women and pop/rock for men. The best way to familiarize
yourself with this music is by checking out the websites listed below and searching for their
music on YouTube.

When talking to my students about this music, it seemed important to come up with a term that
differentiated it from other contemporary Musical Theatre, thus the label Post-Millennium was
born. I do not consider every musical since 2000 to be Post-millennium. Addams Family,
Memphis, Billy Elliot, Shrek, The Little Mermaid, Aida, The Full Monty, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels,
The Producers, The Light in the Piazza, Wicked and others are a continuation of earlier musical
traditions. Some of the Broadway and Off-Broadway shows that can be called Post-Millennium
are Glory Days, Vanities, Summer of 42, [title of show], Bloody, Bloody Andrew Jackson, I Love
You Because and Ordinary Days. The Broadway show, A Christmas Story, was composed by the
fabulous writing team of Benj Pasek and Justin Paul, a team that has given us the incredible Off-
Broadway shows Edges and Dogfight. But this show draws upon the styles of earlier Broadway
traditions.

STYLE HERE

Below is my master list of Post-millennium composers. Some were writing before 2000 but I use
this term for its simplicity. Almost none of their music is published commercially but can be
often be purchased from their website or from newmusicaltheatre com. The website
contemporarymusicaltheatre com is a wonderful place to go to discover whats hip and new.

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Post-millennium Composers

Jack Aaronson www.aaronsonco.com


Deborah Abramson www.deborahabramson.com
Scott Alan www.scottalan.net
Brad Alexander www.bradalexander.com/
Mark Allen www.markallenmusic.com/
Gaby Alter gabyalter.com/
Barbara Anselmi
Michael Arden www.michaelarden.net
David A Austin
Robert Bartley and Danny Whitman bartleywhitman.com/
Neil Bartram and Brian Hill www.bartramandhill.com
Rob Baumgartner robbaumgartner.com/
Nick Blaemire www.jamesandnick.com/
Charles Bloom www.charlesbloomusic.com/
Jeff Blumenkrantz www.jeffblumenkrantz.com/
Eli Bolin elibolin.net/
Jeff Bowen [title of show] and Now.Here.This. are published
Bobby Cronin bobbycronin.com/
David Dabbon www.dabbonbruett.com/
Julianne Wick Davis
Jared M Dembowski
Chris Dimond and Michael Kooman
Drew Fornarola www.drewfornarola.com
Paul Fujimoto
Jonathan Reid Gealt www.jonathan-reid-gealt.com/
Zina Goldrich and Marcy Heisler www.goldrichandheisler.com/
Matt Gould
Daniel Green www.danielgreenmusic.com/
Adam Gwon www.adamgwon.com/
Rob Hartmann robhartmann.com
Peter Hilliard and Matt Boresi hilliardandboresi.com/
Joe Iconis www.mrjoeiconis.com
Aaron Jafferis and Ian Williams www.aaronjafferis.com
Stephanie Johnstone www.stephaniejohnstone.com/
Kait Kerrigan and Brian Lowdermilk kerrigan-lowdermilk.com
Anthony King www.theanthonyking.com
David Kirshenbaum davidkirshenbaum.com
Danny Larsen
Brett Macias www.reverbnation.com/brettmacias
Michael Mahler www.michaelmahler.com/
Chris Miller and Nathan Tysen www.myspace.com/millerandtysen

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J Oconer Navarro http://www.joconernavarro.com
Ryan Scott Oliver www.ryanscottoliver.com
Benj Pasek and Justin Paul www.pasekandpaul.com/
Mike Pettry www.mikepettry.com/
Joshua Salzman and Ryan Cunningham www.salzmanandcunningham.com/
Jeremy Schonfeld www.jeremyschonfeld.com/
Georgia Stitt www.georgiastitt.com
Jeff Thomson and Jordan Mann www.thomsonandmann
Adam Wagner www.adamjwagner.com
Sam Willmott www.samwillmott.com

Ask people if there are others Im leaving out.

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Do characters know that they are singing?
(Im not sure where this should go)

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Musical Style through History
Throughout the book, Ive written with the assumption that you have a general understanding of
musical theatre history and the styles associated with each period. But perhaps youve never had
the chance to study this rich history. This chapter will give you a thumbnail sketch of the
evolution of styles while leaving out historical details. Its important for you to have, at least, a
general understanding of how styles changed since 1900 so you can understand how the songs
you sing relate to one another. This chapter cant begin to give you a thorough knowledge of
Musical Theatre history so I recommend that you pick up one of the histories listed in the
bibliography.

You will find a brief description of some of the major trends in Musical Theatre along with a
description of some of the major composers. If you really want to learn this material, take the
time to excavate the songs in order to see how they differ. Listen for the ways melody, harmony,
rhythm, musical style and the relationship between lyric and music changes through time.

Section 1Early 20th C. to 1943: Operetta

Victor Herbert (1859-1924) Babes in Toyland, Naughty Marietta, The Red Mill
Rudolf Friml (1879-1972) Rose-Marie, The Vagabond King, The Three Musketeers
Sigmund Romberg (1887-1951) The Student Prince, The Desert Song, The New Moon

Rather than talking about each of these composers separately, I will give you some stylistic traits
for operetta in general. More than anything, operetta style is distinguished by its melody, often
written fairly high, which is meant to be sung by classically-trained singers. The harmony is
relatively simply in an early to mid-19th C. style. The rhythm of operettas is also often simple
with frequent use of waltz and other European dance music incorporated. The lyrics are usually
flowery, poetic and usually not very memorable, although Oscar Hammerstein contributed lyrics
to some operettas. The music is often indistinguishable from European opera, but with this
important differencethere is spoken dialogue between songs unlike Opera, which had sung
recitatives.

Listening
Deep in My Heart, Dear. The Student Prince (Sigmund Romberg)
Ah, Sweet Mystery of Life. Naughty Marietta (Victor Herbert)
Indian Love Call. Rose Marie (Rudolf Friml)

Vaudeville and Very Early Musical Theatre

Before Musical Theatre developed its own musical style, the music of Broadway was quite
similar to the popular music of its time. Ive discussed Vaudeville in an earlier chapter.

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The melody was very singable and and people bought the sheet music and sang the songs at
home. As you can hear in I Wanna Be Loved By You, the vocal style associated with this kind
of music was the opposite of operettauntrained singers, belting out tunes. The harmony is
straightforward and the rhythm borrows from ragtime. There were also quite a lot of sentimental
ballads about love. The lyrics were about common people, often in humorous situations.

In this early style, there wasnt an effort to match the musical style to the character or situation.
The composers were just trying to write warm and beautiful ballads or memorable, entertaining
uptempos.

Listening
I Wanna Be Loved By You from the musical Good Boy (1928) by Herbert Stothart and Harry
Ruby.
Shine On, Harvest Moon, a vaudeville song by Nora Bayes and Jack Norworth.
I Love a Piano is one of Irving Berlins first hits (1915). Quintessential Tin Pan Alley

Early Musical Theatre Composers

Jerome Kern

Style
Kerns style is exemplified by the importance of melody above harmony and rhythm. He
stands at the cross-roads of operetta and the emerging American theatre style. His early
works sound like operetta.
His melodies are unexpected. The melodies seems simple but rarely are. All the Things
You Are includes all 12 chromatic tones and is in three different keys!
His songs are among the first to reflect the character that sings it. Old Man River, for
instance, sounds like a spiritual and Cant Help Lovin Dat Man sounds like a Blues song.

Listening
They Didnt Believe Me (The Girl from Utah, 1913)
Cant Help Lovin Dat Man (Showboat, 1927)
All The Things You Are (Very Warm For May, 1939)
Ol Man River (Showboat, 1927)

George Gershwin

Style
Rhythm and harmony are more important than melody
He often has melodies with repeated notes

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He experimented with larger forms (Porgy and Bess, a piano concerto and orchestral music
like Rhapsody in Blue and American in Paris). More than anyone else of his time, wanted to
be known as a serious composer.
He wanted to study composition with the French master Ravel, but Ravel said he couldnt
teach Gershwin anything.
He wanted to formalize the American sound based in jazz.
His melodies often contain blue notes. These are the special scale degrees, flat 3 and flat 7,
that come from jazz and the blues. The Man I Love which we listened to earlier, is a great
example of this.

Listening
I Got Rhythm (Girl Crazy)
Nice Work If You Can Get It (Damsel In Distress, film and Nice Work If You Can Get It)
Fascinating Rhythm (Lady Be Good)
Strike Up the Band (Strike Up the Band)

Richard Rodgers (with Lorenz Hart)

Style
Melody is more important than rhythm or harmony.
There are many melodic surprises
All of his songs are theatre songs, never pop songs. He is the standard bearer for great
theatre ballads.
He uses straight forward forms like AABA and ABAB.
His melodies are less Operetta-like than Kerns
He didnt strive for importance like Gershwin. He just wanted to write great theatre
songs.

Listening
Manhattan (Garrick Gaieties)
My Funny Valentine (Babes in Arms)
My Heart Stood Still (A Connecticut Yankee)
Bewitched (Pal Joey)

Section 21943 to the late 60s: The Golden Age of Musical Theatre

The first five song-writing teams are the most recognizable and identifiable. The teams listed in
Others either have fewer major shows or dont have a single, identifying style.

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Richard Rodgers (with Oscar Hammerstein II)
Major Shows: Oklahoma, Carousel, King and I, South Pacific, Sound of Music

Simplicity and truthfulness


Music is always character based
No artifice
Hammerstein's humanity, plain-spoken lyrics where emotion is direct.
Full orchestra. Very little drums.
No Jazz influence.
Robert Russell Bennett's orchestration is a big part of the R & H sound. It is characterized
by memorable countermelodies and lush strings.
Romantic, lush and designed to go directly to the heart
Melody based. Not rhythm or harmony
You leave whistling the tunes.
Lyrics came first and melody follows.
Many instances of hymn-like tunes. (This Nearly Was Mine, Bali Hai, Climb Every
Mountain, You'll Never Walk Alone, and Something Wonderful)
Almost in love song like People Will Say Were In Love and If I Loved You
Memorable Character numbers like I Caint Say No and A Puzzelment
Ballet music is important.
Big choruses.

Listening
Oklahoma (OKLAHOMA!)
Youll Never Walk Alone (Carousel)
Hello, Young Lovers (The King and I)
A Wonderful Guy (South Pacific)

Lerner and Loewe


Major Shows: Brigadoon, My Fair Lady, Camelot

They are easy to confuse with Rodgers and Hammerstein


You could many of the same things about about their music.
It's lush and orchestral.
Not jazzy.
Melody first.
Bennett also orchestrated for them so the sound is similar.

As compared to Rodgers and Hammerstein, their songs are more for the mind and less
from the heart. Lyrics are witty and ironic. Shall kith not kill their kin for me, for
example.
They seem less American because of the locations, both musically and lyrically.

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Unlike Rodgers and Hammerstein, the songs feel less like they could fit only in their
respective show. Almost Like Being in Love could fit in other shows.
Some choral work but less than Rodgers and Hammerstein.

Listening
Ascot Gavotte (My Fair Lady)
I Could Have Dance All Night (My Fair Lady)
The Simple Joys of Maidenhood (Camelot)
Almost Like Being in Love (Brigadoon)

Jule Styne (with various lyricists)


Major shows: Gypsy, Funny Girl, Bells are Ringing

The music is Jazz based. His songs really establishes the sound of the show tune.
More rhythmic than Rodgers and Hammerstein or Lerner and Loewe
Incorporates the sound of popular music
Songs tell the stories of their characters and each of his shows has their own world with
internal style like Rodgers and Hammerstein.
Almost no choral singing.
Could possibly be confused with Loesser or Bernstein.

Listening
Some People (Gypsy)
Roses Turn (Gypsy)
Im Going Back (Bells are Ringing)
Dont Rain On My Parade (Funny Girl)

Leonard Bernstein
Major shows: West Side Story, On the Town, Wonderful Town
Candide is unlike the others in style and scope

Symphonic, big orchestra and bold orchestrations


Jazz based, with the exception of Candide.
Rhythm is the most important aspect but harmony and melody are complex and important.
His melodies are difficult to sing and the harmony is the most complex in musical theatre
until we get to Sondheim.
His shows feel very New York. Its quite sophisticated.
Could possibly be confused with Styne or Loesser

Songs
I Can Cook, Too (On the Town)
Ohio (Wonderful Town)

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Jet Song (West Side Story)
Somewhere (West Side Story)

Jerry Bock and Sheldon Harnick


Major shows: Fiorello, Fiddler on the Roof, She Loves Me

Almost as much as Rodgers and Hammerstein, their music is at one with the shows. Every
show has a language of its own based on the location and the kind of story it is.
Songs come directly from the character.
Their music is less grand or formal than Rodgers and Hammerstein
High degree of emotionalism.
You can't imagine putting their songs in any other show.
Can be confused with Rodgers and Hammerstein
Frequent group numbers

Listening
If I Were a Rich Man (Fiddler on the Roof)
Matchmaker, Matchmaker (Fiddler on the Roof)
When Did I Fall In Love (Fiorello)
Tonight at Eight (She Loves Me)

Others
Adler and Ross (Pajama Game and Damn Yankees) Could be confused with Jule Styne or
possibly Bock and Harnick
Meredith Wilson (The Music Man and The Unsinkable Molly Brown) Could be confused with
Rodgers and Hammerstein or Lerner and Loewe. Lots of group numbers.
Charles Strouse (Major shows: Annie, Bye, Bye Birdie, Applause, Rags)
Burton Lane (Finians Rainbow, On a Clear Day, You Can See Forever) Could be confused with
Lerner and Loewe. Finians Rainbow could be confused with Brigadoon and On a Clear Day
could be confused with Jule Styne or Bock and Harnick.
Frank Loesser (Guys and Dolls, Most Happy Fella, How to Succeed in Business Without Really
Trying). Every show has a different style.

The Golden Age style


It's difficult to list traits that pertain to all shows from this era but here a few of them.
Big orchestra with lots of strings, brass and winds.
Songs which are always plot-based
An equality of importance between music and lyric
Vocal styles are in generally one of two camps: Leading roles call for trained voices in a
light classical/serious musical theatre style and supporting/comic roles for singing actors
with less need for trained voices. As the period progresses there are times when leading
characters have the voices usually associated with character roles.

156
Extended musical forms (beyond the usual verse/refrains of musical comedy) Soliloquy
from Carousel and Lonely Room from Oklahoma are quite complex.
Choral numbers

The purpose is to give a broad sweep of musical styles so that students can identify composers or
at least style periods by hearing.

Section 31970 to the Present: Post-Golden Age

Stephen Sondheim
Major Shows: Company, Sweeney Todd, A Little Night Music, Sunday in the Park with George,
Into the Woods, Passion

Style
His songs set a high standard for theatre music and lyrics
Many of his musicals are concept musicals, i.e. they dont tell a linear story from
beginning to end.
The music and the lyrics are highly integrated and support each other.
Witty, smart lyrics and music that is more complex than the average Broadway show.
Irony is common
Musical dissonance is common and used for dramatic purposes.
Almost no musical allusions to Popular music
His songs are based first and foremost on the lyric with the music helping to communicate
the lyric and its subtext.

Listening
A Weekend in the Country (A Little Night Music)
Everybody Loves Louis (Sunday in the Park With George)
No More (Into the Woods)
I Read (Passion)

Kander and Ebb


Major Shows: Cabaret, Chicago, Kiss of the Spider Woman, Curtains, Scottsboro Boys

Style
The music of Kander and Ebb is frequently characterized by direct references to earlier
styles (see below)
Black humor derived from cynicism, often pertaining to death (Electric Chair) but also
to other taboo subjects like Menage a Trois (Two Ladies), is common.
Rhythm is the most identifying musical component.

Listening

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Two Ladies from Cabaret. The music in Cabaret is modeled on the Weimar Cabaret sound
exemplified by Threepenny Opera and Kurt Weills music.
Mister Cellophane from Chicago. The show evokes the sound of Vaudeville.
Show People from Curtains. The music of Curtains draws on the traditions of early Musical
Comedy exemplified by the shows of Irving Berlin.
Electric Chair from The Scottsboro Boys. The music of this show draws on the music of the
Minstrel tradition.

Jerry Herman
Major shows: Hello, Dolly!, Mame, La Cage Aux Folles

Style
Lush, romantic music referencing earlier Musical Theatre styles. His songs are true Show
Tunes!
He is most similar in sound to Jule Styne
The orchestra is characterized by lots of strings
There is strong female lead in most of his shows, or in the case of La Cage, a drag queen.
Hermans songs are characterized by strong, singable melodies.

Listening
Hello, Dolly from Hello, Dolly
Bosom Buddies from Mame
I Am What I Am from La Cage Aux Folles

Andrew Lloyd Webber (with various lyricists)


Major Shows: Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita, Cats, Phantom of the Opera

Style
His shows are grand with big themes in bold colors
The music often references Popular styles, especially rock, while at the same time, his
melodies resemble the operatic arias of Puccini and Verdi
Webbers soaring melodies are the most identifying musical component
Big orchestras with strings, brass (especially French horn) and synthesizers and electric
guitars

Listening
Buenos Aires from Evita
Memory from Cats
All I Ask of You from Phantom of the Opera

Claude-Michel Schnberg (with various lyricists)


Major Shows: Les Miserables, Miss Saigon, The Pirate Queen

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Style
These shows are similar to the shows of Andrew Lloyd Webber in the importance of big
melodies in a lush musical style
Vocal style for these shows is rich and bold with unique mixture of classical sound with
slight pop inflection.
Frequent use of a modern recitative style (exemplified by the opening of I Dreamed a
Dream. These recitatives are often on a single note.
Big orchestras with strings, brass, percussion and synthesizers

Listening
I Dreamed A Dream from Les Miserables
Do You Hear the People Sing from Les Miserables
The Heat is On in Saigon from Miss Saigon

Many great composers like Cy Coleman, whose career spanned over 30 years, and Stephen
Schwartz, who started his Broadway career in 1971 and is still writing, have been left off of this
list for the sake of brevity.

Further Exploration:
Make a list of the composers in the last 20 years that you think are the most important. Research
their shows, styles and discover the shows that you dont know yet.

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Hallmarks of Professionalism

A professional in the performing arts...

has an endless curiosity about the world around them and the people with whom they share the
planet.
has empathy for others.
is passionate about their work without becoming obsessive and self-destructive.
has the ability to work when tired, angry, frustrated or distracted.
is capable of dealing with adversity in their career and relationships.
has strong opinions but is able to see another side of things without losing their own point of
view.
seeks to find the positive in every experience.
has character.
is disciplined, even when they don't see immediate results.
is responsible and carries through on agreed tasks.

Obviously, there are times when we dont live up to these goals, but they will help to promote
success and personal satisfaction.

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Musical Theatre Song Study and Audition Annotated Bibliography

add history books and the ones listed at the end

Alper, Steven M. Next! Auditioning for the Musical Theatre. Portsmith, NH: Heinemann,
1995.
Extensive lists of dos and donts including what not to sing. Written by a working audition
pianist. Very practical.

Bell, John and Chicurel, Steven R. Music Theory for Musical Theatre. Plymouth, UK:
Scarecrow Press, 2008.
A unique book that helps with the basic musical skills one needs. It includes interesting
analyses of musical theatre songs.

Brunetti, David. Acting Songs. New York: David Brunetti, 2006.


Decent but slim book. There are more comprehensive books available. It contains short
chapters on song as monologue, gestures and focus, and auditions.

Caldarone, Marina, and Lloyd-Williams, Maggie. Actions: The Actors Thesaurus.


Hollywood: Drama Publishers, 2004.
Essentially a thesaurus for finding the perfect actable verb for any situation. If you can come
up with a verb that is close to what you want but not the perfect verb, look up that word and
youll see others that may be better. For example, Abolish lists Annihilate, Destroy,
Dismiss, Eradicate and Nullify.

Cohen, Darren, and Perilstein, Michael. The Complete Professional Audition. New York:
Back Stage Books, 2005.
An incredibly helpful and exhaustive book for musical theatre auditions. It discusses such
nuts and bolts as constructing the perfect 16-bar audition. Also helpful for choosing
appropriate material for a specific role. Highly recommended.

Craig, David. A Performer Prepares: A Guide to Song Preparation for Actors, Singers and
Dancers. New York: Applause, 1993.
Like Mr. Craigs magnum opus, On Singing Onstage, this book takes the form of transcribed
coaching sessions within various styles such as Narrative show ballad, Theatre blues, Patter
song, etc. The best thing about this book for me is the way he is able to categorize songs by
type. Recommended primarily for that reason.

Craig, David. On Singing Onstage. New York: Applause, 1978.


Mr. Craigs book was the first of its kind and influences nearly everything that comes after it
concerning theatrical song interpretation. The core of the book is a detailed process of five
steps for preparing a song. We all are indebted to this book. Highly recommended.

