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# Hydraulics

## Computation of Water Surface Proles



Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri

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Objec&ves

## This presenta,on illustrates the Direct Step Method

to determine the distance between any two given
depths on a water surface prole

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The Direct Step Method

yi
V2i/2g
yi+1
Ei yi V2i+1/2g
Ei+1
Si yi+1
Si+1 yi+1
yi Step
i i+1
x

Ei+1 Ei S +S
x = where S = i i+1
S0 S 2
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## In this method, a tabulated calcula&ons are preferred

with the help of a spreadsheet (Excel for instance). In
this method, we have:
S0 is the channel slope (generally given)

## Si and Si+1 are calculated from Manning equa,on

corresponding to yi and yi+1 respec,vely

## Ei and Ei+1 are the specic energy values that

correspond to yi and yi+1 respec,vely

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The Direct Step Method

## Determine a point loca,on i on the water prole

where the depth is known (yi) and then move to
another loca,on (i+1) where the depth is (yi+1) is
assumed (a step dierence)
Calculate the distance x between yi and yi+1
Repeat the process un,l arriving at the requested
depth
Summa,on of all x values provide the required
distance between the two depths
Ei+1 Ei Si + Si+1
x = 'where'S =
S0 S 2
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Example 

## A ow rate of 10 m3/s occurs in a rectangular channel 6

m wide that has a slope of 0.0001 m/m

## If the depth at a point in the channel is 1.5 m, how far

(upstream or downstream) from this point will the
depth be 1.65 m? Take n = 0.013

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## The Direct Step Method

Example 

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The Direct Step Method
Example 

## A rectangular channel has a width of 30 ] and a bed

slope of 1:12100. The normal depth is 6 ]

## A dam across the river elevates the water surface and

produces a depth of 9.8 ] just upstream of the dam

## Find the length of the backwater curve

Take n = 0.025

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## The Direct Step Method

Example 

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The Direct Step Method
Example 
Since y0 > yc, the river has a mild bed slope and the M1
prole will be formed to elevate the water surface

## The depth of ow just upstream of the dam (control

sec,on) is 9.8 ]. It is required to evaluate the length of
the M1 prole between y1 = 9.8 ] and y5 = y0 = 6 ]

## Consider three other depths y2, y3, and y4 between the

two given depths y1 and y5

## Hence, calcula,ons are done for the M1 to calculate the

required length
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## The Direct Step Method

Example 

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The Direct Step Method
Example 

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