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Hydraulics

Computation of Water Surface Proles


[11]




Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri

1 [11] Spring 2017 Hydraulics Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri [11] Computation of Water Surface Profiles

Objec&ves

This presenta,on illustrates the Direct Step Method


to determine the distance between any two given
depths on a water surface prole

2 [11] Spring 2017 Hydraulics Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri [11] Computation of Water Surface Profiles

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The Direct Step Method

yi
V2i/2g
yi+1
Ei yi V2i+1/2g
Ei+1
Si yi+1
Si+1 yi+1
yi Step
i i+1
x

Ei+1 Ei S +S
x = where S = i i+1
S0 S 2
3 [11] Spring 2017 Hydraulics Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri [11] Computation of Water Surface Profiles

The Direct Step Method

In this method, a tabulated calcula&ons are preferred


with the help of a spreadsheet (Excel for instance). In
this method, we have:
S0 is the channel slope (generally given)

Si and Si+1 are calculated from Manning equa,on


corresponding to yi and yi+1 respec,vely

Ei and Ei+1 are the specic energy values that


correspond to yi and yi+1 respec,vely

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The Direct Step Method

Determine a point loca,on i on the water prole


where the depth is known (yi) and then move to
another loca,on (i+1) where the depth is (yi+1) is
assumed (a step dierence)
Calculate the distance x between yi and yi+1
Repeat the process un,l arriving at the requested
depth
Summa,on of all x values provide the required
distance between the two depths
Ei+1 Ei Si + Si+1
x = 'where'S =
S0 S 2
5 [11] Spring 2017 Hydraulics Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri [11] Computation of Water Surface Profiles

The Direct Step Method


Example [1]

A ow rate of 10 m3/s occurs in a rectangular channel 6


m wide that has a slope of 0.0001 m/m

If the depth at a point in the channel is 1.5 m, how far


(upstream or downstream) from this point will the
depth be 1.65 m? Take n = 0.013

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The Direct Step Method


Example [1]

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The Direct Step Method
Example [2]

A rectangular channel has a width of 30 ] and a bed


slope of 1:12100. The normal depth is 6 ]

A dam across the river elevates the water surface and


produces a depth of 9.8 ] just upstream of the dam

Find the length of the backwater curve



Take n = 0.025

9 [11] Spring 2017 Hydraulics Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri [11] Computation of Water Surface Profiles

The Direct Step Method


Example [2]

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The Direct Step Method
Example [2]
Since y0 > yc, the river has a mild bed slope and the M1
prole will be formed to elevate the water surface

The depth of ow just upstream of the dam (control


sec,on) is 9.8 ]. It is required to evaluate the length of
the M1 prole between y1 = 9.8 ] and y5 = y0 = 6 ]

Consider three other depths y2, y3, and y4 between the


two given depths y1 and y5

Hence, calcula,ons are done for the M1 to calculate the


required length
11 [11] Spring 2017 Hydraulics Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri [11] Computation of Water Surface Profiles

The Direct Step Method


Example [2]

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The Direct Step Method
Example [2]

13 [11] Spring 2017 Hydraulics Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri [11] Computation of Water Surface Profiles