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StressIntensityFactor(SIF)Calculation

2.3.StressIntensityFactor(SIF)Calculation

Twoapproachesforevaluatingstressintensityfactors(SIFs)areavailable:

InteractionintegralmethodTheprogramperformstheSIFcalculationatsolutionand
storestheresultstotheresultfileforpostprocessing.

DisplacementextrapolationmethodTheprogramperformstheSIFcalculationduring
postprocessing.

Foralistofsupportedelements,seeTable2.1:ElementSupportforFractureParameter
Calculation.

2.3.1.MaterialBehavior

Stressintensityevaluationsupportsthefollowingmaterialbehavior:

Linearisotropicelasticity

2.3.2.SIFCalculationviaInteractionIntegrals

SimilartothedomainintegralmethodforJintegralevaluation,theinteractionintegralmethodfor
stressintensityfactorscalculationappliesareaintegrationfor2Dproblemsandvolume
integrationfor3Dproblems.Incomparisontothetraditionaldisplacementextrapolationmethod,
theinteractionintegralmethodoffersbetteraccuracy,fewermeshrequirements,andeaseofuse.

Thefollowingtopicsareavailable:

UnderstandingInteractionIntegralFormulation
CalculatingtheStressIntensityFactors

2.3.2.1.UnderstandingInteractionIntegralFormulation

Theinteractionintegralisdefinedas:

where:

arethestress,strainanddisplacement,
arethestress,strainanddisplacementoftheauxiliaryfield,
andqiisthecrackextensionvector.

Theinteractionintegralisassociatedwiththestressintensityfactorsas

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where:

(i=1,2,3)=modeI,II,andIIIstressintensityfactors
(i=1,2,3)=auxiliarymodeI,IIandIIIstressintensityfactors
E*=EforplanestressandE*=E/(12)forplanestrain
E=Youngsmodulus
=Poissonsratio
=shearmodulus

2.3.2.2.CalculatingtheStressIntensityFactors

MechanicalAPDLcalculatesthestressintensityfactorsviainteractionintegralevaluationatthe
solutionphaseoftheanalysis,andthenstoresthevaluestotheresultsfile.

TheCINTcommand'sSIFSoptioninitiatesthestressintensityfactorscalculations.Similartothe
Jintegralcalculation,CINTisalsousedtospecifytheparametersnecessaryforthecalculation.
ForelementtypeandmaterialbehaviorsupportforCINT,seeMaterialBehavior.

Followingisthegeneralprocessforcalculatingthestressintensityfactors:

Step1:InitiateaStressIntensityFactorsCalculation
Step2:DefineCrackInformation
Step3:SpecifytheNumberofContours
Step4:DefineaCrackSymmetryCondition
Step5:SpecifyOutputControls

2.3.2.2.1.Step1:InitiateaStressIntensityFactorsCalculation

Tostartastressintensityfactorscalculation,issuetheCINTcommandtwice,asfollows:

CINT,NEW,n

CINT,TYPE,SIFS

wherenisthenumberidentifyingthisstressintensityfactorscalculation.
Example2.15:InitiatingaStressIntensityFactorsCalculation

CINT,NEW,1!initiateanewcalculationas#1
CINT,TYPE,SIFS!specifystressintensityfactorcalculations

2.3.2.2.2.Step2:DefineCrackInformation

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SimilartotheJintegralcalculation,thecracktipnodecomponentandthecrackextension
directionarebothnecessaryforthestressintensityfactorscalculation.Twomethods,both
involvingtheCINTcommand,areavailableforspecifyingthevalues:

Definethecracktipnodecomponentandthecrackplanenormal.

Thisapproachappliesforboth2Dcrackgeometryand3Dflatcracksurfaces.Itoffersa
simplewaytodefinea3Dstressintensityfactorscalculation,asyouneedonlydefinethe
cracktip(front)nodecomponentandthenormalofthecrackplane.Usethismethodwhen
thecrackplaneisflat.

Definethecrackextensionnodecomponentandcrackextensiondirection.

Thisapproachappliesfor3Dcurvecrackplanes,whereauniquenormalmaynotexist.
However,youmustdefinethecrackextensionnodecomponentandthecrackextension
directionateachcracktipnodelocation.Usethismethodwhenthecrackplaneisnotflat,or
whenasetofnodesformthecracktip,asinthecaseofacollapsedcracktipmesh.

