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AP Chemistry Summer Assignment

Future Summer Creek AP Chemistry Student,

Welcome to AP Chemistry! I am eagerly anticipating a great year of Chemistry. In


order to ensure the best start for everyone next fall, I have prepared a Summer
Assignment that reviews basic chemistry concepts along with some AP chemistry
topics that could require some summer research. There is a multitude of
tremendous chemistry resources available via the Internet. I am confident that you
will have sufficient resources to prepare adequately for the fall semester. I highly
recommend purchasing the following books BEFORE the first day of class:
1. 5 Steps to a 5 AP Chemistry, 2015 Edition by John Moore and Richard Langley
(it can be found on Amazon or ordered from Barnes and Noble).
2. You will also need to purchase a 100 page laboratory notebook with carbonless
duplicate sets. I suggest the Hayden McNeil student lab notebook with permanent
binding (this can also be found on amazon).

You may contact me by email: (summer.bland@humble.k12.tx.us or


smbzgb@gmail.com) this summer. I will do my best to answer your questions ASAP.
AP Chemistry is an equivalent course to Introductory Chemistry in college. Taking a
college level course in high school is difficult, requires dedication, and is a great
investment in your education to prepare yourself for the future. Arrive ready to learn!
You could earn an entire year of college credit for Chemistry!

You will find three different parts to this summer assignment. Part 1 is the SUPER
FUN MEMORIZATION portion of the assignment. Please make sure you memorize
anything that is required before you walk into AP class the first day of school. You
will have many other things to memorize throughout the course, please make sure you
have these down. Part 2 consist of pre-AP concepts and AP concepts that you either
learned or will need to learn before the first week of school. Work through ALL the
problems (show work, include correct significant figures, and correct units where
necessary). You will have a test during the first week of class over the information
found in all parts of the summer assignment. Part 3 you are given Chapter 1 and
Chapter 2 notes from the AP chemistry curriculum. Use these notes to help answer the
second part of the assignment. IF you struggle, please utilize sources on the internet
to help refresh your memory. Its going to be a FUN year in AP Chemistry! Please be
prepared the first day!

*Part 2 of the summer assignment will need to be turned in the Monday we come
back to school (august 24 th). The first test will be Friday, August 28th over Chapter
1 and 2. There will be a memorization quiz second day of school over part 1.
PART 1: LIST OF THINGS YOU MUST HAVE MEMORIZED:
1. Six strong acids: (know the name and be able to write)
a. Perchloric acid, HClO4
b. Sulfuric acid, H2SO4
c. Nitric acid, HNO3
d. Hydrobromic acid, HBr
e. Hydroiodic acid, HI
f. Hydrochloric acid, HCl

2. Flame Test Colors: (name the metal and the color it burns)
a. Barium green
b. Copper blue/green
c. Lithium red
d. Potassium lavender
e. Sodium yellow/orange
f. Strontium orange/red
g. Calcium-orange

3. Polyatomic ions: (name the ion and be able to write the formula with the
correct charge)
a. Hydroxide, OH-
b. Nitrate, NO3-
c. Nitrite, NO2-
d. Sulfate, SO42-
e. Sulfite, SO32-
f. Phosphate, PO43-
g. Carbonate, CO32-
h. Permanganate, MnO4-
i. Bicarbonate/Hydrogen Carbonate, HCO3-
j. Acetate, CH3COO-
k. Ammonium, NH3+
l. Chlorate, ClO3-
m. Chlorite, ClO2-
n. Perchlorate, ClO4-
o. Chromate, CrO42-
Part 2: Pre-AP and AP Chemistry concepts (use the notes given to you in part 3,
the power points on my website, or the internet as a resource)
Chapter 1: Chemical Foundations

1. What is matter?

2. Draw the matter flowchart.

3. How do you distinguish:


a. An element from a compound.
b. An element from a mixture.
c. A true solution from a heterogeneous mixture.
d. Distillation from filtration.

