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Generator or Dynamo

It is a device which converts mechanical energy into the electrical

energy using the principle of electromagnetic induction.

to which an induced current is produced in a coil by the

change of magnetic field linked with it. The current will be

induced in the coil when there is relative motion between

the coil and the magnetic field.

Construction:

Brush

es

Armatur

e

Coil

SS

N

N

Field

Magnet

s

N

SS

Slip

Rings

Armatur Bul

e b

Field magnets are the two strong permanent bar magnets. An

electromagnet run by a D.C. source can also be used as a field magnet.

Armature coil is a soft iron core on which a coil having a large number of

turns of insulated copper wire is wound. The armature coil is rotated

rapidly in the magnetic field of the field magnet by the axle fixed to the

armature.

Slip rings are the two coaxial metallic rings. They rotate along the

armature coil. The ends of the armature coil are connected to the end of

slip rings.

Brushes are made of Carbon, which press lightly along the slip rings. The

other ends of brushes are connected the external circuit or the load (e.g. A

Bulb). The brushes do not rotate along with the coil.

Working:

induction occurs and electric current is produced. When the armature

rotates, there is a relative emotion between the armature coil and the

magnetic field connected to it. Therefore the current produced from it

flows from the

the armature coil of the A.C. Generator.

• Wind mill: The blowing wind turns the armature coil of the A.C.

Generator.

dynamo.

generator

converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. The reverse

conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done

by a motor; motors and generators have many similarities. A

generator forces electrons in the windings to flow through the

external electrical circuit. It is somewhat analogous to a water

pump, which creates a flow of water but does not create the

water inside. The source of mechanical energy may be a

reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a

turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind

turbine, a hand crank, compressed air or any other source of

mechanical energy.

power generating hall of a hydroelectric station

•

Historical developments

discovered, electrostatic generators were invented that used

electrostatic principles. These generated very high voltages and

low currents. They operated by using moving electrically

charged belts, plates and disks to carry charge to a high potential

electrode. The charge was generated using either of two

mechanisms:

• Electrostatic induction

• The triboelectric effect, where the contact between two

insulators leaves them charged.

machines producing very high voltages, electrostatic generators

had low power ratings and were never used for generation of

commercially-significant quantities of electric power. The

Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples

of these machines that have survived.

Jedlik's dynamo

electromagnetic rotating devices which he called

electromagnetic self-rotors. In the prototype of the single-pole

electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the

stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. He

formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before

Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he

wasn't the first to realize this. In essence the concept is that

instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets opposite to

each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. It was

also the discovery of the principle of self-excitation Jedlik's

invention was decades ahead of its time.

Faraday's disk

Faraday disk

operating principle of electromagnetic generators. The principle,

later called Faraday's law, is that a potential difference is

generated between the ends of an electrical conductor that

moves perpendicular to a magnetic field. He also built the first

electromagnetic generator, called the 'Faraday disk', a type of

homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the

poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage.

of current in regions not under the influence of the magnetic

field. While current flow was induced directly underneath the

magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions

outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counterflow

limits the power output to the pickup wires, and induces waste

heating of the copper disc. Later homopolar generators would

solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged

around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one

current-flow direction.

Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low,

due to the single current path through the magnetic flux.

Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil

could produce higher more useful voltages. Since the output

voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could

be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the

number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all

subsequent generator designs.

possible homo-polar motors with the magnets on the rotor,

which should offer many advantages to older designs.

Dynamo

Dynamos are no longer used for power generation due to the

size and complexity of the commutator needed for high power

applications. This large belt-driven high-current dynamo

produced 310 amperes at 7 volts, or 2,170 watts, when spinning

at 1400 RPM.

Dynamo Electric Machine [End View, Partly Section] (U.S.

Patent 284,110)

delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic

principles to convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct

electric current through the use of a commutator. The first

dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832.

the source of many later inventions, including the DC electric

motor, the AC alternator, the AC synchronous motor, and the

rotary converter.

A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which

provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating

windings which turn within that field. On small machines the

constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more

permanent magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic

field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually

called field coils.

Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the

now nearly universal use of alternating current for power

distribution and solid state electronic AC to DC power

conversion. But before the principles of AC were discovered,

very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power

generation and distribution. Now power generation dynamos are

mostly a curiosity.

alternator, which is a synchronous singly-fed generator. With an

electromechanical commutator, the dynamo is a classical direct

current (DC) generator. The alternator must always operate at a

constant speed that is precisely synchronized to the electrical

frequency of the power grid for non-destructive operation. The

DC generator can operate at any speed within mechanical limits

but always outputs a direct current waveform.

Other types of generators, such as the asynchronous or induction

singly-fed generator, the doubly-fed generator, or the brushless

wound-rotor doubly-fed generator, do not incorporate

permanent magnets or field windings (i.e, electromagnets) that

establish a constant magnetic field, and as a result, are seeing

success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such

as wind turbines or other renewable energy technologies.

with electronic control but only the doubly-fed generators or the

brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed generator incorporate

electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less

than the power output of the generator under control, which by

itself offer cost, reliability and efficiency benefits.

MHD generator

power from moving hot gases through a magnetic field, without

the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators

were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD

generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam

power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25,

developed in 1965. The U.S. government funded substantial

development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in

1987. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the

MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the

Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest

MHD plant rating in the world at that time. MHD generators

operated as a topping cycle are currently (2007) less efficient

than combined-cycle gas turbines.

Terminology

either mechanical or electrical terms:

Mechanical:

• Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine

Electrical:

electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo

the armature windings generate the electrical current. The

armature can be on either the rotor or the stator.

• Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical

machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator

can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent

magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator.

Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than

in the armature circuit, AC generators nearly always have the

field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature

winding. Only a small amount of field current must be

transferred to the moving rotor, using slip rings. Direct current

machines necessarily have the commutator on the rotating shaft,

so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine.

Excitation

alternator, with a separate belt-driven exciter generator.

Main article: Excitation (magnetic)

An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather

than permanent magnets will require a current flow to be present

in the field coils for the device to be able to work. If the field

coils are not powered, the rotor in a generator can spin without

producing any usable electrical energy, while the rotor of a

motor may not spin at all. Very large power station generators

often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils

of the larger.

islanding of power stations has occurred, the stations may need

to perform a black start to excite the fields of their largest

generators, in order to restore customer power service.

DC Equivalent circuit

G = generator

VG=generator open-circuit voltage

RG=generator internal resistance

VL=generator on-load voltage

RL=load resistance

diagram to the right. The generator's VG and RG parameters can

be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to

operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and

loaded voltage for a defined current load.

Vehicle-mounted generators

generators with electromechanical regulators. These have now

been replaced by alternators with built-in rectifier circuits,

which are less costly and lighter for equivalent output.

Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the

vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. Rated output will

typically be in the range 50-100 A at 12 V, depending on the

designed electrical load within the vehicle. Some cars now have

electrically-powered steering assistance and air conditioning,

which places a high load on the electrical system. Large

commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give

sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large diesel

engine. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and

are typically only 50-60% efficient over a wide speed range

Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet stators made

with rare earth magnets, since they can be made smaller and

lighter than other types. See also hybrid vehicle.

lights. These tend to be 0.5 ampere, permanent-magnet

alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V. Being powered by

the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate

rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with

great precision. Nevertheless, the maximum efficiency is only

around 80% for the best of these generators—60% is more

typical—due in part to the rolling friction at the tire-generator

interface from poor alignment, the small size of the generator,

bearing losses and cheap design. The use of permanent magnets

means that efficiency falls even further at high speeds because

the magnetic field strength cannot be controlled in any way.

Hub generators remedy many of these flaws: internal to the

bicycle hub, they are well manufactured and don't require an

interface between the generator and tire. Until recently, these

generators have been expensive and hard to find. Major bicycle

component manufacturers like Shimano and SRAM have only

just entered this market. However, expect significant gains in

future as bicycling becomes more mainstream transportation and

LED technology allows brighter lighting at the reduced current

these generators are capable of providing.

trickle-charge the batteries. A small propeller, wind turbine or

impeller is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to

supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds.

Engine-generator

An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical

generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to

form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines

used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be

used. Many different versions are available - ranging from very

small portable petrol powered sets to large turbine installations.

instance, in field radio station equipment).

available, and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts.

Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted

bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be

practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are

designed with an integral inverter. The average adult could

generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator.

Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery

purchase requirements, see clockwork radio.

magnet moves back and forth through a solenoid - a spool of

copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the loops of

wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides

through. This type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight.

Larger linear electricity generators are used in wave power

schemes.

Tachogenerator

measure the speeds of electric motors, engines, and the

equipment they power. Generators generate voltage roughly

proportional to shaft speed. With precise construction and

design, generators can be built to produce very precise voltages

for certain ranges of shaft speeds

electromagnetism relating to the operating principles of

transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical

motors and generators.[1] The law states that:

circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic

flux through the circuit.

Or alternatively:

The EMF generated is proportional to the rate at which

flux is changed.

History

by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831; however,

Faraday was the first to publish the results of his

experiments.

Faraday's disk

electromagnetic induction (August 1831), he wrapped

two wires around opposite sides of an iron torus (an

arrangement similar to a modern transformer). Based on

his assessment of recently-discovered properties of

electromagnets, he expected that when current started to

flow in one wire, a sort of wave would travel through the

ring and cause some electrical effect on the opposite side.

He plugged one wire into a galvanometer, and watched it

as he connected the other wire to a battery. Indeed, he

saw a transient current (which he called a "wave of

electricity") when he connected the wire to the battery,

and another when he disconnected it.[4] Within two

months, Faraday had found several other manifestations

of electromagnetic induction. For example, he saw

transient currents when he quickly slid a bar magnet in

and out of a coil of wires, and he generated a steady

(DC) current by rotating a copper disk near a bar magnet

with a sliding electrical lead ("Faraday's disk").

concept he called lines of force. However, scientists at

the time widely rejected his theoretical ideas, mainly

because they were not formulated mathematically. An

exception was Maxwell, who used Faraday's ideas as the

basis of his quantitative electromagnetic theory. In

Maxwell's papers, Faraday's law of induction was

expressed as a calculus equation, in a form recognizable

today.

Lenz's law, formulated by Heinrich Lenz in 1834,

describes "flux through the circuit", and gives the

direction of the induced electromotive force and current

resulting from electromagnetic induction (elaborated

upon in the examples below).

wire: The liquid battery (right) provides a current which

flows through the small coil (A), creating a magnetic

field. When the coils are stationary, no current is

induced. But when the small coil is moved in or out of

the large coil (B), the magnetic flux through the large

coil changes, inducing a current which is detected by the

galvanometer (G).[

single equation describing two different phenomena: The

motional EMF generated by a magnetic force on a

moving wire, and the transformer EMF generated by an

electric force due to a changing magnetic field. James

Clerk Maxwell drew attention to this fact in his 1861

paper On Physical Lines of Force. In the latter half of

part II of that paper, Maxwell gives a separate physical

explanation for each of the two phenomena. A reference

to these two aspects of electromagnetic induction is made

in some modern textbooks.[10] As Richard Feynman

states:[11]

rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit

applies whether the flux changes because the field

changes or because the circuit moves (or both).... Yet in

our explanation of the rule we have used two completely

distinct laws for the two – cases for "circuit moves"

and for "field changes".

We know of no other place in physics where such a

simple and accurate general principle requires for its real

understanding an analysis in terms of two different

phenomena.

Physics

principal paths that led Einstein to develop special

relativity:

It is known that Maxwell’s electrodynamics—as usually

understood at the present time—when applied to moving

bodies, leads to asymmetries which do not appear to be

inherent in the phenomena. Take, for example, the

reciprocal electrodynamic action of a magnet and a

conductor. The observable phenomenon here depends

only on the relative motion of the conductor and the

magnet, whereas the customary view draws a sharp

distinction between the two cases in which either the one

or the other of these bodies is in motion. For if the

magnet is in motion and the conductor at rest, there

arises in the neighbourhood of the magnet an electric

field with a certain definite energy, producing a current

at the places where parts of the conductor are situated.

But if the magnet is stationary and the conductor in

motion, no electric field arises in the neighbourhood of

the magnet. In the conductor, however, we find an

electromotive force, to which in itself there is no

corresponding energy, but which gives rise—assuming

equality of relative motion in the two cases discussed—

to electric currents of the same path and intensity as

those produced by the electric forces in the former case.