Theauxiliarycracktipfieldisbasedonthecrackextensiondirection.Toensuretheaccuracyof
thestressintensityfactorscalculation,itiscrucialthatyoucorrectlydefinethecrackextension
definition.

DefinetheCrackTipNodeComponentandCrackPlaneNormal

For2Dcrackgeometry,defineacracktipnodecomponent(usuallyanodelocatedatthecrack
tip).Youcanalsodefineagroupofnodesaroundthecracktip,includingthenodeatthecracktip.
Theprogramusesthisgroupofnodesasthestartingnodestoformthenecessaryinformationfor
thecontourintegrationautomatically.

For3Dflatcrackgeometry,youmustdefineacracktipnodecomponentthatincludesallofthe
nodesalongthecrackfront.Ateachnodelocation,however,onlyonenodecanexist.Allnodesin
thecracktipnodecomponentmustbeconnectable,andtheymustformalinebasedonthe
elementconnectivityassociatedwithit.Thislineisthecrackfront.ANSYSusesittoautomatically
determinetheelementsforthecontourintegration.Theprocedureissimilarto2Dcrack
geometry,andisdonethroughallthenodesalongthecrackfront.

Thecommandsyntaxis:

CINT,CTNC,Par1,Par2,Par3

wherePar1isthecracktipnodecomponentname,Par2definesthecrackextensiondirection
calculationassistnode(anynodeontheopensideofthecrack),andPar3iscrackfrontsend
nodecrackextensiondirectionoverrideflag.

ThePar2andPar3valueshelptoidentifythecrackextensiondirection.Althoughtheprogram
automaticallycalculatesthelocalcoordinatesystematcracktipforstressintensityfactors
calculations,itisusuallybesttoPar2todefineacrackfacenodetohelpaligntheextension
directionsofthecracktipnodes.Bydefault,theprogramusestheexternalsurfacetodetermine
thecrackextensiondirectionandnormalwhenthecracktipnodehitsthefreesurfacehowever,
youcanusePar3tooverridethisdefaultwiththecalculatedcoordinatesystem.

Afterthecracktipnodecomponentisdefined,usetheCINTcommand'sNORMoptiontodefine
thenormalofthecrackplane.Theprogramautomaticallyconvertsitintothecrackextension
vectorq,basedontheelementinformation.Thecrackextensionvectoristakenalongthe

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perpendiculardirectiontotheplaneformedbythecrackplanenormalandthetangentdirectionof
thecracktipnode,andisnormalizedtoaunitvector.

Thecommandsyntaxis:

CINT,NORM,Par1,Par2

wherePar1isthecoordinatesystemnumberandPar2istheaxisofcoordinatesystemPar1.
Example2.16:DefiningtheCrackTipNodeComponentandCrackPlaneNormal

!localcoordinatesystem
LOCAL,11,0,,,,
!selectnodeslocatedalongthecrackfrontand
!defineitascrackfront/tipnodecomponent
NSEL,S,LOC,X,Xctip
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,Yctip
CM,CRACK_TIP_NODE_CM
!Defineanewstressintensityfactorscalculation
CINT,NEW,1
CINT,TYPE,SIFS
CINT,CTNC,CRACK_TIP_NODE_CM
CINT,NORM,11,2

Example2.17:DefiningtheCrackTipNodeComponentandCrackPlaneNormal

!selectnodeslocatedalongthecrackfrontand
!defineitascrackfront/tipnodecomponent
LSEL,,,,
NSLL
CM,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM,NODE
CINT,NEW,1
CINT,TYPE,SIFS
CINT,CTNC,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM,

DefinetheCrackExtensionNodeComponentandCrackExtensionDirection

Usethismethodwhenthecrackplaneisnotflat,orwhenasetofnodesformthecracktip,asin
thecaseofacollapsedcracktipmesh:

1.Defineanodecomponentconsistingofoneormorenodesformingthecracktip.

Thenodecomponentcanhaveoneormorenodes.

Example:CINT,CENC,CMName

2.Identifythecracktipnodeseparatelyifthenodecomponenthasmorethanone
node.

Ifacracktipnodeisnotidentified,thefirstnodeofthenodecomponentistakentobethe
firstnode.

Example:CINT,CENC,CMName,Node1
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3.Definethecrackextensiondirection.

