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Lecturer Penny Taylor
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School Unaipon School Semester
Course name Australian Cultural Landscapes
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Book title Australian cultural studies : a reader
Book author/editor Frow, John and Morris, Meaghan
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Chapter/Page nos Ch. 15, pp. 222-234, 238-239
Chapter title History on the Rocks
Author of Chapter Bennett, Tony
Year published 1993
Publisher Allen & Unwin, Total pages in book 296 p.
Edition
Place of publication St. Leonards, N. S. W. ISBN 1863734147 (pbk.)
1863734996
Reading no (if applicable) R 8.3
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was also taken up by the Society of Antiquaries in 1855 when it recommended that 'no restoration should ever be attempted other. partly to those who built them. in 1856. Whereas to us every item which is spick and span and new. However. to be essentially and spiritually theirs no matter what the historical record might say—had developed considerable momentum over the previous two decades.2 The part of the 'preservationists' against the 'restorers' . the greater the happiness of all the army engaged in the work of restoration. more pliably. . It was thus that Sidney Colvin disparaged the cult of 'restoration' at the inaugural meeting of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings in 1878.1 . It is like the satisfaction of the The tradesman in the new brass plate displayed in front of his shop window. on learning that Tewkesbury Abbey was to be 'restored. It had first been voiced by Ruskin who. to the fabrication of idealised pasts by stripping ancient buildings of their subsequent accretions so as to restore to them the architectural purity they were once thought to have had or. in the sense of preservation from further injuries'. They belong. with all its letters sharply cut. * 222 . Local Consumption Publications. is something which requires an apology. We have no right whatever to touch them. The AppreheflsiOfl of Time. and partly to all the generations of mankind who are to follow us'. had argued that it was not a matter 'of expediency or feeling whether we shall preserve the buildings of past times or not. Sydney. First published in Don Barry and Stephen Muecke (eds). wise than. Opposition to the practice of restoration—that is. . . the clarion call that resulted in the establishment of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings was made by William Morris who.15 History on the Rocks TONY BENNETT more spick and span the work is. They are not ours. . 1988.

The shift from restoration to preservation in late nineteenth-century English culture was a shift of emphasis rather than a qualitative rupture. what was exchanged in the transition was less the aesthetics of Romanticism for the sober realities of history than one idealised version of the past for another. as it turned out. where the past does indeed have that spick and span. Morris's ideas of preser-. highly polished appearance to which Colvin took such exception. brand new. the distinction is worth recalling. subsequently.5 Nonetheless. but sacred monuments of the nation's growth and hope'. And.HISTORY ON THE ROCKS wrote to the Atheneum calling for an association 'to keep watch on old monuments. the past shines forth once again in the gleaming newness it once had. its marks effaced so that. They have no historical or architectural significance. The Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority emphatically rejects the belief that people on low incomes should have to live in substandard conditions. These buildings of a slum standard are neither chalk nor cheese. 'All that is old does not glitter': so we are told in the official guide to The Rocks published by the Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority. to protect against all "restoration" that means more than keeping out wind and weather. to awaken a feeling that our ancient buildings are not merely ecclesiastical toys. if it doesn't glitter its likely fate: It cannot be denied that there are many buildings still standing in The Rocks which are a sad reflection on any city. The cynical manoeuverings of the Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority and its disregard for the expressed wishes of the communities which had traditionally inhabited the area have been well documented. or cannot be made to do so again. It is planned to remove them just as the Authority is retaining all worthwhile [sic]. so to speak. which line the sides of Harrington Street and Essex Street. only too visibly marked by the passage of time.4 The distinction between restoration and preservation is. of course. vation—as those of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings and. the text goes on to inform us of It would be otiose to comment on the real estate calculations which lie behind such formulations. It has to be accepted in today's society that future generations cannot be expected to continue living in such circumstances. the National Trust—could hardly be described as having been committed to the project of preserving the past as it had really been.6 Move away from these high-spots of the tourist's itinerary. and by all means. however. or is thought to have had. in the renovated façades of the shops on George Street or those of the terraced cottages on Argyle Terrace and Sergeant Major's Row. and even though the dust has long settled on these disputes. the 223 . At The Rocks the past is. And nothing recalls it quite so much as a visit to The Rocks. It is a site where the passage of time has been halted and thrown into reverse. and the past wears a different. hardly unproblematic and. more dilapidated face in the ruined houses.7 Important though such matters are. literary or other.