– Albert Einstein, On the Electrodynamics of Moving

Bodies[12]

surface Σ into small surface elements. Each element is

associated with a vector dA of magnitude equal to the

area of the element and with direction normal to the

element and pointing outward.

A vector field F(r, t) defined throughout space, and a

surface Σ bounded by curve ∂Σ moving with velocity v

over which the field is integrated.

flux ΦB through a surface Σ, defined by an integral over a

surface:

surface Σ(t), B is the magnetic field, and B·dA is a vector

dot product. The surface is considered to have a "mouth"

outlined by a closed curve denoted ∂Σ(t). When the flux

changes, Faraday's law of induction says that the work

done (per unit charge) moving a test charge around the

closed curve ∂Σ(t), called the electromotive force (EMF),

is given by:

in volts and ΦB is the magnetic flux in webers. The

direction of the electromotive force is given by Lenz's

law.

identical loops, each with the same ΦB, Faraday's law of

induction states that

magnetic flux in webers through a single loop.

satisfy the basic requirements that (i) it is a closed path,

and (ii) the path must capture the relative motion of the

parts of the circuit (the origin of the t-dependence in

∂Σ(t) ). It is not a requirement that the path follow a line

of current flow, but of course the EMF that is found

using the flux law will be the EMF around the chosen

path. If a current path is not followed, the EMF might not

be the EMF driving the current.

Example: Spatially varying B-field

axis at velocity v in magnetic field B that varies with

position x.

of wire in the xy-plane translated in the x-direction at

velocity v. Thus, the center of the loop at xC satisfies v =

dxC / dt. The loop has length ℓ in the y-direction and

width w in the x-direction. A time-independent but

spatially varying magnetic field B(x) points in the z-

direction. The magnetic field on the left side is B( xC − w

/ 2), and on the right side is B( xC + w / 2). The

electromotive force is to be found by using either the

Lorentz force law or equivalently by using Faraday's

induction law above.

experiences a Lorentz force q v × B k = −q v B(xC − w /

2) j ( j, k unit vectors in the y- and z-directions; see

vector cross product), leading to an EMF (work per unit

charge) of v ℓ B(xC − w / 2) along the length of the left

side of the loop. On the right side of the loop the same

argument shows the EMF to be v ℓ B(xC + w / 2). The

two EMF's oppose each other, both pushing positive

charge toward the bottom of the loop. In the case where

the B-field increases with increase in x, the force on the

right side is largest, and the current will be clockwise:

using the right-hand rule, the B-field generated by the

current opposes the impressed field. The EMF driving

the current must increase as we move counterclockwise

(opposite to the current). Adding the EMF's in a

counterclockwise tour of the loop we find

loop is

surface points in the same direction as B, or in the

opposite direction. If we take the normal to the surface as

pointing in the same direction as the B-field of the

induced current, this sign is negative. The time derivative

of the flux is then (using the chain rule of differentiation

or the general form of Leibniz rule for differentiation of

an integral):

x-direction ) leading to:

as before.

depending on the example, one or the other method may

prove more practical.

velocity ω in radially outward pointing magnetic field B

of fixed magnitude. Current is collected by brushes

attached to top and bottom discs, which have conducting

rims.

conducting rims and a conducting loop attached

vertically between these rims. The entire assembly spins

in a magnetic field that points radially outward, but is the

same magnitude regardless of its direction. A radially

oriented collecting return loop picks up current from the

conducting rims. At the location of the collecting return

loop, the radial B-field lies in the plane of the collecting

loop, so the collecting loop contributes no flux to the

circuit. The electromotive force is to be found directly

and by using Faraday's law above.

two vertical arms of the moving loop downward, so

current flows from the top disc to the bottom disc. In the

conducting rims of the discs, the Lorentz force is

perpendicular to the rim, so no EMF is generated in the

rims, nor in the horizontal portions of the moving loop.

Current is transmitted from the bottom rim to the top rim

through the external return loop, which is oriented so the

B-field is in its plane. Thus, the Lorentz force in the

return loop is perpendicular to the loop, and no EMF is

generated in this return loop. Traversing the current path

in the direction opposite to the current flow, work is done

against the Lorentz force only in the vertical arms of the

moving loop, where

where l is the vertical length of the loop, and the velocity

is related to the angular rate of rotation by v = r ω, with r

= radius of cylinder. Notice that the same work is done

on any path that rotates with the loop and connects the

upper and lower rim.

the flux rule would say the flux through the circuit was

just ΦB = B w ℓ, where w = width of the moving loop.

