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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015

Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

SCIENTIFIC BOARD

1. Prof. Dr. Abdul Wahab Jufri, University of Mataram


2. Dr. Elyzana Dewi Putrianti, Charite Universitaetmedizin, Berlin, Germany
3. Prof. Helmut Erdmann, University of Applied Sciences Flensburg, Germany
4. Dr. Imam Bachtiar, University of Mataram
5. Prof. James Gannon, University of Montana, USA (present address American
University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates)
6. Dr. Lalu Rudyat Telly Savalas, University of Mataram
7. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mian Muhammad Awais, Bahauddin Zakariya University,
Pakistan
8. Prof. Dr. Moh. Faried Ramadhan Hassanien, University of Zagazig, Egypt
9. Dr. Muhammad Roil Bilad, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
(present address Universiti Teknologi Petronas Malaysia)
10. Dr. Saprizal Hadisaputra, University of Mataram
11. Dr. Syamsul Bahri, University of Mataram
12. Prof. Dr. Unang Supratman, University of Padjajaran

Technical Editors:
1. Baiq Nila Sari Ningsih, S.Pd.
2. Alfian Eka Utama

ISBN 9786021570425

Copyright: Penerbit FKIP Universitas Mataram

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

PREFACE

Assalamualaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh


It is my pleasure to be able to bring the International Conference on Mathematics
and Natural Sciences Proceeding to our readers. It took an extra effort, time and patience
to accomplish this proceeding and it involved reviewers from all over regions. I personally
thank to our reviewers and subsequently apologize for the delay in making this
proceeding available for you to read. It is largely due to the inevitably extensive reviewing
process and we persist on our initial idea to keep the proceeding both readable and
academically meet a higher standard.
This proceeding is presented in six sections: 1) Invited Speakers; 2) Physics; 3)
Mathematics; 4) Biology (including pharmacy and agriculture); 5) Chemistry; and 6)
General Education. All sections consist of papers from oral and poster presentation in
respective subject, including science and science education.
I hope that this proceeding may contribute in science and science education.

Wassalamu alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh

Lalu Rudyat Telly Savalas


Chief Editor

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

SECTION I: INVITED SPEAKERS

Important Developments in Science Education: Next


Generation Science Standards, Activity Theory, and
Sociocultural Perspectives for Framing Science
Teachingand Learning

Todd Campbell
University of Connecticut, 249 Glenbrook Rd., Unit 3033, Storrs, Connecticut, United States,
todd.campbell@uconn.edu

Abstract-This paper examines important recent developments in science education in the United States
(U.S.).This examination begins with an abbreviated introduction of the newest standards documents in the
U.S., namelyA Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards.
Subsequently, attention isgiven to the usefulness of activity theory and sociocultural perspectives for framing
science teaching and learningto support the implementation of these standards documents. Through activity
theory, consideration is given togeneral human behaviour, or activity, before attention is turned to scientific
activity and classroomrepresentations of scientific activity. Three features of activity are highlighted:
subjects, tools, and the object.The subjects are those engaged in activity (e.g., teacher and students), while the
tools (e.g., ideas, sciencepractices) are those resources that are used to mediate the object of activity. Finally,
the object is the motivationthe subjects have for their engagement. The usefulness of leveraging activity
theory to think about new visionsfor science teaching and learning becomes apparent when considering the
most substantive implication of thenew standards documents. This implication is the prioritizing afforded to
teachers engaging students [subjects] inscience and engineering practices [tools], to use disciplinary core
ideas [tools], and crosscutting concepts [tools]to explain phenomena and solve problems [objects].
Sociocultural perspectives are elevated within the climate ofimplementation of the new standards documents
as consideration is given to the cultural and historical influencesthat shape the norms of how groups interact.
In this, attention is given to the implicit structures and norms thatgovern the work within activity systems so
that these norms can be renegotiated and reified such that scienceteaching and learning is more authentic to
the discipline and equitably framed for all learners.

Keywords: Science Education, Activity Theory, Sociocultural Perspectives

1. Introduction
Every system is perfectly designed to get exactly the outcomes it is getting (Grunow,
2015).Large-scale studies of United States (U.S.) classrooms, arguably the most important part of
thecomplex educational system, have consistently revealed problematic issues related to the
experiencesof students in science. Examples of these disconcerting issues include: lack of
intellectual engagement,concerns for access to some students, curricular activities in place of
adequate sense-making, and afailure to take students prior knowledge into account or seek
evidence-based explanations (Banilower,Smith, Weiss, & Pasley, 2006; Horizon Research
International, 2003; Weiss, Banilower, McMahon, &Smith, 2001). One factor, among many, which
influences both U.S. schools and schools internationallyare national standards documents. These
documents are often enacted with the ambitious intentions ofchanging complex national
educational systems. While complex systems are influenced by thecumulative milieu of pressures
placed on them, there is recognition that certain systemic features, orleverage points, offer more
potential for accomplishing desired changes compared to others, especiallywhen consideration is
given to the implementation of leverage points across multiple levels withincomplex systems. In
the U.S., while not explicitly articulated, there is some consensus that thestandards, A Framework
for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and CoreIdeas [subsequently called
Framework] (NRC, 2012) and the Next Generation Science Standards2(NGSS) (NGSS Lead

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

States, 2013), have the potential to serve as leverage points to positivelyinfluence the disconcerting
issues within science classrooms consistently reported in U.S. classrooms.
The optimism surrounding the U.S. standards documents lies in multiple features surroundingtheir
implementation and content. Among features related to implementation is the recognition thatthese
standards must permeate the educational system in order for their visions to be realized. Thismeans
that plans for implementing these standards must include consideration of how the standardswill
guide curriculum, instruction, teacher preparation and professional development, and
studentassessment (NRC, 2012). The reasoning behind these considerations is that what ultimately
happens in aclassroom is significantly affected by decision making distributed across the levels and
multiplechannels of influence (p. 243) in complex educational systems. In the development of the
standardsdocuments, consideration and guidance are offered for how the multiple levels within the
system cancohere such that the system components work together to support the new vision for
science teachingand learning. As an example, when thinking about curriculum, there is a
recognition that teachers,curriculum coordinators (school & district level), state agencies,
curriculum developmentorganizations, textbook publishers, and curriculum publishers must work
in concert to produceinstructional materials, textbooks, computer and media-based materials that
are coherent with the newvisions for science teaching and learning.
Beyond the considerations around implementation, optimism also lies in the rationale
groundingthe content of the standards documents. Relying on research in science studies that
portray howscientists go about their day-to-day disciplinary work (e.g., Geire, 1999; Knorr Cetina,
1999), andresearch in science education, studies of how teachers can more authentically represent
scientificactivity for students (Lehrer & Schauble, 2006; Manz, 2015), the standards documents
prioritize amore integrated notion of science teaching and learning. This prioritization aims to
support learningthrough student engagement in approximations of scientific activity in science
classrooms across K-12.This is evident through the standards emphasis that students cannot fully
understand scientific andengineering ideas without engaging in the practices of inquiry and the
discourses by which such ideasare developed and refined (NRC, 2012, p. 218). In sum, the
standards documents necessitate areframing of the work of students in classroom activity
(Passmore, 2015), which is something thattheoretical perspectives like activity theory and
sociocultural perspectives provide.To frame activity, is to provide an orienting lens for interpreting
what is going on in a specificsocial activity (Goffman, 1974; Elby & Hammer, 2010). Elby and
Hammer (2010) describe howindividuals and groups situate activities in relation to the expectations
for how they should act, orparticipate, within an activity. Activity theory (Vygotsky, 1987;
Engestrm, 1987) is a theoreticalperspective that researchers have used to frame human behavior
and activity. Consequently, activitytheory is being proposed here as a useful lens for thinking about
the important shifts in scienceteaching and learning envisioned in the standards documents.
Through activity theory, consideration isgiven to general human activity, which can accordingly be
applied to more specific types of humanactivity like scientific activity and consequently classroom
representations of scientific activity. Inactivity theory three features of activity are highlighted:
subjects, tools, and the object. The subjectsare those engaged in activity (e.g., teacher and
students), while the tools (e.g., ideas, science practices)are those resources that are used to mediate
the object of activity. Finally, the object is the motivationthe subjects have for their engagement.
The usefulness of leveraging activity theory to think about newvisions for science teaching and
learning becomes apparent when considering the most substantiveimplication of the standards
documents. This implication is the centrality given to instruction that engagesstudents [subjects] in
science and engineering practices [tools], to use disciplinary core ideas [tools],and crosscutting
concepts [tools] to explain phenomena and solve problems [objects]. In this, studentsare positioned
as epistemic agents (Stroupe, 2014) as they engage in forms of activity that shape uniquetools like
practices in localized ways depending on the subjects (i.e., students) motivations forengaging in
classroom activity (Manz, 2015; Sandoval, 2015; Stroupe, 2015) and activate
contextdependentresources like disciplinary ideas, partial understandings, and practices to
determine the fit ofthese resources in context (Campbell, Schwarz, & Windschitl, in press;
Hammer, Elby, Scherr, &Redish, 2005). This perspective of students taking, creating, and using
tools like practices and3disciplinary ideas in authentic ways represents a powerful difference in
framing when compared tomore traditional framing for science classrooms that might have seen the
work of students as that oflearning finalized forms of knowledge and practices in ways that are

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

considered independent of contextand without emphasis placed on the functional roles of these
tools in classroom activity (Passmore,Gouvea, & Giere, 2014). As can be seen through this brief
discussion, activity theory takes asociolcultural perspective on learning that not only considers the
complexity of scientific activity, butalso social aspects that press on or support communal activity
(Jonassen & Rohrer-Murphy, 1999).Just as activity theory is being used here to help reframe
student work in classroom activity, soto is a sociocultural perspective on learning. More
specifically, a sociocultural perspective on learningis elevated within the climate of implementation
of the standards documents as consideration is givento the cultural and historical influences related
to social structures that can shape the norms of howgroups (e.g., teachers and students in
classrooms) interact. In this, attention is given to the implicitnorms and structures that govern the
work within classroom activity (e.g., what counts as success, howsubjects position themselves and
are positioned by others, negotiation or lack of negotiation inestablishing epistemic authority and
goals). This is necessary since researchers who use social practicetheory (e.g., Carlone, 2012),
which is derived from the work of educational anthropologists (e.g.,Eisenhart & Finkel, 1998;
Holland & Lave, 2009), point to a notion of cultural production, or theways cultural meanings are
produced in everyday practice in ways that reflect and/or counter largersocial structures (Carlone,
2012, p. 10). In the standards documents, this is taken up as considerationis given to equity and
diversity in science education. Put more succinctly, concerns about equityshould be at the
forefront of any effort to improve the goals, structures, and practices that support learningand
educational attainment for all students (NRC, 2012, p. 277). Additionally, researchers likeStroupe
(2015) have highlighted the importance of considering sociocultural perspectives as he asks,whose
science practice? in exploring whose agenda science practices should pursue, whileresearchers
like Hankinson-Nelson (1990) point out how science practice is nested in community andscientists
and learners engage in the work valued and promoted by their particular set of contextual
circumstances (Stroupe, 2015, p. 4). Therefore, sociocultural perspectives are important for
reframingscience teaching and learning so that cultural and historical norms can be renegotiated
and reifiedthrough increased levels of focus on learners epistemic agency (Stroupe, 2014). Such a
reframing aimsto reshape classroom representations of scientific activity as more authentic to the
discipline and moreaccessible and equitable to all learners. Reiser (2013) explains that the vision of
the standards documents requires a dramatic departurefrom approaches to teaching and learning
science occurring today in most [U.S.] science classrooms K-12 (p. 2). This paper, conceptualized
as a position paper, provides an introduction to these standardsdocuments, before expounding upon
the theoretical lens of activity theory and socioculturalperspectives to help provide the necessary
framing for representations of scientific activity inclassrooms that both foreground this important
work and consider the cultural productions that weighheavily on activity. To address the
pragmatics of enacting such a vision, select episodes from researchin science classrooms are
provided to reify both the standards documents and the framing potential ofthe applied theoretical
lenses.

2. The Newest Standards Documents in the U.S.


In 2007 and 2008 National Research Council (NRC) released two important documents,
TakingScience to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 (NRC, 2007) and Ready,
Set,Science! (NRC, 2008). Taking Science to School represented a comprehensive synthesis of
researchabout teaching and learning science from kindergarten through 8th grade (K-8). Relatedly,
Ready, Set,Science! (NRC, 2008) translated the latest educational research of Taking Science to
School: Learningand Teaching Science in Grades K-8 (NRC, 2007) into a volume for K-8
practitioners. Ready, Set,Science! (NRC, 2008) offered practical and accessible guidance to
practitioners for translating researchinto practice in K-8 classrooms. Taken together, these NRC
documents began the reconceptualizationof science teaching and learning which formed the
foundation of the NGSS. This reconceptualization4can be seen in the practices of science and
engineering which were foregrounded in the place of whathad, up to this point, overwhelmingly
been referred to as inquiry:Why not use the term inquiry instead? Science as practice involves
doing something and learningsomething in such a way that the doing and the learning cannot really
be separated. Thus,practice, . . . refers to doing something repeatedly in order to become
proficient . . . learningsomething so thoroughly that it becomes second nature . . . using ones

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knowledge to meet anobjective (NRC, 2008, p. 34).Collectively, these two documents began the
task of reframing science teaching and learning, a taskthat was subsequently taken up in A
Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, CrosscuttingConcepts, and Core Ideas
[subsequently called Framework] (NRC, 2012).