in its 224 . before and after renovation. For rather more has been. developed there than property values.THE PRACTICE OF PLACE H Terrace. The Rocks. question of the interests of the local community versus those of developers and planners has not been the only issue at stake in recent struggles at and over The Rocks. now furnishes the locale for the development of a sanitised and mythical past which. and is being. in its transformation into a site of historical tourism.

the erasure of those marks which bear a testimony to the real and contradictory complexity of the area's history.HISTORY ON THE ROCKS All that is old does not glitter. Our actions will be judged by future generations and we must all ensure that the plans and actions of today will retain the heritage of our past for the future. commitment to eradicating all the marks and signs of the area's set- tlement that cannot be harmonised with the glittering facade which (in its officially instituted form) the past is obliged to wear. In brief. both at The Rocks itself and in the literature relating to the area. the NSW Minister for Planning and Environment at the time. What is important for all of us to remember is that our responsibility to the preservation of our heritage does not end in 10 years time or even in 100 years. The Rocks supplies the site for an encounter with an idealised and fabricated past which If that sounds like Ruskin or Morris. and made possible by. In his foreword to the official guide to the area. Eric Bedford. the practice of the Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority has been more like that of the 'restorers' 225 . functions has been substituted for.S as an institutionalised mode of forgetting. thus writes: The Rocks is not yet 200 years old. Of course. plenty of lip sevice is paid to the rhetoric of preservation.

Jim Allen has commented on the ambiguities inherent in the recent transformation of Port Arthur into a museum via the recon. he thus argues. Allen com- ments as follows on the kind of institutionalised forgetting this entails: That foundations were insufficient. eloping. a lack of understanding of the environment. moreover. the project of restoration is simultaneously and explicitly one of improvement also in the sense that the structural deficiencies of the original buildings are to be corrected in order to increase their future life-span. and the imposition of an alien culture by force. entails the loss of one of the more important historical' lessons that might have been learned from the site had it simply been preserved. so do these technical shortcomings underline the inadequacies of the system—a lack of skills.THE PRACTICE OF PLACE whose activities Ruskin and Morris opposed. that damp courses were not used. struction and restoration of the main buildings relating to the period of its use as a penal settlement. To replace original building standards with modern ones of greater durability cannot be historical restoration but merely renovation—the creation of a grotesque silhouette which does violence to the past and defrauds the future)° The restoration of The Rocks has subjected history to a similar process of ideological revision. Just as the monumental nature of the buildings reflects the virtually limitless supply of time and labour to be had under the transportation system. The Rocks has ever remained the place where Australian society began. The Rocks with its rich variety of buildings. This chapter of history was grim and bitter and should not be deflected by the creation of moods of "relaxation and quiet tranquility" At Port Arthur. its umbilical links with the nearby harbour. not only of the people of Sydney but of all Australians)' 226 . The very project of restoration he suggests. A CENTRE OF ORIGINS Throughout its fascinating. as. lively. clearing The Rocks history in order to make space for the shining new past the is committed to dev. that bricks were poorly made are the products of real events. 'should be seen to have failed and the ruined buildings are the most poignant testimony of its failure. is part of the heritage. Of course. the site has been returned—as is the case with Port Arthur—to the moment of its origins. in terms of the predominant discourses which organise the visitor's experience. though sometimes turbulent and distressing history. its parks and public houses. and one in which it has been violently shaken rather than merely gently stirred. its winding streets. 'The system (of penal settlement)'. retaining the ravages of time and disuse intact rather than removing them in an attempt to return the buildings to their original condition. the tendency to refurbish renovate the past so as to put it to new purposes is not limited to Th Rocks.

