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Short-Circuit

ANSI Standard

1996-2017 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI


Short-Circuit Analysis
Types of SC Faults
Three-Phase Ungrounded Fault
Three-Phase Grounded Fault
Phase to Phase Ungrounded Fault
Phase to Phase Grounded Fault
Phase to Ground Fault

Fault Current
IL-G can range in utility systems from a few percent to
possibly 115 % ( if Xo < X1 ) of I3-phase (85% of all
faults).
In industrial systems the situation IL-G > I3-phase is rare.
Typically IL-G .87 * I3-phase
In an industrial system, the three-phase fault condition
is frequently the only one considered, since this type of
fault generally results in Maximum current.
1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 2
Purpose of Short-Circuit
Studies
A Short-Circuit Study can be used to determine
any or all of the following:
Verify protective device close and latch capability

Verify protective device Interrupting capability

Protect equipment from large mechanical forces


(maximum fault kA)

I2t protection for equipment (thermal stress)

Selecting ratings or settings for relay coordination

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 3


System Components
Involved in SC Calculations
Power Company Supply

In-Plant Generators

Transformers (using negative tolerance)

Reactors (using negative tolerance)

Feeder Cables and Bus Duct Systems (at


lower temperature limits)

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 4


System Components
Involved in SC Calculations
Overhead Lines (at lower temperature limit)

Synchronous Motors

Induction Motors

Protective Devices

Y0 from Static Load and Line Cable

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 5


Elements That Contribute
Current to a Short-Circuit
Generator
Power Grid
Synchronous Motors
Induction Machines
Lumped Loads
(with some % motor load)
Inverters
I0 from Yg-Delta Connected Transformer
1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 6
Elements Do Not Contribute
Current in PowerStation
Static Loads

Motor Operated Valves

All Shunt Y Connected Branches

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 7


Short-Circuit Phenomenon

v(t) i(t)
v(t) Vm Sin( t )

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 8


v(t)
i(t)

di
v(t) Ri L Vm Sin(t ) (1)
dt
Solving equation 1 yields the following expression
- t
R
Vm Vm
i(t) sin(t - ) sin( - ) e L
Z Z

Steady State Transient
(DC Offset)

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 9


AC Current (Symmetrical) with
No AC Decay

DC Current

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 10


AC Fault Current Including the
DC Offset (No AC Decay)

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 11


Machine Reactance ( = L I )

AC Decay Current

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 12


Fault Current Including AC & DC Decay

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 13


ANSI Calculation Methods
1) The ANSI standards handle the AC Decay by varying
machine impedance during a fault.

ANSI

2) The ANSI standards handle the dc


offset by applying multiplying factors. The
ANSI Terms for this current are:
Momentary Current
Close and Latch Current
First Cycle Asymmetrical Current

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 14


Sources and Models of Fault
Currents in ANSI Standards
Sources
Synchronous Generators
Synchronous Motors & Condensers
Induction Machines
Electric Utility Systems (Power Grids)

Models
All sources are modeled by an internal
voltage behind its impedance.

E = Prefault Voltage
R = Machine Armature Resistance
X = Machine Reactance (Xd, Xd, Xd)

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 15


Synchronous Generators
Synchronous Generators are modeled
in three stages.

Synchronous Motors &


Condensers
Act as a generator to supply fault
current. This current diminishes as the
magnetic field in the machine decays.

Induction Machines
Treated the same as synchronous
Synchronous Reactance
motors except they do not contribute to
Transient Reactance the fault after 2 sec.

Subtransient Reactance Electric Utility Systems


The fault current contribution tends to
remain constant.
1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 16
Cycle Network

This is the network used to calculate momentary short-circuit current


and protective device duties at the cycle after the fault.

1 to 4 Cycle Network

This network is used to calculate the interrupting short-circuit current


and protective device duties 1.5-4 cycles after the fault.

30-Cycle Network

This is the network used to calculate the steady-state short-circuit


current and settings for over current relays after 30 cycles.