161
Deer, Joe and Dal Vera, Rocco. Acting in Musical Theatre: A Comprehensive Course. New
York, Routledge, 2008.
This is an extremely comprehensive textbook for the complete training of the musical theatre
performer. It leaves no stone uncovered. Highly recommended.

Kayes, Gillyanne, and Fisher, Jeremy. Successful Singing Auditions. New York, Routledge,
2002.
The best part of this book for me is something she calls the FOAL process falling off a
log. It is a series of activities that help you to hone in on great material for you. The
remainder of the book gives very solid and practical advice although her perspective is that
of a West End professional.

Kayes, Gillyanne. Singing and the Actor. New York: Theatre Arts, 2004.
This is a vocal technique book for musical theatre singers. It comes highly recommended by
voice teachers.

Melton, Joan. Singing in Musical Theatre. New York: Allworth Press, 2007.
A series of interviews with musical theatre educators from around the world.

Merlin, Joanna. Auditioning: An Actor-Friendly Guide. New York: First Vintage Books,
2001.
For my money, the best, most helpful, most humane, most sensible book on the subject.
Incomparable.

Moore, Tracey, and Bergman, Allison. Acting the Song. New York: Allworth Press, 2008.
Essentially an handbook for musical theatre educators in teaching song interpretation. Clearly
owes a debt to David Craigs work but is less off-putting. This book may not be particularly
helpful to the young professional.

Oliver, Donald. How to Audition for the Musical Theatre: A Step-by-Step Guide to Effective
Preparation. Lyme, NH: Smith and Kraus, 1995.

Ostrow, Stuart. Thank You Very Much. Hanover, NH: Smith and Kraus, Inc., 2002.
A very slight book with a few lists of good songs to sing. Not particularly helpful in general.

Ostwald, David. Acting for Singers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
A big fancy book published by a fancy company. The musical theatre singer may be put off
by the fact that at least half of the book is about acting in opera. The technique here,
however, is solid.

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Robison, Kevin. The Actor Sings. Portsmith, NH: Heinemann, 2000.
Singing technique for the actor who has had little experience.

Silver, Fred. Auditioning for the Musical Theatre. New York: Penguin Book, 1985.
Another early book on the subject. While the book is fine, I think there are better things on
the subject.

Suskin, Steven. Showtunes: The Songs, Shows, and Careers of Broadways Major
Composers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
An encyclopedic work about Broadway music. Indispensable. This is where I learned that
Meridith Willson didnt write My White Knight! For musical theatre nerds only.

163
Repertoire

164
Standard Ballads
Standard Ballads are a must in everyones audition book. The first songs listed are the ones that
are not overdone, are about love or love lost and have a verse. These are the ones you should
look at first before looking at others.

These are the qualities of a great ballad?


Strong melody that will allow your voice to open up and soar
Its about something of emotional substance
Lastly, I prefer standard ballads that have verses. When sung properly, verses do_______.

Rodgers and Hart


With a Song in My Heart (M/F) 1929
My Heart Stood Still (M/F)
It Never Entered My Mind (F)
Spring is Here (M/F but probably better for a man)
Have You Met Miss Jones? (M)
My Romance (M/F)
Isn't it Romantic? (M/F)
I Could Write a Book (M/F)
I Didn't Know What Time it Was (F)
You're Nearer (M/F)
Where or When (M/F)
It's Easy To Remember (M/F)

George Gershwin
But Not For Me (F)
A Foggy Day (M)
Somebody Loves Me (M)
Love is Here to Stay (M/F)

Cole Porter
You'd Be So Nice to Come Home To7 (M/F)
Easy to Love (M)
You Do Something to Me (M)

Hoagy Carmichael
The Nearness of You (M/F)

7 women should change the lyric in the Verse to lot of guys just a pleasing.

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Irving Berlin*
The Song is Ended (But the Melody Lingers On) (M/F)
What'll I Do (M/F)
*Others?

Jerome Kern
The Folks Who Live on the Hill (M)
I'm Old Fashioned (F)
Long Ago and Far Away (M/F)
They Didn't Believe Me (M/F)
Bill (F)

Harry Warren
I Only Have Eyes for You (M/F) 1934
You'll Never Know (M/F) 1943
The More I See You (M/F) 1945
I Wish I Knew (M/F) 1945*

James Van Heusen


Darn That Dream (M/F) 1939
Imagination (M/F) 1940

Other Composers
I Remember You (M/F)
Music by Victor Schertzinger Lyrics by Johnny Mercer 1941

I Cover the Waterfront (M/F)


Music by John Green Lyric by Edward Heyman 1933

I Cant Get Started with You (M)


Music by Vernon Duke Lyrics by Ira Gershwin 1935

A Nightingale Sang in Berkeley Square (M/F)


Music by Manning Sherwin and Jack Strachey Lyrics by Eric Maschwitz 1940

As Time Goes (M/F)


Music and Lyrics by Herman Hupfeld 1931

I'll be Seeing You (M/F)


Music by Sammy Fain Lyrics by Irvin Kahal 1938

Can't We Be Friends (F)

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Music by Kay Swift Lyrics by Paul James 1929

The Very Thought of You (M/F)


Ray Noble 1934

September Song (M/F)


Music by Kurt Weill Lyrics by Maxwell Anderson 1938

Fools Rush In (M/F)


Music by Rube Bloom Lyrics by Johnny Mercer 1940

It's Magic (M/F)


Music by Jule Styne Lyrics by Sammy Cahn (1947)

It's You Or No One For Me

I THOUGHT ABOUT YOU

Can This Be Love?


You were meant for me

Too Overdone
These songs are great Ballads by be aware that they are sung frequently.

Bewitched (Rodgers and Hart)


My Funny Valentine (Rodgers and Hart)
Someone to Watch Over Me (Gershwin)
Embraceable You (Gershwin)
The Man I Love (Gershwin)
How Long Has This Been Going On (Gershwin)
I've Got a Crush on You (Gershwin)
Ev'ry Time We Say Goodbye (Cole Porter)
Stardust (Hoagy Carmichael)
All The Things You Are (Kern)
The Way You Look Tonight (Kern)

Other Great Ballads


Alone Together (Schwartz and Dietz)
April in Paris (Harburg and Duke)
Autumn in New York (Duke)
Body and Soul (Green)
Dancing in the Dark (Schwartz and Dietz)

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Day by Day
Fools Rush In (Where Angels Fear to Tread)
I Can't Give You Anything But Love (Fields and McHugh)
Secret Love (Fain)
Skylark (Carmichael)
Something to Remember You By (Schwartz and Dietz)
Time After Time (Styne)
What's New (Haggart)
You and the Night and the Music (Schwartz and Dietz)
You Are Too Beautiful (Rodgers and Hart)
You Go to My Head (Coots)
The Boy Next Door (Martin and Blane)
Come Rain or Come Shine (Arlen)
He Loves and She Loves (Gershwin)
I Guess I'll Have to Change My Plan (Schwartz and Dietz)
Love Walked In (Gershwin)
The Song is You (Kern)
Stardust (Carmichael)
These Foolish Things
Unforgettable (Gordon)
Why Was I Born (Kern)

168
Uptempo Standards
True Uptempo standards are usually in 2 (with the time signature or 2/4 or 4/4, never 3/4) and are
not swung. The tempo is bright, with a metronome marking of at least 120 (which is the tempo of
Stars and Stripes Forever). Charm songs can sometimes be confused for Uptempo Standards. A
Charm song has a moderate tempo and is in a swing style. Here are some classic examples of
Standards and their classification.

Uptempo - I Got Rhythm, I Cant Be Bothered Now, Lets Call the Whole Thing Off
Charm Song - Singing' in the Rain, If I Only Had a Brain
Ballad - Somewhere Over the Rainbow, Somebody Loves Me, The Man I Love

Things to look for when choosing an uptempo Standard:


1. The music should make you want to dance.
2. It was probably written for either a Broadway show or movie.
3. It should be actable. These songs are not complex lyrically or contain deep thoughts, but it
should be something that you can create a situation for.

The greatest composers for Uptempos are

Al Dubin
Nacio Herb Brown
Walter Donaldson
Vernon Duke
Duke Ellington
Sammy Fain
George Gershwin
Irving Berlin
Ray Henderson
Herman Hupfeld
Isham Jones
Jerome Kern
Jimmy McHugh
Cole Porter
Rodgers and Hart
Gus Kahn
Schwartz and Dietz
Jimmy Van Heusen
Harry Warren
Richard Whiting
Vincent Youmans

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Here are some great Uptempos

Look in song books for more


Gershwin
Clap Yo' Hands
Love is Sweeping the Country
I Can't Be Bothered Now
Swanee
Lady Be Good
Let's Call the Whole Thing Off
Slap That Bass (it's swing, but it's fast swing)
I Got Rhythm
Fascinating Rhythm (it's swing, but it's fast swing)
They All Laughed
Could You Use Me
Oh, Lady Be Good!
'S Wonderful
Strike Up the Band
Of Thee I Sing
Who Cares?
Could You Use Me?

Rodgers and Hart


Lady is a Tramp
I Wish I were in Love Again
Johnny One Note
Ev'rything I've Got
Thou Swell
It's Got to Be Love (no verse)
You Mustn't Kick it Around
You Took Advantage of Me
Mountain Greenery
I'd Rather Be Right
Dancing on the Ceiling
The Most Beautiful Girl in the World
Mountain Greenery
This Can't Be Love

Cole Porter
Anything Goes
Under My Skin
Let's Do It

170
I Get a Kick Out of You
You're the Top
Blow, Gabriel, Blow
It's De-Lovely
Just One of Those Things
Begin the Bequine
Night and Day
You Do Something to Me
From This Moment On

Hugh Martin
What Do You Think I Am
The Trolley Song
Pass That Peace Pipe
Gotta Dance

Irving Berlin
Blue Skies
I'm Putting All My Eggs In One Basket (This could be a Charm song)
Let Yourself Go
Top Hat, White Tie and Tails
Cheek to Cheek
Puttin' on the Ritz
I Used To Be Color Blind
No Strings (I'm Fancy Free)
Steppin' Out With My Baby
When Winter Comes
I Love a Piano

Harry Warren
Chattanooga Choo-Choo
Lulu's Back in Town
You're Getting to Be a Habit With Me
Forty-Second Street
I Found a Million Dollar Baby (In a Five and Ten Cent Store)
Lullaby of Broadway
Young and Healthy
Were In the Money

Harold Arlen
Get Happy
It's Only a Paper Moon
That Old Black Magic

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Down With Love
I've Got the World on a String
Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea
Let's Fall in Love

Others
You Make Me Feel So Young (1946) (Myrow)
High Hopes (Van Heusen) (1958)
On the Sunny Side of the Street (McHugh)
I'm Just Wild About Harry (is there a verse?) (Blake)
Zing! Went the Strings of My Heart (is there a verse?) (Hanley)
Pick Yourself Up (Kern)
I Want to Be Happy (Youmans)
Who (Kern)
I Want to Be Bad (DeSylva, Brown and Henderson)
Varsity Drag (DeSylva, Brown and Henderson)
Button up Your Overcoat (DeSylva, Brown and Henderson)
Fine and Dandy (James and Swift)
Lullaby of Birdland (Shearing)
Please Don't Talk About Me When I'm Gone (Stept)
I Won't Dance (Kern)
I'm Gonna Sit Right Down and Write Myself a Letter (Ahlert)
I'm Just Wild About Harry (Sissle and Blake)
Who? (Kern)

Charm Songs
Am I Blue? (Akst and Clarke)
Singin in the Rain (Nacio Herb Brown)
If I Only Had a Brain (Arlen)
Others?

Jazzy Songs that could that could be considered an Uptempo


It Had to Be You (Jones)This is more a jazz song than and Uptempo
Lullaby of Birdland (1952) (Shearing)
Ain't Misbehavin (Waller) (no verse?)
I'm Beginning to See the Light (no verse) (Ellington)
It Don't Mean a Thing (If it Ain't Got that Swing) (Ellington)

172
Gilbert And Sullivan Arias
The operettas of Gilbert & Sullivan present a unique performance style that you may be called
upon to master. You may wonder why Gilbert & Sullivan operettas continue to be performed
regularly in mainstream musical theater venues when most others have been relegated to the
sideline as curiosities. Its probably a combination of factors: music of substance, genuinely
clever lyrics, and general audience accessibility certainly help. But probably the madcap
absurdity of the settings (what they called TopsyTurvy) removes them from the strictly
Victorian context in which they were written and make them oddly universal. It is claimed that
The Mikado is the most performed work in the history of theater, but whether that is strictly true
or not, the thirteen Gilbert and Sullivan shows remain an absolutely essential part of the musical
theater world.

To be more accurate, one should say that just three Gilbert and Sullivan works remain essential.
These are often referred to as The Big 3 and are HMS Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance, and
The Mikado. You will find these included regularly in season offerings by regional theater
companies. Three other shows, Iolanthe, The Yeomen of the Guard, and The Gondoliers surface
in general productions from time-to-time so it is worth being familiar with these as well. The
remainder of their shows, Patience, The Sorcerer, Princess Ida, Trial By Jury, Ruddigore, The
Grand Duke, and Utopia, Limited, while possessing many pleasures, are not likely to be
performed except by the specialty G&S companies that thrive in cities across the country, chief
of which is the New York Gilbert & Sullivan Players. It is worth becoming familiar with some of
the principal arias from the lesser-performed works as audition pieces.

In terms of performance style and requirements for performers, each of these works is built on a
remarkably uniform model. These shows really do call for types and it is nearly impossible for
a successful production to vary from these types. Because The Big 3 are performed so frequently,
directors often try add a new twist by changing the setting: HMS Pinafore aboard the Starship
Enterprise, The Mikado populated by modern, Hello Kitty! obsessed schoolgirls, Pirates of
Penzance modified to fit a Pirates of the Caribbean sensibility, to name just a few. But even in
the most absurd settings, the musical treatment and demands on the singers remain essentially
the same.

Here are the types. Your first task is to understand which type suits you. It unlikely for a single
performer to fit comfortably into more than one type.

The Hero (lyric tenor): Virtuous, earnest, handsome. (Ralph in Pinafore, Frederick in Pirates,
Nanki-Poo in Mikado)

His Love Interest (soprano): Legit soprano with coloratura opportunities. This character could
be thought of as the ingnue, except that due to oddities in performance style, older performers

173
are often cast here, as long as they are thin. (Josephine in Pinafore, Mabel in Pirates, Yum-Yum
in Mikado)
Baffled Lyric Baritone (baritone): This character is usually the girls father or is some other
way linked to the hero and often is one of the central characters in the standard triple wedding
scene which brings the action to a close. Even though he is always a comic character, his songs
are among the most melodic and memorable of the score. (Captain Corcharan in Pinafore, The
Pirate King in Penzance, Pooh-Bah in Mikado)

Older Woman with a Bold Presence (mezzo): Imposing mezzo. Very often these roles are
given to larger women for the comic effect of matching them with the Patter-Singing Character
(see below) who is traditionally small. (Buttercup in Pinafore, Ruth in Pirates, Katisha in
Mikado)

Patter-singing Character (baritone): Always a comic character whose comic skills are more
important than singing voice. Main requirement is the ability to throw off the patter song quickly
with excellent diction. (Sir Joseph in Pinafore, Major General in Pirates, Ko-Ko in Mikado)

Those five are absolutely essential. In addition, these types also always appear, but sometimes
with varying levels of significance or duplication:

Soubrette (mezzo): friend or confidant to the leading lady. Usually has a solo but provides a
voice in the trios and quartets as the plot allows. These often come in pairs! (Edith and Kate in
Pirates, Pitti-Sing and Peep-Bo in Mikado)

Villain (bass): Classic villain type; can almost be considered as a male counterpoint to the
Older Woman with a Bold Presence. (Dick Deadeye in Pinafore, Sergeant of Police in Pirates,
The Mikado in Mikado)

Male Side Kick (baritone): Roughly the male equivalent of the soubrettes, usually friend or
companion to the Hero. Like the soubrette, this character has a minor feature and then fills out
the various small ensembles. (Boatswain in Pinafore, Samuel in Pirates, Pish-Tush in Mikado)

Arias

Soprano / Love Interest

Big 3:
Sorry Her Lot Who Loves Too Well (HMS Pinafore)
A Simple Sailor Lowly Born (HMS Pinafore)
Poor Wand'ring One (The Pirates Of Penzance)
The Sun, Whose Rays Are All Ablaze (The Mikado)

174
The Others:
When He Is Here (The Sorcerer)
Happy Young Heart (The Sorcerer)
I Cannot Tell What This Love May Be (Patience)
Love Is A Plaintive Song (Patience)
Nay, Tempt Me Not (Iolanthe)
Oh, Goddess Wise (Princess Ida)
A Lady Fair Of Lineage High (Princess Ida)
I Built Upon A Rock (Princess Ida)
If Somebody There Chanced To Be (Ruddigore)
In Bygone Days I Had Thy Love (Ruddigore)
Tis Done! I Am A Bride (The Yeomen Of The Guard)
Kind Sir, You Cannot Have the Heart (The Gondoliers)
How Would I Play This Part (The Grand Duke)
So Ends My Dream (The Grand Duke)

Mezzo / Older Woman with a Bold Presence

The Big 3:
I'm Called Little Buttercup (HMS Pinafore)
When Frederic Was A Little Lad (The Pirates Of Penzance)
Alone, And Yet Alive (The Mikado)

The Others:
My Child, I Join in These Congratulations (The Sorcerer)
Silver'd Is The Raven Hair (Patience)
Oh, Foolish Fay (Iolanthe)
Come Mighty Must! (Princess Ida)
Sir Rupert Murgatroyd (Ruddigore)
When Our Gallant Norman Foes (The Yeomen Of The Guard)
On The Day When I Was Wedded (The Gondoliers)
Come, bumpers aye, ever-so-many (The Grand Duke)
When But A Maid Of Fifteen Years (Utopia Limited)

Mezzo/ Soubrette

The Big Three:

Braid the Raven Hair (The Mikado)

The Others:

175
When He is Here (The Sorcerer)
My Lord, A Suppliant At Your Feet (Iolanthe)
A Lady Fair Of Lineage High (Princess Ida)
Were I Thy Bride (The Yeomen Of The Guard)
When Maiden Loves, She Sits And Sighs (The Yeomen Of The Guard)
Cheerily Carols The Lark (Ruddigore)
To A Garden Full Of Posies (Ruddigore)
When A Merry Maiden Marries (The Gondoliers)

Tenor / Hero

The Big 3:
A Maiden Fair To See (HMS Pinafore)
Oh, Is There Not One Maiden Breast (Pirates)
A Wand'ring Minstrel I (The Mikado)

The Others:
Oh, Gentlemen, Listen, I Pray (Trial By Jury)
When First My Old, Old Live I Knew (Trial By Jury)
For Love Alone (The Sorcerer)
It Is Not Love (The Sorcerer)
Spurn Not The Nobly Born (Iolanthe)
Twenty Years Ago (Princess Ida)
Would You Know The Kind Of Maid (Princess Ida)
I Shipped, D'ye See (Ruddigore)
Free From His Fetters Grim (The Yeomen Of The Guard)
Is Life A Boon? (The Yeomen Of The Guard)
Rising Early In The Morning (The Gondoliers) baritone
Take A Pair Of Sparkling Eyes (The Gondoliers)
A Tenor , All Singers Above (Utopia Limited)
Were I a King, in Very Truth (The Grand Duke)

Lyric Baritone/ Baffled Lyric Baritone

The Big 3:
Fair Moon, To Thee I Sing (HMS Pinafore) tenor
I Am The Captain of the Pinafore (HMS Pinafore)
I Am A Pirate King (The Pirates Of Penzance)

The Ohers:
Time Was, When Love And I (The Sorcerer)
A Magnet Hung in a Hardware Shop (Patience)
Im a Waterloo House Young Man (Patience)

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Comic Baritone/ Patter-singing Character

The Big 3:
When I Was A Lad I Served A Term (HMS Pinafore)
I Am The Very Model (Pirates Of Penzance)
As Some Day It May Happen (The Mikado)
Tit-Willow (The Mikado)

The Others:
When I, good friends, was called to the bar (Trial By Jury)
My Name Is John Wellington Wells (The Sorcerer)
Am I Alone and Unobserved (Patience)
When You're Lying Awake With A Dismal Headache (Iolanthe)
When I Went to the Bar (Iolanthe)
If You Give Me Your Attention (Princess Ida)
Whene'er I Spoke (Princess Ida)
My Boy, You May Take It From Me (Ruddigore)
Henceforth all the crimes that I find in the Times (Ruddigore)
My Eyes are Fully Open to My Awful Situation (Ruddigore)
I've Jibe And Joke (The Yeomen Of The Guard)
Oh! A Private Buffoon is a Light-Hearted Loon (The Yeomen of the Guard)
In Enterprise of Martial Kind (The Gondoliers)

Bass / Villain

The Big 3:
The Policeman's Song (The Pirates Of Penzance)
A More Humane Mikado (The Mikado)

The Others
Engaged To So-And-So (The Sorcerer)
When All Night Long A Chap Remains (Iolanthe)
When the Night Wind Howls (Ruddigore)
No Possible Doubt Whatever (The Gondoliers)

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Vaudeville Songs
Beginning in the 1880s and continuing through the 1920s, Vaudeville was Americas
entertainment. A typical vaudeville show included such acts as comedians, singers, plate-
spinners, contortionists, jugglers, ventriloquists, dancers, musicians, animal actsnearly
anything that could hold the audiences attention. After the Civil War, entertainments intended
exclusively for male audiences were filled with bawdy jokes and off-color stories, making them
unsuitable for children and sensitive women. Tony Pastor, the so-called Father of Vaudeville,
saw an economic opportunity if the shows were more suitable for the entire family.