2. 1. A Framework for K-12 Science Education


The Framework was seen as the initial step in developing the Next Generation Science
Standards(NGSS) (NGSS Lead States, 2013). Among other key distinguishing features, the
Framework wasgrounded in a) contemporary research on teaching and learning, b) epistemic and
conceptualfoundations from previous standards documents (AAAS, 1993; NRC, 1996), and c)
identified scienceall K-12 students should know. The writing committee for the Framework was
made up of nationallyrecognized scientists, cognitive scientists, science education researchers, and
standards policy experts.
One round of public comment and revision was made to the Framework before it was
finalized in2012. The Framework includes the comprehensive rationale that guided the
development process,including the guiding assumptions and disciplinary boundaries within which
the authors worked. Asan example, social and behavioral sciences are not fully addressed beyond
ways in which they maymanifest themselves in the natural sciences. The Framework introduces
three dimensions seen ascentral to science learning: science and engineering practices (SEPs),
disciplinary core ideas (DCIs),and crosscutting concepts (CCCs). Further and most importantly,
the Framework emphasizes theimportance of students engaging in the nexus of all three-
dimensions in what is characterized asthree-dimensional learning to support students deeper
understanding and an appreciation of theworld around them. Put more succinctly, in three-
dimensional learning, students engage in SEPsto use DCIs and CCCs to explain phenomena
or solve problems.
In considering science and engineering practices, eight SEPs are identified which
togetherrepresent the intellectual tools, or ways, in which scientists and students work at
knowing: (1) askingquestions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering); (2) developing
and using models; (3)planning and carrying out investigations; (4) analyzing and interpreting data;
(5) using mathematicsand computational thinking; (6) constructing explanations (for science) and
designing solutions (forengineering); (7) engaging in argument from evidence; and (8) obtaining,
evaluating, andcommunicating information. As mentioned already, the focus on practices is not
inconsequential.
Beyond the distinction made in Ready Set Science! (NRC, 2008) between inquiry and
practices, Ford(2015) argues, from the work of philosophers (e.g., Rouse, 2007), that the benefit of
using practices inthe NGSS to describe science foregrounds what is most important for students to
understand related tothe epistemic privilege afforded to science. Specifically, this is the idea that
scientific practice is basednot on rules, but on processes of perpetual evaluation and critique that
support progress in explainingnature (Ford, 2015, p. 3). The science and engineering practices
identified in the NGSS are artefacts ofthe regularities of these processes that represent candidate
resources for developing and critiquingexplanations to make progress at knowing.
The DCIs are the core ideas of the disciplines and are organized into four domains: the
physicalsciences; the life sciences; the earth and space sciences; and engineering, technology and
applicationsof science. The physical sciences focus on (a) matter and its interactions, (b) motion
and stability:forces and interactions, (c) energy, and (d) waves and their applications in
technologies for informationtransfer. The life sciences focus on (a) from molecules to organisms:
structure and processes, (b)ecosystems: interactions, energy, and dynamics, (c) heredity:
inheritance and variation of traits, and(d) biological evolution: unity and diversity. The earth and
space sciences focus on (a) Earths place inthe universe, (b) Earths systems, and (c) Earth and
human activity. The engineering, technology, and5applications of science DCI focuses on (a)
engineering design and (b) links among engineering,technology, science, and society. Additionally,
the DCIs are organized learning progressions groundedin the notion that learning is a
developmental progression and that learning in the natural sciences andengineering should become
increasingly sophisticated as students move from earlier grades to latergrades (i.e., K-12). The
CCCs are concepts that are applicable across all domains of science. Theseven CCCs are: (a)

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
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patterns, similarity, and diversity, (b) cause and effect, (c) scale, proportion andquantity, (d)
systems and system models, (e) energy and matter, (f) structure and function, and (g)stability and
change. The CCCs are conceptualized as thinking tools or resources useful acrossscientific
disciplines. Since these are applicable across disciplines, the CCCs are seen as helpful insupporting
the coherent development of students science-informed views of the world.
Beyond identifying the SEPs, DCIs, and CCCs, the Framework provides in-depth
discussion anddescription to elucidate the importance and specifics of what students should know
and be able to do.As an example, comprehensive descriptions of the important features of the DCIs
(e.g., biologicalevolution) or SEPs (e.g., students developing and using models) are explicated to
support teachers inhelping to discern what aspects of these ideas and tools are important to
foreground for learners. Inaddition to the focus on three-dimensions of science learning, attention is
also given to importantconsiderations that need to be taken into account in realizing the vision of
the Framework. Theseinclude considering, (a) how the three dimensions for science learning can
be integrated, (b) howimplementation will proceed related to curriculum, instruction, teacher
development, and assessment,(c) issues related to equity and diversity in science and engineering
education, (d) guidance for NGSSstandards developers based on the Framework, and (e) research
and development to inform future K-12science educations standards.

2. 2. Next Generation Science Standards


Based on the guidance provided in the Framework, a writing team with members
fromcollaborating states across the U.S., other stakeholders in science, science education, higher
education,and industry completed the first draft of NGSS during the summer of 2011. The
document wentthrough two rounds of revisions based on feedback from two periods of public
comment before it wasfinalized in 2013. Given how instrumental the Framework was for guiding
the development andproviding the rationale for what is included in the NGSS, it is important that it
serve as a compendiumdocument used in concert with the NGSS.
The NGSS does not identify curriculum, instead it outlines specific student
performanceexpectations that outline describe activities and outcomes that students are expected
to achieve inorder to demonstrate their ability to understand and apply the knowledge described in
the disciplinarycore ideas (NRC, 2012, p. 218). These performance expectations are written such
that eachexpectation partners a SEP, DCI, and CCC and includes clarification statements and
assessmentboundaries. The following is an example from high school physical science:
Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical
reactionsystem depends upon the changes in total bond energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis
is onthe idea that a chemical reaction is a system that affects the energy change. Examples of
modelscould include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the
relativeenergies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is
conserved.][Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total bond energy
changesduring a chemical reaction from the bond energies of reactants and products.]
Citation?Emphasis in original?
In this example, Develop a model is the SEP developing and using models, release or
absorption ofenergy is the CCC energy and matter, and chemical reaction system depends upon
the change in totalbond energy is the DCI structure and properties of matter and chemical
reactions. Grade-band (e.g.,K-5; 6-8; 9-12) appropriate performance expectations are written for
each DCI, SEP, and CCC suchthat students demonstrated facility in accomplishing performance
expectations at each grade-bandprovide the foundational understandings and abilities necessary for
more sophisticated performances atsubsequent grade-bands.
Cumulatively, the Framework and the NGSS provide a rationale and guidance for learning
acrossK-12, however they do not predetermine how the three [SEPs, DCIs, CCCs] are linked in
curriculum,units, or lessons. Instead, the writers suggest that additional work will be needed to
create coherentinstructional programs that help students achieve these standards (NGSS Lead
States, 2013, AppendixA, p. 2). Given this, science education researchers have begun to consider
various theoreticalperspectives that might be useful in supporting teachers and science educators in
thinking about, andorienting toward, their work such that student experiences are more authentic to
the discipline andequitably framed for access to all learners. In this, priority is given to engaging all

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
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students inclassroom activity in ways that not only develops their understandings of the core
conceptual ideas ofeach scientific discipline, but also offers all students access, insight, and facility
into how these ideasare developed and refined and, as importantly, how the ideas are applied in
explaining the world oraddressing problems of societal concern. Two theoretical perspectives,
activity theory and socioculturalperspectives, are considered here with this aim.

3. Activity Theory, Scientific Activity, and Classroom Versions of


ScientificActivity
The activity in which knowledge is developed and deployed . . . is not separable from or
ancillaryto learning and cognition. Nor is it neutral. Rather, it is an integral part of what is
learned.Situations might be said to co-produce knowledge through activity (Brown, Collins, &
Duguid,1989, p. 32).This implies that knowledge is deictic, or cannot be fully understood without
additional contextualinformation, since knowledge is as connected to the motivation from which it
was developed, as it is tothe tools and subjects which produced it. This is particularly true, since
activity theory focuses onsubjects, objects, and tools as a framework for understanding the nature
and development of humanbehaviour (Lantoff, 2006, p. 8) (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Activity Theory

In activity, as alluded to previously, the subject is the individual or group whose viewpoint
is adoptedwithin an activity. As an example, the subject(s) of a classroom could be the teacher and
students asthey engage in activity. The object refers to the raw material or problem space at
which the activityis directed (Engestrm, 1993, p. 67). In a classroom, the object proposed by the
Framework is toexplain phenomena and solve problems. Further, tools are conceived of as
resources for mediating theobject of the activity (Engestrm, 1987). Therefore, in explaining
phenomena or solving problems inthe Framework and NGSS, tools are conceptualized as all three
dimensions of science learning (i.e.,SEPs, DCIs, CCCs). As an example, as students [subjects] are
engaged in the episode in Figure 2,taken from a middle school classroom, the object of the activity
is to explain the phenomenon (i.e.,what is happening to strawberries in a zip-lock bag at room
temperature after twenty days). In this,students use tools like partial understandings about DCIs
like digestion, nutrients, and mould growth inconcert with tools like developing scientific practices
of constructing explanations to achieve the objectof classroom activity. Finally, it can also be seen
that the teacher is also a subject in the classroomversion of scientific activity as she presses
students to further articulate their ideas, whilesimultaneously trying to support their work.

Alex: What is happening overtime in the zip-lock back is that strawberries are
rotting or decomposing. What is happening is . . . it might be that the mold
grows overtime and gathers the strawberries nutrients through digestion
andthe strawberries start to shrivel up and break

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Teacher: Great. So what you said was that the strawberries are rotting and
decomposing. Is that the same thing or are they two different things that
aregoing on? And this can be a question for anybody . . .
Tori: I think that rotting is taking all of the nutrients up to the surface so that
themold can, I guess, digest it. And, decomposing is when the strawberry
startsto fall apart and become compost.
Teacher: Because of what reason?
Tori: Because all of the nutrients are out of the strawberries and that is
basicallywhat makes up the fruit.
*Excerpt from video that is available at AmbitiousScienceTeaching.Org.

Figure 2. An Exemplar Episode from a Classroom Version of Scientific Activity

In Figure 2, it can be seen that tools find their usefulness in how they support the subject-
objectdialectic, or more specifically, the students working to explain what happens to strawberries
in a ziplockbag at room temperature after twenty days. Further, and just as importantly, tools are
sharpenedand honed, and even changed, as they are applied to different contexts. This is explained
byEngestrm and Middleton (1996), as they reveal how artefacts that serve as tools are not
convenientlyhanded to the subject, instead they are invented, refined, discarded and replaced by the
subject in theactivity, according to how functionally useful they are found by the subject to be in
meeting the objectof the activity. In fact, those tools identified as SEPs in NGSS, have been
referred to, by some sciencestudies scholars, as tools scientists developed within scientific activity
over time to work at problemswith knowing (Gray, 2014).
Accounts of scientific activity have been explicated in the science studies literature
asresearchers examine the behaviour of scientists engaged in their day-to-day activity (c.f., Giere,
1999;Knorr Cetina, 1999; Nersessian, 1999). Further, accounts of scientific activity have been used
to`represent classroom versions of these activities, so that, to the extent possible (c.f., Berland,
2011;Kelly, 2008; Manz, 2014), these representative versions of scientific activity are true to the
disciplinaryactivity from which they were derived. This work has led to what might be perceived of
as finishedproducts represented as SEPs, DCIs, and CCCs in the Framework and NGSS. However,
activitytheory posits that there are no finished products, only tools that develop overtime that
lendthemselves as promising candidates for meeting future objects identified by future
subjects. Thisis so important, especially related to the implications for classroom representations of
scientificactivity, and is consistent with how Ford (2015) helps frame SEPs identified in the NGSS.
Thissuggests that the SEPs, DCIs, and CCCs of the NGSS, all object-mediating tools envisioned for
use inclassroom representations of scientific activity, are not learned as much as they are taken
up,strategically used, and uniquely constituted within the contexts within which they are activated.
Additionally, this suggests that additional tools (e.g., localized practices developed by
students to workat knowing) might also be constituted that help localized communities of practice
work towarddefensible knowledge claims. An example of this is seen in Manz (2015) as she
revealed how 3rd gradeelementary students relied on defining attributes and processes, mapping
between the experiment andthe target system, and generalizing across cases to make sense of their
local school-yard environment.
What is most important to understand here is that at its very essence, activity has a
functional role forthe subjects (Passmore, Gouvea, Giere, 2014). This role is what defines activity
and helps usconceptualize tools in ways that may be dramatically different than they are
traditionally framed inschools, especially in science classrooms. Reframing classrooms as activity
systems allows teachers tosee their students work as more than learning finalized forms of
knowledge and practices identified asSEPs, DCIs, and CCCs in the NGSS in context independent