in overlayering the various objects and buildings encountered. multicultural Citizenry. democratic. In this respect.12 It also provides an important key to the criteria of historical value which have governed the restoration policies of the Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority. is destined to survive merely as a footnote to the Authority's good in- viewed as part of a broader process. if they occupy key sites—as at Argyle Terrace—through their restoration to sentimentalised workers' cottages which resonate with the prevailing quietism of the area.13 Of course.HISTORY ON THE ROCKS This passage. Nor. this is not particularly surprising. the first cemetery. it is necessary that origins be cast in the mould of the larger history whose meaning they are then called On to explain. serve merely to mask the fact that the restoration project is committed less to the eradication than to the relocation of substandard housing conditions—there has been tentions ('It has to be accepted in today's society that future generations cannot be expected to continue living in such circumstances') which. or are destined to be. The Rocks is governed by what. effaced. The evidence of social distress and discord suggested by the housing stock bearing the marks of many generations of working-class settlement is thus to be removed. correspondingly.14 For this to be possible. can be regarded as having come first. What matters rather more is the way in which such firsts have been transformed into origins and. the opening of Eric Bedford's foreword to the official guide. The modus operandi of this archaeological epistemology is centrally dependent on the mechanisms it uses to exorcise conflict 227 . the oldest surviving house and the places where many famous colonial figures lived'. Eugenio Donato has called 'an archaeological epistemology' according to which 'each archaeological artifact has to be an original artifact. in one way or another. of the various buildings and sites which have been or are to be preserved and restored. pride of place is given to those which. The Rocks itself into a centre of origins in the sense of being not merely the first area of settlement but one which contains the seeds of future and broader developments. In The Rocks this is achieved by organising the visitor's experience Within the terms of a rhetoric of consensus nationalism which. either through demolition or. Against this. aptly summarises the discourse of origins which predominates in the tourist literature relating to The Rocks in its representation as 'the birthplace of the nation'. in another context. would it amount to much. As we have seen. in itself. enables them to function as origins of the subsequent unfolding of the nahon's history told as the gradual rise of a free. a notable shortage of proposals to 'restore' Sydney's western suburbs— 'See the sites of many Australian firsts: the first hospital. and these original artifacts must in turn explain the "meaning" of a subsequent larger history'. Such evidence. in effect. the remnants of those aspects of the area's history which might be regarded as 'turbulent and distressing' either have been. as The Rocks is cleared so that it might function as both a tourist showpiece and a gentrified residential zone for the middle classes.

The plaque relating to the marines recounts how many of these received land 228 . it tions as an origin by means of the neglect of any prior history Which might disturb its status as origin or mark that origin as a conflictual one. apart from an Aboriginal craft shop in the Argyle Centre. is like Robinson Crusoe's island but Without the anti-mythical presence of a Man Friday. This impression is reinforced by the plaques which accompany the figures. which depicts the First Fleet at anchor and the signs of early settlement on the shore. an alien blight on these new shores and one which is overcome as soon as 'Australian history proper' gets going: the next panel in the display tells the story of Macquarie's support for the emancipists. form a non-antagonistic unity. This cleansing of origins is particularly in evidence at the two key symbolic markers of The Rocks as 'the birthplace of the nation'— Cadman's Cottage. one of a marine and one of a family of settlers—depicted in bas-relief on sandstone quarried from the area.'6 At Cadman's Cottage the story of Sydney and. then. enabling them to take their place alongside free settlers in laying the real foundations of the nation. thereby creating the impression that these three foundations of the nation. Second. in this respect. With regard to the actual moment of origin itself. knitted together through their backbones. Judge and Provost.'5 In brief. First. which is thus established as an encounter between man and nature rather than one between two cultures and civilisatjons The Rocks. However. of Australia is recounted via a pictorial display. conflict is exiled from the moment of origin by being represented only as deriving from elsewhere—rather than as being endemic to the nation's foundations—and in forms that were soon removed and retrospectively eradicated Once the true trajectory of the nation's development had been established. this is cleared of by two means. the First Impressions sculpture commemorating 'the isolation. These figures are backed onto one another and joined at the centre. Aborigines are represented as absent from the moment of settlement. The text accompanying the first picture. Here. the site is represented as a tabula rasa prior to European settlement. labouring in chain gangs under the stern and watchful eye of British authority represented by the encampment of the Governor. thereby. is conflict—but a conflict derived from the contradictions of British society. we are told that if we look more closely the marines will be seen to be standing guard over the convicts. The First Impressions sculpture suggests a similarly sanitised version of the nation's origins. This consists of three figures—one of a convict. invites us to imagine the convicts and marines working together in close harmony. the first of all firsts at The Rocks. as is true of all bourgeois myths of origin. The means by which the second these effects is produced have already been commented on. in The Rocks Square. and. hardship and bondage common to all early pioneers'.THE PRACTICE OF PLACE from the origins it constructs as well as from the subsequent histo which flows from those origins. and perhaps more distinctively.