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 17


Reactance Representation for
Utility and Synchronous Machine
Cycle 1 to 4 Cycle 30 Cycle

Xd Xd Xd
Utility

Xd Xd Xd
Turbo Generator

Hydro-Gen with
Xd Xd Xd
Amortisseur
winding

Hydro-Gen without
0.75*Xd 0.75*Xd Xd
Amortisseur
winding

Xd Xd
Condenser

Synchronous Xd 1.5*Xd
Motor

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 18


Reactance Representation for
Induction Machine
Cycle 1 to 4
Cycle

>1000 hp , <= 1800 Xd 1.5*Xd


rpm

>250, at 3600 rpm Xd 1.5*Xd

All others, >= 50 hp 1.2*Xd 3.0*Xd

< 50 hp 1.67*Xd

Note: Xd = 1 / LRCpu

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 19


Device Duty and Usage of Fault Currents
from Different Networks
Cycle Currents 1 to 4 Cycle
(Subtransient Currents
Network) (Transient Network)

Closing and Latching Interrupting


HV Circuit Breaker
Capability Capability

LV Circuit Breaker Interrupting Capability ---

---
Fuse Interrupting
Capability

SWGR / MCC Bus Bracing ---

Relay Instantaneous ---


Settings

30 Cycle currents are used for determining overcurrent settings.

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 20


Momentary Multiplying
Factor

MFm is calculated based on:


Fault X/R (Separate R & X Networks)
Location of fault (Remote / Local generation)
Comparisons of Momentary capability (1/2 Cycle)
SC Current Duty Device Rating

HV CB Asymmetrical RMS C&L RMS


Crest C&L RMS

HV Bus Asymmetrical RMS Asymmetrical RMS


Crest Crest

LV Bus Symmetrical RMS Symmetrical RMS


Asymmetrical RMS Asymmetrical RMS
1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 21
Interrupting Multiplying
Factor

MFi is calculated based on:


Fault X/R (Separate R & X Networks)
Location of Fault (Remote / Local generation)
Type and Rating of CB
Comparisons of Interrupting Capability (1 to 4
Cycle)
SC Current Duty Device Rating

Adj. Symmetrical RMS* Adj. Symmetrical RMS*


HV CB

Adj. Symmetrical RMS*** Symmetrical RMS


LV CB & Fuse

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 22


HV CB Closing and
Latching Duty

Calculate Cycle Current (Imom, rms, sym) using Cycle Network.

Calculate X/R ratio and Multiplying factor MFm

Imom, rms, Asym = MFm * Imom, rms, sym

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 23


HV CB Interrupting Duty

Calculate 1 to 4 Cycle Current (Imom, rms, sym) using Cycle Network.

Determine Local and Remote contributions (A local contribution is


fed predominantly from generators through no more than one
transformation or with external reactances in series that is less than
1.5 times generator subtransient reactance. Otherwise the
contribution is defined as remote).

Calculate no AC Decay ratio (NACD) and multiplying factor MFi

NACD = IRemote / ITotal


ITotal = ILocal + IRemote

(NACD = 0 if all local & NACD = 1 if all remote)

Calculate Iint, rms, adj = MFi * Iint, rms, Symm


1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 24
HV CB Interrupting
Capability
CB Interrupting kA varies between Max kA and Rated kA
as applied kV changes MVAsc capability.

ETAPs comparison between CB Duty of Adj.


Symmetrical kA and CB capability of Adjusted Int. kA
verifies both symmetrical and asymmetrical rating.

The Option of C37.010-1999 standard allows user to


specify CPT.

Generator CB has higher DC rating and is always


compared against maximum through SC kA.

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 25


LV CB Interrupting Duty

LV CB take instantaneous action.

Calculate Cycle current Irms, Symm (If) from the


cycle network.

Calculate X/R ratio and MFi (based on CB type).

Calculate adjusted interrupting current Iadj, rms, symm =


MFi * Irms, Symm

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 26


Fuse Interrupting Duty

Calculate Cycle current Iint, rms, symm from Cycle Network.