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forms without application. Rather, studentwork can be seen as the taking-up, creating, and refining
tools in powerful context dependent ways thatare functionally important to them as subjects in
activity for accomplishing objects, like explainingphenomena and solving problems, objects that
hold activity together (Hysalo, 2005).
Finally, considering why the motivations and values of students are so important is
discussed next as asociocultural perspective lens is applied to classroom representations of
scientific activity to ensure thatthat science teaching and learning is not only more authentic to the
discipline, but also equitablyframed for all learners

4. Sociocultural Perspectives
Sociocultural perspectives emphasize students participation in negotiating and
adaptingrather than enacting or adopting) practices and explore the ways that students goals,
establishedpractices, and communities interact with the practices that are the target of instruction . .
.(Manz, 2014, p. 2).Manz perspective not only aligns with the activity theory lens, which is itself
grounded in asociocultural perspective for understanding human behaviour (Jonassen & Rohrer-
Murphy, 1999), butalso takes into account essential elements critical for equitably framing science
teaching and learningfor all students. More specifically, this perspective prioritizes the epistemic
goals (Sandoval, 2015) ofstudents in classroom communities. Sandoval identified how research
over the last half century hasmade explicit the connection between the ways reasoning occurs and
the goals that underlie thesepursuits. He further explicates how reasoning can be viewed in
sociocultural terms as theappropriation of communal practices of producing and evaluating claims
and evidence (p. 1). Thissociocultural perspective is seen as potentially central for framing
equitable access for students to takeup science as a valuable resource in their lives, especially when
students are afforded opportunities toshape epistemic goals that have consequence to them.
As alluded to earlier, when a sociocultural perspective is applied as a lens for framing
scienceteaching and learning, attention is given to the implicit norms that govern the work within
activity, ormore specifically classroom representations of scientific activity envisioned in NGSS.
Further, thisprompts questions like: What counts as success in the activity?, To what extent is what
counts assuccess negotiated and valued by students in the activity?, Is there a role for students in
negotiatingand adapting practices and drawing on their personal communal resources (e.g.,
communal practices ofworking at knowing) in activity?, and How is epistemic authority negotiated
in activity?. When thesequestions are addressed, norms of classroom activity can be made more
explicit and continuallyrenegotiated such that science teaching and learning are more authentic to
the discipline and equitablyframed for all learners. An example of work that has taken seriously the
communal resources ofstudent learners can be found in Hardicourt-Barnes (2003), where close
engagement with the Haitiancultural practice of bay odyan, a practice similar to scientific
argumentation, led to her inclusion of thisresource in her science classroom to support Haitian
Creole students. In this, forms of argumentativedebate often found in Haitian homes as a form of
entertainment were featured in classroom sensemakingepisodes so that students could build on
cultural practices they were already accustomed to as aform of sensemaking about phenomena or
events in the world. The use of bay odyans as a form ofsense-making that is attentive to
sociocultural perspectives of learning is further highlighted in Figure3.

As part of a science unit on water conservation, Haitian middle school students


werediscussing ways in which water is wasted in a typical American home. Earlier in the
year,in keeping with their school districts science framework, they had studied the water
cycle.During a class discussion, one student, Markenson,* addressed a question to the
teacher:

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Ms. R, I need to know the difference: when I read in our book [the earth science
text]about water, it said its always the same amount of water as there was long ago. Then
whatmakes this one [the water conservation curriculum] say water is wasted?
Anotherstudent, Jean Marc, jumped in to suggest that water is never wasted: Even if it is
used upit comes back again. It passes through some place that cleans it. Mirey then
articulatedsome of the tensions associated with relationships between water resources,
water use,water conservation, and water scarcity: There are some people here [in the
UnitedStates] who like to waste water. . . . There are other people elsewhere who cant find
any.The amount of water on earth is not the amount of water for us to use. Keenon took
upMireys line of reasoning specifically in relation to the distribution of water resources
andwater use habits: People here and people in Haiti, there are places where they cant
findwater. Is it the places where they are wasting water that they always find more? As
thediscussion continued, the students considered possible meanings of, reasons for,
andconsequences of wasting water, including water scarcity in its relationship to wealth,
poverty, and environmental degradation in Haiti and the United States.
It was not Ms. Rs plan to engage her students in analyzing relationships between
differentviews of water they had encountered in school. However, in the moment, Ms. R,
who is alsoHaitian, recognized that her students were employing a conversational style
widely usedamong Haitian people to engage in highly spirited and focused debate of ideas.
Thepractice is called bay odyans (Hudicourt-Barnes 2003). Aware of the deep
meaningmakingthat can develop through bay odyans, Ms. R. decided in the moment to shift
hercurricular plan. She encouraged the discussion, allowing it to flow from student to
studentwithout filtering through her. In this way, the students explored varied meanings
around anissue of concern to them and their homeland: water use and availability in the
UnitedStates and Haiti, shaped by economic, political, and environmental forces. By
approachingthe curriculum as open territory for critical inquiry, Ms. R and her students
engaged withwater as an ecologically complex phenomenon a perspective not accounted
for by thecurriculum.
*Excerpt from the Voices in Urban Education Website
http://vue.annenberginstitute.org/content/students%E2%80%99-sense-making-
sourcecreativity-teachingAmbitiousScienceTeaching.Org.

Figure 3. Bay odyans as a cultural sensemaking resource

In the episode in Figure 3, it can be seen that students are found negotiating and drawing
on practicesfrom their communal resources (i.e., bay odyans) as they reasoned about issues of
concern to them(i.e., water resources for their homeland). In this, students are found steering the
epistemic goals of thework captured in the episode, because it was not Ms. Rs plan to engage her
students in analyzing relationships between different views of water. Since the curriculum was
approached as open territoryfor critical inquiry, there is some suggestion that students were also at
work negotiating epistemicauthority in the social setting of the classroom. This sociocultural
perspective lens, that prompts criticalquestions about the norms of activities students are asked to
engage in, is well aligned with visions forsupporting equity and diversity in the Framework, and
consequently the newest standards documentsmore generally, that state:
A major goal for science education should be to provide all students with the background
tosystematically investigate issues related to their personal and community priorities. They should
beable to frame scientific questions pertinent to their interests, conduct investigations and seek
outrelevant scientific arguments and data, review and apply those arguments to the situation at
hand, andcommunicate their scientific understanding and arguments to others (NRC, 2012, p. 277).

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5. Conclusion and Implications


The following, in italics, are the most important propositions of this position paper. To
concludethis position paper, each is revisited briefly to recap their potential and implications as
importantdevelopments in science education in the U.S.
The standards documents (i.e., NRC, 2012 & NGSS Lead States, 2013) have the potential to
serveas a leverage point to positively influence the disconcerting issues within science classrooms
that areconsistently reported in national studies of U.S. classrooms.
Lack of intellectual engagement, concerns for access to some students, curricular activities
inplace of adequate sense-making, failure to take students prior knowledge into account or
seekevidence-based explanations are, among others, the disconcerting issues that have consistently
beendocumented in science classrooms (Banilower, Smith, Weiss, & Pasley, 2006; Horizon
ResearchInternational, 2003; Weiss, Banilower, McMahon, & Smith, 2001). The standards
documents, giventhe consideration they give to implemention across the levels and multiple
channels of influence withinthe complex U.S. educational system, and the rationale grounding their
content, are seen as a leveragepoint around which progress can be made to address these problems.
Particularly since they aregrounded in both science studies research that has helped reify scientific
activity and contemporaryresearch on teaching and learning. It is recognized that the visions of
teaching and learning in theFramework and the NGSS require a dramatic departure from business
as usual in most U.S. K-12classrooms (Reiser, 2013), therefore the ultimate influence of these
documents remains to be seen.However, because they have already been adopted by several U.S.
states and even more states areworking from the foundational commitments of the Framework,
optimism abounds about thesedocuments in ways that have not been found previously, especially
since it is recognized that thecollective collaborative efforts across U.S. states and regions can
ultimately provide effectivesynergistic efforts to develop curriculum resources, assessments, and
structures to support effectiveimplementation.
Activity theory posits that there are no finished products, only tools that develop overtime thatlend
themselves as promising candidates for meeting future objects identified by future subjects.
This, along with the vantage point offered by sociocultural perspectives, represents what
isconsidered the most important contribution of this position paper. This stance emanates from
thenature of human activity and is consistent with how Ford (2015) helps frame the focus on
practice thatis highlighted in the NGSS. In this, Ford describes how practices (i.e., tools in activity)
are artefacts ofthe regularities of scientific activity that are candidate resources for developing and
critiquingexplanations to make progress at knowing. Framing science teaching and learning with
activity theorydoes not privilege finalized forms of knowledge and practice as the object of
classroom activity, butinstead sees these as resources or tools that are stabilized in the contexts of
performances that haveconsequence for subjects with more meaningful objects (i.e., explaining
phenomena and solvingproblems).
Sociocultural perspective is seen as potentially central for framing equitable access for students to
takeup science as a valuable resource in their lives, especially when students are afforded
opportunities toshape epistemic goals that have consequence to them.
Finally, a sociocultural prospective provides a lens for considering the ways in which
learners canmore equitable participate in meaningful scientific activity, by considering the cultural
productions thatweigh on educational systems, particularly classrooms. Promise for making
progress in this area lies inaffording students more opportunities as epistemic agents (Stroupe,
2014) to shape epistemic goals(Sandoval, 2015) in classroom representations of scientific activity,
especially as consideration is givento how communal resources and practices with which students
already have facility (e.g., bay odyansdescribed by Harticourt-Barnes, 2003), can be leveraged in

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classroom activity in functionally importantways that have consequence (Ford, 2015; Passmore,
Gouvea, & Geier, 2014).

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The Educational Practices Framework: The


Implementation of the ELPSA Model in West Nusa
Tenggara
Tom Lowrie* and Sitti Maesuri Patahuddin
University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia, thomas.lowrie@canberra.edu.au

Abstract-This keynote presentation describes the application of an educational practices framework that
was adapted to an Indonesian context to promote professional development opportunities and enhanced
personal learning journeys to practitioners within a mathematics education community. The framework has
engaged the community (including classroom teachers, school leaders and education managers), to reflect
upon their own practices and the contributions they offer the larger, collective, international community.
Elements of the framework have previously been implemented in a number of diverse settings, including
jurisdictions in Australia, Sweden and Finland. The framework acknowledges the critical aspect of context
within which teachers' work and the complex culturally-discursive conditions of the teaching profession.
Noteworthy, the framework challenges participants to reflect deeply upon their own pedagogical practices
within a process that respects both top-down and bottom-up viewpoints.

Keywords:Professional practice, ELPSA learning framework, mathematics professional development

1. Introduction
The primary purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of an educational practices
framework (Lowrie, 2014) that has been previously implemented in a number of international
settings, and how it was adapted to an Indonesian context. For some time, the main criticism of
professional development within teacher education (and its related research) has been a cyclic
process of reinvention from narrowly formed top-down directives (McKernan, 2008). As
Lieberman (1995, pp. 595596) highlighted almost 20 years ago, professional development
opportunities have often ignored the critical importance of the context within which teachers
work. More recently, informal professional development (Richter et al., 2011), teacher-theorising
(Smith & Hodson 2010), and school-based learning (Wong & Tsui 2007) have attempted to address
such challenges. Unfortunately, the top-down directives of professional development continue to be
isolated and centred around standards and new curriculum directions (Darling-Hammond et al.
2009). As Lowrie (2014) argued, new frameworks need to be developed, trialled and implemented
across different contexts and countries to provide professional development opportunities which
not only value add to previous initiatives, but are informed by best practice and sound research.
Kemmis (2010) has argued that teachers must consider themselves as professionals who
become procient and exible at interpreting and adapting practices and educational policies in
ways that that are contextually rich. Such aspirations help ensure that their practices engage and
develop their particular students understandings of, and ways of relating to, their communities and
beyond. He argued that a site (often a classroom in a school in its community) is always the
existential and ontological given in education (Kemmis & Grootenboer 2008). In other words, it is
the place where events and practices take place, and where people meet and engage with one
another in practice. Thus, practices are inuenced by the context, culture and infrastructure of the
architecture that has been designed. In this sense, practices are situated and shaped by the
circumstances and conditions of the physical location in which it occurs, and of course the time and
space of the circumstances. Nevertheless, as Kemmis and Grootenboer (2008, p. 59) argue, these
practices are not static, since individuals experiences go beyond the transmission and
accumulation of particular content, or the development of particular values or skill [moreover]
educational design is not just a technical task it is also a task requiring knowledge, skills,
wisdom and a capacity for critical reection and emancipatory action.
As we learn and engage with our profession, we construct practicesand these practices are
constructed both within and outside the context or setting. For a classroom teacher, these practices
may involve preparing lessons, interpreting curriculum documents, engaging with colleagues and

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parents, organising and utilising resources, or designing textbooks. Although a classroom teacher
(or for that matter an educational leader) may not may not have been involved directly in
educational policy-making or curriculum development, their teaching and learning is strongly
influenced by such meta-practices (Schatzki, 2002). As Schatzki (2002) claimed, the relative xed
nature of facilities, equipment, resources, policy mandates and curricula associated with specic
subject areas all play a part in how practices are constructed, enabled and developed. Consequently,
the site must become the focus of any and professional learning experiences.