This number is time-independent, so the approach

predicts incorrectly that no EMF is generated. The flaw

in this argument is that it fails to consider the entire

current path, which is a closed loop.

path, which includes the path through the rims in the top

and bottom discs. We can choose an arbitrary closed path

through the rims and the rotating loop, and the flux law

will find the EMF around the chosen path. Any path that

has a segment attached to the rotating loop captures the

relative motion of the parts of the circuit.

direction of rotation in the top disc, and in the direction

opposite to the direction of rotation in the bottom disc

(shown by arrows in Figure 4). In this case, for the

moving loop at an angle θ from the collecting loop, a

portion of the cylinder of area A = r ℓ θ is part of the

circuit. This area is perpendicular to the B-field, and so

contributes to the flux an amount:

suggests the B-field generated by the current loop is

opposite in direction to the applied B field. As this is the

only time-dependent portion of the flux, the flux law

predicts an EMF of

the rims via the opposite choice of segments. Then the

coupled flux would decrease as θ increased, but the

right-hand rule would suggest the current loop added to

the applied B-field, so the EMF around this path is the

same as for the first path. Any mixture of return paths

leads to the same result for EMF, so it is actually

immaterial which path is followed.

slides with velocity v in a stationary, homogeneous B-

field.

appears to depend upon details of the path geometry. In

contrast, the Lorentz-law approach is independent of

such restrictions. The following discussion is intended to

provide a better understanding of the equivalence of

paths and escape the particulars of path selection when

using the flux law.

unwrapped onto a plane. The same path-related analysis

works, but a simplification is suggested. The time-

independent aspects of the circuit cannot affect the time-

rate-of-change of flux. For example, at a constant

velocity of sliding the loop, the details of current flow

through the loop are not time dependent. Instead of

concern over details of the closed loop selected to find

the EMF, one can focus on the area of B-field swept out

by the moving loop. This suggestion amounts to finding

the rate at which flux is cut by the circuit.[14] That notion

provides direct evaluation of the rate of change of flux,

without concern over the time-independent details of

various path choices around the circuit. Just as with the

Lorentz law approach, it is clear that any two paths

attached to the sliding loop, but differing in how they

cross the loop, produce the same rate-of-change of flux.

dt = v ℓ, regardless of the details of the selected closed

path, so Faraday's law of induction provides the EMF as:[

loop is replaced by a solid conducting plate, or even

some complex warped surface, the analysis is the same:

find the flux in the area swept out by the moving portion

of the circuit. In a similar way, if the sliding loop in the

drum generator of Figure 4 is replaced by a 360° solid

conducting cylinder, the swept area calculation is exactly

the same as for the case with only a loop. That is, the

EMF predicted by Faraday's law is exactly the same for

the case with a cylinder with solid conducting walls or,

for that matter, a cylinder with a cheese grater for walls.

Notice, though, that the current that flows as a result of

this EMF will not be the same because the resistance of

the circuit determines the current.

surface Σ its boundary ∂Σ and orientation n set by the

right-hand rule.

phenomenon is described by the Maxwell-Faraday

equation:[16]

where:

denotes curl

E is the electric field

B is the magnetic field

equations and is often referred to as Faraday's law.

However, because it contains only partial time

derivatives, its application is restricted to situations

where the test charge is stationary in a time varying

magnetic field. It does not account for electromagnetic

induction in situations where a charged particle is

moving in a magnetic field.

Stokes theorem:[17]

integration requires a time-independent surface Σ

(considered in this context to be part of the interpretation

of the partial derivative), and as indicated in Figure 6:

both Σ and ∂Σ are fixed, independent of time

E is the electric field,

dℓ is an infinitesimal vector element of the contour

∂Σ,

B is the magnetic field.

dA is an infinitesimal vector element of surface Σ ,

whose magnitude is the area of an infinitesimal

patch of surface, and whose direction is orthogonal

to that surface patch.