Nietzsche argued that what he called 'monumental history'—the attitude to the past evident in the deeds which come to be monumentalised in a nation's statuary—constructs grants orientated to the future. would only prove that nothing quite similar could ever be cast again from the dice-boxes of fate and the future'. which. the past is figured forth as a series of 'effects without sufficient cause'. that finds a voice in the demand for monumental history'. 'The great moments in the individual battle'.f Season. and the highest points of those vanished moments are yet great and living for men.'8 It is certainly true that. placing particular stress on the Gold Rush as the period which laid the foundations for the many nationalities which make up contemporary Australia. In his Thoughts Out o.HISTORY ON THE ROCKS Cadtnan 's Cottage to make them the colony's first free settlers. a high road for humanity through the ages. and this is the fundamental idea of the belief in humanity. Once again.'7 The past that is produced by monumental history. whereas the one relating to the Convicts portrays them as the victims of the conditions prevailing in Britain at the time. effects without sufficient cause' in that they function without regard to 'the real nexus of cause and effect. he wrote. Nietzsche goes on. the plaque relating to the settlers—who form the telos of the composition—constructs unity out of difference in remarking how the land grants made to both marines and emancipated convicts enabled them to join the free settlers. However. a spur to deeds that will push the life of the nation to new peaks. if the foundational 229 the past as a chain of examples for action in the present that is . 'form a chain. rightly understood. Finally. imported contradictions have been eradicated and no new ones admitted in their place. at The Rocks. consists of '"effects in themselves"—in other words.

are its point of arrival.19 And so it is at The Rocks where the symbolic markers of the nation's foundations serve as the origins of a history that has nowhere to go because it has realised its goal. 4. the citizenry whom that history addresses. convicts and settlers are cast in the mould of monumental history. history must be portrayed as 'completed and fully accomplished'. perhaps. We. Michael Bommes and Patrick Wright have argued that. is to comp- lement and individualise the site's archaeological epistemology by conducting a personal odyssey into our origins via a visit to the State Archives. The most we might do. in order for the past to be rendered as an object of the tourist's gaze.THE PRACTiCE OF PLACE figures of the marines. 230 . A place to live. It enjoins us to do nothing because what might need to be done has already been done in that the tendency toward unity enshrined in the nation's origins has been brought to a fulfilment in our own consensual and multicultural selves. and are called on to do no more than to contemplate the process of our own making. while leading to the present. their deeds. do not act as a spur to action beyond it.

