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pinMode(pin, mode)
Used in void setup() to configure a specified
pin to behave either as an INPUT or an OUTPUT.

pinMode(pin, OUTPUT); // sets pin to output

Arduino digital pins default to inputs, so they

don't need to be explicitly declared as inputs with
pinMode(). Pins configured as INPUT are said to
be in a high-impedance state.
There are also convenient 20K pullup
resistors built into the Atmega chip that can
be accessed from software. These built-in
pullup resistors are accessed in the following
pinMode(pin, INPUT); // set pin to input
digitalWrite(pin, HIGH); // turn on pullup
Note: Short circuits on Arduino pins and
excessive current can damage or destroy the
output pin, or damage the entire Atmega chip.
It is often a good idea to connect an OUTPUT
pin to an external device in series with a 470
or 1K resistor.
digitalWrite(pin, value)
Outputs either logic level HIGH or LOW at (turns
on or off) a specified digital pin. The pin can be
specified as either a variable or constant (0-13).
digitalWrite(pin, HIGH); // sets 'pin' to high
digitalWrite(pin, LOW); // sets 'pin' to low
The following example reads a pushbutton
connected to a digital input and turns on an LED
connected to a digital output when the button has
been pressed:

Pauses a program for the amount of time as

specified in milliseconds, where 1000 equals 1

delay(1000); // waits for one second

Exercise No. 1
Make the red, green, yellow alternately blink.
int led1 = 2, led2 = 3, led3 = 4; }

void blinkred(){
void setup() {
digitalWrite(led2, HIGH);
pinMode(led1, OUTPUT);
pinMode(led2, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(led2, LOW);
pinMode(led3, OUTPUT);

void loop() { void blinkgreen(){

blinkyellow(); digitalWrite(led3, HIGH);
blinkred(); delay(1000);
blinkgreen(); digitalWrite(led3, LOW);
} delay(1000);
void blinkyellow(){
digitalWrite(led1, HIGH);
digitalWrite(led1, LOW);
Reads the value from a specified digital pin with
the result either HIGH or LOW. The pin can be
specified as either a variable or constant (0-13).

val = digitalRead(pin); // sets 'val' equal to

// value read in the input pin
int led = 13; // connect LED to pin 13
int pin = 7; // connect the switch to pin 7
int value = 0; // variable to store the read value

void setup() {
pinMode(led, OUTPUT); // sets pin 13 as output
pinMode(pin, INPUT); // sets pin 7 as input

void loop() {
value = digitalRead(pin); // sets 'value' equal to the input pin
digitalWrite(led, value); // sets 'led' to the button's value
Exercise No. 2
Make a program that changes the delay value 'wait'
according to the input.
int wait = 1000;

void setup() {
pinMode(3, OUTPUT);
pinMode(8, INPUT);
void loop() {
if (digitalRead(8) == HIGH){
wait = 250;
wait = 1000;
digitalWrite(3, HIGH);
delay(wait); //Delay the LED for 'wait'-seconds
digitalWrite(3, LOW);
Exercise No. 3
Write a sketch that when SW1 is on it performs the blinkyellow()
function while if SW2 is on it performs the blinkred() function.
int led1 = 2, led2 = 3; digitalWrite(led2, HIGH);
int inp1 = 8, inp2 = 9; delay(1000);
void setup() { digitalWrite(led1, LOW);
pinMode(led1, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(led2, LOW);
pinMode(led2, OUTPUT); delay(1000);
pinMode(inp1, INPUT); }
pinMode(inp2, INPUT); void alternate(){
} digitalWrite(led1, HIGH);
void loop() { delay(1000);
if(digitalRead(inp1)==HIGH) digitalWrite(led1, LOW);
blinkboth(); delay(1000);
else if(digitalRead(inp2)==HIGH) digitalWrite(led2, HIGH);
alternate(); delay(1000);
} digitalWrite(led2, LOW);
void blinkboth(){ delay(1000);
digitalWrite(led1, HIGH); }
Opens serial port and sets the baud rate for serial data
transmission. The typical baud rate for communicating
with the computer is 9600 although other speeds are

void setup()
Serial.begin(9600); // opens serial port
} // sets data rate to 9600 bps
Note: When using serial communication, digital pins 0
(RX) and 1 (TX) cannot be used at the same time.
Prints data to the serial port, followed by an
automatic carriage return and line feed. This
command takes the same form as Serial.print(), but
is easier for reading data on the Serial Monitor.

Serial.println(Value); // sends the value of

// 'Value
Returns the number of milliseconds since the
Arduino board began running the current
program as an unsigned long value.

value = millis(); // sets value equal to millis()

Note: This number will overflow (reset back to

zero), after approximately 50 days.
unsigned long time;
void setup(){
void loop(){
Serial.print("Time: ");
time = millis(); //prints time since program started