2. The Educational Practices Framework


Lowrie (2014) proposed a framework that simultaneously considered professional
development from both bottom-up and top-down viewpoints to be shared and contested in both
personalised and professional ways. The framework was based on the premise that teachers should
be able to generate their own knowledge and organise their learning goals and strategies in a self-
monitoring manner (a bottom-up viewpoint). It also acknowledged that all stakeholders (including
governments, policy-makers, accrediting agencies, school systems, and school communities)
should be encouraged to appreciate the collective challenges the system confronts, otherwise high
levels of trust and ethical practice will never exist (an empowering, top-down viewpoint). The
framework, represented in Figure 1, formed the basis of the professional development model
described in this study.

Figure 1. Lowries (2014) Educational Practices Framework

The rst component on the framework draws on Kemmis and Grootenboers (2008) practice
architecture framework to establish a way of understanding professional practice. They maintained
that the nexus between an individuals dispositions and actions should be contextualized within the
actual site of practice. The design is established within a theoretical stance that acknowledges that
practice is informed by the socialpolitical (relatings), cultural-discursive (sayings), and material-
economic (doings) conditions of practice both from within the school community and across the
broader professional context (Lowrie, 2014). These arrangements of practice (relatings, sayings and
doings) provide an understanding for how educational practices take place and are inuenced by
policies, the aspirations of the school communities and the economic opportunities (or otherwise)

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of the site. Relatings are influenced by the existing social orders and norms of schools and systems
and include engagement and relationships with others (teacher/student, teacher/teacher,
teacher/principal, teacher/students family). Sayings are shaped by culturally-discursive conditions
that emerge from the traditions and belief systems. The resources that enable and constrain
education, and the settings where the practice of education takes place shape doings. In terms of
doings, much of the work that takes place is inuenced by the traditions of the settings and context.
The second component of the framework highlights the necessity of localising and
individualising professional learning (personal learning journeys). The typical one-size-ts-all
approaches often associated with professional development in education fail to account for
individual differences or capacity building. Moreover, they tend to under-utilise the individuals
capacity to value add. This component puts the individual at the core of decision-making. It
acknowledges that professionals need to take more responsibility for their own learning in ways
that support professional autonomy. As Lowrie (2014) described, this component:
recognises that individuals need not learn in isolation and that other like-minded community
members can share common interests and goals. Indeed, it is envisaged that groups of individuals
(e.g. teachers within a school or across schools) would be working towards identied professional
learning goals but that these pathways will still be personally driven. This approach is fostered by
the intentions of individuals rather than at the discretion of those in power. It provides new levels
of empowerment for individuals as they become increasingly responsible for their own decision-
making. These new levels of autonomy should lead to higher levels of expertise within the
profession since professional learning is mapped to professional practices. (p. 47)
The two components of the framework are linked by: (a) professional learning spaces; and (b)
education stakeholder engagement. The professional learning space is stimulated through a
connectivity between the professional practice architecture and the personalised learning journeys.
It is a mechanism for sharing ideas, presenting options and stimulating rich practices and may
contain resources, learning tools and curricula. The framework also acknowledges the critical role
of education stakeholder engagement by encouraging all stakeholders (including policy-makers,
curriculum experts, government agencies, assessment bodies, school leaders, classroom teachers
and the education community) to be active participants in the framework and to embrace the
responsibility of ensuring the success and sustainability of the central program. To this point, an
application of the framework requires a greater sense of trust and responsibility from both the
traditional experts (policy-makers, curriculum designers) and the emerging experts (classroom
teachers and school leaders)to be abreast of top-down and bottom-up perspectives. An
application of the framework can only be successful when a shared sense of responsibility is
enacted, with localised challenges that exist in the day-to-day practices of teachers at the forefront
of all initiates. In this way, all stakeholders are empowered through a collective sense of
professionalism and engagement.

3. Indonesian context
This project in which this paper is framed aims to advance innovative practices that support
teachers capacity in mathematics teaching and learning in West Nusa Tenggara (NTB), Indonesia.
The developmental issues for NTB require the promotion of quality teaching practices. In
partnership with our Implementation Partners and educators, and NTBs education authorities
(Counterpart PSOs), we have endeavoured to train teachers; identify, empower, and champion
female teachers as leaders of mathematics in their school and community; and provide new
opportunities for female students to engage actively with mathematics and the numeracy involving
necessary life skills. Collaborations with teachers include contextualised lessons and teaching units
that capture best practices that aim to benefit all students, as well as inspire girls to pursue higher
levels of mathematics. Our plan includes module development, capacity-building workshops (in
country and in Australia), and classroom implementation.
Our collective commitment to the project includes: (1) collaborative professional development
workshops and activities held at IKIP Mataram, LPMP NTB, and at University of Canberra; (2)
professional engagement via online communication; and (3) module development of the ELPSA
framework, which includes mathematics lesson plans, worksheets and videos for mathematics
teaching and learning.

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This project specifically targets the learning of mathematics, a discipline with which women
and girls typically disengage. We want to improve the social opportunities of female teachers and
students by elevating their status within education and strengthening their engagement in
mathematics. We aim to create a pipeline of empowered leading female teachers who have a voice
in education and continue to be role models for students. Importantly, we will develop mathematics
activities that motivate girls to continue with secondary education and aspire to engage in STEM-
related disciplines.
Women are underrepresented in STEM professions in NTB, and across leadership positions in
schools. Our focus on mathematics education will provide opportunities for the next generation of
female students and teachers to have greater access to these fields and positions. The quality of the
teaching profession is most influential in this endeavour, since mathematics competence leads to
increased access to STEM professions; greater opportunities to participate in communities, in
leadership, in education; and the likelihood of a more prosperous life (reduce poverty). We
especially aim to prioritise female role models to facilitate the mathematics workshops in the
existing Working Groups.
Our learning framework is posited within cognitive and social theories. In particular it focuses
on constructivist learning and cultural engagement. The framework explicitly considers
Experiences students encounter in their daily lives; the Language they use to speak to peers and
their teachers; the Pictorial representations to communicate and represent ideas; the Symbolic
language of mathematics; and the Application of mathematical ideas (ELPSA). In NTB, the
majority of girls disengage with mathematics by middle school primarily because they do not see
any value in the discipline. The ELPSA framework addresses this explicitly at the Experience and
Application elements.
The involvement of Indonesian teacher educators and local experienced teachers was crucial to
the implementation of the ELPSA learning design. The mathematics ranking of Indonesia on
international TIMSS and PISA tests have shown the country to be ranked below the international
average (Mullis et al. 2012; OECD, 2014). Not only are test scores low but, according the OECD,
Indonesian students self-beliefs about mathematics are statistically below the OECD average,
including beliefs around self-efficacy. However when surveyed, an overwhelming 96% of students
report feeling happy at school (OECD, 2014). Educators have welcomed the ideas and theoretical
underpinnings of ELPSA, as they seek to improve their understanding of mathematics curriculum
and pedagogy to improve results for students.
The responsiveness to the ELPSA framework is linked to the frameworks purposeful targeting
of mathematics that is relevant to the individual interests and life experiences of students.
Classroom teachers and teacher educators participated in the development of modules within the
ELPSA framework through working groups. These modules were then embedded within
classrooms where further refinement and development could take place according to the individual
context of the classroom teacher. Implementing the framework in the classrooms, while
challenging, enabled teachers and educators to put into practice a theory very much grounded in the
everyday lives and contexts of their students. The commitment of teachers to the framework was
apparent, with some asking for explicit feedback to improve practice to become what World Bank
(2010) refers to as effective teachers. Effective teachers, responding in culturally appropriate ways
to the lives of their students, can account for dramatic differences in students achievement (Hattie,
2003). The development of teacher pedagogical knowledge was important to this process in order
to ensure students have the opportunity to increase their knowledge and understanding of
mathematics, not simply to improve test scores, but to impact positively on the possible life
outcomes for students.
The modules were developed collaboratively between the teacher educators and the
experienced teachers. Nine modules were developed for integers, fractions, sets, lines and angles,
algebraic operations, one-variable linear equations (Year 7); and number patterns, sequence and
series, and probability (Year 9). Each module contained a unit outline, lesson plan sequence and the
appropriate resources to assist in the implementation of the module. Lesson plan sequences were
developed collaboratively between teachers and teacher educators and were reviewed during the
professional development session. In each lesson plan sequence, one individual key lesson plan
was developed by groups of 5-7 teachers and teacher educators together, with remaining lesson
plans contributed by teachers and reviewed in groups to ensure quality and consistency were

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

maintained. When back in their school, on average, three or four different teachers (with support
from the teacher educators) implemented two lesson plans in his or her classroom. As a result, 38
teachers from 36 different schools implemented 18 lesson plans in their classroom over the first
year of the project.

4. Application of the framework


The application of the Educational Practices Framework described in the following sections.

4. 1. Professional practice architecture


For professional development to be meaningful, it is critical that policy, practice and
curriculum are connected. In the context of this project the Professional Practice Architecture is
apparent. Relatings can be seen across the project in many ways. At the beginning of the project,
the management and governance arrangements and structures were established to ensure that each
individual has a clear understanding of the project activity, from both a management/governance
and design/timeline perspective. Regular meetings were conducted in order to clarify roles,
responsibilities and objectives, to review the activity timeline, set deadlines, as well as outline the
process for moving forward with the activity. The works involved on-going collaborations between
the University of Canberra team, the implementation partner IKIP Mataram and high-level
government/district staff (Ministry of Education & Culture, LPMP, DIKPORA, DEPAG).
DIKPORA and DEPAG. The roles of these Government agencies included the identifications of
schools for activity implementation, helping with the selection process and appointment of Leading
Teachers from two islands in NTB, and supporting the development of instruments and their
implementations in the classrooms. The UC Team also attempted to understand the teaching
practices through school visits in different locations in NTB. We also analysed videos of classroom
teaching practices and discussed it with local experts in mathematics education and pedagogy. It
was evident that all the stakeholders became active participants and shared the collective
responsibility of ensuring the success and sustainability of the initiative.
Doings concern the practices the teachers have engaged with. The understandings developed
are shared and reflective through means such as recoding video of their classroom practice and
creating opportunities to practice using ELPSA. They continue to develop modules outside of the
working groups, demonstrating the way they take ownership of their own teaching practice. The
ELPSA framework has created a context where language and meaning is understood. These
sayings are shared between teachers, researchers or teacher educators and policy makers.

4. 2. Personalised learning journeys


This component of the framework has been established through the creation of learning spaces
via face-to-face and online communications (synchronously and asynchronously). IKIP Matarams
management team formed a Core Team of 12 mathematics lecturers from IKIP Mataram, 2 LPMP
(Institute for Education Quality Assurance) staff, 2 DIKPORA (The Provincial Office of Ministry
of Education Sports and Youth) staff, and 2 DEPAG (Provincial Office of Ministry of Religion)
staff. Small teams within the Core Team have developed 9 mathematics modules. The UC Team
has worked with the Core Team throughout the year to help them understand the framework and
augment their modules for the 9 mathematics topics; this includes communication via email,
Skype, Adobe Connect, and the Facebook group, as well as in-person sessions in NTB held in
January and April. This project also involved Indonesian mathematics experts who have enriched
the content and discussions with the Core Team and leading teachers in NTB.
The key characteristics of the framework that highlights the importance of personalised
learning journeys were evident through community focused learning and individual professional
learning. The teachers began their learning about the ELPSA framework through the workshop,
discussed and applied the sample lessons of the Core team. The teachers and the Core Team
worked collaboratively to video the teaching, followed by co-reflection and discussions during the
professional development sessions. The teachers then developed a lesson by themselves as well as
trialled it in their classrooms.
A virtual space was created in the form of a Facebook group since we found Facebook
communication is the most accessible way to communicate among teachers, the Core Team, and

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

the management team. As a result, to date (2 Oct 2015), 65 people (Core Team, leading teachers,
IKIP Mataram management team, implementations partners, as well as lecturers or mathematics
experts have joined the group. The female teachers in Sumbawa have reported (through Facebook
messaging) that they go to Internet cafes to access the Facebook group because they do not have
access to Internet at home or their school. This effort and activity by the female members
demonstrates their eagerness to actively participate and be involved in this project. In addition,
Facebook has become a forum in which the activities can be shared and monitored, and the
participants engagement can be documented.
It was evident that each individual member shared expertise, e.g. the teacher educators shared
teaching ideas or content knowledge while teachers shared their school contexts, their teaching
practices, and their up-to-date knowledge of curriculum and educational policy. These were evident
from the teacher professional development sessions and the interactions through Facebook.
The availability of additional space for personalised learning journeys has supported the
teacher educators and the teachers to be reflective on their own learning, in a shared environment.
The Core team and the leading teachers started to incorporate the ideas of reflective journal
writings. Some of the teachers courageously shared their lesson through Facebook and asked for
feedback. Others reported their teaching practices and their challenges of implementing ideas that
they believed powerful to help students to make sense of mathematical ideas. Some others posted
their reflective journals and attracted many responses from other teachers, indicating that the
community have developed a sense of trust between members.