Same procedure to calculate Iint, rms, asymm as for CB.

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 27


L-G Faults

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 28


L-G Faults
Symmetrical Components

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 29


Sequence Networks

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 30


L-G Fault Sequence
Network Connections

If 3 Ia 0
3 VPr efault
If
Z1 Z 2 Z0
if Zg 0

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 31


L-L Fault Sequence Network
Connections

I a 2 I a1
3 VPr efault
If
Z1 Z2

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 32


L-L-G Fault Sequence
Network Connections

I a 2 I a1 I a 0 0 I a
VPr efault
If
Z0 Z 2
Z1
Z0 Z 2
if Zg 0

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 33


Transformer Zero Sequence Connections

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 34


Solid Grounded Devices
and L-G Faults
Generally a 3 - phase fault is the
most severe case. L - G faults can be
greater if :
Z1 Z 2 & Z 0 Z1
If this conditions are true then :
I f3 I f 1
This may be the case if Generators or
Y/ Connected transformer are solidly
grounded.

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 35


Unbalanced Faults Display
& Reports
Complete reports that include individual
branch contributions for:
L-G Faults
L-L-G Faults
L-L Faults

One-line diagram displayed results that


include:
L-G/L-L-G/L-L fault current
contributions
Sequence voltage and currents
Phase Voltages

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 36


1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 37
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 38
SC Study Case Info Page

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 39


SC Study Case Standard
Page

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 40


SC Study Case Adjustments
Page
Tolerance
Adjustments Length
Adjustments
Transformer
Impedance Cable Length
Reactor Transmission
Resistance Line Length
Overload
Heater
Resistance
Temperature
Corrections
Adjust Fault Transmission
Impedance Line Resistance
L-G fault Cable Resistance
Impedance

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 41


Tolerance Adjustments

Z 'Transformer Z Transformer * (1 Tolerance)


Length'Cable LengthCable * (1 Tolerance)
Length'Transmissi onLine LengthTransmissi onLine * (1 Tolerance)

Positive tolerance value is used for IEC Minimum If calculation.


Negative tolerance value is used for all other calculations.

Adjustments can be applied Individually or Globally

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 42


Temperature Correction

(234.5 Tc)
R'Copper ' RBASE *
(234.5 Tb)
(228.1 Tc)
R' Alumi RBASE *
(228.1 Tb)

RBASE Resistance at base tempereature


R' Resistance at operating temperature
Tb Conductor base temperature in C
Tc Conductor temperature limit in C

Temperature Correction can be applied


Individually or Globally
1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 43
System for SC Study
Power Grid U1
X/R = 55
Gen1
Voltage Control
Design Setting:
%Pf = 85
MW = 4
Transformers Max Q = 9
T1 X/R Min Q = -3
PS =12
PT =12
ST =12
T2 X/R = 12

Lump1
Y open grounded

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 44


System for SC Study

Tmin = 40, Tmax = 90

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 45


System for SC Study

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 46


Short-Circuit Alerts
Bus Alert

Protective Device Alert

Marginal Device Limit

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 47


Bus SC Rating
Type of Device Monitored Parameter Condition Reported
Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Bracing Asymmetrical
MV Bus (> 1000 Volts)
Momentary Asymmetrical. crest kA Bracing Crest
Momentary Symmetrical. rms kA Bracing Symmetrical
LV Bus (<1000Volts)
Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Bracing Asymmetrical

Protective Device Rating


Device Type ANSI Monitored Parameters IEC Monitored Parameters

LVCB Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Breaking

Momentary C&L Making


Momentary C&L Crest kA N/A
HV CB
Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Breaking

Fuse Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Breaking

SPDT Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Making


SPST Switches Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Making

1996-2010 ETAP/Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 48


3-Phase Duty SC Results
Run a 3-phase Duty SC calculation for a
fault on Bus4. The display shows the
Initial Symmetrical Short-Circuit Current.

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 49


Unbalance Fault Calculation

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI Slide 50