Throughout its history, Vaudeville was important socially in that it gathered people from
different cultures and backgrounds under one roof. It had its share of racial stereotypes and
prejudice but, by and large, the world it presented lovingly accepted cultural differences. Woven
into the fabric of Vaudeville are the theatre traditions of the English Music Hall, minstrel shows
of antebellum America and the Yiddish theatre tradition.

There were Vaudeville houses spread across the country, some small and some large, from little
houses in Peoria, Illinois and Iowa City, Iowa to the Palace Theatre in New York. Eventually the
popularity of Vaudeville gave way to film and the most famous performers, Al Jolson, Fanny
Brice, Abbott and Costello, Bob Hope, Judy Garland among others found making films more
lucrative. In New York, the comical, light-hearted songs of Vaudeville evolved into more
sophisticated songs with musical Revues and Musical Comedies becoming vogue in the late 20s
and 30s.

Before the wide spread popularity of radio and recorded music, sheet music sales were the
measure of a songs popularity. Thousands of songs were published and sold to home consumers
who sang the songs around the parlor piano. Tin Pan Alley, the collection of New York City
publishers who dominated the sheet music market, was located in at West 28th Street between
Fifth and Sixth Avenue. Here pianists would play all day long to demonstrate the latest songs for
potential costumers.

The music of vaudeville consists of many types of songs: sentimental ballads, foot-tapping
Uptempos, charm songs, Blues, Torch songs and marches. There were also a sizable number of
novelty numbers and comedic songs. Performed by singers today, these songs maintain a great
deal of charm and wit, and audiences continue to enjoy them. Playful innuendo is common with
titles like If You Talk In Your Sleep (Dont Mention My Name) and lyrics like "Take a little
wife/but when you take a little wife be careful whose wife you take.

I recommend that todays singers have at least one of these songs in their audition book. I know
one Tony-nominated actor who regularly used Vaudeville material in auditions when he first

178
started out. These songs are especially suitable for character men and women, song and dance
gals and women who can play the chorine. Titles such as Take Your Girlie to the Movies, If You
Cant Make Love at Home, How Ya Gonna Keep Em Down On the Farm (After Theyve
Seen Paree) and Hed Have To Get UnderGet Out and Get Under (To Fix Up His
Automobile) still work well.

The good news is that this music is easily available in the invaluable libraries across the country
that have made them available online. All it takes is a little patience and good internet search
skills to find them. Below are some of the primary sources Ive discovered that contain a wealth
of material. Google these.

Lester S. Levy Sheet Music Collection


Indiana State University Cunningham Memorial Library Popular Song Index
Duke University Historic American Sheet Music
Library of Congress Historic American Sheet Music
Frances G. Spencer Collection of American Popular Sheet Music
University of Oregon Historic Sheet music collection
UT Sheet Music Collection
Houston Area Digital Archives Sheet Music Collection

You can also listen to many of these songs by visiting this URL: www.loc.gov/jukebox/

When searching for songs, your search terms should include the title, composer and the phrase
sheet music. Clicking Google images often brings up the file for download. Sometimes you
can download the full PDF and sometimes you have to download it a page at a time.

Ive listed some of my favorites which I believe work well still. With time and perseverance, you
may discover others that work even better for you. Avoid most songs in a waltz 3/4, sentimental
ballads, and songs in an operetta style. I must also ask that you avoid songs that include
offensive caricatures of people including African-Americans, Germans and others. Feel free to
have a professional copyist transpose the songs as many are probably too high for women.

Women
Title Composer Style
Coffee in the Morning and Kisses in the Night Harry Warren Charm Song
Go Into Your Dance Harry Warren Uptempo
Im Just Wild About Harry Noble Sissle, Eubie Blake Uptempo
Ive Got To Sing a Torch Song Harry Warren Torch Song
If I Had a Talking Picture of You Buddy DeSylvia, Lew Brown, Uptempo
Ray Henderson
My Man Maurice Yvain Torch Song
Or What Have You Morris Hamilton Charm Song
Put On Your Slippers and Fill Up Your Pipe Albert Von Tilzer March

179
Title Composer Style
Second Hand Rose Grant Clarke, James F. Hanley Uptempo
Some of These Days Shelton Brooks Blues
The Broadway Blues Carey Morgan Blues
You Made Me Love You James V. Monaco Blues

Men
Cause My Baby Says It's So Harry Warren Charm Song
N' Everything Buddy DeSylvia, Gus Kahn, Al Jolson Uptempo
Aba Daba Honeymoon Walter Donaldson Uptempo
Ala Moana Song of Hawaii Johnny Noble, Bob Lukens Charm Song
Always Leave Them Laughing When George M. Cohan March
You Say Goodbye
Baltimore Buzz Noble Sissle, Eubie Blake Charm Song
Beatrice Fairfax Tell Me What To Do Jimmie Monaco March
Before I Met You Jerome Kern March
Can You Tame Wild Wimmen? Harry Von Tilzer March
Dames Harry Warren Uptempo
Flippity Flop Albert Von Tilzer Uptempo
Good Evening, Caroline Albert Von Tilzer Charm Song
He'd Have to Get Under-Get Out and Maurice Abrahams March
Get Under
Hello Ma Baby Joseph E Howard and Ida Emerson Uptempo
Holding Hands and Don't Say Nothing Albert Von Tilzer Charm Song
At All
How Do You Do, Miss Josephine? Albert Von Tilzer Uptempo
How Ya Gonna Keep Em Down on the Walter Donaldson March
Farm
I Found a Four Leaf Clover George Gershwin Uptempo
I've Taken Quite a Fancy to You Theodore Morse Charm Song
Ill Be Back in My Low Back Car Walter Donaldson March
Ill String Along With You Harry Warren Ballad
Ive Got Rings on My Fingers Maurice Scott Uptempo
If I Find a Girl Jerome Kern Uptempo
In Honeysuckle Time Noble Sissle, Eubie Blake Charm Song
In My Merry Oldsmobile Gus Edwards Waltz
It All Belongs to Me Irving Berlin Uptempo
Jeepers Creepers Harry Warren Charm Song
Mandy Irving Berlin Charm Song
Snookey Ookums Irving Berlin Uptempo
Some Sunny Day Irving Berlin Charm Song
Sweeter Than Sugar Irving Berlin Uptempo
Sweeter Than Sugar (Is My Sweetie) Irving Berlin Uptempo
Take a Little Wife Irving Berlin Charm Song

180
The Lady Who Couldnt Be Kissed Harry Warren Charm Song
The Yankee Doodle Boy George M. Cohan March
This is the Life Irving Berlin March
Toot, Too, Tootsie! Gus Kahn, Ernie Erdman, Dan Russo Uptempo
When You See Another Sweetie Walter Donaldson Uptempo
Hanging Around
You Aint Heard Nothing Yet Al Jolson, Gus Kahn, Buddy DeSylvia Uptempo
You May Hold a Million Girlies In Your Fred Fischer Charm Song
Arms

Women or Men

After You Get What You Want You Irving Berlin Uptempo
Dont Want It
After Youve Gone Creamer and Layton Uptempo
Aint We Got Fun Richard A. Whiting Uptempo
Alexander's Ragtime Band Irving Berlin Uptempo
An Earful of Music Walter Donaldson Uptempo
Anything You Want to Do Dear Louis A. Hirsch Charm Song
Bird on Nellie's Hat Alfred Solman Story Song
Blow Your Horn Irving Berlin Uptempo
Bring Back Those Wonderful Days Nat Vincent Charm Song
Bump, Bump, Bump, In Your Albert Von Tilzer Uptempo
Automobile
Carioca Vincent Youmans Uptempo
Climbing Up the Scale Irving Berlin March
Dancing My Worries Away George M. Cohan Uptempo
Everybody's Doing It Now Irving Berlin Uptempo
Fair and Warmer Harry Warren Charm Song
Forty-Second Street Harry Warren Uptempo
Hang Out the Front Door Key Benj. Hapgood Burt March
He's Getting Too Darn Big for a Small Irving Berlin Charm Song
Town
Honolulu Harry Warren Uptempo
How'd You Like to Spoon With Me Jerome Kern Charm Song
I Love Somebody and Somebody Harry Von Tilzer Charm Song
Knows
Ill Be Happy When the Preacher Walter Donaldson Charm Song
Makes You Mine
Ive Got a Pocket Full of Sunshines Arthur Johnston Uptempo
If You Talk In Your Sleep (Dont Nat D. Ayer Charm Song
Mention My Name)
Little Rover (Dont Forget To Come Walter Donaldson Uptempo
Back Home)
Pretty Baby Tony Jackson, Egbert Van Alstyne Charm Song

181
Since Mother Goes To Movie Shows Albert Von Tilzer March
Take Your Girlie to the Movies Pete Wendling Uptempo
The International Rag Irving Berlin Uptempo
The Razzle Dazzle Glide J. Walter Leopold Uptempo
The Syncopated Walk Irving Berlin Uptempo
Where Did Robinson Crusoe Go With George W. Meyer March
Friday on Saturday Night?
Whos Who With You Vincent Youmans Charm Song
Yip-I-Addy-I-Ay John H. Flynn Waltz
Youre Here and Im Here Jerome Kern March

182
Standard Repertoire
Text

Soprano

Song Volume Show Genre


A Call From The Vatican 2 Nine Modern
A Little Bit In Love 4 Wonderful Town Golden Age
A Little Bit Of Good 3 Chicago Golden Age
A Lovely Night 4 Cinderella Golden Age
A Quiet Thing 4 Flora, the Red Menace Golden Age
A Very Special Day 2 Me and Juliet Golden Age
Ah! Sweet Mystery Of Life 3 Naughty Marietta Operetta
All Through The Night 2 Anything Goes Musical Comedy
And This Is My Beloved 2 Kismet Golden Age
Another Suitcase In Another Hall 2 Evita Poperetta
Another Winter In A Summer Town 5 Grey Gardens Modern
Anything Can Happen 5 Mary Poppins Modern
Around The World 5 Grey Gardens Modern
Art Is Calling For Me 2 The Enchantress Operetta
Barbara Song 1 The Threepenny Opera Operetta
Baubles, Bangles And Beads 5 Kismet Golden Age
Before I Gaze At You Again 3 Camelot Golden Age
Begin The Beguine 5 Jubilee Musical Comedy
Bewitched 4 On Your Toes Musical Comedy
Bill 1 Show Boat Golden Age
Bride's Lament 5 The Drowsy Chaperone Modern
Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man 1 Show Boat Golden Age
Children Of The Wind 4 Rags Modern
Children Will Listen 4 Into the Woods Sondheim
Christmas Lullaby 3 Songs for a New World Modern
Climb Ev'ry Mountain 1 The Sound of Music Golden Age
Come Home 1 Allegro Golden Age
Cry Like The Wind 5 Do, Re, Mi Golden Age
Daddy's Girl 5 Grey Gardens Modern
Dear Friend 2 She Loves Me Golden Age
Fable 5 The Light In The Piazza Modern
Falling In Love With Love 1 The Boys from Syracuse Musical Comedy
Far From The Home I Love 1 Fiddler on the Roof Golden Age
Fascinating Rhythm 5 Lady Be Good Musical Comedy

Feelings 3 The Apple Tree Golden Age


Follow Your Heart 4 Urinetown! Modern
From Chopin To Country 3 Cowgirls Modern
Getting To Know You 3 The King and I Golden Age
Glad To Be Unhappy 1 On Your Toes Musical Comedy
Glitter And Be Gay 5 Candide Operetta
Gooch's Song 2 Mame Golden Age
Goodnight, My Someone 1 The Music Man Golden Age
Green Finch And Linnet Bird 1 Sweeney Todd Sondheim
Gypsy In Me 2 Anything Goes Musical Comedy
He Loves And She Loves 5 Funny Face Musical Comedy
He Plays The Violin 4 1776 Golden Age
He Was Too Good To Me 4 The Boys from Syracuse Musical Comedy
Hello, Young Lovers 1 The King and I Golden Age
Home 4 Phantom Modern
How Can I Lose You? 5 Myths and Hymns Modern
How Could I Ever Know? 2 Secret Garden Modern

183
Song Volume Show Genre
How Long Has This Been Going 5 Funny Face Musical Comedy
On?
How Lovely To Be A Woman 4 Bye, Bye Birdie Golden Age
How Many Tears? 3 Martin Guerre Poperetta
I Could Be Happy With You 4 The Boy Friend Golden Age
I Could Have Danced All Night 1 My Fair Lady Golden Age
I Do Not Know A Day I Did Not 2 Two by Two Golden Age
Love You
I Don't Know His Name 2 She Loves Me Golden Age
I Feel Pretty 5 West Side Story Golden Age
I Hate Men 2 Kiss Me Kate Golden Age
I Have Confidence 3 The Sound of Music Golden Age
I Have Dreamed 4 The King and I Golden Age
I Have To Tell You 4 Fanny Operetta
I Like Him 4 Drat! The Cat! Golden Age
I Loved (J'aimais) 2 Jacques Brel Other
I Loved You Once In Silence 1 Camelot Golden Age
I Remember 3 The Evening Primrose Sondheim
I Whistle A Happy Tune 2 The King and I Golden Age
I Wonder What Became Of Me 4 St. Louis Woman Golden Age
I'll Follow My Secret Heart 2 Conversation Piece Musical Comedy
I'll Know 2 Guys and Dolls Golden Age
I'll Show Him 4 Plain and Fancy Golden Age
I'm Leaving You 5 The Life Modern
I've Got A Crush On You 5 Strike Up the Band Musical Comedy
If I Loved You 1 Carousel Golden Age
If I Were A Bell 2 Guys and Dolls Golden Age
In His Eyes 3 Jekyll and Hyde Poperetta
In My Life 3 Les Miserables Poperetta
In My Own Little Corner 3 Cinderella Golden Age
Is It Really Me? 2 110 in the Shade Golden Age
It Never Was You 3 Kickerbocker Holiday Golden Age
It Wonders Me 2 Plain and Fancy Golden Age
It's A Most Unusual Day 4 A Date With Judy Other
It's Nicer In Nice 4 The Boy Friend Golden Age
Italian Street Song 3 Naughty Marietta Operetta
Just You Wait 3 My Fair Lady Golden Age
Let Us Be Glad 5 Wicked Modern
Like A Woman Loves A Man 2 The Most Happy Fella Golden Age
Look For A Sky Of Blue 2 Little Mary Sunshine Golden Age
Love Makes Such Fools Of Us All 5 Barnum Modern

Love, Don't Turn Away 4 110 in the Shade Golden Age


Love, Look Away 1 Flower Drum Song Golden Age
Lovely 4 A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Sondheim
Forum
Lover, Come Back To Me 4 The New Moon Operetta
Make Believe 4 Show Boat Golden Age
Many A New Day 1 Oklahoma! Golden Age
Matchmaker 5 Fiddler on the Roof Golden Age
Migratory V 4 Myths and Hymns Modern
Mister Snow 1 Carousel Golden Age
Moonfall 2 The Mystery of Edwin Drood Modern
Mr. Right 3 Love Life Golden Age
Much More 1 The Fantasticks Golden Age
My Favorite Things 3 The Sound of Music Golden Age
My Funny Valentine 1 Babes in Arms Musical Comedy
My House 5 Peter Pan Golden Age
My Lord And Master 1 The King and I Golden Age
My Ship 1 Lady in the Dark Golden Age
My True Love 2 Phantom Modern
My White Knight 1 The Music Man Golden Age
Nelson 4 A Day in Hollywood/A Night in the Ukraine Modern

184
Song Volume Show Genre
Never 5 On the Twentieth Century Modern
No More Candy 5 She Loves Me Golden Age
No Other Love 1 Me and Juliet Golden Age
Nobody Makes A Pass At Me 4 Pins and Needles Golden Age
Not A Day Goes By 1 Merrily We Roll Along Sondheim
Nothing Is Too Wonderful To Be 5 Dirty Rotten Scoundrels Modern
True
Oh, Goddess Wise 3 Princess Ida Operetta
Old Maid 1 110 in the Shade Golden Age
On The Steps Of The Palace 4 Into the Woods Sondheim
Once Upon A Dream 3 Jekyll and Hyde Poperetta
Once You Lose Your Heart 3 Me and My Girl Golden Age
One Boy (Girl) 4 Bye, Bye Birdie Golden Age
One Life To Live 3 Lady in the Dark Golden Age
One More Kiss 1 Follies Sondheim
Out Of My Dreams 1 Oklahoma! Golden Age
People Will Say We're In Love 5 Oklahoma! Golden Age
Pirate Jenny 1 The Threepenny Opera Operetta
Poor Wand'ring One 2 Pirates of Penzance Operetta
Practically Perfect 5 Mary Poppins Modern
Raunchy 2 110 in the Shade Golden Age
Ribbons Down My Back 3 Hello Dolly Golden Age
Rosa's Confession 2 The Mystery of Edwin Drood Modern
Show Me 1 My Fair Lady Golden Age
Simple 2 Nine Modern
Simple Little Things 2 110 in the Shade Golden Age
Smoke Gets In Your Eyes 1 Roberta Musical Comedy
So Far 2 Allegro Golden Age
So In Love 1 Kiss Me Kate Golden Age
So Many People 3 Saturday Night Sondheim
Solomon Song 1 The Threepenny Opera Operetta
Some Things Are Meant To Be 5 Little Women Modern
Somebody, Somewhere 1 The Most Happy Fella Golden Age
Somehow I Never Could Believe 1 Street Scene Operetta
Someone To Watch Over Me 3 Oh Kay! Musical Comedy
Something Good 3 The Sound of Music Golden Age
Something Wonderful 1 The King and I Golden Age
Somewhere 5 West Side Story Golden Age
Sons Of (Fils De) 3 Jacques Brel Other
Speak Low 4 One Touch of Venus Golden Age
Stay Well 3 Lost in the Stars Golden Age
Still 3 Titanic Modern
Summertime 1 Porgy and Bess Golden Age
Surabaya Johnny 1 Happy End Golden Age
Sweet Thursday 3 Pipe Dream Golden Age
Take Care Of This House 5 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue Golden Age
Take Me To The World 2 The Evening Primrose Sondheim
Ten Minutes Ago 1 Cinderella Golden Age
Thank Goodness 5 Wicked Modern
That'll Show Him 1 A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Sondheim
Forum
The Beauty Is 5 The Light In The Piazza Modern
The Flagmaker, 1775 5 Songs for a New World Modern
The Girl In 14G 5 Modern
The Girls Of Summer 3 Marry Me a Little Sondheim
The Glamorous Life 2 A Little Night Music Sondheim
The Golden Ram 1 Two by Two Golden Age
The Greatest Of These 2 Philemon Golden Age
The Light In The Piazza 4 The Light In The Piazza Modern
The Man I Love 5 Strike Up the Band Musical Comedy
The Saga Of Jenny 1 Lady in the Dark Golden Age
The Secret Service 5 Mr. President Musical Comedy
The Simple Joys Of Maidenhood 1 Camelot Golden Age