4. 3. A new professional learning space


The virtual space drives the professional learning of the teachers. Expert and novices work
together and reflect together on how their own personalised journeys are progressing. This
collected sharing is one of the ways that provide empowerment. Virtual space affords opportunity
for professional recognition through multiple comments that reinforce the contribution. The
immediacy of the virtual space allows for shared experiences and resources to be validated in one
anothers classrooms through the actual implementation within a teachers own classroom. This is
fundamentally different to traditional forms of professional development because classroom
teachers rarely get the opportunity to connect and interact with resources or ideas in a shared
environment. As a consequence, the virtual professional development learning space offers
individual professional learning and community focussed professional learning simultaneously.
The professional learning space established an active virtual community that allowed
classroom teachers and other participants in the education community to collectively engage in the
development of the ELPSA framework despite the fact they were from geographically diverse
locations. The learning space created a shared purpose for reflection, engagement and evaluation of
individual- and community-focused learning. Specifically, this engagement allowed the
mathematics teachers to share resources, work collectively toward agreed goals, and to connect
differently to the education community. This virtual learning space complimented face-to-face
meetings with the wider research and development team. It afforded the opportunity for all
participants to be abreast of one anothers practices and theory building.

4. 4. Education stakeholder engagement


The synergistic relationships between educational stakeholders in this project were
demonstrated from project inception. The proposed project attempted to better connect current
projects and investments within the Indonesian context and to capitalize on these synergies. In fact,
the architecture of our learning design has the potential to connect current and forthcoming
projectsat both policy and practice levelsthat should be adapted and applied into the
foreseeable future. Collectively, our partners have maintained that this project is timely for
Indonesias education system and critical to NTBs prosperity.
From the early stage of the project, we have purposefully ensured that there is strong buy-in
from influential Indonesian institutions, from both the government and academic/research levels.
This began with a special meeting with high-level officials from the Ministry of Education and
Culture, the Head of Agency for Research and Development who oversees education policy and
research development in Indonesia. This was crucial for model replication throughout Indonesia

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

and for on-going sustainability. We informed the policy makers at National and provincial levels
about the project, clarified how the outcomes of the activities could contribute to NTB, outlined the
projects expected impacts, results, and expectations for expansion in the future, and discussed how
the learnings could be disseminated to other regions of Indonesia. Furthermore, we visited the
Indonesian Embassy in Canberra to meet with The Indonesian Education Attach and the
Ambassador to discuss the UC Teams upcoming work and activities in Mataram and they
provided strong support and helpful advice. It is evident that all the stakeholders were kept well-
informed of the project activities through providing them progress reports, face-to-face
communications, and provisions of project websites and Newsletter, and paper publications of the
ELPSA framework. Furthermore, we met with DFAT in Indonesia to ensure that they keep us
abreast of other projects that emerge in education and related fields over the course of our project.
It is clear that the fact that our project focused on quality in teaching and learning given the
new mandate for education, we found that all education stakeholders proved enthusiastic about this
education project and offered his full support.

5. Conclusion
Sustained professional and personal develop for classroom teachers and educational leaders are
essential for a strong education system in any country, but especially countries where educational
disadvantage is heightened. In an age where professionals and their respective professions are
becoming increasingly accountable for their learning and practices, it is not surprising that
governments, accrediting bodies and relevant jurisdictions are attempting to create connected
systems that provide high levels of professional attainment. Education, more than most professions
it seems, is under such scrutiny (Lowrie, 2009). Ellis (2010) has argued that it is unsustainable to
rely solely on the practices of the school setting or the university-based initiatives to supplement
professional development.
In this paper we have argued that in many countries across the world, resources afforded to
professional development remain scarce (Stephenson & Ling, 2012). In countries like Indonesia,
successful professional development models must have the relevance and transportability
(Wilkinson et al., 2013) provide frameworks that have both a strong research base and rigidity,
which provide potential for new initiatives to be embedded into models that have sustained
credibility and traction within the profession. The Education Practices Framework links to such
models in ways that provide opportunities for both bottom-up and top-down viewpoints to be
shared and contested in both personalised and professional ways (Lowrie, 2014).
In this Indonesian context, we have demonstrated that this framework will work provided:
The architecture of the framework is built around a deep understanding of the cultural and
contextual nuances of the siteand that classroom teachers and education leaders can
establish a shared understanding of the saying, doings and relatings that constitute their
collective professional practices;
A professional learning space is established for all stakeholders to share ideas and react to
one anothers insights and practicesin virtual and physical spaces that are empowering
and professionally challenging;
Personal learning journeys are promote individual- and community-focused learning; and
Educational stakeholder engagement encourages active participation from all
stakeholdersfrom conception of the initiative.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Amanda Levido for supporting us in framing the manuscript and
providing critical feedback during the extended process.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

References
Darling-Hammond, L., R. C. Wei, A. Andree, N. Richardson, and S. Orphanos. 2009. Professional
Learning in the Learning Profession: A Status Report on Teacher Development in the United
States and Abroad. Dallas, TX: National Staff Development Council.
Ellis, V. (2010). Impoverishing experience: The problem of teacher education in England. Journal
of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 36(1), 105-120.
Hattie, J. (2003). Teachers make a difference: what is the research evidence? Melbourne: Australia
Council for Educational Research.
Kemmis, S. (2010). What is professional practice? Recognising and respecting diversity in
understandings of practice. Elaborating Professionalism: Studies in Practice and Theory, pp.
139-165. Springer: Netherlands.
Kemmis, S., Grootenboer, P. (2008). Situating Praxis in Practice: Practice Architectures and the
Cultural, Social and Material Conditions for Practice. Enabling Praxis: Challenges for
Education, edited by S. Kemmis and T. J. Smith, 37-62. Rotterdam: Sense.
Lieberman, A. (1995). Practices that Support Teacher Development: Transforming Conceptions of
Professional Learning. The Phi Delta Kappan 76 (8), 591-596.
Lowrie, T. (2009). Blind faith? The Mathematics of Decision Making within the Professions.
Understanding and Researching Professional Practice, edited by B. Green, pp. 121134.
Rotterdam: Sense.
Lowrie, T. (2014). An educational practices framework: The potential for empowerment of the
teaching profession. Journal of Education for Teaching: International research and pedagogy,
40(1), 34-46.
McKernan, J. (2008). Curriculum and Imagination: Process Theory, Pedagogy and Action
Research. New York: Routledge.
Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Foy, P., Arora, A. (2012). TIMSS 2011 International results in
mathematics. TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.
OECD. (2014). PISA 2012 Results in focus: What 15-year-olds know and what they can do with
what they know [online brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/keyfindings/pisa-
2012-results-overview.pdf
Richter, D., Kunter, M. Klusmann, U. Ldtke, O. Baumert, J. (2011). Professional development
across the teaching career: Teachers uptake of formal and informal learning opportunities.
Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 116-126.
Schatzki, T. R. (2002). The Site of the Social: A Philosophical Account of the Constitution of
Social Life and Change. University Park: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Smith, K., Hodson, E. (2010). Theorising practice in initial teacher education. Journal of Education
for Teaching, 36 (3), 259-275.
Stephenson, J., Ling, L. (2012). Teacher education in the financial crisis (GFC) Where has the
shoe pinched? Educational Researcher 54(2), 119124.
Wilkinson, J., Olin, A., Lund, T,. Stjernstrom, E. (2013). Understanding Leading as Travel- ling
Practices. School Leadership and Management
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2013.773886.
Wong, J. L. N., Tsui, A. B. M. (2007). How do teachers view the effects of school-based in-service
learning activities? A case study in China. Journal of Education for Teaching: International
Research and Pedagogy, 33(4), 457-470.
World Bank. (2010). Inside Indonesia's mathematics classrooms: A TIMSS video study of teaching
practices and student achievement. Jakarta: The World Bank Office Jakarta.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Real Work Is Better than Homework


(abstract only)

Brian P. Coppola
Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan
Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Chemistry, Associate Chair for Educational Development &
Practice , bcoppola@umich.edu

Abstract-Real (or authentic) work has purpose, is defined by its own results, considers its audience,
involves editing and feedback, often involves collaboration, and results in constructed meaning and a
polished product. In the academic world, a research publication is an excellent example of real work. We
have generalized the concept of real work and developed a set of instructional design principles that we
think anyone can use to move academic assignments from the realm of homework to that of real work. In this
presentation, I will provide an overview of these real work principles, provide numerous examples of these in
the area of organic chemistry, and include, perhaps most importantly, the mechanism we use to enable
faculty to pursue their instructional development ideas.

ISBN 9786021570425 IS-22


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Antifungal Compounds Isolated from Endophytes against


Japanese Oak wilt Pathogen,Raffaelea quercivora

Yoshihito Shiono
Yamagata University, Wakaba-machi 1-23, Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan,
Corresponding.yshiono@tds1.tr.yamagata-u.ac.jp

Abstract-Japanese oak wilt (JOW) is a tree disease caused by the fungus Raffaelea quercivora, which is
vectored by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus. In a screening study of the inhibitory active
compounds from fungi, a new cytosporone analogue, compound 1, was isolated from the endophytic fungus
Cytospora sp. TT-10 isolated from Japanese oak, together with the known compounds, integracin A (2),
cytosporones N (3) and A (4). Their structures were determined by extensive 1D and 2DNMR
spectroscopic and mass spectral analyses. Compound 1 was identified as 4,5-dihydroxy-3-heptylphthalide
and named cytosporone E. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antimicrobial activity against Raffaelea quercivora.

Keywords:Endophyte, Cytosporone E, 4,5-Dihydroxy-3-heptylphthalide, antimicrobial activity, Cytospora


sp.

1. Introduction
Raffaelea quercivora is the causative agent of Japanese oak wilt disease, which is the most
destructive epidemic in the forests and its outbreak has been reported in 26 prefectures in Japan
since the 1980s (Kuroda 2001). The ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, transfers R. quercivora
to the Japanese oak tree, which then withers and dies within one year after infection (Kubono et al.,
2002). In Japan, where Japanese oak is recognized as an important forest resource, the ecological
and economic damage to the oak tree is increasing. Management practices used to control this
disease are carried out, for example, chemical control with fungicides, and aggregation pheromone-
baited traps. However, the broad-spectrum fungicides used have long degradation periods, which
lead to environmental pollution and further results in imbalances within the microbial community
creating unfavorable conditions for the activity of beneficial organisms. As an alternative
approach, effective natural compounds are expected to be more advantageous than synthetic
fungicides, as they generally have a lower environmental impact and are easily biodegradable.
Many promising microorganisms, including endophytes, have been reported as interesting
candidates as bio-control agents against pathogenic fungi of plants (Backman et al., 2008).
Endophytic fungi reside in the intercellular space of living plant tissues without causing discernible
symptoms of plant disease. The diversity of endophytes is striking, and it is known that many
plants, especially woody plants, may contain hundreds or even thousands of different species
(Saikkonen 2007). In some cases, the endophytes provide important and protective benefits to the
development and health of their host plant contributing to the belief that they have mutualistic
relationships with their host, are of functional significance, and co-evolve with their hosts
(Suryanarayanan et al., 2009). Endophytes are today well-recognized for their ability to produce
bioactive secondary metabolites including terpenoids, phenolic compounds and alkaloids that can
be used by the host plant for defense or inhibition against pathogenic fungi and bacteria
(Gunatilaka et al., 2006). The objective of this work was to isolate, identify and cultivate
endophytic microorganisms from Japanese oak native to Tsuruoka, Japan and demonstrate that the
secondary metabolites produced by these endophytes can show antimicrobial activity against R.
quercivora.
Cytospora sp. TT-10, obtained from twigs of the Japanese oak, was cultured on steamed
unpolished rice for four weeks. The culture medium was extracted with acetone, the organic
extract concentrated, and the aqueous residue extracted with ethyl acetate. The EtOAc layer was
subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Further purification of the compounds by TLC and
further chromatographic fractionation yielded four pure compounds,1-4.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

