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B.Sc.

Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

EXERCISE # 10.2

Find the general solution of each of the is the required solution.


following:
Question # 2: ( )
Question # 1: ( )
Solution:
Solution: Given equation is
Given equation is ( ) ()
( ) () The characteristics equation of ( ) will be
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )

Therefore, the complementary solution is


Therefore, the complementary solution is

Now,
Now,

( )( )
( )( )

( )( ) ( )( )
( )

( ) ( )

Hence,

Hence,

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B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

is the required solution.


( )( )
Question # 3: ( )

Solution: ( )

Given equation is

( ) ()
Hence,
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

( ) ( ) is the required solution.

( )( ) Question # 4: ( )
( ) ( ) Solution:

Given equation is
Therefore, the complementary solution is
:( ) ()

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be


Now,

( )

( )
( )( )
As is the root of so, by
using synthetic division, we have
( )( ) ( )( )

1 -2 0 1
( )( ) ( )( ) 1 0 1 -1 -1

1 -1 -1 0
( )( ) ( )( )

The residue equation will be

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B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( ) ( ) ( )( )

( )


is the required solution.
Therefore, the complementary solution is
Question # 5: ( )

Solution:

Now, Given equation is

( ) ()

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

[ ( )]

( ) ( )
[ ( )] ( )
( )( )
* ( ) ( )

+( )

[ Therefore, the complementary solution is


](
)
Now,
[ ]( )

[ ]
( )( )
[ ]

( )( )( )

( )( )

Hence,

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B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )( )
( )
Therefore, the complementary solution is
( )
( )

( ) Now,

Hence,

( ) ( )( )

( )( )
is the required solution.

Question # 6: ( )
( )( )
Solution:

Given equation is

( ) ()

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be


( )

( )( )
As is the root of
so, by using synthetic division, we have
( )
1 -2 -3 10

-2 0 -2 8 -10
Hence,
1 -4 5 0

( )
The residue equation will be

is the required solution.


( ) ( ) ( )( )
Question # 7: ( )
( )
Solution:

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

Given equation is

( ) ()
( )
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be
is the required solution.

Question # 8: ( )

Solution:

Given equation is
Therefore, the complementary solution is
( ) ()

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be


Now,

( )

( )

Therefore, the complementary solution is

Now,

( )( )
( )

( )
( )

( )
( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )
( )( )

( )
( )
( )

( )
( )

( )

Hence, Hence,
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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )
( )
( )

( )
is the required solution.
( )
Question # 9: ( )

( )
Solution:
( )
Given equation is

( ) ()

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be Hence,

( )

Therefore, the complementary solution is is the required solution.

Question # 10: ( )

Solution:
Now, Given equation is

( ) ()

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

( )
( ) ( ) ( )

( )
( )( )

( )( )

( )
( ) ( )

Therefore, the complementary solution is

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )
1 -1 3 5
Now,
-1 0 -1 2 -5

1 -2 5 0

Now, the residual equation will be


( )
( ) ( )

( )

( )

Therefore, the complementary solution is

( )
Hence,
Now,

( )

is the required solution. ( ) ( ) ( )

( )
Question # 11: ( )

Solution:

Given equation is

( ) ()

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be ( ) ( )

( )( )
is a root of characteristics equation. So we
use synthetic division in order to find the other roots
of synthetic division. ( )( )( )

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )( )
1 0 -7 -6
-1 0 -1 1 6
( )
1 -1 -6 0

( ) Now, the residual equation will be

( )

( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )
( )

( )
Therefore, the complementary solution is

Hence,

Now,

( ) ( )
( )

( )
is the required solution. ( ) ( )

( )

( )

Question # 12: ( ) ( )
( )
Solution:

Given equation is ( )

( ) ( ) () ( )

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be ( )


( )

is a root of characteristics equation. So we ( )


( )
use synthetic division in order to find the other roots
of characteristics equation.

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B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( ) ( )
(
( ) ( )
)
( )
( )
( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

Hence, ( )

( ) ( )

( )
( )
(
is the required solution.

Question # 13: ( ) ( ) ( )
)( )

Solution:

Given equation is
(
( ) ( ) ()
)( )
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

( )( )

( )
( ) ( )

( )( )
( )

Therefore, the complementary solution is ( )

( )
Now,
Hence,
( )

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )
( )
( )
( )( )
is the required solution.

Question # 14: ( ) ( )
( )

Solution:

Given equation is
Hence,
( ) ()

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

is the required solution. Question # 15:


( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
Solution:

Given equation is
Therefore, the complementary solution is
( ) ()

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be


Now,

are the roots of characteristics


equation. So we use synthetic division in order to find
the other roots of characteristics equation.

1 0 3 0 -4
( )( )
( ) 1 0 1 1 4 4
1 1 4 4 0
-1 0 -1 0 -4
( ) 1 0 4 0

(( ) )(( ) )
Now, the residual equation will be
( )

( )( )
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B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

[ ]
Therefore, the complementary solution is

Now, Now consider,

[ ]

( )( )( )( )
[
( )

( )
]
( )( )( )( )
Consider,

[ ( )
( )( )( )( )

]
[ ( )( )( )
( )( )( )( )

] ( )
( )( )( )( ) * +
( )( )

[
( )( )( )( ) * +
]
( )( )( )( ) ( )
* +
[
( )( )( )
( )
* +
]
( )( )( )
( )
[ ] * +

[ ] [ ]

[ ]

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

Thus equation ( ) becomes

Hence,

( )

( )

is the required solution.

Solve the initial value problem. ( ( )

Question # 16: )
( ) ( )

Solution: (

Given equation is )

()
( )
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be
( )

( ) ( ) Hence,

( )( )

( )

Therefore, the complementary solution is Applying ( ) on ( ) we have

Now,

( )

Differentiating ( ) we have

( ) ( )

( )
( )

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B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

Applying ( ) on ( ) we have Now,

( )

Now ( )
( )

( )( )

Hence,
( )

is the required solution.

Question # 17: Hence,

( ) ( )

Solution: ( )
Given equation is ( )

() Applying ( ) on ( ) we have
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
( )

Differentiating ( ) we have

( )
( )
( )
Therefore, the complementary solution is
Applying ( ) on ( ) we have
( )
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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )

( )

( )

( )

Hence,
Hence,

( )
( )
[( ) ]
Applying ( ) on ( ) we have
is the required solution.

Question # 18: ( )
( )

Solution:
( )
Given equation is

() Differentiating ( ) we have

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be ( )

( )

Applying ( ) on ( ) we have

Therefore, the complementary solution is

( )
Now,

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B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

Now ( )

( )

( )

Hence, ( )

( )

( )

is the required solution.


( )
Question # 19:

( ) ( ) ( )

Solution:
( )
Given equation is

() ( )( )

The characteristics equation of ( ) will be


(

(
Therefore, the complementary solution is

Now,

Hence,

( )
( )
( )

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

Applying ( ) on ( ) we have
1 3 7 5
-1 0 -1 -2 -5

Differentiating ( ) we have 1 2 5 0

Now, the residual equation will be

( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
Applying ( ) on ( ) we have ( )

Hence,

Is the required solution.


Therefore, the complementary solution is
Question # 20:
( )

Now,
( ) ( ) ( )

Solution:
First, we will use the exponential shift and then use
Given equation is
the process which is used in above questions and
finally we will reach

()

The characteristics equation of ( ) is Hence,

( )
are the roots of ( )
characteristics equation. So we use
Since initial boundary value conditions are given. We
synthetic division in order to find the
will use that conditions and obtain the final result as
other roots of characteristics equation. below

Is the required solution.

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B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

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