185
Song Volume Show Genre
The Song Is You 4 Music in the Air Operetta
The Song That Goes Like This 4 Spamalot Modern
The Sound Of Music 2 The Sound of Music Golden Age
The Sun, Whose Rays Are All 2 The Mikado Operetta
Ablaze
The Woman In His Room 3 Wheres Charley Golden Age
There's A Small Hotel 3 On Your Toes Musical Comedy
Think Of Me 3 Phantom of the Opera Poperetta
This Place Is Mine 2 Phantom Modern
Till There Was You 1 The Music Man Golden Age
Too Much In Love To Care 5 Sunset Boulevard Poperetta
Trouble Man 3 Lost in the Stars Golden Age
Under The Tree 1 Celebration Golden Age
Unexpected Song 3 Song and Dance Poperetta
Unusual Way (In A Very Unusual 2 Nine Modern
Way)
Vanilla Ice Cream 4 She Loves Me Golden Age
Vilia 2 The Merry Widow Operetta
Waitin' For My Dearie 3 Camelot Golden Age
Warm All Over 2 The Most Happy Fella Golden Age
We Kiss In A Shadow 4 The King and I Golden Age
What Does He Want Of Me 4 Man of LaMancha Golden Age
What Good Would The Moon Be? 1 Street Scene Golden Age
What Makes Me Love Him? 5 The Apple Tree Golden Age
What Will It Be For Me? 2 Regina Operetta
What's The Use Of Wond'rin' 1 Carousel Golden Age
When Did I Fall In Love 2 Fiorello! Golden Age
Where Or When 1 Babes in Arms Musical Comedy
Whispering 5 Spring Awakening Modern
Whistle Down The Wind 3 Whistle Down the Wind Poperetta
Who Am I? 5 Peter Pan Golden Age
Why Do I Love You? 4 Show Boat Golden Age
Why Was I Born? 4 Sweet Adeline Musical Comedy
Will He Like Me? 2 She Loves Me Golden Age
Will You? 5 Grey Gardens Modern
Wishing You Were Somehow Here 3 Phantom of the Opera Poperetta
Again
Without You 2 My Fair Lady Golden Age
Wouldn't It Be Loverly 3 My Fair Lady Golden Age
Yesterdays 4 Roberta Musical Comedy
You'll Never Walk Alone 1 Carousel Golden Age
Your Daddys Son 4 Ragtime Modern

Mezzo/Belter

Song Volume Show Genre


A Change In Me 3 Beauty and the Beast Poperetta
A Cockeyed Optimist 1 South Pacific Golden Age
A New Life 3 Jekyll and Hyde Poperetta
A Trip To The Library 2 She Loves Me Golden Age
Adelaide's Lament 2 Guys and Dolls Golden Age
Adventure 3 Do Re Mi Golden Age
Ah, But Underneath 3 Follies Sondheim
Ain't There Anyone Here For Love? 1 Gentlemen Prefer Blondes Musical Comedy
Always A Bridesmaid 3 I Love You, Youre Perfect, Now Change Modern
Always True To You In My Fashion 1 Kiss Me, Kate Golden Age
An Old Man 1 Two by Two Golden Age
And I Am Telling You I'm Not Going 5 Dreamgirls Modern
Angels, Punks And Raging Queens 4 Elegies for Angels...Queens Modern
Another Hundred People 2 Company Sondheim
Anyone Can Whistle 1 Anyone Can Whistle Sondheim
Anything But Lonely 4 Aspects of Love Poperetta

186
Song Volume Show Genre
As If We Never Said Goodbye 3 Sunset Boulevard Poperetta
As Long As He Needs Me 2 Oliver Golden Age
Broadway Baby 1 Follies Sondheim
But Not For Me 3 Girl Crazy Musical Comedy
By The Sea 1 Sweeney Todd Sondheim
Cabaret 1 Cabaret Modern
Can You Find It In Your Heart? 3 Footloose Modern
Children Of Eden 5 Children of Eden Modern
City Lights 5 The Act Modern
Class 3 Chicago Modern
Come To Your Senses 5 Tick, Tick, Boom Modern
Could I Leave You? 1 Follies Sondheim
Dance: Ten; Looks: Three 1 A Chorus Line Modern
Defying Gravity 5 Wicked Modern
Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend 1 Gentlemen Prefer Blondes Musical Comedy
Doin' What Comes Natur'lly 1 Annie Get Your Gun Musical Comedy
Don't Call Me Trailer Trash 3 Cowgirls Modern
Don't Cry For Me Argentina 1 Evita Poperetta
Don't Cry Out Loud 4 The Boy from Oz Modern
Don't Rain On My Parade 3 Funny Girl Golden Age
Don't Tell Mama 1 Cabaret Modern
Everybody Loves Louis 2 Sunday in the Park Sondheim
Everything's Coming Up Roses 3 Gypsy Golden Age
Fifty Percent 2 Fifty Percent Golden Age
Find Your Grail 5 Spamalot Modern
For Good 5 Wicked Modern
Freddy, My Love 5 Grease Modern
Funny Honey 1 Chicago Modern
Gimme Gimme 4 Thoroughly Modern Millie Modern
Good Morning Baltimore 5 Hairspray Modern
Gorgeous 3 The Apple Tree Golden Age
Happy To Keep His Dinner Warm 1 How to Succeed Golden Age
Hard Candy Christmas 4 Best Little Whorehouse in Texas Golden Age
He Wasn't You 1 On a Clear Day... Golden Age
Heads Or Tails 3 Cowgirls Modern
Heaven Help My Heart 4 Chess Poperetta
Here I Am 5 Dirty Rotten Scoundrels Modern
Hit Me With A Hot Note 5 Swing Revue
Hold On 2 The Secret Garden Modern
Honey Bun 3 South Pacific Golden Age
How Are Things In Glocca Morra 1 Finians Rainbow Golden Age
How Did We Come To This? 4 Wild Party Modern
Hurry! It's Lovely Up Here! 5 On a Clear Day... Golden Age
I Ain't Down Yet 1 Unsinkable Molly Brown Golden Age

I Am Changing 5 Dreamgirls Modern


I Cain't Say No 1 Oklahoma Golden Age

I Can Cook Too 2 On the Town Golden Age


I Can Do Better Than That 5 The Last Five Years Modern
I Can Hear The Bells 4 Hairspray Modern
I Don't Know How To Love Him 4 Jesus Christ Superstar Poperetta
I Dreamed A Dream 2 Les Miserables Poperetta
I Enjoy Being A Girl 1 Flower Drum Song Golden Age
I Get A Kick Out Of You 2 Anything Goes Musical Comedy
I Got Lost In His Arms 4 Annie Get Your Gun Golden Age
I Got The Sun In The Morning 1 Annie Get Your Gun Golden Age
I Had Myself A True Love 3 St. Louis Woman Golden Age
I Know The Truth 4 Aida Modern
I Never Has Seen Snow 2 House of Flowers Golden Age
I Want To Be Bad 2 Follow Through Musical Comedy
I Want To Go To Hollywood 4 Grand Hotel Modern
I Will Be Loved Tonight 4 I Love You, Youre Perfect, Now Change Modern

187
Song Volume Show Genre
I Wish I Were In Love Again 2 Babes in Arms Musical Comedy
I'd Be Surprisingly Good For You 2 Evita Poperetta
I'd Give My Life For You 3 Miss Saigon Poperetta
I'm Going Back 4 Bells are Ringing Golden Age
I'm In Love With A Wonderful Guy 1 South Pacific Golden Age
I'm Not That Girl 4 Wicked Modern
I'm Still Here 4 Follies Sondheim
If He Really Knew Me 2 Theyre Playing Our Song Modern
If He Walked Into My Life 2 Mame Golden Age
If My Friends Could See Me Now 5 Sweet Charity Modern
In Buddy's Eyes 1 Follies Sondheim
It's A Business 5 Curtains Modern
It's A Helluva Way To Run A Love 2 Plain and Fancy Golden Age
Affair
It's A Perfect Relationship 5 Bells are Ringing Golden Age
It's An Art 5 Working Modern
Johnny One Note 2 Babes in Arms Musical Comedy
Just A Housewife 3 Working Modern
Just One Step 4 Songs for a New World Modern
Keepin' Out Of Mischief Now 5 Aint Misbehavin Musical Comedy
Let Me Finish 3 Song and Dance Poperetta
Life Is 5 Zorba Modern
Life With Harold 4 Full Monty Modern
Long Before I Knew You 2 Bells are Ringing Golden Age
Look At Me Now 4 Wild Party Modern
Look At Me, I'm Sandra Dee 2 Grease Modern
Look To The Rainbow 1 Finians Rainbow Golden Age
Losing My Mind 1 Follies Sondheim
Mama Who Bore Me 5 Spring Awakening Modern
Maybe This Time 3 Cabaret Modern
Meadowlark 5 The Bakers Wife Modern
Mein Herr 3 Cabaret Modern
Memory 1 Cats Poperetta
Miss Baltimore Crabs 4 Hairspray Modern
Miss Marmelstein 3 I Can Get it For You Wholesale Golden Age
My Body 5 The Life Modern
My Child Will Forgive Me 3 Parade Modern
My Heart Belongs To Daddy 3 Leave it To Me Musical Comedy
My Husband Makes Movies 2 Nine Modern
My New Philosophy 3 Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown Modern
Never Never Land 2 Peter Pan Golden Age
Not For The Life Of Me 5 Thoroughly Modern Millie Modern
Nothing 3 A Chorus Line Modern
Nothing Really Happened 3 Is There Life After High School? Modern
Now You Know 2 Merrily we Roll Along Sondheim
Nowadays 4 Chicago Modern
On My Own 2 Les Miserables Poperetta
One Hundred Easy Ways To Lose A 4 Wonderful Town Golden Age
Man
Our Kind Of Love 4 Beautiful Game Poperetta
Paris Makes Me Horny 2 Victor/Victoria Modern
Popular 4 Wicked Modern
Rose's Turn 3 Gypsy Golden Age
Roxie 4 Chicago Modern
See I'm Smiling 4 The Last Five Years Modern
Send In The Clowns 1 A Little Night Music Sondheim

Shadowland 4 The Lion King Modern


Shopping Around 4 Wish You Were Here Musical Comedy
Show Off 5 The Drowsy Chaperone Modern
Shy 2 Once Upon a Mattress Golden Age
Small World 2 Gypsy Golden Age
So What? 3 Cabaret Modern

188
Song Volume Show Genre
Some People 1 Gypsy Golden Age
Someone Else's Story 2 Chess Modern
Someone Like You 3 Jekyll and Hyde Poperetta
Special 5 Avenue Q Modern
Stars And The Moon 3 Songs for a New World Modern
Stepsisters' Lament 1 Cinderella Golden Age
Still Hurting 4 The Last Five Years Modern
Take Back Your Mink 1 Guys and Dolls Golden Age
Take That Look Off Your Face 5 Song and Dance Poperetta
Teaching Third Grade 3 Ruthless: the Musical Modern
Tell Me On A Sunday 2 Song and Dance Modern
The Cake I Had 5 Grey Gardens Modern
The Colors Of My Life 5 Barnum Modern
The Dark I Know Well 5 Spring Awakening Modern
The Gentleman Is A Dope 2 Allegro Golden Age
The Hostess With The Mostes' On The1 Call Me Madam Musical Comedy
Ball
The Ladies Who Lunch 3 Company Sondheim
The Lady Is A Tramp 1 Babes in Arms Musical Comedy
The Man That Got Away 4 A Star is Born Golden Age
The Miller's Son 1 A Little Night Music Sondheim
The Music And The Mirror 4 A Chorus Line Modern
The Music That Makes Me Dance 2 Funny Girl Golden Age
The Party's Over 2 Bells are Ringing Golden Age
The Past Is Another Land 4 Aida Poperetta

The Sweetest Sounds 2 No Strings Golden Age


The Wages Of Sin 2 The Mystery of Edwin Drood Modern
The Winner Takes It All 5 Mamma Mia Modern
The Wizard And I 4 Wicked Modern
The Worst Pies In London 1 Sweeney Todd Sondheim
There Are Worse Things I Could Do 4 Grease Modern
There Won't Be Trumpets 2 Anyone Can Whistle Sondheim
There's A Fine, Fine Line 4 Avenue Q Modern
They Say It's Wonderful 3 Annie Get Your Gun Golden Age
Thinking Of Him 5 Curtains Modern
Third Letter Home 3 Song and Dance Modern
Too Beautiful For Words 5 The Color Purple Modern
Turn Back, O Man 1 Godspell Modern
Uptown, Downtown 3 Follies Sondheim
We Deserve Each Other 2 Me and Juliet Golden Age
What Did I Have That I Don't Have? 1 On a Clear Day... Golden Age
What I Did For Love 2 A Chorus Line Modern
What Would You Do? 1 Cabaret Modern
What You Don't Know About Women 5 City of Angels Modern
Whatever Happened To My Part? 4 Spamalot Modern
When You Come Home To Me 5 The Last Five Years Modern
When You Got It, Flaunt It 4 The Producers Modern
When You're Good To Mama 3 Chicago Modern
Where Am I Going 5 Sweet Charity Modern
Who Knows 2 I Can Get it For You Wholesale Golden Age
Who Will Love Me As I Am? 3 Side Show Modern
Why Can't You Behave? 1 Kiss Me, Kate Golden Age
With One Look 3 Sunset Boulevard Poperetta
Without You 5 Rent Modern
Woman 5 The Pirate Queen Poperetta
You Can't Get A Man With A Gun 3 Annie Get Your Gun Golden Age
You Don't Know This Man 3 Parade Modern
You'll Be In My Heart 5 Tarzan Modern

189
Tenor

Song Show Volume Genre


30/90 Tick, Tick, Boom 5 Modern
A Bit of Earth The Secret Garden 2 Modern
A Man Could Go Quite Mad Edwin Drood 4 Modern
A New Love is Old The Cat and the Fiddle 1 Musical Comedy
A Wondring Minstrel I The Mikado 1 Operetta
Alas for You Godspell 5 Modern
Alive! Jekyll and Hyde 3 Poperetta
All Good Gifts Godspell 2 Modern
All I Need is the Girl Gypsy 1 Golden Age
All Kinds of People Pipe Dream 1 Golden Age
Almost Like Being In Love Brigadoon 3 Golden Age
Alone at the Drive-in Movie Grease 2 Modern
Amsterdam Jacques Brel 3 Other
Anthem Chess 2 Poperetta
Any Dream Will Do Joseph 3 Poperetta
Asking for You Do Re Mi 2 Golden Age
At the Grand Hotel Grand Hotel 2 Modern
Awaiting You Myths and Hymns 4 Modern
Barretts Song Titanic 3 Modern
Beautiful Girls Follies 2 Sondheim
Beauty School Dropout Grease 4 Modern
Beethoven Day Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown 4 Modern
Being Alive Company 1 Sondheim
Bigger Isnt Better Barnum 5 Modern
Body Beautiful Beale Grey Gardens 5 Modern
Boy For Sale Oliver 2 Golden Age
Breeze Off the River The Full Monty 4 Modern
Bring Him Home Les Miserables 2 Poperetta
Buddys Blues Follies 3 Sondheim
Cant Take My Eyes Off of You Jersey Boys 5 Modern
Close Every Door Joseph 2 Poperetta
Coffee (in a Cardboard Cup) 70, Girls, 70 3 Modern
Come with Me Boys from Syracuse 1 Musical Comedy
Corner of the Sky Pippin 3 Modern
Dancing Through Life Wicked 4 Modern
December 1963 Jersey Boys 5 Modern
Drift Away Grey Gardens 5 Modern
Easy Street Annie 5 Modern
Easy to Love Anything Goes 3 Musical Comedy
Endless Night Lion King 4 Modern
Fanny Fanny 1 Golden Age
Fifty Million Years Ago Celebration 1 Modern
Finishing the Hat Sunday in the Park 1 Sondheim
Fortune Favors the Brave Aida 4 Poperetta
Free A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the 4 Sondheim
Forum
Geraniums in the Winder Carousel 2 Golden Age
Giants in the Sky Into the Woods 4 Sondheim
Go the Distance Hercules 3 Modern
Goodnight Saigon Miss Saigon 4 Poperetta
Great Big Stuff Dirty Rotten Scoundrels 5 Modern
Hairspray Hairspray 5 Modern
Heaven on their Minds Jesus Christ Superstar 4 Poperetta
Hell Myself The Producers 5 Modern
Hero and Leander Myths and Hymns 5 Modern
Hey There Pajama Game 3 Golden Age
High Flying, Adored Evita 2 Poperetta
How Glory Goes Floyd Collins 4 Modern
I am Aldolpho The Drowsey Chaperone 5 Modern
I Am in Love Can-Can 1 Musical Comedy

190
Song Show Volume Genre
I Believe in You How to Succeed 2 Golden Age
I Can Do That Chorus Line 4 Modern
I Cant Stand Still Footloose 3 Modern
I Could Write a Book Pal Joey 1 Musical Comedy
I Do Not Know a Day I Did Not Two by Two 1 Golden Age
Love You
I Dont Care Much Cabaret 3 Modern
I Have Written a Play On the Twentieth Century 5 Modern
I Know About Love Do Re Mi 2 Golden Age
I Like You Fanny 2 Golden Age
I Met a Girl Bells are Ringing 2 Golden Age
I Need to Know Tarzan 4 Modern
I Only Want to Say (Gethsemane) Jesus Christ Superstar 2 Poperetta
I Will Follow You Milk and Honey 2 Golden Age
Ill Be There Pirate Queen 5 Poperetta
Im Martin Guerre Martin Guerre 3 Poperetta
Im Putting All My Eggs in One 3 Musical Comedy
Basket
If You Could See Her Cabaret 1 Modern
If You Were Gay Avenue Q 4 Modern
Il Mondo Era Vuoto Light in the Piazza 5 Modern
Isnt it a Lovely Day to be Caught in 3 Musical Comedy
the Rain
It Dont Get Better Than This Urban Cowboy 5 Modern
It Takes Two Hairspray 4 Modern
Jaspers Confession Edwin Drood 2 Modern
Johanna Sweeney Todd 1 Sondheim
Kansas City Oklahoma! 1 Golden Age
King Herods Song Jesus Christ Superstar 1 Poperetta
King of the World Songs for a New World 4 Modern
Ladies and their Sensitivities Sweeney Todd 1 Sondheim
Left Behind Spring Awakening 5 Modern
Let Me Drown The Wild Party 4 Modern
Like a God Flower Drum Song 2 Golden Age
Lonely House Street Scene 1 Golden Age
Lost in the Wilderness Children of Eden 5 Modern
Love Cant Happen Grand Hotel 2 Modern
Love Changes Everything Aspects of Love 4 Poperetta
Love to Me Light in the Piazza 4 Modern
Love, I Hear A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the 1 Sondheim
Forum
Lucky In Love Good News 2 Musical Comedy
Make Someone Happy Do Re Mi 1 Golden Age
Make the Most of Your Music Follies 3 Sondheim
Mama Says Footloose 3 Modern
Mama, Look Sharp 1776 4 Modern
Man The Full Monty 4 Modern
Many Moons Ago Once Upon a Mattress 1 Modern
Margot The Desert Song 2 Operetta
Maria West Side Story 5 Golden Age
Maybe I Should Change My Ways Beggars Holiday 2 Musical Comedy
Miracle of Miracles Fiddler on the Roof 2 Golden Age
Mister Cellophane Chicago 3 Modern
Mooning Grease 5 Modern
Moving Too Fast The Last Five Years 5 Modern
Night of My Nights Kismet 3 Golden Age
No Moon pro 3 Modern
Nobody Needs to Know The Last Five Years 4 Modern
Not While Im Around Sweeney Todd 1 Sondheim
Oh, Is There Not One Maiden Breast Pirates of Penzance 3 Operetta
Old Devil Moon Finnians Rainbow 2 Golden Age
On the Night of a Thousand Stars Evita 2 Poperetta
On the Street When You Live My Fair Lady 1 Golden Age

191
Song Show Volume Genre
Once Upon a Time Today Call Me Madam 2 Musical Comedy
One More Beautiful Song A Class Act 4 Modern
One Song Glory Rent 3 Modern
One Track Mind Sweet Smell of Success 4 Modern
Passeggiata The Light in the Piazza 5 Modern
Prologue: The Old Red Hills of Parade 3 Modern
Home
Quasimodo When Pigs Fly 3 Modern
Saturn Returns Myths and Hymns 5 Modern
Seeing is Believing Aspects of Love 1 Poperetta
Serenade The Student Prince 2 Operetta
She Cries Songs for a New World 5 Modern
She Loves Me She Loves Me 2 Golden Age
She Wasnt You On a Clear Day 2 Golden Age
Shes Got a Way Movin Out 5 Modern
Shiksa Goddess The Last Five Years 5 Modern
Shipoopi The Music Man 4 Golden Age
Sit Down Youre Rockin the Boat Guys and Dolls 2 Golden Age
Sitting Pretty Cabaret 1 Modern
Someone is Waiting Company 1 Sondheim
Somethings Coming West Side Story 5 Golden Age
Springtime for Hitler The Producers 5 Modern
Stay Do I Hear a Waltz? 4 Golden Age
Stay With Me City of Angels 5 Modern
Steppin Out With My Baby 3 Musical Comedy
Stranger in Paradise Kismet 1 Golden Age
Strangers Like Me Tarzan 5 Modern
Summer, Highland Falls Movin Out 5 Modern
Sunday Tick, Tick, Boom 5 Modern
Sunset Boulevard Sunset Boulevard 3 Poperetta
Take a Chance on Me Little Women 5 Modern
Take a Pair of Sparkling Eyes Gondoliers 3 Operetta
Take the Moment Do I Hear a Waltz? 5 Golden Age
Tango Tragique She Loves Me 2 Golden Age
That Face The Producers 4 Modern
Thats the Way It Happens Me and Juliet 1 Golden Age
The Apple Tree (Forbidden Fruit) The Apple Tree 2 Golden Age
The Ballad of Billy Mcaw Cats 1 Poperetta
The Big Black Giant Me and Juliet 1 Golden Age
The Breeze Kissed Your Hair The Cat and the Fiddle 1 Musical Comedy
The Day After That Kiss of the Spider Woman 4 Modern
The Mason Working 3 Modern
The Music of the Night Phantom of the Opera 2 Poperetta
The Nicest Kids in Town Hairspray 5 Modern
The Only Home I Know Shenandoah 1 Golden Age
The Proposal Titanic 3 Modern
The Wild Justice Lost in the Stars 1 Golden Age
This is Not Over Yet Parade 3 Modern
This is the Moment Jekyll and Hyde 2 Poperetta
Til Him The Producers 4 Modern
Tomorrow Belongs to Me Cabaret 3 Modern
Tonight at Eight She Loves Me 2 Golden Age
Tschaikowsky (and other Russians) Lady in the Dark 4 Musical Comedy
Two Worlds Tarzan 5 Modern
What Can You Lose? Dick Tracy 3 Sondheim
What Do I Need With Love? Thoroughly Modern Millie 5 Modern
What Have I Done? Les Miserables 4 Poperetta
What is It About Her? The Wild Party 4 Modern
What You Own Rent 5 Modern
What Youd Call a Dream Diamonds 3 Modern
When Im Not Near the Girl I Love Finnians Rainbow 1 Golden Age
Where I Want to Be Chess 2 Poperetta
Who am I? Les Miserables 4 Poperetta