2. Results and discussion


Compound 1 had a molecular formula of C20H20O4, as determined by ESITOFMS. The 1H NMR
spectrum of 1 showed signals of two meta-coupled aromatic protons, six aliphatic methylene
protons, one terminal CH3 group, and one oxygenated methine proton. The 13C NMR and DEPT
spectra showed that 1 had a total of 20 carbons accounting for one methyl, six methylenes, three
methines, and five sp2 quaternary carbons, including one ester group. The carbons of 1 were
assigned from 13C NMR, DEPT and HSQC experiments, as one methyl, aliphatic CH2 groups, one
sp3 methine, two sp2 methine carbons, four sp2 quaternary carbons comprising olefinic carbons, and
one ester group. Furthermore, the carbonyl carbon signal indicated that the lactone moiety whose
carbonyl carbon was attached to the aromatic ring at C-7a and the lactone oxygen was connected to
the C-3 methine carbon. Correlations from H-7 to C-1 and C-3a, from H-5 to C-3a and C-7, and
from H-3 to C-1 and C-4 in HMBC experiments supported a phthalan-1-one skeleton. The COSY
spectrum also revealed the presence of a heptyl group (C-8 to C-14). The position of this group
was established at C-3 by the HMBC correlations of H-3 to C-9 of the heptyl group. On the basis
of the above observations, the structure of 1 was established as 4,6-dihydroxy-3-heptyl-phthalide.
Compound 1 is closely related to cytosporone E (5), previously reported from an endophytic
fungus (Brady et al., 2000). Hence, 1 is 5-dehydroxy-cytosporone E. The specific rotation of 1
was zero, suggesting a racemic mixture. In an earlier report (Brady et al., 2000), cytosporone C
was reported as a racemic mixture by crystallographic analysis. The specific rotation of 5 was not
reported either and so it could have been isolated as a racemic mixture as well.
The antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using the paper disk
method. Compounds 1 and 4 showed no activity against R. quercivora JCM 11526, while 2 and 3
showed activity at a concentration of 30 g/disk.

3. Conclusion
A novel cytosporone E analogue, 4,6-dihydroxy-3-heptyl-phthalide (1), together with three known
metabolites 2, 3 and 4, were isolated from the rice culture of the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp.
TT-10, obtained from the stem of Japanese oak. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited antimicrobial
activity against R. quercivora JCM 11526. Integracin A (2) was reported to show HIV-1 inhibitory
activity (Singh et al., 2002), but the antimicrobial activity of 2 is described here for the first time.
Antimicrobial active compounds from endophytes could play an important role in the protection of
the host plant from damage caused by pathogens. The abundant phenolic derivatives possessing
diverse interesting structures produced by fungi imply that they might provide diverse and variable
effects on the host plant. Cytosporones A-S (Xu et al., 2009, Brady et al., 2000, Paranagama et al.,
2007, Abreu et al., 2010, Ishii et al., 2013) have been isolated from various endophytic fungi (e.g.
Cytospora sp., Diaporthe sp., Paraphaeosphaeria quadriseptata, Chaetomium chiversii, and
Pestalotiopsis sp.).

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Figure 1: Structures of compounds 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.

Acknowledgement
This research was partially supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C,
24580154).

References
Kuroda K. (2001) Responses of Quercus sapwood to infection with the pathogenic fungus of a new
wilt disease vectored by the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus. Journal of Wood
Science, 47, 425-429.
Kubono T, Ito S. (2002) Raffaelea quercivora sp. nov. associated with mass mortality of Japanese
oak, and the ambrosia beetle (Platypus quercivorus). Mycoscience, 43, 255-260.
Backman PA, Sikora RA. (2008) Endophytes: An emerging tool for biological control. Biological
Control, 46, 1-3.
Saikkonen K. (2007) Forest structure and fungal endophytes. Fungal Biological Review, 21, 67-74.
Suryanarayanan TS, Thirunavukkarasu N, Govindarajulu MB, Sasse F, Jansen R, Murali TS.
(2009) Fungal endophytes and bioprospecting. Fungal Biological Review, 23, 9-19.
Gunatilaka AAL. (2006) Natural products from plant-associated microorganisms: Distribution,
structural diversity, bioactivity, and implications of their occurrence.Journal of Natural
Products, 69, 509-526.
Singh SB, Zink DL, Bills GF, Pelaez F, Teran A, Collado J, Silverman KC, Lingham RB, Felock P,
Hazuda DJ. (2002) Discovery, structure and HIV-1 integrase inhibitory activities of
integracins, novel dimeric alkyl aromatics from Cytonaema sp. Tetrahedron Letters, 43,
1617-1620.
Xu J, Kjer J, Sendker J, Wray V, Guan H, Edrada R, Mller WE, Bayer M, Lin W, Wu J, Proksch
P. (2009) Cytosporones, coumarins, and an alkaloid from the endophytic fungus
Pestalotiopsis sp. isolated from the Chinese mangrove plant Rhizophora mucronata.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 17, 7362-7367.
Brady SF, Wagenaar MM, Singh MP, Janso JE, Clardy J. (2000) The cytosporones, new octaketide
antibiotics isolated from an endophytic fungus. Organic Letters, 14, 4043-4046.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Paranagama PA, Wijeratne EM, Gunatilaka AA. (2007) Uncovering biosynthetic potential of plant-
associated fungi: effect of culture conditions on metabolite production by
Paraphaeosphaeria quadriseptata and Chaetomium chiversii. Journal of Natural Products,
70, 1939-1945.
Abreu LM, Phipps RK, Pfenning LH, Gotfredsen CH, Takahashi JA, Larsen TO. (2010)
Cytosporones O, P and Q from an endophytic Cytospora sp. Tetrahedron Letters, 51,
1803-1805.
Ishii T, Nonaka K, Suga T, Masuma R, mura S, Shiomi K. (2013) Cytosporone S with
antimicrobial activity, isolated from the fungus Trichoderma sp. FKI-6626. Bioorganic &
Medicinal Chemisty Letters, 23, 679-681.

ISBN 9786021570425 IS-26


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Rapid Recovery of Degraded Reefs Following High


Human Mortality from the Indian Ocean Tsunami
(abstract only)

Andrew H. Baird
ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook
Universityandrew.baird@jcu.edu.au

Abstract-Coral reefs are in global decline largely as a result of climate change and ongoing destructive
human activities, such as overfishing and poorly managed coastal development. However, the effects of
human activity on coral reefs are often hard to assess because there are few reefs beyond the influence of
humans and efforts to mitigate human impacts, such as reducing fishing pressure, are often thwarted by a
lack of compliance. Here, I show that the recovery of degraded coral reefs in Aceh, Indonesia, was rapid and
closely linked to reductions in human pressures following the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 26 December 2004.
Within five years of the tsunami, coral cover increased 3-fold from less than 10% to over 30% in two regions
that experienced dramatic reductions in human populations. At some sites that were seriously degraded prior
to the tsunami, coral cover increased 16-fold, from less than 5% to over 50% cover. In contrast, there was
negligible change in coral cover within an adjacent region where tsunami-associated human mortality was
low. These results demonstrate that if human activities can be curtailed, coral reefs, even those that have been
degraded for decades, can recover rapidly to provide the goods and services upon which many humans
communities depend.

ISBN 9786021570425 IS-27


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

House-farmed Edible-nest Swiftlets of Indonesia and


Malaysia: Linked Studies of a New Domestication
Earl of Cranbrook, 2, Sarah Ball 2, W.L. Goh3, Mohammad Saiful Mansor4,
Muhammad Rasul Abdullah Halim4
1
GreatGlemham Farms, Saxmundham IP17 1LP, UK; 2 Micropathology Ltd, University of
Warwick Science Park CV4 7EZ, UK; 3Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science,
Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak,
Malaysia; 4Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya , Malaysia

Abstract-This keynote will report the background and aims of a linked set of international research projects
to extend understanding of the phylogenetics and ecology of swiftlets, especially the white-nest swiftlets of
house-farms. Edible birds'-nest has been an important commodity exported from the main producing
region of Indonesia and Malaysia to the Chinese market for many years.The nests are made by swiftlets of
the genera Collocalia and Aerodramus The edible component (known functionally as 'nest-cement') is the
secretion of a pair of large sublingual salivary glands, which fluctuate in activity. The proportion of edible
nest-cement vs other materials in the nest varies between species. The most important nests of commercial
value are 'white' nests, built by two allopatric species, Aerodramus inexpectatus (Hume) and Aerodramus
fuciphagus (Thunberg). The trade was originally based on nests harvested from natural cave sites but, during
the past century, a new economy has grown from the management of white-nest swiftlets in buildings, known
as 'house-farms'. The occupation of buildings was initiated spontaneously by both species of white-nest
swiftlet, at different times and at geographically separated locations. In subsequent s by the people involved,
a unique architecture has been designed to attract and hold the birds. Other management practices, together
with dispersal of the birds, have resulted in a large increase in numbers and an expanded range of house-
farmed swiftlets in the region. In effect, these advances have achieved a level of domestication of house-
farmed swiftlets. Among other birds (and mammals), domestication has been accompanied by changes in
phenotypic characters and in behaviour and physiology, attributable to adaptive modification of the genome.
Now, uniquely, in the case of house-farmed swiftlets, it is possible to investigate the underlying genetic
processes of domestication, as it happens, in the present time. Among the linked projects proposed, three are
designed to provide further clarification of the phylogenetics of house-farm swiftlets and potentially ancestral
wild swiftlet species. One project has emphasised the urgency of positive measures to conserve the wild
species of swiftlets in the region, including the taxa that are progenitors of the house-farmed 'domesticates'
and therefore the ultimate genetic resource. Assessment of the wider ecological impacts of house-farming on
other bird species is also included in the linked themes. The presentation concludes with encourgement to the
edible birds'-nest industry to establish a funded international centre for swiftlet research.

1. Introduction
The focus of this multi-disciplinary international conference(ICMSE 2015) is on 21st
Century targets for innovation and advances in theory and practice. In biological sciences, this
objective must include the translation of field and laboratory research into practical measures. From
the closing years of the 20th century, progress in molecular genetics has provided new perspectives
into the phylogeny of the swiftlets(Aves, Apodidae, Collocaliini). This paper reports the
background and aims of a linked set of research projects to extend understanding of the
phylogenetics and population genetics of swiftlets , especially the origins of edible-nest swiftlets of
house-farms. Associated field work has heightened the urgency to conserve the wild species of
swiftlets in the region. Among the most important taxa are those shown to be progenitors of the
house-farmed 'domesticates' and therefore the ultimate genetic resource. Assessment of the wider
ecological impacts of house-farming on other bird species is also relevant, and included in the
linked themes.
Edible birds'-nest (EBN) is a natural product ascribed with health-giving properties as well
as being an element of epicurean cuisine (Marcone, 2005). From at least the 16th century, EBN has
been an important commodity exported from the main producing region of Indonesia and Malaysia
to the Chinese market (Medway, 1963). The nests are made by swiftlets of the genera Collocalia
andAerodramus The edible component of the nest is the secretion of a pair of large sublingual

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

salivary glands, known functionally as 'nest-cement'. The proportion of edible nest-cement vs other
materials in the nest varies between species and, consequently, the combination of form and
composition of the nest has proved to be a useful field guide to the taxonomy of these birds
(Medway, 1966).
Two types of nest are the principal items of commercial value. (1) 'Black' nests of
Aerodramus maximus (Hume), in which laminae of salivary nest-cement are inter-layered by
feathers of the building birds themselves. Black nests require intensive processing to remove the
feathers, and are accordingly of second grade (Lim &Cranbrook, 2014). Black-nest swiftlets have
not occupied, nor been encouraged to occupy buildings, and are not the subjects of 'house-farming.
Of high quality are (2) 'white' nests, which are composed almost entirely of salivary nest-cement
with no more than a few contour feathers, apparently adhering inadvertently. Two allopatric
species, Aerodramus inexpectatus (Hume) and Aerodramus fuciphagus (Thunberg) build white
nests.
The trade was originally based on nests harvested from natural cave sites but, during the
past century, a new economy has grown from the management of white-nest swiftlets in modified
or specially designed buildings, known as 'house-farms' (Thorburn, 2014a, b). Historically, the
occupation of houses or commercial buildings was initiated spontaneously by both species of
white-nest swiftlet, at different times and at geographically separated locations. In subsequent
responses by the people involved, a unique architecture has been designed to attract and hold the
birds. Other management practices, together with dispersal of the birds, have resulted in a large
increase in numbers and an expanded range of house-farmed swiftlets in the region.
In effect, these advances have achieved a level of domestication of house-farmed swiftlets.
Among other birds (and mammals), domestication has been accompanied by changes in heritable
characters such as body shape or plumage colour, and in behaviour and physiology, attributable to
adaptive modification of the genome. A first investigation of the genome of house-farm swiftlets
taken from colonies in a broad geographical band from North Sumatra across Peninsular Malaysia
to Sarawak has found an apparent mix of clades from two potential wild ancestors (Cranbrook et
al., 2013). Among the linked projects proposed below, three are designed to provide further
clarification of the genome of house-farm swiftlets and potentially ancestral wild swiftlet species.
In existing domesticated birds (and mammals) the adaptive evolutionary genetic events occurred
many millennia ago and can only be hypothesised in retrospect. Now, uniquely, in the case of
house-farmed swiftlets, it is possible to investigate the underlying genetic processes of
domestication, as it happens, in the present time. The process is rapid, and it is important to grasp
this opportunity before it passes. Understanding the phylogenetics of house-farmed birds will also
benefit all participants in the edible birds'-nest industry, with benefits such as planned programmes
of selective breeding and disease control. Future activities may continue as linked research projects
but might benefit from overarching direction through a dedicated Foundation.