as an illustrated diary of his youth. one might daily rub shoulders with the past: Working in The Rocks is different. to become a part of that 'tough folk' who 'will not be uprooted in the night'. 'the attitudes and independence of the inhabitants of the area played a part in the moulding of the Australian character'. and building a secret nest there. The. those who came later and those yet to come will be living in one of Sydney's most desirable neighbourhoods. The Rocks offers the peace and stillness 'of a village atmosphere'. There is an inherent and all-pervading sense of history. is not merely a place to visit. 231 . and sees himself in it all—his strength. as we are told. mouldy and obsolete. the turreted gate. and will not be uprooted in the night'. the town council.24 In the meantime. however. like the demolition of the slums. he says. Nietzsche characterised as that of the antiquarian: All that is small and limited. another face to history at The Rocks. too. it's a place to live and work. marking it off from the present—the hurly-burly of city life—as a zone of tranquillity. faults and follies. an attitude to the past which. in doing so. not of knowledge but of feeling the past insinuate its presence into the rhythms of daily life. for those who live there. he looks on the walls. a matter of depopulating history—clearing the area of those whose lives testified to the real complexity of its history—in order that 'the Conservative and reverent soul of the antiquary' who migrates there. we are told in the official guide. or that Francis Greenway the architect lived opposite. The history of his town becomes the history of himself. the fair.ir removal.20 And so The Rocks. If. of course. industry. and where. but the feeling of the past is A matter. and by no means solely in order to realise real estate values. PEOPLING THE PAST There is. Those who work there can 'take a leisurely stroll at lunchtime in the historic streets' or 'sit and dream on the harbour front' while. the pioneers.HISTORY ON THE ROCKS DEPOPULATING HISTORY. those of the area's residents who did display qualities of fierce pride and independence in their struggles to preserve their homes and way of life have been moved in the night. gains a worth and inviolability of its own from the conservative and reverent soul of the antiquary migrating into it. then. in somewhat scathing terms. was an ideological necessity. 'Here one could live'. As the scheme emerges.22 Simply to live there. The people working there may not know the Argyle Centre was originally a vegetable garden for Sydney's first hospital.23 these qualities are to be transferred to newcomers via a process of historical osmosis: Those who were born in The Rocks have always claimed it with a fierce pride. moreover. for we are tough folk. 'as one can live here now—and will go on living. is to acquire something of the resilience of the people.

is more complex. these do not merely remove the vestiges of a past marked by any signs of working-classness. Beyond their individual experiences. however. thus facilitating the passage of the mobile middle classes. the grandchildren of those who had worked in the mills have sometimes turned to appreciate and value the world of their grandparents. Both were part of their entire life story and were deeply enmeshed with their sense of place. which is the product of practices of erasure. In the 1970s.THE PRACTICE OF PLACE whether to live. were largely swept away under a government-sponsored program of urban renewal. might find it peopled by an idealised folk appropriate to the tranquillised past. a past which weighs on the brains of the living like a 232 . Between them. and fellow workers with whom they had shared these experiences Those whom we found to hold negative attitudes had advanced into the middle-class. work or visit. neighbours. has happened to history at The Rocks might be accounted for in terms of similar mobility anxieties on the part of middle-class planners and reformers. and were intimately linked to the buildings. As is often the case. the Cotton mills of Manchester. In the midst of this program. at least some part of what. and mainly because The Rocks is marked by a double relation to history: the institutionalised mode of forgetting. while the intervening generation rejects them. such as family members. friends. The full picture. and a fabricated mode of remembrance constructed by practices of restoration and development. New Hampshire. they also construct a past for those classes to return to—an amalgam of a conflict-free past of origins and an urban idyll. daily two-mile walks to the factory. Tamara Hareven and Randolph Langenbach conducted an oral history survey of local community reactions to the clearance of the past which this program entailed.25 Clearly. . the ideal city of the fund which The Rocks now embodies. Most of the former industrial workers whom we interviewed for the Amoskeag oral history project remembered the good and the bad as inseparable parts of their life's experience. unemployment and strikes. illness and death were all part of that story. The assumptions of social reformers and planners that the working-class past in these industrial settings must be eradicated because it symbolised poverty. buildings were so significant to people's memories because of their associations with other people. and felt that association with these buildings conflicted with their efforts to escape from their parents' working-class background. people must wish to forget the past and would prefer to see its manifestations erased. Memories of struggle with poverty. But for whom has this past been tranquillised? For whom is The Rocks an ideal city of the mind? Consideration of an analogous case throws some light on these questions. grimness and exploitation. They summarise their findings as follows: It is the mistaken impression of middle-class civic leaders (many of whom are from regions other than the city in question) that since conditions were worse then than they are now. . misses what the workers themselves feel about their world. though.