192
Song Show Volume Genre
Why tick, Tick, Boom 4 Modern
Why God Why Miss Saigon 2 Poperetta
Willkommen Cabaret 2 Modern
Winters on the Wing The Secret Garden 2 Modern
Wish You Were Here Wish You Were Here 1 Musical Comedy
You are Beautiful Flower Drum Song 1 Golden Age
You are Never Away Allegro 1 Golden Age
You Walk With Me The Full Monty 4 Modern
Youre Devastating Roberta 1 Musical Comedy
Youve Got to Be Carefully Taught South Pacific 1 Golden Age
Young and Foolish Plain and Fancy 2 Golden Age
Younger Than Springtime South Pacific 1 Golden Age
Your Eyes Rent 3 Modern

Baritone

Song Show Volume Genre


30/90 Tick, Tick, Boom 5 Modern
A Bit of Earth The Secret Garden 2 Modern
A Man Could Go Quite Mad Edwin Drood 4 Modern
A New Love is Old The Cat and the Fiddle 1 Musical Comedy
A Wondring Minstrel I The Mikado 1 Operetta
Alas for You Godspell 5 Modern
Alive! Jekyll and Hyde 3 Poperetta
All Good Gifts Godspell 2 Modern
All I Need is the Girl Gypsy 1 Golden Age
All Kinds of People Pipe Dream 1 Golden Age
Almost Like Being In Love Brigadoon 3 Golden Age
Alone at the Drive-in Movie Grease 2 Modern
Amsterdam Jacques Brel 3 Other
Anthem Chess 2 Poperetta
Any Dream Will Do Joseph 3 Poperetta
Asking for You Do Re Mi 2 Golden Age
At the Grand Hotel Grand Hotel 2 Modern
Awaiting You Myths and Hymns 4 Modern
Barretts Song Titanic 3 Modern
Beautiful Girls Follies 2 Sondheim
Beauty School Dropout Grease 4 Modern
Beethoven Day Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown 4 Modern
Being Alive Company 1 Sondheim
Bigger Isnt Better Barnum 5 Modern
Body Beautiful Beale Grey Gardens 5 Modern
Boy For Sale Oliver 2 Golden Age
Breeze Off the River The Full Monty 4 Modern
Bring Him Home Les Miserables 2 Poperetta
Buddys Blues Follies 3 Sondheim
Cant Take My Eyes Off of You Jersey Boys 5 Modern
Close Every Door Joseph 2 Poperetta
Coffee (in a Cardboard Cup) 70, Girls, 70 3 Modern
Come with Me Boys from Syracuse 1 Musical Comedy
Corner of the Sky Pippin 3 Modern
Dancing Through Life Wicked 4 Modern
December 1963 Jersey Boys 5 Modern
Drift Away Grey Gardens 5 Modern
Easy Street Annie 5 Modern
Easy to Love Anything Goes 3 Musical Comedy
Endless Night Lion King 4 Modern
Fanny Fanny 1 Golden Age
Fifty Million Years Ago Celebration 1 Modern
Finishing the Hat Sunday in the Park 1 Sondheim
Fortune Favors the Brave Aida 4 Poperetta

193
Song Show Volume Genre
Free A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the 4 Sondheim
Forum
Geraniums in the Winder Carousel 2 Golden Age
Giants in the Sky Into the Woods 4 Sondheim
Go the Distance Hercules 3 Modern
Goodnight Saigon Miss Saigon 4 Poperetta
Great Big Stuff Dirty Rotten Scoundrels 5 Modern
Hairspray Hairspray 5 Modern
Heaven on their Minds Jesus Christ Superstar 4 Poperetta
Hell Myself The Producers 5 Modern
Hero and Leander Myths and Hymns 5 Modern
Hey There Pajama Game 3 Golden Age
High Flying, Adored Evita 2 Poperetta
How Glory Goes Floyd Collins 4 Modern
I am Aldolpho The Drowsey Chaperone 5 Modern
I Am in Love Can-Can 1 Musical Comedy
I Believe in You How to Succeed 2 Golden Age
I Can Do That Chorus Line 4 Modern
I Cant Stand Still Footloose 3 Modern
I Could Write a Book Pal Joey 1 Musical Comedy
I Do Not Know a Day I Did Not Two by Two 1 Golden Age
Love You
I Dont Care Much Cabaret 3 Modern
I Have Written a Play On the Twentieth Century 5 Modern
I Know About Love Do Re Mi 2 Golden Age
I Like You Fanny 2 Golden Age
I Met a Girl Bells are Ringing 2 Golden Age
I Need to Know Tarzan 4 Modern
I Only Want to Say (Gethsemane) Jesus Christ Superstar 2 Poperetta
I Will Follow You Milk and Honey 2 Golden Age
Ill Be There Pirate Queen 5 Poperetta
Im Martin Guerre Martin Guerre 3 Poperetta
Im Putting All My Eggs in One 3 Musical Comedy
Basket
If You Could See Her Cabaret 1 Modern
If you Were Gay Avenue Q 4 Modern
Il Mondo Era Vuoto Light in the Piazza 5 Modern
Isnt it a Lovely Day to be Caught in 3 Musical Comedy
the Rain
It Dont Get Better Than This Urban Cowboy 5 Modern
It Takes Two Hairspray 4 Modern
Jaspers Confession Edwin Drood 2 Modern
Johanna Sweeney Todd 1 Sondheim
Kansas City Oklahoma! 1 Golden Age
King Herods Song Jesus Christ Superstar 1 Poperetta
King of the World Songs for a New World 4 Modern
Ladies and their Sensitivities Sweeney Todd 1 Sondheim
Left Behind Spring Awakening 5 Modern
Let Me Drown The Wild Party 4 Modern
Like a God Flower Drum Song 2 Golden Age
Lonely House Street Scene 1 Golden Age
Lost in the Wilderness Children of Eden 5 Modern
Love Cant Happen Grand Hotel 2 Modern
Love Changes Everything Aspects of Love 4 Poperetta
Love to Me Light in the Piazza 4 Modern
Love, I Hear A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the 1 Sondheim
Forum
Lucky In Love Good News 2 Musical Comedy
Make Someone Happy Do Re Mi 1 Golden Age
Make the Most of Your Music Follies 3 Sondheim
Mama Says Footloose 3 Modern
Mama, Look Sharp 1776 4 Modern
Man The Full Monty 4 Modern

194
Song Show Volume Genre
Many Moons Ago Once Upon a Mattress 1 Modern
Margot The Desert Song 2 Operetta
Maria West Side Story 5 Golden Age
Maybe I Should Change My Ways Beggars Holiday 2 Musical Comedy
Miracle of Miracles Fiddler on the Roof 2 Golden Age
Mister Cellophane Chicago 3 Modern
Mooning Grease 5 Modern
Moving Too Fast The Last Five Years 5 Modern
Night of My Nights Kismet 3 Golden Age
No Moon pro 3 Modern
Nobody Needs to Know The Last Five Years 4 Modern
Not While Im Around Sweeney Todd 1 Sondheim
Oh, Is There Not One Maiden Breast Pirates of Penzance 3 Operetta
Old Devil Moon Finnians Rainbow 2 Golden Age
On the Night of a Thousand Stars Evita 2 Poperetta
On the Street When You Live My Fair Lady 1 Golden Age
Once Upon a Time Today Call Me Madam 2 Musical Comedy
One More Beautiful Song A Class Act 4 Modern
One Song Glory Rent 3 Modern
One Track Mind Sweet Smell of Success 4 Modern
Passeggiata The Light in the Piazza 5 Modern
Prologue: The Old Red Hills of Parade 3 Modern
Home
Quasimodo When Pigs Fly 3 Modern
Saturn Returns Myths and Hymns 5 Modern
Seeing is Believing Aspects of Love 1 Poperetta
Serenade The Student Prince 2 Operetta
She Cries Songs for a New World 5 Modern
She Loves Me She Loves Me 2 Golden Age
She Wasnt You On a Clear Day 2 Golden Age
Shes Got a Way Movin Out 5 Modern
Shiksa Goddess The Last Five Years 5 Modern
Shipoopi The Music Man 4 Golden Age
Sit Down Youre Rockin the Boat Guys and Dolls 2 Golden Age
Sitting Pretty Cabaret 1 Modern
Someone is Waiting Company 1 Sondheim
Somethings Coming West Side Story 5 Golden Age
Springtime for Hitler The Producers 5 Modern
Stay Do I Hear a Waltz? 4 Golden Age
Stay With Me City of Angels 5 Modern
Steppin Out With My Baby 3 Musical Comedy
Stranger in Paradise Kismet 1 Golden Age
Strangers Like Me Tarzan 5 Modern
Summer, Highland Falls Movin Out 5 Modern
Sunday Tick, Tick, Boom 5 Modern
Sunset Boulevard Sunset Boulevard 3 Poperetta
Take a Chance on Me Little Women 5 Modern
Take a Pair of Sparkling Eyes Gondoliers 3 Operetta
Take the Moment Do I Hear a Waltz? 5 Golden Age
Tango Tragique She Loves Me 2 Golden Age
That Face The Producers 4 Modern
Thats the Way It Happens Me and Juliet 1 Golden Age
The Apple Tree (Forbidden Fruit) The Apple Tree 2 Golden Age
The Ballad of Billy Mcaw Cats 1 Poperetta
The Big Black Giant Me and Juliet 1 Golden Age
The Breeze Kissed Your Hair The Cat and the Fiddle 1 Musical Comedy
The Day After That Kiss of the Spider Woman 4 Modern
The Mason Working 3 Modern
The Music of the Night Phantom of the Opera 2 Poperetta
The Nicest Kids in Town Hairspray 5 Modern
The Only Home I Know Shenandoah 1 Golden Age
The Proposal Titanic 3 Modern
The Wild Justice Lost in the Stars 1 Golden Age

195
Song Show Volume Genre
This is Not Over Yet Parade 3 Modern
This is the Moment Jekyll and Hyde 2 Poperetta
Til Him The Producers 4 Modern
Tomorrow Belongs to Me Cabaret 3 Modern
Tonight at Eight She Loves Me 2 Golden Age
Tschaikowsky (and other Russians) Lady in the Dark 4 Musical Comedy
Two Worlds Tarzan 5 Modern
What Can You Lose? Dick Tracy 3 Sondheim
What Do I Need With Love? Thoroughly Modern Millie 5 Modern
What Have I Done? Les Miserables 4 Poperetta
What is It About Her? The Wild Party 4 Modern
What You Own Rent 5 Modern
What Youd Call a Dream Diamonds 3 Modern
When Im Not Near the Girl I Love Finnians Rainbow 1 Golden Age
Where I Want to Be Chess 2 Poperetta
Who am I? Les Miserables 4 Poperetta
Why tick, Tick, Boom 4 Modern
Why God Why Miss Saigon 2 Poperetta
Willkommen Cabaret 2 Modern
Winters on the Wing The Secret Garden 2 Modern
Wish You Were Here Wish You Were Here 1 Musical Comedy
You are Beautiful Flower Drum Song 1 Golden Age
You are Never Away Allegro 1 Golden Age
You Walk With Me The Full Monty 4 Modern
Youre Devastating Roberta 1 Musical Comedy
Youve Got to Be Carefully Taught South Pacific 1 Golden Age
Young and Foolish Plain and Fancy 2 Golden Age
Younger Than Springtime South Pacific 1 Golden Age
Your Eyes Rent 3 Modern

196
Choice Songs
For over 10 years I've been curating a list for my students of outstanding musical theater songs
(as well as contemporary art songs that are especially useful for theatre singers) that are not in
the standard repertoire. Because I have gone to great lengths to choose songs that I feel are
excellent but under-sung, I call them Choice Songs. Many are great for auditions while others are
better for your development as a singing actor, either because they are challenging vocally or
dramatically. I will let you decide, based on your needs, intuition and the guidelines Ive given
you in the book, whether a song is right for your audition book. Maybe it goes without saying
but, a song could be perfect for one performer but completely wrong for another. Im excited to
share this list with you because I think that you will find many wonderful songs you didnt know.
I encourage you to scan through the comments and the voice type sections to see which songs
suit your needs.

Im saving all Sondheim songs for the Sondheim list which follows. Ive limited the number of
Post-millennium songs as there is no chance, with the frequency that they are written, that I can
keep the list current. Im only including songs from what I would consider the biggest, most
successful Post-millennium shows like Edges, Ordinary Days and I Love You Because.

A word about sources: P/C signifies the Piano/Conductor score. Ive used this designation if the
song is unpublished and the Piano/Conductor score is the only place to find it. Piano/Conductor
scores are a challenge to locate but not impossible by any means. Talk to musical directors you
know. Most keep a library of a wide array of scores. Vocal Selections are available commercially.
When the vocal selections are not available or you simply want one song, you are likely to find
the song at one of the sheet music sites like musicnotes.com or sheetmusicplus.com. Google the
title, composer and show title with the phrase sheet music in order to locate it.

Ive classified the songs by voice type. This is a subjective labeling system but I think it will be
helpful in finding the right kind of song for the right situation. As Ive mentioned before, in
todays world, singers are expected to sing a wide range of material. The days of making your
career singing only legit are past. Sopranos, for instance, should sing songs labeled soprano,
soprano mix, mix/belt and possibly belt. Belters should not only sing belt songs but also mix/belt
and possibly soprano/mix songs.

Sopranomore or less classical technique and production (Dawn Upshaw to Rebecca Luker)
Soprano mixmix of head and chest with more prominence given to head voice (Barbara Cook
to Liz Callaway)
Mix/Beltthe most prominent vocal approach in modern musical theatre characterized by easy
transition from low to high with the ability to sing powerfully, yet beautifully. (Kate Baldwin to
Sherie Rene Scott)
Beltchest dominated powerful singing (Ethel Merman to Mary Testa)

197
Legit Mezzoa more or less classical technique and production in the lower register. Not
common in musical theatre. Youll Never Walk Alone is perhaps the best example of the use of
this voice type in musical theatre.
Tenorobviously, a higher male voice.
High Baritonethese songs could have been classified as Tenor songs but because the tessitura
is lower they really belong in a different category. Sometimes the term, Baritenor is used to
indicate a higher baritone voice type, a voice that is quite common in modern literature,
especially in Rock musicals.
Baritonea lower male voice. Earlier in the 20th C. and before, this voice type is for older men
and villains (or anti-heroes). That is not necessarily the case since 1970 or so.

Along with title, show and composer, songs are categorized by style and voice type. The
comments column describes attributes such as time period (Golden Age , 70s and 80s, and
Modern), tempo and the nature of the song with adjectives like charm, disclosure and comedic.

Guide to Comments:
Disclosure-Songs of disclosure are ones where the character reveals something which is
unknown to the audience or to the world in general. So called I Want songs, like Part of Your
World from The Little Mermaid are a special kind of disclosure song. But to be a Song of
Disclosure, the nature of the information being disclosed does not have to be what the character
wants.
Ballad-Generally, any song that is slow or moderately slow.
Moving Ballad-a ballad that is more rhythmically complex and generally has more forward
momentum than most ballads.
Rhythm Ballad-a ballad where the rhythm section keeps a steady groove, either in a jazz or pop
style. Crazy by Patsy Cline is a famous rhythm ballad.
Dramatic-I use this term when the song is not about romantic love nor is it comedic.
Charm-A loose term meaning that the purpose of the song is to charm the audience or other
characters. Traditionally, charm songs are neither fast, nor slow with a triplet feel. Singing in
the Rain is the classic example but Ive used the term when this isnt the musical style, yet the
objective of the song is to charm.
Romantic-I use this term when the song is about romantic love or the character is romantic.
AA-I use this designation when the song is sung by an African-American character. Use your
judgement when choosing one of these songs if you are not an African-American.

198
Choice Songs for Women
AA
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
A Horse with Wings Ricky Ian Gordon Contemporary Art Soprano A Horse with Wings
song ballad folio
A Little Girl From Little Gentlemen Prefer Jule Styne Golden Age comedic Belt P/C Score
Rock Blondes uptempo
A Part of That Last Five Years Jason Robert Brown Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure uptempo
A Place Called Home A Christmas Carol Alan Menken Modern lyrical Soprano/Mix Alan Menken
disclosure ballad Songbook
A Stranger Giant Michael John Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Michael John
LaChiusa disclosure ballad LaChiusa Songbook
A Way Back to Then Title of Show Jeff Bowen Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Ain Got No Tears Left On the Town, cut Leonard Bernstein Golden Age bluesy Legit Mezzo Bernstein Theatre
ballad Songs: Low Voice
Aint Nothing But a Kiss Memphis David Bryan Modern rock Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo
All Fall Down Make Me a Song William Finn Modern dramatic Belt The William Finn
uptempo Songbook

All the Men in My Life Evil Dead Frank Cipolla, Modern comedic Belt P/C Score
Christopher Bond, uptempo
Melissa Morris,
George Reinblatt
All Things to One Man Grind Larry Grossman 70s and 80s dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
rhythm ballad
Almost Everything I Alphabet City Georgia Stitt Contemporary Art Soprano/Mix Composer website
Need Cycle song ballad
Amor William Bolcom Contemporary Art Soprano Cabaret Songs
song uptempo
An Old-Fashioned Love The Wild Party Andrew Lippa Modern comedic Belt Vocal Selections
Story uptempo
And I Will Follow Jason Robert Brown Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Jason Robert
ballad Brown Collection
Angels Punks and Elegies for Angels, Janet Hood Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Contemporary
Raging Queens Punks and Raging ballad Singing Actor,
Queens Women Vol. 2
Anything Triumph of Love Jeffrey Stock Modern dramatic Belt P/C Score
ingnue disclosure
uptempo
Anytime Elegies William Finn Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ballad
Are You Still Holding Bright Lights, Big Paul Scott Goodman Modern dramatic Mix/Belt P/C Score
My Hand City ballad
Around the World Grey Gardens Scott Frankel Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
At the Glen Dessa Rose Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Vocal Selections
ballad
Autumn in Connecticut Far From Heaven Scott Frankel Modern dramatic Soprano P/C Score
disclosure uptempo

199
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Back To Before Ragtime Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Be On Your Own Nine Maury Yeston 70s and 80s dramatic Belt P/C Score
moving ballad
Beautiful Marie Christine Michael John Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix The Michael John
LaChiusa ballad LaChiusa Songbook
Bitch/Slut/Liar/Whore Toxic Avenger David Bryan Modern comedic Belt, High Vocal Selections
uptempo Belt
Blame it On the Summer Rags Stephen Schwartz Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Stephen Schwartz
Night disclosure ballad Songbook
Breathe In the Heights Lin-Manuel Miranda Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
moving disclosure
ballad
Burden of Life A Man of No Stephen Flaherty Modern comedic Belt Vocal Selections
Importance uptempo
But the World Goes And The World John Kander Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Kander and
Round Goes Round uptempo Ebb Collection