Both dℓ and dA have a sign ambiguity; to get the correct

sign, the right-hand rule is used, as explained in the

article Kelvin-Stokes theorem. For a planar surface Σ, a

positive path element dℓ of curve ∂Σ is defined by the

right-hand rule as one that points with the fingers of the

right hand when the thumb points in the direction of the

normal n to the surface Σ.

integral. The surface integral at the right-hand side of the

Maxwell-Faraday equation is the explicit expression for

the magnetic flux ΦB through Σ. Notice that a nonzero

path integral for E is different from the behavior of the

electric field generated by charges. A charge-generated

E-field can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar field

that is a solution to Poisson's equation, and has a zero

path integral. See gradient theorem.

space, and any surface Σ for which that path is a

boundary. Note, however, that ∂Σ and Σ are understood

not to vary in time in this formula. This integral form

cannot treat motional EMF because Σ is time-

independent. Notice as well that this equation makes no

reference to EMF , and indeed cannot do so without

introduction of the Lorentz force law to enable a

calculation of work.

∂Σ in time dt when moving with velocity v.

than the integral form of the Maxwell-Faraday equation

is (see Lorentz force):

moving surface Σ(t), and v is the velocity of movement.

See Figure 2. Notice that the ordinary time derivative is

used, not a partial time derivative, implying the time

variation of Σ(t) must be included in the differentiation.

In the integrand the element of the curve dℓ moves with

velocity v.

contribution to the EMF on the left side of the above

equation. The area swept out by segment dℓ of curve ∂Σ

in time dt when moving with velocity v is (see geometric

meaning of cross-product):

of the surface enclosed by ∂Σ in time dt is:

for all segments dℓ, we obtain the magnetic force

contribution to Faraday's law. That is, this term is related

to motional EMF.

reference brings out the close connection between E- and

B-fields, and between motional and induced EMF's.

[

Imagine an observer of the loop moving with the loop.

The observer calculates the EMF around the loop using

both the Lorentz force law and Faraday's law of

induction. Because this observer moves with the loop,

the observer sees no movement of the loop, and zero v ×

B. However, because the B-field varies with position x,

the moving observer sees a time-varying magnetic field,

namely:

sees an electric field Ey in the y-direction given by:

nothing to an integral around the loop,

field component, the observer finds the EMF around the

loop at a time t to be:

observer, who sees the centroid xC has advanced to a

position xC + v t. However, the moving observer obtained

the result under the impression that the Lorentz force had

only an electric component, while the stationary observer

thought the force had only a magnetic component.

Using Faraday's law of induction, the observer moving

with xC sees a changing magnetic flux, but the loop does

not appear to move: the center of the loop xC is fixed

because the moving observer is moving with the loop.

The flux is then:

surface pointing oppositely to the applied B-field. The

EMF from Faraday's law of induction is now:

integration because the limits of integration have no time

dependence. Again, the chain rule was used to convert

the time derivative to an x-derivative.

EMF, while the moving observer thought it was an

induced EMF

Electrical generator

rotates with angular rate ω, sweeping the conducting

radius circularly in the static magnetic field B. The

magnetic Lorentz force v × B drives the current along the

conducting radius to the conducting rim, and from there

the circuit completes through the lower brush and the

axle supporting the disc. Thus, current is generated from

mechanical motion.

Main article: electrical generator

relative movement of a circuit and a magnetic field is the

phenomenon underlying electrical generators. When a

permanent magnet is moved relative to a conductor, or

vice versa, an electromotive force is created. If the wire

is connected through an electrical load, current will flow,

and thus electrical energy is generated, converting the

mechanical energy of motion to electrical energy. For

example, the drum generator is based upon Figure 4. A

different implementation of this idea is the Faraday's

disc, shown in simplified form in Figure 8. Note that

either the analysis of Figure 5, or direct application of the

Lorentz force law, shows that a solid conducting disc

works the same way.

uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the disc, causing

a current to flow in the radial arm due to the Lorentz

force. It is interesting to understand how it arises that

mechanical work is necessary to drive this current. When

the generated current flows through the conducting rim, a

magnetic field is generated by this current through

Ampere's circuital law (labeled "induced B" in Figure 8).