Identifythelocalcoordinatesystemassociatedwiththecrackunderconsideration.

Identifythelocalaxis(fortheaboveCS)alongwhichthecrackissupposedtoextend.

Example:CINT,CENC,CMName,Node1,11,2

Alternatively,definethecrackextensiondirectionbydirectlyspecifyingtheglobalXYandZ
componentsofthecrackextensionvector.

Example:CINT,CENC,CMName,Node1,,,compx,compy,compz

Repeatthismethodforallnodelocationsalongthecrackfront.Althoughtheprogram
automaticallycalculatesthelocalcoordinatesystematthecracktiptodeterminestressintensity
factors,itisusuallybesttousetheNORMoptiontohelpalignthecalculatednormalsofthecrack
tipnodes.
Example2.18:DefiningtheCrackExtensionNodeComponentandCrackExtension
Direction

!localcoordinatesystems
local,11,0,,,,
local,12,0,,,,
!
local,n,0,,,,

NSEL,S,LOC,X,Xctip1
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,Yctip1
NSEL,R,LOC,Z,Zctip1
CM,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM1
NSEL,S,LOC,X,Xctip2
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,Yctip2
NSEL,R,LOC,Z,Zctip2
CM,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM2
!
NSEL,S,LOC,X,Xctipn
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,Yctipn
NSEL,R,LOC,Z,Zctipn
CM,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CMn

CINT,NEW,1
CINT,TYPE,SIFS
CINT,CENC,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM1,,11,2
CINT,CENC,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM2,,12,2
!
CINT,CENC,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM2,,n,2

Example2.19:DefiningtheCrackExtensionNodeComponentandCrackExtension
Direction

!Crackextensionnodecomponentand
!crackextensiondirectionspecificationusingvectors
NSEL,S,LOC,X,Xctip1
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,Yctip1
NSEL,R,LOC,Z,Zctip1
CM,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM1

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NSEL,S,LOC,X,Xctip2
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,Yctip2
NSEL,R,LOC,Z,Zctip2
CM,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM2
!
NSEL,S,LOC,X,Xctipn
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,Yctipn
NSEL,R,LOC,Z,Zctipn
CM,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CMn

CINT,NEW,1
CINT,TYPE,SIFS
CINT,CENC,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM1,,,,Vx1,Vy1,Vz1
CINT,CENC,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM2,,,,Vx2,Vy2,Vz2
!
CINT,CENCOMP,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_CM2,,,,Vxn,Vyn,Vzn

LocalCrackTipCoordinateSystem

Theauxiliarycracktipfieldisbasedonthelocalcracktipcoordinatesystems.Toensurethe
accuracyofthestressintensityfactorscalculation,itiscrucialtohaveacorrectlocalcracktip
coordinatesysteminwhichthelocalxaxisispointedtothecrackextension,thelocalyaxisis
pointedtothenormalofthecracksurfacesoredges,andthelocalzaxispointedtothetangential
directionofthecrackfront.

Thelocalcoordinatesystemsmustbeconsistentacrossallnodesalongthecrackfront.Asetof
inconsistentcoordinatesystemsresultsinnopathdependencyofthecalculatedstressintensity
factorsandirregularbehaviorofthestressintensityfactordistributionalongcrackfront.The
programautomaticallycalculatethelocalcoordinatesystemsbasedontheinputcrackfrontnodes
andthenormalofthecracksurfaceorextensiondirectionshowever,becausetheremaybenot
enoughinformationtodetermineasetofconsistentcoordinatesystems,ANSYS,Inc.recommends
usingtheCINTcommand'sCTNCoptiontodefineacrackfacenodetohelpidentifythe
coordinatesystems,orusetheNORMoptionwiththeCENCoptiontodefinethecoordinate
systems.

2.3.2.2.3.Step3:SpecifytheNumberofContours

Theinteractionintegral,andthusthestressintensityfactors,havethesamecontourindependent
behaviorastheJintegral.Youcanspecifythenumberofcontoursfortheinteractionintegral
evaluation,asfollows:

CINT,NCON,n

wherenisthenumberofcontours.