Acknowledgements
We are grateful to Saul Mallinson and Hester Odgers for permission to summarise their
unpublished work; to Saleh Amin for his skilled organisation of our field programme in Java; to
Prof. Mustafa Abdul Rahman and Prof Gideon Khoo for assistance in formulating the research
project in Peninsular Malaysia; and to Chiwon Chin for his valued cooperation, acting on behalf of
the Sabah Society, and for his comments on an earlier draft of this paper.
Principal funding sources are the 2014 Merdeka Award to Cranbrook, Micropathology Ltd and
Malaysian Ministry of Education, Fundamental Research Grant Scheme, to all of whom grateful
thanks are expressed. The cooperation and support of Dr Colin Fink, Medical Director of
Micropathology Ltd. and Dr Boedi Mranata, Artem Internusa PT, is much appreciated

2. White-nest swiftlets
Two wild species of swiftlets build white nests. The morphological characters
distinguishing the two are clear from skin collections made in the 1930s and earlier, long before the
explosive development of 'house-farming' (Cranbrook et al., 2013). The principal distinguishing
plumage character is expressed in their English vernacular names: (1) Grey-rumped swiftlets
Aerodramus inexpectatus (hume) and (2) Brown-rumped swiftlets Aerodramus fuciphagus

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

(Thunberg). At the extremes of their ranges, the two species also differ in average size: Vietnamese
Germain's swiftlet A. inexpectatusgermani(Oustalet) has wing length (measured from the carpal
joint to the tip of the longest primary feather) in the range 115-125 mm, mean 121.3 mm (Nguyn
Quang et al. 2002), compared with topotypical Thunberg's swiftlet A. fuciphagusfuciphagus of
Java, at 110-121 mm (Lim &Cranbrook, 2014).
Grey-rumped swiftlets invariably have a pale band across the rump, varying from dull grey
to near white according to subspecies, and always marked with dark shaft streaks. Breeding
colonies of all forms of A. inexpectatusare maritime in location, in rocky stacks, sea caves, crevices
and caverns on islands and coastal cliffs. The historic range of Grey-rumped swiftlet extended from
the type locality of the species, A. i. inexpectatus, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Sankaran,
1998), to the shores and islands of Southeast Asia. Germain's swiftlet, the subspecies A. i.
germani,was found along the Andaman Sea coast from the Bassein mouth, Myanmar, through the
Mergui Archipelago and islands of the west coast of Thailand into the Malacca Strait. Off the west
coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the most southerly record was (tentatively) the Sembilan Islands
(Gibson-Hill, 1949). In its eastward extension, the species ranged from a northern limit on the
southern coast of Hainan Island (now probably extinct), south to Vietnam where all nesting sites
are on islands, although Germain's swiftlets fly inland in daily feeding range ( Nguyn Quang et
al., 2002). Extending further south, this subspecies was collected in Thailand on the shores and
islands of the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea, and extended east to islands of Sarawak
and west and north Sabah. Without seeing specimens, Lim &Cranbrook (2014) conjectured that the
white-nest swiftlets of Pulau Datu. Kalimantan Barat, may also be this species. In Sabah, on
Berhala Island, Sandakan, and other islands off Lahad Datu and Semporna, Germain's swiftlet is
replaced by a subspecies with a darker rump, Riley's swiftlet A. i. perplexus (Riley), type locality
the Maratua archipelago, East Kalimantan (Lim &Cranbrook, 2014).
Off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, historically A. inexpectatus nested in sea caves
on islands of the Perhentian, Redang and Tenggol groups, and the Pahang-Johor archipelago
(Tioman and Tinggi groups) (Gibson-Hill, 1949; Wells, 1999). On the basis of a darker grey rump,
Chasen (1935, 1939) and, following him, Gibson-Hill (1949) separated the east coast Peninsular
Malaysian populations as a distinct subspecies, to which Chasen applied the name amechana
Oberholser, without comparing specimens. Cranbrook et al. (2013) have since examined a
topotype of amechana (type locality PulauJimaja, in the Anambas group, Indonesia) and shown
that it is not a race of the Grey-rumped swiftlet. If the populations of the Peninsular Malaysian east
coast are separable at subspecific level, they need a name! Birds of this description were collected
in the late 19th and early 20th century in the vicinity of Klang, Selangor, and inland on the slopes
of the Main Range (skins in the Natural History Museum, Tring, UK), confirming that (like their
Vietnamese conspecifics) they flew inland to feed. Examples of Brown-rumped swiftlets (below)
were collected at the same time at these localities, and on Pulau Tioman (Gibson-Hill, 1949: 110,
as Collocalia francica vestita), indicating a historic sympatry in feeding range between the species
at about latitude 3o N.
Brown-rumped swiftlets Aerodramus fuciphagus have the rump concolorous with or
slightly paler than a dull, blackish brown back, and invariably lack dark shaft streaks. The type
locality of the typical subspecies fuciphagus is the island of Java, Indonesia, where natural nesting
colonies are found both in inland caves and in sea caves in coastal cliffs. The typical subspecies
extends eastwards to Bali, Nusa Tenggara Barat and Tanahjampea, South Sulawesi (Chantler,
1999). Slightly differentiated subspecies of Brown-rumped swiftlets have been described from
Nusa Tenggara Timur, A. f. micans (Stresemann) from Sumba, Sawu and Timur and A. f.
dammermani (Rensch) from Flores, but ecological information on nesting habits of these birds is
lacking.
Northwards, the historic limit of the range of A. f. fuciphagus was defined by specimens
collected on Singapore Island by Chasen (skins in Raffles Museum of Biodiversity seen by
Cranbrook), one from Pulau Tioman and others collected in flight as far north as 3o N in Peninsular
Malaysia, although no nesting sites were known (Cranbrook et al., 2013). A subspecies
distinguished by darker rump, wholly concolorous with the back and tail, Aerodramus fuciphagus
vestitus (Lesson), occurs through Sumatra and the interior of Borneo (Kalimantan). In Borneo,
nesting colonies occur only in inland caves, although these sites may not be far from the coast. In
eastern Sabah, Chasen (1935) observed that the two species of white-nest swiftlets exist in effective

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

sympatry, the Grey-rumped nesting on Berhala Is. and the Brown-rumped on the mainland nearby
in Gomantong caves.
With few exceptions, white-nest swiftlets naturally roost and breed in colonies of limited
size occupying small caves. For instance, in January 1960, at the 6660 ha limestone reserve (known
at that time as 'Lapangan Guha') at Klapanunggal, near Cileungsi, W. Java, Medway (unpubl.) was
told that there were 121 worked caves occupied by Thunberg's swiftlet Aerodramus f. fuciphagus in
total yielding an average of 250 kg nests per quarter, of which the single principal cave, Guha
Gajah, at the latest harvest had provided 181 kg (18,837 nests). Similar situations were documented
by Francis (1987) in Sabah for Brown-rumped swiftlet Aerodramus fuciphagus vestitus. For
example: at Gomantong, in 1985 the main cave Simud Putih produced 423.4 kg while six small
caves within 3 km distance contained, respectively, about 1.8 kg, 100 nests (~0.95 kg), 300 nests,
40 nests, and 2 kg; at Bukit Baturong, Darvel Bay, there were 36 small caves which, from 1947 to
1965 together produced an average annual total of 36.9 kg; and at Bukit Panggi, Kinabatangan, of
14 known caves, one contained 500 nests, the remainder between 15 and 100 nests1.
A similar pattern of dispersed colonies in small caves also characterised Grey-rumped
swiftlets Aerodramus inexpectatus germani on Sabah islands. On Pulau Mantanani Besar, Francis
(1987) reported 14 nest caves, only one of which was sizeable, collectively yielding 13-49 kg per
annum between 1930 and 1964.On Pulau Berhala, there were two caves, one a sea-cave at the foot
of the cliff and the other entered by an aperture 90 m up the cliff-side (60 m from the top) yielding
respectively 1.2 kg and 3.6 kg of nests, while at the Batu Mandi sea rocks, there were multiple
vertical cracks which, in the 1940s had yielded over 100 kg of mixed black and white nests, the
latter being Grey-rumped swiftlets (Francis, 1987).

3. Management of Natural Colonies


In Indonesia and in Sabah and Sarawak, the rights to caves occupied by Black-nest Swiftlets and/or
local subspecies of Brown-rumped swiftlets, or sea caves occupied by Grey-rumped swiftlets, were
valuable assets taxable by local or national administrations. Export duties on the nests could
amount to a significant proportion of state revenue. In North Borneo (now Sabah) for instance,
Customs duty on EBN in 1897 was 57,141 Straits dollars, 19% of total value of all exports being
S$ 2,942,293 (Mallinson et al., 2015). National or state authority often controlled the collection
and trade in nests, and consequent official records provide details of yields, costs and sales that are
of biological value. These figures highlight the challenges to the sustainable management of wild
colonies of white-nest swiftlets of both species. White nests typically occurred in small colonies
(above), in scattered breeding caves. Licensed owners or managers customarily took the nests on a
routine programme, every three or four months, uncoordinated with the swiftlets' breeding cycles,
with consequent unpredictable fluctuations in yield. It was unusual that the harvester could see the
contents of a nest before removing it, with inevitable loss of eggs and young leading to long-term
decline in breeding populations.
More damaging, as rural areas were opened up, sites became known and theft rose to be a
major threat. Large, productive caves could be guarded, as were some in the Middle Baram of
Sarawak (Lim & Cranbrook, 2014). Small, scattered sites favoured by white-nest swiftlets could
not individually provide sufficient return to pay for permanent protection, and were particularly
vulnerable. In 1960, theft was already a continual threat to the colonies of Aerodramus f.
fuciphagus at Klapanunggal, and a two-storey guard house overlooking the main cave was
permanently manned by military and civilian personnel (Medway, unpubl.). Throughout Sabah, by
1985 theft was identified as the main cause of decline in nest yields by Francis (1987), with
maritime sites of Grey-rumped swiftlets exceptionally vulnerable from passing fishermen. These
multiple effects are illustrated by recorded harvests from the Baturong caves, Sabah, with variable
annual yields trending to decline from mid 1950s (due to over-harvesting) and collapsing entirely
in the 1970s (attributable to theft) (Figure 1).
1
In 2009, the conservation body 'Hutan', Sabah Wildlife Department and Sabah Forestry Department
combined to curb the unsustainable harvest of nests in Pangi VJR, and help the swiftlet populations
recover, In 2015, swiftlets were found in about 15 caves and about 1000 nests were harvested, 200- 300
from the two largest caves each, and a few dozens in the other caves (M. Ancranaz, pers. comm, 2015)

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

From this original situation, the conduct of the edible birds'-nest industry has changed
totally. The trade is now (2015) dominated by white nests harvested under managed circumstances
from modified or specially constructed buildings, commonly known as 'swiftlet houses' or 'house-
farms'. Output has risen and, with a ready market, the sums involved are now enormous. In the
Malaysian State of Sabah alone, in 2009 the Wildlife Department estimated that there were 500
house-farms. The same source (Sabah Wildlife Department, 2009) reported that the export value of
bird's nests from Sabah had surged to MYR 13-17 million - more than ten times that of the 1983
harvest from natural cave sources. In the following years the birds'-nest industry continued to
thrive. An article in the local Daily Express for 7 December 2012 estimated that, with (white) nests
selling for MYR 3500-4400 per kg, the birds'-nest industry was then worth MYR 5.2 billion
(Mallinson et al., 2015).