The rim thus becomes an electromagnet that resists

rotation of the disc (an example of Lenz's law). On the

far side of the figure, the return current flows from the

rotating arm through the far side of the rim to the bottom

brush. The B-field induced by this return current opposes

the applied B-field, tending to decrease the flux through

that side of the circuit, opposing the increase in flux due

to rotation. On the near side of the figure, the return

current flows from the rotating arm through the near side

of the rim to the bottom brush. The induced B-field

increases the flux on this side of the circuit, opposing the

decrease in flux due to rotation. Thus, both sides of the

circuit generate an emf opposing the rotation. The energy

required to keep the disc moving, despite this reactive

force, is exactly equal to the electrical energy generated

(plus energy wasted due to friction, Joule heating, and

other inefficiencies). This behavior is common to all

generators converting mechanical energy to electrical

energy.

electrical generators, the detailed mechanism can differ

in different cases. When the magnet is rotated around a

stationary conductor, the changing magnetic field creates

an electric field, as described by the Maxwell-Faraday

equation, and that electric field pushes the charges

through the wire. This case is called an induced EMF.

On the other hand, when the magnet is stationary and the

conductor is rotated, the moving charges experience a

magnetic force (as described by the Lorentz force law),

and this magnetic force pushes the charges through the

wire. This case is called motional EMF. (For more

information on motional EMF, induced EMF, Faraday's

law, and the Lorentz force, see above example, and see

Griffiths.)

Electrical motor

An electrical generator can be run "backwards" to

become a motor. For example, with the Faraday disc,

suppose a DC current is driven through the conducting

radial arm by a voltage. Then by the Lorentz force law,

this traveling charge experiences a force in the magnetic

field B that will turn the disc in a direction given by

Fleming's left hand rule. In the absence of irreversible

effects, like friction or Joule heating, the disc turns at the

rate necessary to make d ΦB / dt equal to the voltage

driving the current.

Electrical transformer

for electrical transformers. When the electric current in a

loop of wire changes, the changing current creates a

changing magnetic field. A second wire in reach of this

magnetic field will experience this change in magnetic

field as a change in its coupled magnetic flux, a d ΦB / d

t. Therefore, an electromotive force is set up in the

second loop called the induced EMF or transformer

EMF. If the two ends of this loop are connected through

an electrical load, current will flow.

electrically conductive liquids and slurries. Such

instruments are called magnetic flow meters. The

induced voltage ε generated in the magnetic field B due

to a conductive liquid moving at velocity v is thus given

by:

magnetic flow meter.

field will experience inductive power flow, as do all

stationary metal objects in relation to a moving magnetic

field. These power flows are occasionally undesirable,

resulting in flowing electric current at very low voltage

and heating of the metal.

these undesirable inductive effects.

transformers do not use solid metal, but instead use

thin sheets of metal plate, called laminations. These

thin plates reduce the parasitic eddy currents, as

described below.

• Inductive coils in electronics typically use magnetic

cores to minimize parasitic current flow. They are a

mixture of metal powder plus a resin binder that can

hold any shape. The binder prevents parasitic

current flow through the powdered metal.

Electromagnet laminations

Eddy currents occur when a solid metallic mass is rotated

in a magnetic field, because the outer portion of the

metal cuts more lines of force than the inner portion,

hence the induced electromotive force not being uniform,

tends to set up currents between the points of greatest

and least potential. Eddy currents consume a

considerable amount of energy and often cause a harmful

rise in temperature.

example, so as to show the subdivision of the eddy

currents. In practical use, the number of laminations or

punchings ranges from 40 to 66 per inch, and brings the

eddy current loss down to about one percent. While the

plates can be separated by insulation, the voltage is so

low that the natural rust/oxide coating of the plates is

enough to prevent current flow across the laminations.

This is a rotor approximately 20mm in diameter from a

DC motor used in a CD player. Note the laminations of

the electromagnet pole pieces, used to limit parasitic

inductive losses.

rotating armature is just passing under the tip of the pole

piece N of the field magnet. Note the uneven distribution

of the lines of force across the bar inductor. The

magnetic field is more concentrated and thus stronger on

the left edge of the copper bar (a,b) while the field is

weaker on the right edge (c,d). Since the two edges of the

bar move with the same velocity, this difference in field

strength across the bar creates whirls or current eddies

within the copper bar

This is one of the reasons why high voltage devices tend

to be more efficient than low voltage devices. High

voltage devices use many turns of small-gauge wire in

motors, generators, and transformers. These many small

turns of inductor wire in the electromagnet break up the

eddy flows that can form within the large, thick inductors

of low voltage, high current devices

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