Calm Ordinary Days Adam Gwon Modern comedic Belt newmusicaltheatre.c


uptempo om
Carrie Carrie Michael Gore Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure uptempo
Celebrate Elegies for Angels, Janet Hood Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Contemporary
Punks and Raging uptempo Singing Actor,
Queens Women Vol. 2
Chain of Love The Grass Harp Claibe Richardson 70s and 80s Soprano P/C Score
Romantic ingnue
disclosure ballad
Change A New Brain William Finn Modern comedic Belt The William Finn
uptempo Songbook
Chanson The Bakers Wife Stephen Schwartz 70s and 80s Soprano/Mix The Stephen
Romantic ballad Schwartz Songbook
Coffee See What I Wanna Michael John Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Michael John
See LaChiusa disclosure uptempo LaChiusa Songbook
Colored Lights The Rink John Kander 70s and 80s dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure moving
ballad
Colored Woman Memphis David Bryan Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Colors of the Wind Pocahontas, film Stephen Schwartz Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Stephen
disclosure ballad Schwartz Songbook
Come Down From the Once on This Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Ahrens and Flaherty
Tree Island, cut disclosure ballad Songbook
County Fair Das Barbecu Scott Warrender Modern Country Mix/Belt P/C Score
disclosure ballad
Crimson Kiss Lestat Elton John Modern dramatic Mix/Belt P/C Score
ballad
Crossword Puzzle Starting Here, Maltby/Shire 70s and 80s comedic Soprano Vocal Selections
Starting Now uptempo
Dancing Lavender Girl John Bucchino Modern romantic Soprano/Mix Grateful: The Songs
waltz of John Bucchino
Dancing All the Time Big: The Musical David Shire Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo

200
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
December Snow December Songs Maury Yeston Contemporary Art Soprano December Songs
song ballad folio
Departure Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary Art Soprano/Mix The Jeff
song ballad Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
Disneyland Smile Marvin Hamlisch 70s and 80s dramatic Mix P/C Score
ingnue disclosure
ballad
Dogs Versus You Lucky Stiff Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo
Dont Wanna Be Here Ordinary Days Adam Gwon
Dream With Me Peter Pan Leonard Bernstein Golden Age romantic Mix Bernstein Theatre
ingnue ballad Songs: High Voice
Dreaming, Wide Awake Jason Robert Brown Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Jason Robert
ballad Brown Collection
Dyin Aint So Bad Bonnie and Clyde Frank Wildhorn Modern dramatic Mix Vocal Selections
ingnue disclosure
ballad
Easy As Life Aida Elton John Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure moving
ballad
Easy Money The Life Cy Coleman Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure uptempo
Even Though I Love You Joshua Salzman Modern dramatic Mix newmusicaltheatre.c
Because disclosure ballad om
Every Story Is a Love Aida Elton John Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Story ballad
Everybodys Girl Steel Pier John Kander Modern comedic Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure uptempo
Everyday is Night Birds of Paradise David Evans 70s and 80s dramatic Mix/Belt P/C Score
ballad
Everything Else Next to Normal Tom Kitt Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ingnue disclosure
uptempo
Everything I Know In the Heights Lin-Manuel Miranda Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ingnue disclosure
ballad
Fair Warning Destry Rides Harold Rome Golden Age dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
Again uptempo
Feels Like Home Randy Newmans Randy Newman Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Randy Newman
Faust disclosure ballad Anthology
First You Dream Steel Pier John Kander Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix The Kander and
ballad Ebb Collection

Fly Away/Never Never Piece, the musical Scott Alan Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Composer website
Land disclosure ballad
Fly Into the Future Vanities David Kirshenbaum Modern dramatic Mix/Belt P/C Score
disclosure uptempo
Fly, Fly Away Catch Me If You Marc Shaiman Modern dramatic Mix Vocal Selections
Can ballad
Forgiveness Jane Eyre Paul Gordon Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
ballad
Gainesville Randy Newmans Randy Newman Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Randy Newman
Faust ballad Anthology

201
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Get Out and Stay Out Nine to Five Dolly Parton Modern dramatic High Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Goodbye, Emil Romance, Keith Hermann 70s and 80s dramatic Soprano Vocal Selections
Romance uptempo
Grateful Urban Myths John Bucchino Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix, Grateful: The Songs
disclosure ballad transpose the of John Bucchino
key lower
He Wanted a Girl Giant Michael John Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Michael John
LaChiusa ballad LaChiusa Songbook
Hes Here How Now, Dow Elmer Bernstein Golden Age comedic Belt Vocal Selections
Jones patter
Hold Down The Fort John and Jen Andrew Lippa Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ballad
Holding to the Ground Falsettos William Finn Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure uptempo
How Bout a Dance Bonnie and Clyde Frank Wildhorn Modern dramatic Mix Vocal Selections
ingnue rhythm
ballad
How Can I Lose You? Myths and Hymns Adam Guettel Modern comedic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ballad
How Can I Win? The Goodbye Girl Marvin Hamlisch Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ballad
How Did I Get to Where Marguerite Michel Legrand Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
I Am disclosure ballad
How Will I Know? Death Takes a Maury Yeston Modern ingnue Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Holiday disclosure uptempo
I Am Longing December Songs Maury Yeston Contemporary Art Soprano December Songs
song ballad folio
I Am Playing Me [title of show] Jeff Bowen Modern comedic Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo
I Couldnt Be With A Wonderful Life Joe Raposo 70s and 80s romantic Soprano/Mix Individual sheet
Anyone But You disclosure ballad from musicnotes
I Dont Know How to Elegies for Angels, Janet Hood Modern dramatic Mix/Belt P/C Score
Help You Punks and Raging ballad
Queens
I Got Love Purlie Gary Geld 70s and 80s dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
pop disclosure
uptempo
I Had a Dream About December Songs Maury Yeston Contemporary Art Soprano December Songs
You song moving ballad folio
I Hate Him Destry Rides Harold Rome Golden Age dramatic Belt P/C Score
Again uptempo
I Hate the Bus Caroline, Or Jeanine Tesori Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Change ingnue disclosure
ballad
I Have Found Make Me a Song William Finn Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The William Finn
disclosure ballad Songbook
I Met a Man Today Craig Carnelia 70s and 80s pop Mix/Belt Craig Carnelia
dramatic ballad Songbook
I Miss the Mountains Next to Normal Tom Kitt Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
I Never Knew His Name Brooklyn Mark Schoenfeld Modern dramatic Mix Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad

202
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
I Resolve She Loves Me Jerry Bock Golden Age dramatic Belt P/C Score
disclosure uptempo
I Slept With Someone High Fidelity Tom Kitt Modern comedic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Who Handled Kurt ballad
Cobains Intervention
I Speak Six Languages 25th Annual William Finn Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The William Finn
Putnam County disclosure uptempo Songbook
Spelling Bee
I Still Believe in Love Theyre Playing Marvin Hamlisch 70s and 80s Mix Vocal Selections
Our Song Romantic disclosure
ballad
I Sure Like the Boys A, My Name is Joan Micklin Silver 70s and 80s Soprano/Mix P/C Score
Alice and Julianne Boyd Romantic disclosure
ballad
I Wanna Be a Rockette Kicks, the Musical Alan Menken Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Alan Menken
disclosure uptempo Songbook
I Want More Lestat Elton John Modern dramatic Belt P/C Score
disclosure moving
ballad
I Want You My Life With Ricky Ian Gordon Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Albertine disclosure ballad
I Wish It So Juno Marc Blitzstein Golden Age ingnue Soprano The Marc Blitzstein
disclosure ballad Songbook Vol. 1
I Wont Mind The Other Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary Art Soprano The Jeff
Franklin song ballad Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
Id Rather Watch You The Adding Joshua Schmidt Modern comedic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Machine disclosure charm
Ill Be Here Ordinary Days Adam Gwon Modern dramatic Mix/Belt newmusicaltheatre.c
disclosure ballad om
Ill Never Fall in Love Promises, Burt Bacharach Golden Age dramatic Mix Vocal Selections
Again Promises ballad
Ill Never Have That Lestat Elton John Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix P/C Score
Chance ballad
Im a Part of That The Last Five Jason Robert Brown Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Years disclosure uptempo
Im Breaking Down Falsettos William Finn Modern dramatic Belt The William Finn
disclosure uptempo Songbook
Im Free Precious Little Jeff Blumenkrantz Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix The Jeff
Jewel ballad Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
Im Gonna Be Like an John and Jen Andrew Lippa Modern dramatic Mix/Belt P/C Score
Eagle disclosure ballad
Im Just Movin Working (Revival) Stephen Schwartz Modern dramatic Belt P/C Score
uptempo
Im Leaving You The Life Cy Coleman Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix The Contemporary
ballad Singing Actor,
Women Vol. 1
Im Not Little By Little Brad Ross Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Contemporary
disclosure uptempo Singing Actor,
Women Vol. 1
Im Not Afraid Songs For a New Jason Robert Brown Modern moving Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
World disclosure ballad

203
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Im Not Alone Carrie Michael Gore 70s and 80s dramatic Mix/Belt P/C score
pop disclosure ballad
Im Not At All in Love The Pajama Game Richard Adler and Golden Age dramatic Mix/Belt P/C Score
Jerry Ross disclosure waltz
Im Not Waiting Andrew Lippa Modern moving Mix/Belt Composer website
disclosure ballad
Ive Never Said I Love Dear World Jerry Herman Golden Age romantic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
You disclosure ballad
If I Ever Loved Him Angel Gary Geld 70s and 80s dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ballad
If I Told You Now Jason Robert Brown Modern dramatic Mix The Jason Robert
disclosure ballad Brown Collection
If Only The Little Alan Menken Modern romantic Mix Vocal Selections*
Mermaid disclosure ballad
If You Hadnt But You Two On the Aisle Jule Styne Golden Age comedic Belt Individual sheet
Did uptempo from musicnotes
In a Restaurant By the John Bucchino Contemporary Art Mix Grateful: The Songs
Sea song ballad of John Bucchino
In Short Edges Modern comedic Belt P/C Score
uptempo
Ireland Legally Blonde Lawrence OKeefe Modern comedic Mix Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Is It Too Late My Life With Ricky Ian Gordon Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Albertine ballad
Isnt This Better? Funny Lady John Kander Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix The Kander and
ballad Ebb Collection

It Feels Like Home John Bucchino Contemporary Art Soprano/Mix Grateful: The Songs
song ballad of John Bucchino
It Hurts to Be Strong Carrie Michael Gore 70 and 80s dramatic Mix P/C score
disclosure ballad
It Might As Well Be State Fair Richard Rodgers Golden Age ingnue Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Spring disclosure ballad
It Would Have Been Annie Warbucks Charles Strouse Modern dramatic Mix P/C Score
Wonderful disclosure ballad
Its Wont Be Long In the Heights Lin-Manuel Miranda Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure uptempo
Journey To the Past Anastasia, film Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Mix Ahrens and Flaherty
disclosure ballad Songbook
Joy Ricky Ian Gordon Contemporary Art Soprano Genius Child
song uptempo
Just Like That A Christmas Story Benj Pasek and Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Justin Paul ballad
Just Like You John and Jen Andrew Lippa Modern moving Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ballad
Just Not Now I Love You Joshua Salzman Modern dramatic Mix newmusicaltheatre.c
Because disclosure ballad om
Kindness Bright Lights, Big Paul Scott Goodman Modern folk rock Mix P/C Score
City moving ballad
Kiss of the Spider Kiss of the Spider John Kander Modern dramatic Belt The Kander and
Woman Woman uptempo Ebb Collection
Knowing When To Promises, Burt Bacharach Golden Age pop Mix Vocal Selections
Leave Promises uptempo

204
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Lament Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary Art Soprano The Jeff
song ballad Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
Lay Down Your Head Violet Jeanine Tesori Modern dramatic Mix P/C Score
ballad
Lion Tamer The Magic Show Stephen Schwartz Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Stephen
ingnue disclosure Schwartz Songbook
ballad
Listen To Your Heart Young Mel Brooks Modern romantic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Frankenstein 1930s beguine
Little Known Facts Youre a Good Clark Gesner Golden Age comedic Belt Vocal Selections
Man, Charlie patter
Brown
Lonely Pew Reefer Madness Dan Studney Modern Country Mix/Belt P/C Score
ballad
Look At All the People Chaplin Christopher Curtis Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
ballad

Look At Me Now The Wild Party Andrew Lippa Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo
Losing Roberto Death Takes a Maury Yeston Modern dramatic Soprano Vocal Selections
Holiday ballad
Lost and Found City of Angels Cy Coleman Modern romantic jazz Belt Vocal Selections
ballad
Love Is Not All Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary Art Soprano/Mix The Jeff
song ballad Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
Love Quiz Its Only Life John Bucchino Modern romantic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
moving ballad
Lovely Lies Jeff Blumenkrantz Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Composer website
ballad
Lovesick Women on the David Yazbek Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
Verge of a uptempo
Nervous
Breakdown
Lying There Edges Benj Pasek and Modern dramatic Mix/Belt newmusicaltheatre.c
Justin Paul disclosure ballad om
Mama Will Provide Once on This Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic pop Belt Ahrens and Flaherty
Island uptempo Songbook
Man in the Moon
Man Wanted Copacabana Barry Manilow Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
1930s disclosure
uptempo
Maybe I Like it This The Wild Party Andrew Lippa Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Way disclosure ballad
Mira Carnival Bob Merrill Golden Age ingnue Soprano Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Miss Byrd Closer Than Ever David Shire 70s and 80s comedic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
disclosure uptempo
Missing You (My Bill) The Civil War Frank Wildhorn Modern dramatic Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Mistress of the Senator Hello Again Michael John Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix The Michael John
LaChiusa disclosure uptempo LaChiusa Songbook

205
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Model Behavior Women on the David Yazbek Modern comedic Belt Vocal Selections
Verge of a patter
Nervous
Breakdown
More To the Story Shrek Jeanine Tesori Modern dramatic Mix Individual sheet
ingnue disclosure from musicnotes
ballad
My Big Mistake The Will Rogers Cy Coleman Modern Romantic Vocal Selections
Follies Jazz disclosure ballad
My Book Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary Art Soprano/Mix The Jeff
song comedic Blumenkrantz
uptempo Songbook Vol. 1
My Brother Lived In San Elegies for Angels, Janet Hood Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix The Contemporary
Francisco Punks and Raging disclosure ballad Singing Actor,
Queens Women Vol. 1
My House Peter Pan Leonard Bernstein Golden Age ingnue Soprano/Mix Bernstein on
ballad Broadway
My Mothers Wedding Brigadoon Frederick Loewe Golden Age comedic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Day uptempo

My Own Space The Act John Kander 70s and 80s dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
My True Love Phantom Maury Yeston 70s and 80s romantic Soprano The Maury Yeston
waltz Songbook
My Unknown Someone The Will Rogers Cy Coleman Modern 1930s Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Follies romantic disclosure
ballad
Namely You Lil Abner Gene De Paul Golden Age ingnue Soprano Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Never Again King David Alan Menken Modern dramatic pop P/C Score
ballad
Next Best Thing To Love A Class Act Edward Kleban
No Man Left for Me The Will Rogers Cy Coleman Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
Follies rhythm ballad
Nobody Does It Like Me Seesaw Cy Coleman 70s and 80s comedic Belt Vocal Selections
rhythm disclosure
ballad
Nobodys Side Chess Benny Andersson 70s and 80s dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
and Bjrn Ulvaeus pop disclosure
uptempo
Nothing Like Youve Song and Dance Andrew Lloyd 70s and 80s dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Ever Known Webber ballad
Nothing Short of Dogfight Benj Pasek and Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix newmusicaltheatre.c
Wonderful Justin Paul disclosure uptempo om
Nothing Stops Another Ghost Dave Stewart and Modern dramatic Mix Vocal Selections
Day Glen Ballard disclosure ballad
Now and Then People in the Mike Stoller Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Picture ingnue disclosure
ballad
Oh, To Be a Movie Star The Apple Tree Jerry Bock Golden Age ingnue Mix Vocal Selections
disclosure charm
On My Way Violet Jeanine Tesori Modern ingnue Mix/Belt P/C Score
disclosure uptempo

206
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
On My Way To You Michel Legrand Modern dramatic pop Soprano
uptempo
Once I Was Ricky Ian Gordon Contemporary Art Soprano A Horse with Wings
song ballad folio
Once Upon a December Anastasia, film Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Mix Ahrens and Flaherty
ballad Songbook
Once Upon a Time Brooklyn Mark Schoenfeld Modern dramatic Mix Vocal Selections
ingnue pop
disclosure ballad
One Life to Live Lady in the Dark Kurt Weill Golden Age dramatic Belt P/C Score
uptempo
One Perfect Moment Bring It On Lin-Manuel Miranda Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
and Tom Kitt ingnue disclosure
ballad
One Step Ahead of High Fidelity, cut Tom Kitt Modern dramatic pop Mix/Belt The BMI Workshop
Goodbye ballad Songbook
One White Dress A Catered Affair John Bucchino Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Composer website
ingnue disclosure
charm
Ooh, My Feet The Most Happy Frank Loesser Golden Age dramatic Mix/Belt P/C Score
Fella uptempo

Out of Sight, Out of A Tale of Two Jill Santoriello Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Mind Cities moving ballad
Out of the Blue The Wild Party Andrew Lippa Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo
Painting Her Portrait Jane Eyre Paul Gordon Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
ingnue disclosure
ballad
Passover Elegies William Finn Modern comedic Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo
Patience Illyria Pete Mills Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix newmusicaltheatre.c
ballad om
Patterns Baby David Shire 70s and 80s dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Perfect High Fidelity, cut Tom Kitt Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Composer website
disclosure ballad
Perfect Edges Benj Pasek and Modern dramatic Mix/Belt newmusicaltheatre.c
Justin Paul disclosure ballad om
Peter, Peter Peter Pan Leonard Bernstein Golden Age ingnue Soprano
ballad
Please, Lets Not Even December Songs Maury Yeston Contemporary Art Soprano December Songs
Say Hello song ballad folio
Pretty Funny Dogfight Benj Pasek and Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix newmusicaltheatre.c
Justin Paul ingnue disclosure om
moving ballad
Princess A Man of No Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Importance ingnue moving
ballad
Pulled The Addams Andrew Lippa Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Family ingnue disclosure
uptempo
Raise the Roof The Wild Party Andrew Lippa Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo

207
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Raven Brooklyn Mark Schoenfeld Modern dramatic Mix Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Ready to Settle High Fidelity Tom Kitt Modern comedic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Reflection On the Record Matthew Wilder Modern ingnue Mix/Belt Individual sheet
dramatic disclosure from musicnotes
ballad
Remember Me Little Fish Michael John Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Michael John
LaChiusa ballad Lachiusa Songbook
Right In Front of Your The Wedding Matthew Skylar Modern comedic pop Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Eyes Singer disclosure uptempo
Ritas Tune The Sweet Smell Marvin Hamlisch Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
of Success charm ballad
Safer First Date Alan Zachary, Modern dramatic pop Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Michael Weiner moving ballad
Say Goodbye Piece, the musical Scott Alan Modern dramatic Belt Composer website
uptempo
Schroeder Youre a Good Gary Geld Golden Age comedic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Man, Charlie ballad
Brown
Screw Loose Cry Baby David Javerbaum Modern comedic Belt P/C score
and Adam disclosure rhythm
Schlesinger ballad
Second Hand White Smash, TV show Marc Shaiman Modern dramatic Mix musicnotes.com
Baby Grand ballad
See What I Wanna See See What I Wanna Michael John Modern dramatic Belt The Michael John
See LaChiusa uptempo Lachiusa Songbook
Selective Memory People in the Mike Stoller Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Picture disclosure ballad
Serenity Triumph of Love Jeffrey Stock Modern dramatic Mix/Belt P/C score
waltz
Shine The Spitfire Grill James Valcq Modern dramatic Mix/Belt P/C Score
disclosure ballad

Shine Like the Sun Nine to Five Dolly Parton Modern dramatic Belt, High Vocal Selections
uptempo Belt
Simple Creature Little Fish Michael John Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Michael John
LaChiusa uptempo LaChiusa Songbook
Since You Stayed Here Brownstone Peter Larson 70s and 80s romantic Soprano/Mix Individual sheet
disclosure ballad from musicnotes
Sister Act Sister Act Alan Menken Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad

Sleepy Man Robber Robert Waldman 70s and 80s romantic Soprano/Mix P/C score
Bridegroom disclosure ballad
Small Town Girl Debbie Does Tom Kitt Modern dramatic pop Mix/Belt P/C score
Dallas disclosure uptempo
So Much Better Legally Blonde Lawrence OKeefe Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
ingnue disclosure
uptempo
Someday The Wedding Matthew Skylar Modern romantic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Singer ingnue disclosure
uptempo

