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# B.Sc.

EXERCISE # 10.2

## Find the general solution of each of the is the required solution.

following:
Question # 2: ( )
Question # 1: ( )
Solution:
Solution: Given equation is
Given equation is ( ) ()
( ) () The characteristics equation of ( ) will be
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )

## Therefore, the complementary solution is

Therefore, the complementary solution is

Now,
Now,

( )( )
( )( )

( )( ) ( )( )
( )

( ) ( )

Hence,

Hence,

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

## is the required solution.

( )( )
Question # 3: ( )

Solution: ( )

Given equation is

( ) ()
Hence,
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

## ( ) ( ) is the required solution.

( )( ) Question # 4: ( )
( ) ( ) Solution:

Given equation is
Therefore, the complementary solution is
:( ) ()

## The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

Now,

( )

( )
( )( )
As is the root of so, by
using synthetic division, we have
( )( ) ( )( )

1 -2 0 1
( )( ) ( )( ) 1 0 1 -1 -1

1 -1 -1 0
( )( ) ( )( )

## The residue equation will be

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( ) ( ) ( )( )

( )

is the required solution.
Therefore, the complementary solution is
Question # 5: ( )

Solution:

( ) ()

[ ( )]

( ) ( )
[ ( )] ( )
( )( )
* ( ) ( )

+( )

## [ Therefore, the complementary solution is

](
)
Now,
[ ]( )

[ ]
( )( )
[ ]

( )( )( )

( )( )

Hence,

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )( )
( )
Therefore, the complementary solution is
( )
( )

( ) Now,

Hence,

( ) ( )( )

( )( )
is the required solution.

Question # 6: ( )
( )( )
Solution:

Given equation is

( ) ()

## The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

( )

( )( )
As is the root of
so, by using synthetic division, we have
( )
1 -2 -3 10

-2 0 -2 8 -10
Hence,
1 -4 5 0

( )
The residue equation will be

## is the required solution.

( ) ( ) ( )( )
Question # 7: ( )
( )
Solution:

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

Given equation is

( ) ()
( )
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be
is the required solution.

Question # 8: ( )

Solution:

Given equation is
Therefore, the complementary solution is
( ) ()

Now,

( )

( )

## Therefore, the complementary solution is

Now,

( )( )
( )

( )
( )

( )
( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )
( )( )

( )
( )
( )

( )
( )

( )

Hence, Hence,
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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )
( )
( )

( )
is the required solution.
( )
Question # 9: ( )

( )
Solution:
( )
Given equation is

( ) ()

( )

## Therefore, the complementary solution is is the required solution.

Question # 10: ( )

Solution:
Now, Given equation is

( ) ()

( )
( ) ( ) ( )

( )
( )( )

( )( )

( )
( ) ( )

## Therefore, the complementary solution is

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )
1 -1 3 5
Now,
-1 0 -1 2 -5

1 -2 5 0

( )
( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )
Hence,
Now,

( )

## is the required solution. ( ) ( ) ( )

( )
Question # 11: ( )

Solution:

Given equation is

( ) ()

## The characteristics equation of ( ) will be ( ) ( )

( )( )
is a root of characteristics equation. So we
use synthetic division in order to find the other roots
of synthetic division. ( )( )( )

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )( )
1 0 -7 -6
-1 0 -1 1 6
( )
1 -1 -6 0

## ( ) Now, the residual equation will be

( )

( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )
( )

( )
Therefore, the complementary solution is

Hence,

Now,

( ) ( )
( )

( )
is the required solution. ( ) ( )

( )

( )

Question # 12: ( ) ( )
( )
Solution:

Given equation is ( )

( ) ( ) () ( )

( )

## is a root of characteristics equation. So we ( )

( )
use synthetic division in order to find the other roots
of characteristics equation.

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( ) ( )
(
( ) ( )
)
( )
( )
( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

Hence, ( )

( ) ( )

( )
( )
(
is the required solution.