through the tourist infrastructure which they bring in their tow. As the population dwindled. The blacksmith in Harrington Street. a rush of small businesses to the area—mainly craft pro•ducers. tourist shops and restaurateurs. In the return of business to The Rocks the former names have been retained where possible. Rather than seeking to renew the ea's traditional industries and sources of working-class employment. In being steeped in the these social relations come. they then reinstate in an idealised and nostalgic form. Bob West notes that practices of historical preservation/restoration. in catering kto the tourist trade. These businesses. In their place. often severely disrupt the local economy in promoting the non-essential sector of that economy (ie. It is equally an effect of the kind of economic revitalisation policies pursued by the Sydney Cove Redevelopment uthority in installing a set of socioeconomic relations at The Rocks which itself functions ideologically. He thus remarks how his local pub which faces the Busts Hill Open Air Museum—a part of the Iron Gorge Museum complex—has become a haunt where the tourist can rub shoulders with the past by mingling 233 . also blend in with the mythic past of The Rocks !so that they function as a part and parcel of its message in materialising idealised set of social relations which seems to flow from the past the present in an unbroken continuity. In brief. the barber shop—the source of local gossip—the pawnbroker in Argyle Street who did a roaring trade before pay day. as in Unwins Store. merge as the relations of petty cornproduction seem to arise naturally out of their own backFor there is no intervening history (it has been erased). to saturate that present so the two. these shopkeepers and merchants were forced to close their doors. as at The Rocks. West also notes that it is sometimes the fate of those whose lives have been transformed under the impact of those practices to be turned into parts of the idealised historical displays they organise.26 In his discussion of the Ironbridge Gorge Museum complex in Britain. when implemented within active communities. past and present. The area always attracted an assortment of business. it has instated the social relations of petty commodity production and distribution. for that of a momentary absence.HISTORY ON THE ROCKS daydream in which that class finds itself alwaysthere. in turn. • the Authority has eradicated any signs of the economic and social elations of contemporary capitalism. such practices often destroy the basis for a functioning local community which. this is not merely the result of the past that has been removed through the program of slum clearance or of the one that has been installed in its place by means of the rose-tinting practices of restoration. that geared to the needs of tourists) at the expense of services essential to sustaining the local community. which might interrupt their continuity. the iceman and the 'fisho' who delivered daily. However.

Needless to say. these phantoms of the past-present quaff real ale 'brewed traditionally'. cit. allowable because it belongs safely to the past. or the occa'. P. just by being there. open to reveal grubby collarless workingmen's shirts. do the remaining residents—many of them these remnants of earlier days perform unpaid bit-parts in the ideological economy of The Rocks. itself a sort of liquid history bearing silent witness against the present. p. lend authenticity to the display. where drinking is transformed into a historical elderly—who are encountered on the tourist's itinerary. the current class position of these museum employees is masked as they bear testimony to an allowable working class. ritual and where the locals. 'Revival. p. Temple Smith. So. Lending an aura of age and authenticity to the buildings. plain serge trousers or mock Halifax corduroy ered at the waist with binder-twine. particularly in the outlying areas of The Rocks such as Cumberland Street and Lower Fort Street. English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit 1850—1980. Restoration. hauled up with wide braces. dull. 1981. cit. too. op. 46. Preservation: Changing Views about Antique Landscape Features' in Our Past Before Us: Why Do We Save it? eds David Lowenthal & Marcus Binney. in ways that they are powerless to avoid. London.. heavy hobnail boots.. 70. Penguin. p. 2 3 Cited in Wiener. they are transformed into historical curios. as their emplo ment requires.THE PRACTICE OF PLACE with the museum workers who drink there attired. 45. Harmondsworth. 68. for example. peopling the past as. Old jackets. The concepts of 'history' and 'the past' are susceptible to variable 238 . sional plain waistcoat perhaps with the stylish flourish of a watch fob and chain. NOTES 1 Cited in Martin J Wiener. 1985. nondescript but 'old'. The Rocks has its similar points of rendezvous with the living past—the Hero of Waterloo Hotel. pulled to at the ankle with gaiters. 4 5 Cited in Prince. Cited in Hugh Prince. moving props in a tourist peep-show. op. in the period-costume of a sentimentalised class of yesteryear: Here at lunchtime at the bar one finds young men in Sub-Victorian garb..27 Workers in disguise.

