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Characteristic Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates Nucleic acids

Macromolecule polymer A hydrophobic


A macromolecule polymer Macromolecule composing of
composed of one or more macromolecule consisting of
Definition containing carbon, hydrogen a sugar, phosphate and
chains of amino acids in a an alcohol derivative and at
and oxygen in the ratio 1:2:1. nitrogenous base
specific order least one fatty acid chain
Monomer Amino acid None Monosaccahride Nucleotide
Functional
Amino and carboxyl groups CH2O Sugar, phosphate & base
group(s)
Covalent

Bond Peptide * Triglycerides (fats & Oils) Glycosidic Phosphodiester


and Phospholipids have an
ESTER bond
Monosaccharides e.g.
Fructose
Disaccharides e.g. Lactose
Oligosaccharides e.g.
1. Eicosanoids: E.g. omega- Maltotriose
3fatty acid Polysaccharides
2. Phospholipids: E.g. Homopolysaccharides No classification system
Primary
Lecithin Branched E.g.
Secondary e.g. keratin
3. Triacylglycerols: E.g. Amylopectin, Starch & Bases are classified as
-helix
Classification Butter and oils Glycogen Purines e.g. Adenine and
-pleated
4. Waxes: E.g. bees wax Unbranched E.g. Guanine
Tertiary e.g. catalase
5. Glycolipids: E.g. Amylose, Cellulose, Pyrimidines e.g. Cytosine,
Quaternary e.g. Hemoglobin
Cerebrosides Chitin Thiamine, Uracil
6. Polyprenol compounds: Heteropolysaccharide
E.g. Cholesterol Branched E.g. Agar
Unbranched E.g.
Glycosaminoglycans
(GAGs)

Required for structural


Required for the structure, Required to provide energy,
components of cell
function, and regulation of store energy, build Required to store genetic
Function membranes, energy storage
the body's cells, tissues, and macromolecules, and spare information and store energy
sources and intermediates in
organs. protein and fat for other uses
signalli8ng pathways