208
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Something of My Own Dessa Rose Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ballad
Somewhere Thats Green Little Shop of Alan Menken 70s and 80s romantic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Horrors disclosure ballad
Song of Me Starting Here, David Shire 70s and 80s ingnue Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Starting Now disclosure ballad
Spark of Creation Children of Eden Stephen Schwartz Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Stephen
disclosure uptempo Schwartz Songbook
Speaking French Lucky Stiff Stephen Flaherty Modern comedic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo
Stop and See Me Weird Romance Alan Menken Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Stranger to the Rain Children of Eden Stephen Schwartz Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Stephen
disclosure moving Schwartz Songbook
ballad
Sunday Light Alphabet City Georgia Stitt Contemporary Art Soprano/Mix Composer website
Cycle song moving ballad
Surabaya-Santa Songs For a New Modern comedic Belt Vocal Selections
World uptempo
Sweet Dreams Its Only Life John Bucchino Contemporary Art Mix Grateful: The Songs
song ballad of John Bucchino
Sweet Liberty Jane Eyre Paul Gordon Modern ingnue Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure moving
ballad
Table Three Dan Martin Modern comedic Mix/Belt The BMI Workshop
uptempo Songbook
Take Care Of This House 1600 Pennsylvania Leonard Bernstein Golden Age dramatic Mezzo Bernstein Theatre
Avenue ballad Songs: Low Voice
Take the Filter Off Jeff Blumenkrantz Modern comedic Mix/Belt The Jeff
uptempo Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
Take The World Away Little By Little Brad Ross Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Contemporary
ballad Singing Actor,
Women Vol. 1
Tell Me Why A Man of No Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
Importance ballad
Temporary Urban Myths John Bucchino Modern dramatic Mix Grateful: The Songs
ballad of John Bucchino
That Mister Man of Mine Dames at Sea Jim Wise Golden Age comedic Belt P/C Score
ballad
Thatll Never Be Me Now.Here.This Jeff Bowen Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ballad
The Boy From The Mad Show Mary Rodgers Golden Age comedic Mix/Belt P/C score
uptempo
The Dark I Know Well Spring Awakening Duncan Sheik Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
rock uptempo
The Finer Things Jane Eyre Paul Gordon Modern dramatic Soprano Vocal Selections
waltz
The Fire Within Me Little Women Jason Howland Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ingnue disclosure
ballad
The Greatest Practical See What I Wanna Michael John Modern comedic Belt The Michael John
Joke See LaChiusa uptempo Lachiusa Songbook

209
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
The History of Wrong Kinky Boots Cindi Lauper Modern comedic Belt Vocal Selections
Guys uptempo
The Life I Never Led Sister Act Alan Menken Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ingnue disclosure
moving ballad
The Life Of the Party Wild Party Andrew Lippa Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure uptempo
The Love Of My Life Brigadoon Frederick Loewe Golden Age dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo

The Night It Had to End Romance, Keith Hermann Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Romance ballad
The Other Side of the Little Me Cy Coleman Golden Age Belt Vocal Selections
Tracks disclosure uptempo
The Road Ends Here John and Jen Andrew Lippa Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
The Smile of Your John and Jen Andrew Lippa Modern dramatic Mix Vocal Selections
Dreams disclosure ballad
The Song With the John Bucchino Contemporary Art Soprano Grateful: The Songs
Violins song comedic of John Bucchino
uptempo
The Spring and The Fall Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary Art Mix The Jeff
song ballad Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
The Story Goes On Baby David Shire 70s and 80s dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ingnue disclosure
ballad
The Usher From the Fade Out, Fade In Jule Styne Golden Age charm Belt P/C Score
Mezzanine uptempo
The Wanting of You Alphabet City Georgia Stitt Contemporary Art Soprano/Mix Composer website
Cycle song uptempo
The World Above The Little Alan Menken Modern ingnue Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Mermaid disclosure ballad
The World She Writes The Glorious Ones Stephen Flaherty Modern ingnue Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
The Writing on the Wall The Mystery of Rupert Holmes 70s and 80s dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Edwin Drood uptempo

There Will Be a Miracle See What I Wanna Michael John Modern dramatic Belt The Michael John
See LaChiusa uptempo Lachiusa Songbook
Theres a World Out Little Women Kim Oler Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The BMI Workshop
There ballad Songbook
They Dont Know Thoroughly Jeanine Tesori Modern comedic Belt Vocal Selections
Modern Millie uptempo
Think Positive Angry Chad Henry Modern dramatic/ Mix/Belt P/C score
Housewives comedic uptempo
Thinking Of Him Curtains John Kander Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad

This Moment John Bucchino Contemporary Art Soprano Grateful: The Songs
song ballad of John Bucchino
This Time Now.Here.This Jeff Bowen Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad

210
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Through The Mountain Floyd Collins Adam Guettel Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
ballad
Time Does Not Bring The Other Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary Art Soprano The Jeff
Relief Franklin song ballad Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
Times Like This Lucky Stiff Stephen Flaherty Modern comedic Mix/Belt Ahrens and Flaherty
ingnue disclosure Songbook
ballad
Toll Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary Art Mix The Jeff
song moving ballad Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
Tom Hello Again Michael John Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Michael John
LaChiusa disclosure uptempo LaChiusa Songbook
Too Much Stepping Out-The Denis King Modern dramatic Belt P/C score
Musical uptempo
Too Much in Love To Sunset Boulevard Andrew Lloyd Modern romantic Soprano Vocal Selections
Care Webber ingnue ballad

Tuesdays, Thursdays Far From Heaven Scott Frankel Modern dramatic Soprano P/C Score
ballad
Unexpressed John Bucchino Contemporary Art Mix/Belt Grateful: The Songs
song ballad of John Bucchino
Waiting for Life Once on This Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Ahrens and Flaherty
Island ingnue disclosure Songbook
uptempo
Walking the Wrong Way Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary Art Soprano/Mix The Jeff
song ballad Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
Wanting Rags Charles Strouse Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Watch What Happens Newsies Alan Menken Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo
Watching the Big Parade Starting Here, David Shire 70s and 80s dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Go By Starting Now march
We Had a Dream The Life Cy Coleman Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Welcome Home Johnny Guitar Martin Silvestri Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
ballad
West End Avenue The Magic Show Stephen Schwartz Modern dramatic Mix/Belt The Stephen
disclosure uptempo Schwartz Songbook
What a Mother Does A Christmas Story Benj Pasek and Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Justin Paul disclosure uptempo
What About Today Starting Here, David Shire 70s and 80s dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
Starting Now pop disclosure ballad
What Did I Have That I On a Clear Day, Burton Lane Golden Age dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Dont Have? You Can See rhythm ballad
Forever
What Only Love Can Chaplin Christopher Curtis Modern dramatic Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
See ballad

When Hope Goes The Spitfire Grill James Valcq Modern dramatic Mix P/C Score
disclosure ballad
When I Look at You Scarlet Pimpernel Frank Wildhorn Modern romantic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad

211
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
When It Ends The Wild Party Michael John Modern dramatic Belt Michael John
LaChiusa ballad LaChiusa Songbook
When the Earth Stopped Elegies William Finn Modern dramatic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Turning ballad
Whenever I Dream A New Brain William Finn Modern comedic Belt Vocal Selections
uptempo
Where is the Warmth? The Bakers Wife Stephen Schwartz 70s and 80s dramatic Mix/Belt The Stephen
ballad Schwartz Songbook
Who Is This Man? Death Takes a Maury Yeston Modern ingnue Soprano/Mix Vocal Selections
Holiday disclosure ballad
Who Wears These The Times Brad Ross, Joe Modern comedic Belt newmusicaltheatre.c
Clothes? Keenan uptempo om
Why Did I Choose You? The Yearling Michael Leonard Golden Age romantic Soprano Individual sheet
disclosure ballad from musicnotes
Why Not Me? Carrie Michael Gore Modern moving Belt P/C score
ballad
Wild and Reckless Drat, the Cat Milton Schafer Golden Age comedic Vocal Selections
uptempo
Will There Really Be a Ricky Ian Gordon Contemporary Art Soprano A Horse with Wings
Morning? song ballad folio
With Every Breath I Take City of Angels Cy Coleman Modern dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
ballad
With You Ghost Dave Stewart and Modern romantic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Glen Ballard disclosure ballad
Words, Words, Words The Witches of Dana P. Rowe Modern comedic Mix/Belt Vocal Selections
Eastwick patter
Youll Never Be Alone A Tale of Two Jill Santoriello Modern romantic Soprano Vocal Selections
Cities ballad
Youve Got Possibilities Its a Bird...Its a Charles Strouse Golden Age dramatic Belt Vocal Selections
Plane...Its uptempo
Superman

STILL MORE TO ADD


Edges

212
Choice Songs for Men

Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source


A Horse with Wings Ricky Ian Gordon Contemporary Art song Baritone A Horse with Wings
ballad folio
A Piece of the The Life Cy Coleman Modern dramatic pop Tenor Vocal Selections
Action uptempo
A Very Single Man Five Course Love Modern comedic Baritone P/C Score
uptempo
Absalom The Glorious Ones Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic folk Baritone P/C Score
ballad
Alive Death Takes a Maury Yeston Modern dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
Holiday uptempo
Alone in the Seussical Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
Universe disclosure ballad
An Ordinary Guy Amour Michel Legrand Modern dramatic High Baritone P/C Score
disclosure ballad
And Theyre Off A New Brain William Finn Modern dramatic/ High Baritone Vocal Selections
comedic disclosure
uptempo
Anytime Elegies William Finn Modern dramatic Tenor The William Finn
disclosure ballad Songbook
As Good As You Jane Eyre Paul Gordon Modern dramatic ballad Baritone P/C Score
At the Fountain Sweet Smell of Marvin Hamlisch Modern dramatic High Baritone Vocal Selections
Success disclosure ballad/
uptempo
Back Home Back Home: The Christopher Berg Modern dramatic High Baritone BMI Workshop
War Brides Musical romantic ballad songbook
Bailout Song #1 First Date Alan Zachary, Modern comedic pop Tenor Vocal Selections
Michael Weiner uptempo
Beautiful City Godspell (Revival) Stephen Schwartz 70s and 80s dramatic Tenor Revised Vocal
ballad Selections
Better Than I Joseph, film John Bucchino Modern dramatic pop Tenor Grateful: The Songs
ballad of John Bucchino
Boy With Dreams Edges Benj Pasek and Modern disclosure pop Tenor with low
Justin Paul uptempo range
Boys and Girls Like State Fair Richard Rodgers Golden Age romantic Baritone P/C Score
You and Me ballad
But I Dont Want to I Love You Because Modern comedic pop Tenor
Talk About Her uptempo
Bye Room John and Jen Andrew Lippa Modern comedic Tenor Vocal Selections
uptempo
Call of the Sea No, No, Nannette Vincent Youmans Golden Age dramatic Baritone P/C Score
uptempo
Central Park See What I Wanna Michael John Modern dramatic Baritone P/C Score
See LaChiusa uptempo
Centuries Death Takes a Maury Yeston Modern dramatic High Baritone Vocal Selections
Holiday moving ballad
Charlie's Soliloquy Kinky Boots Cindi Lauper Modern dramatic pop Tenor Vocal Selections
ballad

213
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Coffee Shop Nights Curtains John Kander Modern dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Cold Enough To Life With Mikey, Alan Menken Modern dramatic ballad Baritone Alan Menken
Snow film Songbook
Cold Feets The Drowsy Lisa Lambert, Greg Modern comedic Tenor Vocal Selections
Chaperone Morrison uptempo
Colors Of My Life Barnum Cy Coleman 70s and 80s dramatic Tenor Vocal Selections
ballad
Different Honk George Stiles Modern disclosure Baritone P/C Score
ballad
Double Talk City of Angels Cy Coleman Modern dramatic swing Baritone Vocal Selections
uptempo
Epiphany Altar Boyz Gary Adler Modern dramatic/ Tenor Vocal Selections
comedic pop disclosure
ballad
Evenin Star 110 in the Shade Harvey Schmidt Golden Age romantic Tenor musicnotes.com
ballad
Evermore Without Woman in White Andrew Lloyd Modern romantic ballad Tenor Vocal Selections
You Webber
Extraordinary Pippin Stephen Schwartz 70s and 80s dramatic Tenor The Stephen
uptempo Schwartz Songbook
Eyes That Never Weird Romance Alan Menken Modern romantic ballad Tenor Vocal Selections
Lie
Fathers and Sons Working Stephen Schwartz 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone The Stephen
ballad Schwartz Songbook
Favorite Places Ordinary Days Adam Gwon Modern dramatic ballad Baritone
Fifty Checks Catch Me If You Marc Shaiman Modern dramatic swing Baritone Vocal Selections
Can uptempo
Finding Home Ricky Ian Gordon Contemporary Art song Baritone Finding Home folio
ballad
Flair Starting Here, David Shire 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
Starting Now charm
Flight Craig Carnelia Contemporary Art song Tenor Craig Carnelia
ballad Songbook
Floozies The Grass Harp Claibe Richardson 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone with P/C Score
pop uptempo falsetto
Forest For the Trees The Spitfire Grill Modern dramatic pop Tenor P/C Score
uptempo
Goodbye Catch Me If You Marc Shaiman Modern dramatic pop Tenor Vocal Selections
Can uptempo
Guidos Song Nine Maury Yeston 70s and 80s dramatic/ Baritone Vocal Selections
comedic uptempo
Half As Big As Life Promises, Promises Burt Bacharach 70s and 80s dramatic High Baritone Vocal Selections
disclosure pop uptempo
Heaven Ricky Ian Gordon Contemporary Art song Baritone Finding Home folio
uptempo
Her Voice The Little Mermaid Alan Menken Modern romantic Tenor Vocal Selections
moving ballad
Here For You Nine to Five Dolly Parton Modern comedic Baritone Vocal Selections
uptempo
Highway Miles The Flood Peter Mills Modern dramatic pop Tenor newmusicaltheatre.c
disclosure uptempo om

214
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Hitchhiking Across Make Me a Song William Finn Modern dramatic story Baritone P/C Score
America song uptempo
Hold Me in Your Kinky Boots Cindi Lauper Modern dramatic pop Tenor Vocal Selections
Heart ballad
Hold My Hand Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary Art song Baritone The Jeff
ballad Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
Home of the Brave Ricky Ian Gordon Contemporary Art song Baritone Finding Home folio
ballad
How I Am Little Women Jason Howland Modern dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
uptempo
How Lucky You Seussical Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic charm Baritone Ahrens and Flaherty
Are Songbook
Hundred Story City Ordinary Days Adam Gwon Modern dramatic High Baritone
disclosure moving
ballad
I Cant Recall A Tale of Two Jill Santoriello Modern disclosure Baritone Vocal Selections
Cities ballad
I Cannot Hear the Sweet Smell of Marvin Hamlisch Modern romantic ballad High Baritone Vocal Selections
City Success
I Choose Right Baby David Shire 70s and 80s romantic Tenor Vocal Selections
ballad (Eb major) P/C (G
major)
I Could Write Zanna Dont Tim Acito Modern dramatic Tenor P/C Score
Books disclosure ballad
I Dont Remember Starting Here, David Shire 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
Christmas Starting Now uptempo
I Hear Bells Starting Here, David Shire 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
Starting Now moving ballad
I Like Everybody Most Happy Fella Frank Loesser Golden Age charm Tenor P/C Score
uptempo
I Once Knew Edges Benj Pasek and Modern dramatic High Baritone
Justin Paul uptempo
I Ran Little Fish Michael John Modern dramatic pop Tenor The Michael John
LaChiusa disclosure uptempo LaChiusa Songbook
I Stand Alone Goya Maury Yeston 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone The Maury Yeston
ballad Songbook
I Stayed A Catered Affair John Bucchino Modern dramatic patter Baritone Composer website
I Think I Can Play The Goodbye Girl Marvin Hamlisch Modern dramatic ballad Baritone Vocal Selections
This Part
I Think I Like Her Summer of 42 David Kirshenbaum Modern romantic High Baritone P/C Score
uptempo
I Understand On The Town, cut Leonard Bernstein Golden Age comedic Baritone Bernstein Theatre
uptempo Songs: Low Voice
I Want to Fly The Flight of the Modern dramatic High Baritone P/C Score
Lawnchair Man disclosure ballad
I Was Here The Glorious Ones Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Baritone Ahrens and Flaherty
disclosure ballad Songbook
Id Rather Be A New Brain William Finn Modern Baritone The William Finn
Sailing Songbook
Im in Love! Im In The Rothschilds Jerry Bock Golden Age comedic Baritone
Love uptempo

215
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Im Not That Smart 25th Annual Putnam William Finn
County Spelling
Bee
Ive Got To Find a Carnival Golden Age dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
Reason disclosure ballad
Ive Got Your Little Me Cy Coleman Golden Age romantic Baritone Vocal Selections
Number charm uptempo
If Dreams Come A Tale of Two Jill Santoriello Modern dramatic High Baritone Vocal Selections
True Cities disclosure ballad
If I Ever Say Im John Bucchino Modern romantic ballad Baritone Grateful:The Songs
Over You of John Bucchino
If I Have To Live The Bakers Wife Stephen Schwartz 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
Alone ballad
If She Really Knew Theyre Playing Marvin Hamlisch 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone P/C Score
Me Our Song ballad
In Love With You First Date Alan Zachary, Modern dramatic/ Tenor Vocal Selections
Michael Weiner comedic pop uptempo
In the Fire Scarlet Pimpernel Frank Wildhorn Modern dramatic High Baritone Vocal Selections
uptempo
In These Skies Ace Richard Oberacker Modern dramatic Tenor with low P/C Score
uptempo range
Independence Day Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary Art song Baritone The Jeff
ballad Blumenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
Infinite Joy Elegies William Finn Modern dramatic ballad Baritone Vocal Selections
It Took Me a While John and Jen Andrew Lippa Modern dramatic Tenor Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
Just a Kiss Apart Gentlemen Prefer Jule Styne Golden Age romantic Baritone P/C Score
Blondes ballad
Just One Night Doonesbury Elizabeth Swados 70s and 80s dramatic Tenor P/C Score
pop ballad
Larger Than Life My Favorite Year Alan Menken Modern dramatic Tenor Alan Menken
disclosure ballad Songbook
Laura, Laura High Fidelity Tom Kitt Modern romantic ballad High Baritone Vocal Selections
Le Grand Boom Little Me Cy Coleman Golden Age comedic Baritone Vocal Selections
Boom uptempo
Learning To Let Go Elegies for Angels, Janet Hood Modern dramatic pop Tenor P/C Score
Punks and Raging ballad
Queens
Let It Sing Violet Jeanine Tesori Modern dramatic pop Tenor P/C Score
gospel uptempo
Little Fish Little Fish Michael John Modern dramatic Baritone The Michael John
LaChiusa disclosure ballad Lachiusa Songbook
Live in Living Catch Me If You Marc Shaiman Modern dramatic pop Tenor Vocal Selections
Color Can gospel uptempo
Look For Small Ben Franklin in Mark Sandrich, Jr Golden Age dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
Pleasures Paris ballad
Look In My Eyes Craig Carnelia Modern dramatic ballad Baritone Craig Carnelia
Songbook
Love Cant Happen Grand Hotel Maury Yeston 70s and 80s romantic Baritone The Maury Yeston
ballad Songbook
Love Was a Song Brooklyn Mark Schoenfeld, Modern dramatic High Baritone Vocal Selections
Barri McPherson moving ballad

216
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Love Who You A Man of No Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic Baritone Ahrens and Flaherty
Love Importance disclosure waltz ballad Songbook
Lovelier Than Ever Wheres Charley? Frank Loesser Golden Age dramatic Baritone The Frank Loesser
ballad Songbook
Lucky Lucky Stiff Stephen Flaherty 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone P/C Score
charm
Maybe We Just I Love You Because Modern romantic pop Tenor
Made Love disclosure uptempo
Melisande 110 in the Shade Harvey Schmidt Golden Age romantic High Baritone P/C Score
uptempo
Memphis Lives In Memphis David Bryan Modern pop gospel Tenor Vocal Selections
Me ballad
My Book Jeff Blumenkrantz Contemporary art song Tenor The Jeff
comedic uptempo Bluemenkrantz
Songbook Vol. 1
My Dogs Elegies William Finn Modern comedic ballad Baritone Vocal Selections
My Rules/Elliot The Goodbye Girl Marvin Hamlisch Modern dramatic pop Tenor Vocal Selections
Garfield Grant uptempo
My Thing The Psychic Hour Marty Fernandi Modern dramatic Baritone BMI Workshop
disclosure uptempo songbook
Need To Know Weird Romance Alan Menken Modern comedic High Baritone Vocal Selections
uptempo
Never the Luck The Mystery of Rupert Holmes 70s and 80s charm waltz Tenor with low Vocal Selections
Edwin Drood range
Never Will I Marry Greenwillow Frank Loesser Golden Age dramatic Baritone musicnotes.com
disclosure ballad
New Words In the Beginning Maury Yeston 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone The Maury Yeston
ballad Songbook
Not Afraid Easter Rising Michael Arden Modern dramatic ballad Tenor Composer website
On Lexington & Smash, TV show Marc Shaiman Modern dramatic High Baritone musicnotes.com
52nd Street uptempo
On My Bedside Its Only Life John Bucchino Modern dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
Table uptempo
Once In a Lifetime Stop the World (I Leslie Bricusse, Golden Age dramatic Baritone sheetmusicplus.com
Want to Get Off) Anthony Newley ballad
One Of The Good Closer Than Ever David Shire 70s and 80s dramatic High Baritone Vocal Selections
Guys ballad
Part Of A Painting Edges Benj Pasek and Modern dramatic ballad Tenor
Justin Paul
Pass The Football Wonderful Town Leonard Bernstein Golden Age comedic Baritone Bernstein Theatre
uptempo Songs: Low Voice
Private Property Giant Michael John Modern dramatic Tenor The Michael John
LaChiusa uptempo Lachiusa Songbook
Proud Lady The Bakers Wife Stephen Schwartz 70s and 80s romantic Tenor The Stephen
uptempo Schwartz Songbook
Proud of Your Boy Alladin Alan Menken Modern dramatic Tenor Alan Menken
disclosure ballad Songbook
Raise a Little Hell Bonnie and Clyde Frank Wildhorn Modern dramatic rock Tenor Vocal Selections
uptempo
Right Before My Lestat Elton John Modern romantic pop Tenor P/C Score
Eyes ballad