4. An extensive property is one that depends on the amount of the sample. Which of the
following properties are extensive? JUSTIFY.
a. volume
b. density
c. temperature
d. energy
e. melting point.

5. Label each of the following as either a physical process or a chemical process.


a. Corrosion of aluminum metal.
b. Melting of ice.
c. Pulverizing an aspirin.
d. Digesting a candy bar.
e. Explosion of nitroglycerin.
f. Milk turning sour.
g. Burning of paper.
h. Forming of frost on a cold night.
i. Bleaching of hair with hydrogen peroxide.
j. A copper wire is hammered flat.

6. Write the most common rules used to determine significant figures with an example.

7. How many significant figures are in each of the following?


a. 1.92 mm
b. 0.030100 kJ
c. 6.022 x1023 atoms
d. 460.00 L
e. 0.00036 cm3
f. 100
g. 1001
h. 0.001
8. Calculate the following to the correct number of significant figures.
a. 1.27 g / 5.296 cm3
b. 12.235 g / 1.01 L
d. 17.3 g + 2.785 g
e. 2.1 x 3.21
f. 200.1 x 120
g. 17.6 + 2.838 + 2.3 + 110.77

9. The actual density of a certain material is 7.44 g/cm3. A student measures the density of the
same material as 7.30 g/cm3. What is the percent error of the measurement? (Show all work
round answer to correct number of sig figs!)

10. Use dimensional analysis to convert the following:


a. 20 gallons into ml
b. 3 meters into centimeters
c. 10 kilometers into meters
d. 15,050 milligrams into grams
e. 3,264 milliliters into liters
f. 9,674,444 grams into kilograms

11. A scientist gathers the following information to find the density of silver.
Trial #1 8.35g/mL
Trial #2 8.33g/mL
Trial #3 8.34g/mL
Trial #4 8.38g/ml
After completing the lab, he is told that the density of silver is 10.5g/mL. This scientists data
is accurate, precise, neither, both? Justify.

12. Donovan was trying to answer the question, Which is denser, zinc or copper? He believed
that if he were to calculate the density of both substances, then the zinc would be the densest.
The materials he used in his experiment were one small block of zinc, one small block of copper,
a ruler, a triple beam balance, and a calculator. Donovan measured the length, height, and
width of each block using a ruler. He then placed each sample on a square of cardboard and the
block to the triple beam balance, and found the mass of each substance. He collected the
following data:

Element Length (cm) height (cm Width (cm) Mass (g)


Copper 1.34 1.67 2.94 58.95
Zinc 1.53 2.33 3.24 82.47

Answer the following question based on the information above. SHOW ALL WORK. Use correct
units and sig figs.
a. Calculate the density of both the copper and zinc. Clearly label your work and answer for each
metal. (round your answer to the correct number of sig figs after each step.)
b. Compare the density of copper and zinc to the density of water. Use this information to
JUSTIFY the behavior of both metals when placed in a beaker of water. Write in complete
sentences.

13. Convert the following temperatures from Celsius to Kelvin


a. 16oC
b. -90.0oC

14. Convert the following temperatures from Kelvin to Celsius


a. 86 K
b. 872 K
15. Write each number is scientific notation/standard notation rounded to 3 significant figures.
a. 152,649.7 cm
a. 0.04908 g
b. 49.980 m
c. 0.00008234 s
d. 2.8001 x 103
e. 3.5842 X 10-8

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

16. Describe the contributions of each following to science/chemistry:


a. Democritis
b. Boyle
c. Priestly
d. Lavoisier
e. Dalton
f. Thomson
g. Millican
h. Becquerel
i. Rutherford

17. Fill in the follow chart


Element Protons Electrons Neutrons Atomic # Mass
Potassium-41
53 27
26 15
Al 13
36 12
Silver-109
11 11
5 8
Nitrogen-16
31 60