Question # 13: ( ) ( ) ( )
)( )

Solution:

Given equation is
(
( ) ( ) ()
)( )
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

( )( )

( )
( ) ( )

( )( )
( )

## Therefore, the complementary solution is ( )

( )
Now,
Hence,
( )

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )
( )
( )
( )( )
is the required solution.

Question # 14: ( ) ( )
( )

Solution:

Given equation is
Hence,
( ) ()

## is the required solution. Question # 15:

( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
Solution:

Given equation is
Therefore, the complementary solution is
( ) ()

Now,

## are the roots of characteristics

equation. So we use synthetic division in order to find
the other roots of characteristics equation.

1 0 3 0 -4
( )( )
( ) 1 0 1 1 4 4
1 1 4 4 0
-1 0 -1 0 -4
( ) 1 0 4 0

(( ) )(( ) )
Now, the residual equation will be
( )

( )( )
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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

[ ]
Therefore, the complementary solution is

## Now, Now consider,

[ ]

( )( )( )( )
[
( )

( )
]
( )( )( )( )
Consider,

[ ( )
( )( )( )( )

]
[ ( )( )( )
( )( )( )( )

] ( )
( )( )( )( ) * +
( )( )

[
( )( )( )( ) * +
]
( )( )( )( ) ( )
* +
[
( )( )( )
( )
* +
]
( )( )( )
( )
[ ] * +

[ ] [ ]

[ ]

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

Hence,

( )

( )

## Solve the initial value problem. ( ( )

Question # 16: )
( ) ( )

Solution: (

Given equation is )

()
( )
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be
( )

( ) ( ) Hence,

( )( )

( )

## Therefore, the complementary solution is Applying ( ) on ( ) we have

Now,

( )

Differentiating ( ) we have

( ) ( )

( )
( )

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )

Now ( )
( )

( )( )

Hence,
( )

## Question # 17: Hence,

( ) ( )

Solution: ( )
Given equation is ( )

() Applying ( ) on ( ) we have
The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
( )

Differentiating ( ) we have

( )
( )
( )
Therefore, the complementary solution is
Applying ( ) on ( ) we have
( )
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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

( )

( )

( )

( )

Hence,
Hence,

( )
( )
[( ) ]
Applying ( ) on ( ) we have
is the required solution.

Question # 18: ( )
( )

Solution:
( )
Given equation is

() Differentiating ( ) we have

## The characteristics equation of ( ) will be ( )

( )

Applying ( ) on ( ) we have

## Therefore, the complementary solution is

( )
Now,

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

Now ( )

( )

( )

Hence, ( )

( )

( )

## is the required solution.

( )
Question # 19:

( ) ( ) ( )

Solution:
( )
Given equation is

() ( )( )

## The characteristics equation of ( ) will be

(

(
Therefore, the complementary solution is

Now,

Hence,

( )
( )
( )

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

Applying ( ) on ( ) we have
1 3 7 5
-1 0 -1 -2 -5

Differentiating ( ) we have 1 2 5 0

## Now, the residual equation will be

( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
Applying ( ) on ( ) we have ( )

Hence,

## Is the required solution.

Therefore, the complementary solution is
Question # 20:
( )

Now,
( ) ( ) ( )

Solution:
First, we will use the exponential shift and then use
Given equation is
the process which is used in above questions and
finally we will reach

()

## The characteristics equation of ( ) is Hence,

( )
are the roots of ( )
characteristics equation. So we use
Since initial boundary value conditions are given. We
synthetic division in order to find the
will use that conditions and obtain the final result as
other roots of characteristics equation. below

## Is the required solution.

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Umer Asghar (umermth2016@gmail.com) For Online Skype Tuition (Skype ID): sp15mmth06678
B.Sc. Mathematics (Mathematical Methods) Chapter # 10: Differential Equations of Higher Order

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