217
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Robertos Eyes Death Takes a Maury Yeston Modern dramatic Tenor with low Vocal Selections
Holiday moving ballad range
Rock City See Rock City and Brad Alexander Modern dramatic pop Tenor BMI
Other Destinations uptempo
Sail Me Away Lestat Elton John Modern dramatic pop Tenor P/C Score
ballad
Sailing On Alan Menken 70s and 80s dramatic Tenor Alan Menken
moving ballad Songbook
Sarah The Civil War Frank Wildhorn Modern romantic ballad Tenor Vocal Selections
Seeing You There Ordinary Days, Adam Gwon Modern romantic Tenor
cut moving ballad

Seena 1600 Pennsylvania Leonard Bernstein Golden Age dramatic Baritone Bernstein Theatre
Avenue ballad Songs: Low Voice
Shooting Star Hercules, cut Alan Menken Modern dramatic pop Tenor Alan Menken
ballad Songbook
Someone To Fall Jason Robert Brown Modern dramatic ballad Baritone The Jason Robert
Back On Brown Collection
Something About Altar Boyz Gary Adler Modern dramatic/ Tenor Vocal Selections
You comedic ballad
Soul of a Man Kinky Boots Cindi Lauper Modern dramatic pop Tenor Vocal Selections
moving ballad
Souvenir Ricky Ian Gordon Contemporary Art song Tenor A Horse With
ballad Wings folio
Sparklejollytwinkle- Elf Matthew Sklar Modern comedic charm Tenor Vocal Selections
jingley
Step One Kinky Boots Cindi Lauper Modern dramatic pop Tenor Vocal Selections
uptempo
Taking the Wheel John Bucchino Modern dramatic pop Tenor Grateful: The Songs
uptempo of John Bucchino
Thank God Shes Toxic Avenger David Bryan Modern comedic ballad Tenor Vocal Selections
Blind
Thatll Never Be Now.Here.This Jeff Bowen Modern dramatic ballad High Baritone Vocal Selections
Me (Male)
Thats For Me State Fair Richard Rodgers Golden Age romantic High Baritone Vocal Selections
ballad
The Bed Was Not Hello Again Michael John Modern dramatic Baritone The Michael John
My Own LaChiusa uptempo Lachiusa Songbook
The Bus Caroline, or Change Jeanine Tesori Modern dramatic High Baritone Vocal Selections
spiritual
The Call Floyd Collins Adam Guettel Modern dramatic High Baritone P/C Score
disclosure uptempo
The Coming of the Frankenstein Mark Baron Modern dramatic Tenor P/C Score
Dawn disclosure moving
ballad
The Genius On A Christmas Story Benj Pasek and Modern comedic charm Baritone Vocal Selections
Cleveland Street Justin Paul swing
The Kid Inside Is There Life After Craig Carnelia 70s and 80s dramatic Tenor Craig Carnelia
High School? moving disclosure Songbook
ballad
The Kite Youre a Good Clark Gesner Golden Age dramatic High Baritone Vocal Selections
Man, Charlie uptempo
Brown

218
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
The Lady Must Be Illyria Peter Mills Modern romantic Tenor newmusicaltheatre.c
Mad disclosure uptempo om
The Lives of Me The Boy From Oz Peter Alan 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
disclosure ballad
The Night Was Titanic Maury Yeston Modern dramatic ballad Tenor The Maury Yeston
Alive Songbook
The One I Love Hello Again Michael John Modern romantic Tenor The Michael John
LaChiusa moving ballad Lachiusa Songbook
The Streets of A Man of No Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic pop Tenor Vocal Selections
Dublin Importance uptempo
The Thief (She See What I Wanna Michael John Modern dramatic Tenor P/C Score
Looked At Me) See LaChiusa uptempo
There But For You Brigadoon Frederick Loewe Golden Age romantic Baritone Vocal Selections
Go I ballad
There is a Sucker Barnum Cy Coleman 70s and 80s dramatic Tenor Vocal Selections
Born Evry Minute uptempo
This is New Lady in the Dark Kurt Weill Golden Age romantic Baritone P/C Score
ballad
Till I Loved You Goya Maury Yeston 70s and 80s romantic Baritone The Maury Yeston
ballad Songbook
Unexpressed John Bucchino Modern dramatic ballad Baritone Grateful: The Songs
of John Bucchino
Wanting Things Promises, Promises Burt Bacharach 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
pop moving ballad
Watching the Show The Times Brad Ross, Joe Modern dramatic pop Baritone newmusicaltheatre.c
Keenan uptempo om

We Can Talk To Starting Here, David Shire 70s and 80s comedic Tenor Vocal Selections
Each Other Starting Now uptempo
Well Have Little Shop of Alan Menken 70s and 80s romantic Baritone Alan Menken
Tomorrow Horrors, cut ballad Songbook
Welcome To the A Man of No Stephen Flaherty Modern dramatic ballad Baritone Vocal Selections
World Importance
What Am I Doing? Closer Than Ever David Shire 70s and 80s dramatic Tenor P/C Score
pop ballad/uptempo
What More Can I Falsettos William Finn Modern dramatic ballad Baritone Vocal Selections
Say?
When I Get My The Boy From Oz Peter Alan 70s and 80s dramatic Tenor Vocal Selections
Name In Lights charm uptempo
Will That Ever Summer of 42 David Kirshenbaum Modern romantic Tenor P/C Score
Happen To Me? moving ballad
With You Pippin Stephen Schwartz 70s and 80s romantic Tenor The Stephen
ballad Schwartz Songbook
Yesterday, Today Women on the David Yazbek Modern comedic Baritone Vocal Selections
and Tomorrow Verge of a Nervous uptempo
Breakdown
You Can Have the Craig Carnelia 70s and 80s dramatic Baritone Craig Carnelia
T.V. ballad Songbook
You Gotta Die Falsettos William Finn Modern dramatic Baritone Vocal Selections
Sometime uptempo
You Tore My Heart Toxic Avenger David Bryan Modern dramatic Tenor Vocal Selections
Out disclosure uptempo

219
Title Show Composer Comments Voice Type Source
Youre Different Violet Jeanine Tesori Modern dramatic pop High Baritone P/C Score
ballad
Youre There Too In the Beginning Maury Yeston 70s and 80s dramatic Tenor P/C Score
ballad

leslie bricusse songs

220
Sondheim
Ive nothing to say. Well, nothing thats not been said.

Text about Sondheim Songs divided by voice type but I encourage you to look in both high
voice and low voice for songs as many of these can be sung by both

Guide to Sources
TSMTA=The Singers Musical Theatre Anthology
AS 1 = All Sondheim Volume 1 and so forth
SSFT = Stephen Sondheim Film and Television Songs
Vocal Score indicates the Piano/Conductor vocal score

Soprano
Song Show Comments and Sources

All Things Bright and Marry Me a Little AS 2 (Soprano/Tenor Duet but can be
Beautiful made into a solo)
A Parade In Town Anyone Can Whistle AS 1 (Eb major. Lower in the score.)
Can That Boy Fox-Trot Follies Vocal Score
Children Will Listen Into the Woods TSMTA 4
Dawn Singing Out Loud AS 4
Green Finch And Linnet Sweeney Todd TSMTA 1
Bird
Happiness Passion AS 4 (Solo Version)
I Remember The Evening Primrose TSMTA 3
Like It Was Merrily we Roll Along AS 3 (In F major. Lower in the score)
Lovely A Funny Thing TSMTA 4
Happened on the Way to
the Forum
Move On Sunday in the Park AS 4 (Duet in the show but this is a solo)
Not A Day Goes By Merrily We Roll Along TSMTA 1
On The Steps Of The Palace Into the Woods TSMTA 4
One More Kiss Follies TSMTA 1
Sand Singing Out Loud AS 4
So Many People Saturday Night TSMTA 3
Take Me To The World The Evening Primrose TSMTA 2

221
Song Show Comments and Sources

That'll Show Him A Funny Thing TSMTA 1


Happened on the Way to
the Forum
The Girls Of Summer Marry Me a Little TSMTA 3
The Glamorous Life A Little Night Music TSMTA 2
The Two of You Kukla, Fran and Ollie AS 4
They Ask Me Why I I Believe in You AS 4
Believe in You
Water Under the Bridge Singing Out Loud SSFT
Too Many Mornings Follies AS 4

Mezzo
Song Show Comments and Sources

A Parade In Town Anyone Can Whistle Vocal Score, In Bb


Ah, But Underneath Follies TSMTA 3
Another Hundred People Company TSMTA 2
Anyone Can Whistle Anyone Can Whistle TSMTA 1
Back In Business Dick Tracy SSFT
Broadway Baby Follies TSMTA 1
By The Sea Sweeney Todd TSMTA 1
Children and Art Sunday in the Park Vocal Score
With George
Could I Leave You? Follies TSMTA 1
Do I Hear a Waltz? Do You Hear a Waltz? AS 4
Everybody Loves Louis Sunday in the Park TSMTA 2
Getting Married Today Company Vocal Score
Goodbye For Now Reds (Film) SSFT
I Know Things Now Into the Woods Vocal Score
I Never Do Anything Twice The Seven-Per-Cent AS 1
Solution (Film)
I Read Passion Vocal Score
I'm Still Here Follies TSMTA 4
Im Still Here Follies AS 1
In Buddy's Eyes Follies TSMTA 1
Isnt He Something Road Show Vocal Selections

222
Song Show Comments and Sources

Isnt It? Saturday Night M (Baritone) or F (Mezzo)


Last Midnight Into the Woods Vocal Score
Liaisons A Little Night Music AS 3
Losing My Mind Follies TSMTA 1
Loving You Passion Vocal Score
Maybe Theyre Magic Into the Woods Vocal Score
Me and My Town Anyone Can Whistle Vocal Score
Moments in the Woods Into the Woods Vocal Score
More Dick Tracy SSFT
Now You Know Merrily we Roll Along TSMTA 2
Send In the Clowns A Little Night Music TSMTA 1
Sooner or Later Dick Tracy SSFT
Sunday in the Park With George Sunday in the Park Vocal Score
With George
That Dirty Old Man A Funny Thing Vocal Score
Happened on the Way
to the Forum
The Ladies Who Lunch Company TSMTA 3
The Little Things You Do Together Company AS 1
The Miller's Son A Little Night Music TSMTA 1
The Story of Lucy and Jessie Follies AS 4
The Worst Pies In London Sweeney Todd TSMTA 1
There Won't Be Trumpets Anyone Can Whistle TSMTA 2
Truly Content Marry Me a Little AS 3
Uptown, Downtown Follies TSMTA 3
Wait Sweeney Todd AS 3
What More Do I Need? Marry Me a Little AS 2

Tenor
Song Show Comments and
Sources
All Things Bright and Beautiful Marry Me a Little AS 2 (Soprano/
Tenor Duet but can
be made into a solo)
Beautiful Girls Follies TSMTA 2
Being Alive Company TSMTA 1
Buddys Blues Follies TSMTA 3
Finishing the Hat Sunday in the Park With George TSMTA 1

223
Song Show Comments and
Sources
Franklin Shepard, Inc. Merrily We Roll Along Vocal Score
Free A Funny Thing Happened on the TSMTA 4
Way to the Forum
Giants in the Sky Into the Woods TSMTA 4
Im Calm A Funny Thing Happened on the Vocal Score
Way to the Forum
Johanna Sweeney Todd TSMTA 1
Ladies and their Sensitivities Sweeney Todd TSMTA 1
Later A Little Night Music Vocal Score
Live, Laugh Love Follies Vocal Score
Love, I Hear A Funny Thing Happened on the TSMTA 1
Way to the Forum
Loveland Follies AS 3
Lucy and Jessie Follies
Make the Most of Your Music Follies TSMTA 3
Multitudes of Amys Company AS 4
Not While Im Around Sweeney Todd TSMTA 1
Someone is Waiting Company TSMTA 1
Talent Road Show Vocal Selections
The God-Why-Dont-You-Love-Me Follies Vocal Score
Blues
What Can You Lose? Dick Tracy TSMTA 3
Whos That Woman Follies Vocal Score

Baritone
Song Show Comments and
Sources
Bring Me My Bride A Funny Thing Happened on TSMTA 4
the Way to the Forum
Epiphany Sweeney Todd Vocal Score
Everybody Says Dont Anyone Can Whistle TSMTA 1
Fear No More The Frogs AS 2
Good Thing Going Merrily We Roll Along TSMTA 2
Growing Up Merrily we Roll Along AS 4
Happily Ever After Marry Me a Little TSMTA 3
I Remember That Saturday Night AS 4
If You Can Find Me, Im Here The Evening Primrose SSFT
In Praise of Women A Little Night Music TSMTA 2
Invocation and Instructions to the The Frogs AS 2
Audience
Is This What You Call Love? Passion Vocal Score

224
Song Show Comments and
Sources
Its In Your Hands Now Road Show Vocal Selections
Lesson #8 Sunday in the Park Vocal Score
Little Dream The Birdcage SSFT
Live Alone and Like It Dick Tracy SSFT
Marry Me a Little Company TSMTA 1
No More Into the Woods Vocal Score (Duet in
the show but can be
adapted into a solo)
No, Mary Ann The Thing of It Is AS 4
Now A Little Night Music Vocal Score
Pleasant Little Kingdom Follies AS 4
Pretty Little Picture A Funny Thing Happened Vocal Score
on the Way to the Forum
Putting It Together Sunday in the Park AS 3
Silly People Marry Me a Little AS 2
Sorry-Grateful Company TSMTA 1
That Old Piano Roll Follies AS 4
The Best Thing That Ever Has Road Show Vocal Selections. Duet
Happened in the show but can be
adapted into a solo
The Game Road Show Vocal Selections
The Right Girl Follies TSMTA 4
The Road You Didnt Take Follies TSMTA 1
The Worlds Full of Girls Follies AS 4
When The Evening Primrose SSFT
With So Little To be Sure Of Anyone Can Whistle TSMTA 5
You Must Meet My Wife A Little Night Music AS 1
Your Eyes Are Blue A Funny Thing Happened on TSMTA 5
the Way to the Forum
Too Many Mornings Follies AS 4
Do I Hear a Waltz? Do You Hear a Waltz? AS 4
Isnt It? Saturday Night TSMTA 3
What More Do I Need? Marry Me a Little AS 2

225
Glossary

Active first beat


Moving Ballad
Buffo
inciting event
Alliteration
Anti-hero
Almost in Love song
subjective interpretation
objective interpretation
Appoggiatura - a skip from one chord tone that resolves by step to a chord tone
Assonance
Backbeat
Ballad - a slow or moderately slow song.
Bel Canto style - a style of singing characterized by beauty of tone. Legato and evenness across
the registers are trademarks of this style.
Blue Note
Book Musical
Breakdown
Charm song
Concept Musical
Disclosure
Dissonance
Enharmonic-a pitch that is equivalent to another note but spelled differently. Bb and A# are
enharmonically the same pitch.
Essence-the gist of a character's psychology, manner or personae.
I Want Song - see disclosure.
Indicating, indication. Gestures made by an actor that demonstrate or illustrate what she is
talking about. It's discouraged except in a few special instances. If the image you're speaking of
is complex and needs help in communicating, indication of the image can be considered.
Legit
Internal rhyme
Melisma - more than one pitch on a single syllable.
Melodic apex

226
Melodic motive
Melodic nadir
Modified song form ABAB
Moment before
Musical Theatre Verse as opposed to a Pop/Rock Verse
nasality
Neighbor tone - a non-chord tone which steps away from a chord tone and back to a chord tone
Non legato
Objective (2 definitions)
OCR - Original Cast Album
Onematapia
Other -The person you are speaking to in a song. The other can be yourself by imagining the
you are split into at least two parts. The head could sing to the heart or the brave side
could sing to the cowardly side. See page? for for more.
Other terms related to melodic analysis
Parlando
Passing tone - a non-chord tone which steps between two chord tones
Performance practice
Poetic terms
Popular ballad Allen Forte page 26
Refrain
Rhyme
Ride-out
Song cycle musical. There are good songs to study in this category but they don't make good
audition songs
Song form
Song form AABA
Subjective
Swing
syncopation
Ternary form
Tessitura-The prevailing range of a melody, within which most of the pitches lie. The tessitura
of a song is not determined by a few isolated pitches of extraordinarily high or low pitch but
instead the part of the voice that is used most consistently.
Tin Pan Alley
Torch Song

227
Uptempo
Vaudeville ending
Verse (see discussion of verse in Forte p. 36)
vibrancy
Word painting (music came before words prior to 1943 or so, even in the case of Berlin and
Porter)

228
Acknowledgements
I am indebted to many people for these resources. First, I would be nowhere without the
many writers who have inspired me. David Craig and Steven Suskin and all the writers listed on
the bibliography page have been my teachers. Secondly, I must thank Lara Teeter for the great
joy I have in teaching with him on a daily basis. Im very proud to have such a wonderful life
teaching at Webster University with him. And finally I need to thank Ethan Edwards, a man who
knows more about musicals than I do and has my constant companion.

229
Growing your Voice
Give tips on how to practice, what to sing when youre not preparing an audition

The repertoire suggestions below are just thatsuggestions. In an effort to give some guidance to the
musical theatre voice curriculum, this list was developed by Neal Richardson in cooperation with Lara
Teeter. It is a work in progress. Included in Appendix 1 is a list of song types that every student should
have in their audition book. There are some other lists which follow that might be of some interest.

Todays musical theatre singer is required to successfully sing a wide range of literature and in a
wide variety of styles everyday of their auditioning life. The ability to do this is crucial for their success. It
is our hope that their four years of study in conservatory classes and voice lessons at Webster will give
them the confidence and skill to be able to do this.

Belt technique, mix, rock and roll styles, and a contemporary sensibility are mandatory for every
modern musical theatre performer and we hope that our students can learn these things, to the degree
that they apply themselves, in lessons. It is our belief that singers can only do this healthfully with a strong
vocal technique based in classical literature.

Choosing literature is always a challenge. In the classical music areas, I have given only broad
guidelines. Please use your extensive knowledge and expertise in choosing material. I have been more
specific with musical theatre literature.

The musical theatre anthologies published by Hal Leonard and Alfred are a great starting point
for our students as they contain a wealth of valuable and useful pieces for every voice type. While some of
the songs feel a little tired, we encourage using these books as the core of their study. I am partial to the
Hal Leonard books for their choice of literature and well-edited selections. Please do encourage your
students to invest in books. They will serve them for many years.

Not everything is still in print, however, and some of the most interesting songs have never been
published or are only available in piano/conductor scores. There are places to find this material. We
encourage students to buy books where possible and only obtain photocopies when purchasing the book is
not possible. During their time at Webster, students will begin to work on compiling their audition book.
This collection of songs will contain copies of music and not the actual books. This is just the way it is
done in New York and we try to help the students to create the best audition book for them.

The musical theatre anthologies are just a starting point though. It is important that toward the
end of their training our students reach out beyond these warhorses. Neal has developed resources for the
needs of our students toward that goal. One such resource is a list called Choice Songs found in
Appendix 2. Not all of these pieces are in print and many can only be found in the piano/conductor
scores. I have taken it upon myself to make these pieces easily available to you and our students. Please let
me know if you are interested in them.

The conservatory training at Webster University is well known for its strength as an acting
program. The students graduate with the ability to confidently walk into any kind of audition. This is not
to say that the musical training of our students has not been at the same level. But, sadly through no fault
of the voice faculty, often our students have not always had the same kind of confidence and skill in their
singing and/or the ability to synthesize their acting and singing. Again, I do not believe that this is the

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fault of the voice faculty but is instead the result of a lack of strong musical leadership. It has been our
goal in the last few years to change this about our program. This repertoire list is one of the ways we can
address the needs of our graduates. Please call on Neal Richardson as music director of the conservatory
for questions about literature, style and any vocal need your students may have.

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