18. Write nuclear symbol notation for the following isotopes:


a. An isotope of an element that has 29 protons and 17 neutrons.
b. Atomic number38, mass number 88
c. A neutral atom that has 19 electrons and 22 neutrons
d. Platinum 198
e. As isotope of an element that has 21 protons and 23 neutrons
f. Xenon 135
g. Atomic number 9 with 8 neutrons

19. List at least three characteristics of the following and their location on the periodic table (if
applicable):
a. nonmetals
b. metals
c. metalloids
d. alkali metals
e. alkaline earth metals
f. halogens
g. noble gases
h. transition metals
i. lanthanides
j. actinides
k. s-block
l. p-block

20. Name or write the formula for the following:


a. Mno
c. As2O5
d. Fe2O3
e. N2O3
f. NaHCO3
g. SiBr4
h. CuCl2
i. SnO2
j. BaCrO4
k. mercury(II) Iodide
l. diphosphorus pentoxide
m. lead (II) nitrate
n. dihydrogen monoxide
p. silicon dioxide
q. sodium chlorate
r. xenon hexafluoride
t. potassium permanganate

21. Draw the Lewis structures and identify the shape of each of the following (lets see if you remember
this!)
a. dihyrdogen monoxide
b. ammonia (NH3)
c. PF3
d. carbon tetrafluoride
e. carbon monoxide

A little bit of stoichiometry:

21. Mercury has an atomic mass of 200.59 amu. Calculate the


a. Mass of 3.0 x 1010 atoms.
b. Moles of Hg

22. Calculate the molar masses (g/mol) of


a. Ammonia (NH3)
b. Baking soda (NaHCO3))
c. Osmium Metal (Os)

23. Convert the following to moles


a. 3.86 grams of Carbon dioxide.
b. 6.0 x 10 g of Hydrazine (N2H4), a rocket propellant.

24. The molecular formula of morphine, a pain-killing narcotic, is C17H19NO3.


a. What is the molar mass?
b. What fraction of atoms in morphine is accounted for by carbon?
c. Which element contributes least to the molar mass?

25. Calculate the percentage by mass of the following compounds:


a. SO3
b. CH3COOCH3
c. Ammonium Nitrate.

26. Determine the empirical formula of the compounds with the following compositions by mass:
a. 10.4 % C, 27. 8% S, 61.7 % Cl
b. 21.7 % C, 9.6 % O, and 68.7 % F

27. What mass of copper is required to replace silver from 4.00g of silver nitrate dissolved in water?
Cu(s) + AgNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + Ag

28. Write a balanced equation for the following. Identify the type of reaction:
a. Reaction of magnesium oxide with iron to form iron (III) oxide and Magnesium.
b. The decomposition of dinitrogen monoxide gas to its elements.
c. The reaction of Calcium Carbide solid with water to form calcium hydroxide and
acetylene (C2H2) gas.
d. Nitrogen gas reacts with hydrogen gas to form ammonia (NH3) in the Habor process.
e. Ethane burns in air (Oxygen).
f. Nitrogen gas reacts with Hydrogen gas to form Ammonia.
g. Hydrogen reacts with Iodine gas to form Hydrogen Iodide.
h. Sodium reacts with Iodine gas to form Sodium Iodide.
i. Sodium oxide reacts with water to form sodium hydroxide and hydrogen.
j. Carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid.
k. Magnesium and nitrogen gas combine to form magnesium nitride.
l. concentrated hydrochloric acid reacts with concentrated sodium hydroxide to form
sodium chloride and water.

29. Define limiting reagent, theoretical yield, and actual yield.

30. How many grams of solute are present in 50.0 ml of 0.360 M sodium chloride?

Part 3: Chapter 1 and 2 notes attached. Please do not lose these notes, you will need to keep them
throughout the entire course. You will be given notes like these before the start of each unit. The
notes follow my powerpoints (which are on my school website already)