Ibid. 17 18 19 Friedrich Nietzsche. pp. p. A Theory of Literary Production. History Series Occasional Paper: SP No 83.. cit.. 1870—1914' in The Invention of Tradition. 2. 'Mass-Producing Traditions. 220. op. Museum.. p. p. see P Macherey. 21 Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority. eds E Hobsbawm & T Ranger. The Rocks: A Unique Revitalisation Project for the Birthplace of Sydney. 1. nd. 'the past' is used to refer to those representations of past periods and events which are socially produced and circulated within the public arena via the practices of such institutions as museums. op. See Zula Nittim. p. 20. op. 1982. 1980. pp. cit. 16 As described in the official tourist map of The Rocks. 1979. Ibid. 2. cit. 15 For a discussion of the organisation of bourgeois myths of origin in the writings of Daniel Defoe and Jules Verne. Cambridge. p. 1978. 22. p. Hutchinson. 17. Gordon Press. p. refers to the (contradictory) archive of statements referring to past periods and events produced by the practices of historians rather than to any empiricist conception of the past 'as it really was'. 'The Museum's Furnace: Notes Toward a Contextual Reading of Bouvard and Pécuchet' in Textual Strategies: Perspectives in Post- Structuralist Criticism.. Work Places and Historical Identity' in Lowenthal and Binney. Thoughts Out of Season Part 2. See the official tourist map of The Rocks. 105. p. 'History. John R Pola and Associates. Sydney. p. 116—17. 22 Ibid. 104—105. cit. cit.. Cambridge University Press. op. 'Port Arthur Site Museum. London. cit. ed Jill Roe. Sydney. 24 Ibid. 25 Tamara Hareven & Randolph Langenbach. 28 Eric Hobsbawm. 16. Eugenio Donato. Sydney. op. 20 Nietzsche. p. 1974. etc. with the consequence that the relations between then-i may also be subject to different interpretations. Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. 23 Ibid. Green Bans and Beyond. and solely for reasons of rhetorical convenience. Making Histories: Studies in History-Writing and Politics. 1981. Cornell University Press. 7 p. No 2 (1976). New York. 28. 'Living Places. Angus and Robertson. 22. Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority. 24. 'Danger! History at Work: A Critical Consumer's Guide to the Ironbridge Gorge Museum'. pp. 6 Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority. Jim Allen. Michael Bommes & Patrick Wright '"Charms of residence": the public and the past' in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. Europe.. op. p. Here. and Jack Mundey. p. 19. Australia: Its Preservation and Historical Perspectives'. 26 Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority. p. 20. London. cit.HISTORY ON THE ROCKS definitions.. Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority. national heritage organisations. 'The Coalition of Resident Action Groups' in Twentieth Century Sydney: Studies in Urban and Social History.' by contrast. Routledge and Kegan Paul. Hale and Ironmonger in association with The Sydney History Group. 20. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority. 16 and 20. p. 27 Bob West. Ithaca. 1983. 291. ed Josué Harari. op. 239 .

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