For3Dcrackgeometry,everynodealongthecrackfronthasthesamenumberofcontours.
Example2.20:SpecifyingtheNumberofContours

CINT,NEW,1
CINT,TYPE,SIFS
CINT,CTNC,CRACK_FRONT_NODE_SET,NODE
CINT,NCON,6

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2.3.2.2.4.Step4:DefineaCrackSymmetryCondition

Ingeneral,thereisnocracksymmetryconditionforamixedmodecrack.Whenacracksymmetry
conditionisdefined,however,stressintensityfactorKIIandKIIIarebothsettozero.The
calculatedinteractionintegralistimedbyafactoroftwoandisusedtocalculatethestress
intensityfactorKI.

Thecommandsyntaxfordefiningasymmetricconditionis:

CINT,SYMM,ON
Example2.21:DefiningaCrackSymmetryCondition

CINT,NEW,1
CINT,TYPE,SIFS
CINT,SYMM,ON!crack#1isasymmetricalcrack

2.3.2.2.5.Step5:SpecifyOutputControls

SimilartotheJintegralcalculation,MechanicalAPDLcalculatesthestressintensityfactorsduring
thesolutionphaseoftheanalysisandstoresittotheresultsfileforpostprocessing.Stress
intensityfactorsoutputusesallthedefaultsfromtheOUTREScommand.Thecommand
OUTRES,ALLincludesCINTcommandresults.However,youcanissueanOUTRES,CINT
commandtocontrolthespecificoutputforstressintensityfactorsresultsonly.
Example2.22:SpecifyingOutputControls

CINT,NEW,1
CINT,TYPE,SIFS
CINT,CTNC,CRACK_TIP_NODE_CM
CINT,SYMM,ON
CINT,NCON,5
OUTRES,CINT,10!outputCINTresultsevery10substeps

2.3.3.SIFCalculationviaDisplacementExtrapolation

ThePOST1postprocessingKCALCcommand(MainMenu>GeneralPostproc>NodalCalcs>
StressIntFactr)calculatesthemixedmodestressintensityfactorsKI,KII,andKIII.The
commandislimitedtolinearelasticproblemswithahomogeneous,isotropicmaterialnearthe
crackregion.

Tocalculatestressintensityfactorsusingthedisplacementextrapolationmethod,followthese
stepswithinthePOST1postprocessor:

Step1:DefineaLocalCrackTiporCrackFrontCoordinateSystem
Step2:DefineaPathAlongtheCrackFace
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Step3:CalculateKI,KII,andKIII

2.3.3.1.Step1:DefineaLocalCrackTiporCrackFrontCoordinate
System

TheXaxismustbeparalleltothecrackface(perpendiculartothecrackfrontin3Dmodels)and
theYaxisperpendiculartothecrackface(asshowninFigure1.5:CrackTipandCrackFront).

Thiscoordinatesystemmustbetheactivemodelcoordinatesystem(CSYS)andresultscoordinate
system(RSYS)whenKCALCexecutes.

Command(s):LOCAL(orCLOCAL,CS,CSKP,etc.
GUI:UtilityMenu>WorkPlane>LocalCoordinateSystems>CreateLocalCS>At
SpecifiedLoc

2.3.3.2.Step2:DefineaPathAlongtheCrackFace

Thefirstnodeonthepathshouldbethecracktipnode.Forahalfcrackmodel,twoadditional
nodesarerequired,bothalongthecrackface.Forafullcrackmodel,wherebothcrackfacesare
included,fouradditionalnodesarerequired:twoalongonecrackfaceandtwoalongtheother.

Command(s):PATH(orPPATH)
GUI:MainMenu>GeneralPostproc>PathOperations>DefinePath

Thefollowingfigureillustratesthetwocasesfora2Dmodel.

Figure2.3:TypicalCrackFacePathDefinitions

(a)halfcrackmodeland(b)fullcrackmodel

2.3.3.3.Step3:CalculateKI,KII,andKIII

TheKPLANfieldontheKCALCcommandspecifieswhetherthemodelisplanestrainorplane
stress.Exceptfortheanalysisofthinplates,theasymptoticornearcracktipbehaviorofstressis
usuallythoughttobethatofplanestrain.TheKCSYMfieldspecifieswhetherthemodelisahalf
crackmodelwithsymmetryboundaryconditions,ahalfcrackmodelwithantisymmetryboundary
conditions,orafullcrackmodel.

Command(s):KCALC
GUI:MainMenu>GeneralPostproc>NodalCalcs>StressIntFactr

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Release17.0SASIP,Inc.Allrightsreserved.

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