4. The development of House-farming


The transition towards domestication was initiated by the birds, in Java, and people have
responded. Tradition records that, in the first instance, Thunberg's swiftlets Aerodramus f.
fuciphagus attached nests to the interior walls of a house around 1880, perhaps at Sedayu
(Thorburn, 2014a,b). Similar Instances were reported in other parts of Java in the 1920-1930s.
Spontaneous occupation of buildings was seen in Singapore, in 1930-31, when Chasen (1935,
1939) saw roaming swiftlets exploring the interior of a large building, where they ultimately settled
and nested. The specimens he collected were indistinguishable from the white-nest swiftlet of Java
(Stresemann, 1931), i.e., by present nomenclature Aerodramus f. fuciphagus (specimens in Raffles
Museum of Biodiversity, see Cranbrook et al., 2013).
In Java, in 1960, in response to even a few incoming birds, householders moved out of the
premises, then closed window apertures to darken the interior, and modified ceilings to increase
substrate favoured by swiftlets for the attachment of their nests (Medway, 1961). More intensive
management developed later, when some unknown experimenter discovered that the Javan glossy
swiftlet, Linchi swiftlet Collocalia linchi Horsfield & Moore will accept the larger eggs of
Thunberg's swiftlet and successfully hatch and rear the young. The fledged young tend to remain
attached to the natal home which can progressively be modified to suit them. Linchi swiftlets
occupied barns and other outbuildings in rural and urban areas of Java, so that this process became
a standard method of founding a new house-farm of white-nest swiftlets (walet) (Nugroho et al.,
1994; Wiboyo, 1995). Simple systems for the carriage of eggs were devised, and by this means the
distribution of 'farmed' swiftlets was greatly increased, not only within Java, but also beyond the
shores of that island. In 2001, in East Kalimantan Lim &Cranbrook (2014) were shown a house of
white-nest swiftlets founded by eggs from Java, fostered by the local glossy swiftlet Collocalia
(esculenta) cyanoptila Oberholser. Fostering continued to be avicultural practise through the 1990s,
dispersing eggs (and genes) from Java to an undocumented extent. For instance, in Lombok, Nusa
Tenggara Barat, a house farm flourishing in 2014 was converted from a colony of glossy swiftlets
about 1999, according to the proprietor, with fostered eggs from Surabaya (Cranbrook, pers. obs.).
Independently of these developments in Indonesia, and (as far as known) somewhat later,
Grey-rumped swiftlets also began to occupy buildings in the southern sector of the species' range,
i.e., excluding Vitnam. Events in Thailand are not known but in Peninsular Malaysia breeding 'in
a godown on Penang Island' was noted in 1947 (Gibson-Hill, 1949, as Collocalia francica
germani). Later studied by Langham (1981), this colony was thought to have originated
spontaneously around 1940. At the same time, a change in behaviour occurred among house-
seeking Grey-rumped swiftlets which, by 1948 had moved inland to nest in the Federal Survey
office in Kuala Lumpur (Gibson-Hill, 1949). Later records of the spontaneous occupation of
buildings were noted by Cranbrooket al. (2013): 1940s, Teluk Anson, Perak; 1960s, government
buildings in (then) Mountbatten Road, Kuala Lumpur; 1970s the porch of Kuala Lumpur Town
Hall (Medway & Wells, 1976) and, in 1974, established colonies nesting in the roof-spaces of six
shop-houses on the sea-front of Kuala Terengganu. The owners of Kuala Terengganu shop-houses
had done little more than provide shaded entrances to the roof space, where the swiftlets' white
nests were applied to the unmodified interior (Cranbrook, pers. obs.). Lacking a tradition of nest-
harvesting, the entrepreneurial developments in Java were not reflected in Peninsular Malaysia at
that time.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

The situation changed fundamentally towards the end of the 20th century, when a further
innovation (again springing from Javan enterprise) adopted a birder's field trick, i.e., the use of
recorded vocalisations to entice swiftlets into prepared, purpose-built and designed house-farms.
This technique proved highly successful at attracting flying swiftlets and drawing them into new
quarters (Trubus, 2005). The use of recordings rapidly became standard practise, and resulted in a
huge expansion of house-farms throughout the range of both white-nest species in South-east Asia
(Thorburn, 2014 a,b). In time, cassette tapes were succeeded by CDs, and now by permanent chips.
In addition to translocations directly assisted by people, farmed swiftlets have
spontaneously expanded their range, including sea-crossings. In Vitnam, Nguyn Quang & Voisin
(2007) reported urban colonies of white-nest swiftlets that differed morphologically and
behaviourally from the native Germains's swiftlet A. inexpectatus germani, and were identified as
house-farm birds immigrating unassisted around 1970. House-farm white-nest swiftlets later
crossed the South China Sea, arriving at northeast Sarawak about 1996. At this time, in Miri city,
swiftlets were seen nest-building on town houses, under eaves and a hotel entrance porch, and
around windows (Cranbrook, pers. obs,). Movement continued south-westward along the coast. At
Bintulu, in 1997 C. K. Lim &Cranbrook saw 18 pioneer nests, appropriately under the eaves of the
Malaysian Airlines office. These had been unrecognised by the decorators who had whitewashed
them with the walls of the building. At both towns, a year later knowing residents had opened
upstairs windows, and were hosting lively colonies. By 2000, colonies were established in Mukah,
but it was a few years before swiftlets appeared further west, along the Sarawak coast near
Sematan. By 2010 there were many house-farms throughout the coastal plain of Sarawak. Around
2010, eastward range extension had reached Sulawesi (Cranbrook et al., 2013) and westwards to
Cambodia (Poole, 2010),

5. Phylogenetics and Population Genetics


Molecular phylogenetic studies of swiftlets (and swifts)based on genes encoded in the
mitochondrial (mt) DNA, e.g., cyt-b, NADH-2 and 12S rRNA, and nuclear DNA, e.g., fibrinogen
introns and G3PDH (Lee et al., 1996; Thomassen et al., 2003; Price et al., 2004; Thomassen et al.,
2005; Packert et al., 2012) confirmed the monophyly of the swiftlets (Collocalinii) but raised
doubts on the generic classification based on the nest types and echolocating ability. Within
Aerodramus, species boundaries remain unresolved.
Two molecular studies have been carried out on house-farmed swiftlets. Aowphol et al.
(2008), based on eight nuclear microsatellite loci plus the mt genes cyt-b and NADH-2, found a
high level of gene flow between house-farm swiftlets from colonies on both coasts of southern
peninsular Thailand and round the Bay of Thailand, and concluded that these constituted a single
panmictic population. In samples from house-farms further south, Cranbrook et al. (2013) found a
more complex situation. Morphologically, house-farm birds proved to be small (wing lengths
comparable to A. fuciphagus) with rump coloration variable from nearly concolorous with the back
to pale grey with shaft streaks of variable definition.The molecular data provided evidence of two
genetic clades, occurring intermixed in a broad band of locations from Medan, North Sumatra,
across both coasts of Peninsular Malaysia, and in Sarawak. These house-farm birds were
genetically distinct from wild Brown-rumped swiftlets Aerodramusfuciphagusvestitus of Sarawak
and Sabah, but showed some affinity with GenBank samples attributed to Grey-rumpedswiftlets of
Balambangan Island, Sabah.

6. The hypothesis
The existence of two clades among house-farm swiftlets of this geographical range, intermediate
between the source regions, is likely to reflect a diversity of origins. Genetic components can be
expected from Grey-rumped swiftlets Aerodramusinexpectatusof both west and east coasts of the
Thai-Malay peninsula and Thunberg's swiftlet Aerodramus f. fuciphagus ofJava, where houses
were first occupied more than a century ago and many innovative management processes
originated. The historic range of A. fuciphagusfuciphagus (at least in diurnal activity) extended to
southern Peninsular Malaysia below about 3N. including Singapore where buildings were
occupied in the 1930s. It is therefore a reasonable hypothesis that Peninsular Malaysia became a
mixing ground at some time mid to late 20th century, when a house-farm lineage from A.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

fuciphagus met and merged with a population attributable to A. inexpectatus, from precursors
originally occupying buildings in Penang and inland localities in Perak and Kuala Lumpur. More
data are needed to test this hypothesis and to address the associated questions

7. Research questions
Existing molecular data on the genomics of wild swiftlets is partial, restricted to one gene, mt
Cytochrome b,and therefore inadequate to support firm conclusions on genetics and systematics.
Micropathology Ltd is well-equipped to undertake a variety of analyses, including whole-genomic
('next generation') analysis. Preliminary trials have shown that DNA can be recovered from
feathers. From the northern sector, it will be valuable to get genetic samples from Grey-rumped
swiftlets Aerodramus inexpectatus germani of assured origin, to eliminate false identifications that
appear to be present in the GenBank record, and to confirm existing indications of haplotypes in
the genome of house-farmed swiftlets. In Peninsular Malaysia, it will be informative to compare
the genome of wild Grey-rumped swiftlets of the East Coast islands with house-farm birds of the
adjoining mainland, especially Kuala Terengganu where there was early, spontaneous occupation
of houses. In Java, it will be critical to test for changes in the genome between topotypical wild
Thunberg's swiftlets A. f. fuciphagus and local house-farm swiftlets.
There are also emerging ecological problems. Samples of swiftlet gut contents have
indicated a selective diet of aerial arthropods (Lourie & Tomkins, 2000; Lim & Cranbrook, 2014).
The resilience of this resource may be challenged by an unprecedented increase in the local
population of swiftlets from house-farms. For example, in Pak Phanang, 'Swiftlet City', southern
Thailand, in 2001 a house-farm owner reported that, although his swiftlets laid the normal clutch of
two eggs, generally only one young survived to fledge (Cranbrook, unpubl.). In Perak, Malaysia,
where pioneer house-farms were developed and the overall density is now high, particularly in and
around Sitiawan, there is anecdotal evidence of a progressive decline in swiftlet populations. In
both cases, there is conjecture that the limiting factor is the food resource, i.e., aerial insects within
the swiftlets' feeding range (Lourie& Tomkins, 2000). Also dependent on this resource are the
seasonal populations of migratory swifts and swiftlets and wintering hirundines, especially Barn
swallows Hirundo rustica L. which traditionally congregate in large numbers at roost on urban
utility wires in Peninsular Malaysian towns (Medway, 1976). The role of food supply vs. possible
parasites or disease has not been evaluated.

Project proposals 2014-15


1. The present state of birds'-nest caves and the conservation status of edible-nest swiftlets in
Sabah, Malaysia
Participating organisation and personnel: Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, with Saul
Mallinson, Hester Odgers, Chiwon Chin & Earl of Cranbrook.

Drawing on the comprehensive catalogue by Francis (1987), in conjunction with Sabah Society a
rapid field survey was conducted of birds'-nest caves of Sabah during October-December 2014.
This project has shown that the decline in natural populations of white-nest swiftlets, already noted
in 1984-5 (Francis, 1987), had continued inexorably in the ensuing years. Colonies of Grey-rumped
swiftlets were badly affected: those of the islands off Semporna and in Darvel Bay were no longer
accessible for security reasons; Pulau Berhala also could not be visited, but there were no recent
records of nest harvest; Batu Mandi no longer contained any evidence of occupation; and only
two caves on Balambangan were still being harvested. On Mantanani Besar, of 14 caves listed by
Francis (1987) only one ('Governor's cave') remained productive and was harvested at intervals by
the authorised cave guardian, En. Mohd Salleh bin Sabti. On 23rd October 2014, only six white
nests were seen in this cave.
A report has been submitted to the Sabah Society Journal (Mallinson et al., 2015).

2. The genome of Grey-rumped swiftlets Aerodramus inexpectatus germani (Oustalet)


Participating organisations and personnel: Micropathology Ltd with Sabah Society [Sarah Ball,
Chiwon Chin & Earl of Cranbrook]

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

The Raffles Museum of Biodiversity, Singapore, holds skins of Aerodramus inexpectatus


germani collected on Pulau Mantanani, Sabah, in 1930 - a year in which the harvest of white
nests was 33.9 kg, implying a minimum population on the island of 3730 breeding pairs (Francis,
1987 & Figure 2). With the information from Project 1 (above), Governor's Cave, Pulau Mantanani
has been selected as collecting site for authenticated examples of A. inexpectatus germani.
Considering the evident collapse of the island population, it has been decided to restrict collection
to feather samples only - as standard practice, the second primary. This may be varied if other
feathers in the primary tract are newly regenerating after moult because the DNA yield is enhanced
from actively growing feather bases. Each bird will be photographed to confirm specific and
subspecific identity. Application to collect has been made to the Sabah Biodiversity Council
Collecting procedure is a follows. Approximately 5mm of feather shaft is cut from the base
of the feather quill and placed in a bijou bottle containing absolute ethanol for preservation during
transfer to the laboratory. At the Micropathology Ltd laboratory DNA will be extracted using a
standard 'salting-out' purification method. Alternatively DNA may be extracted using silica resin-
bound bead purification. The feather DNA samples are then subjected to next-generation
sequencing performed on a MiSeq platform (Illumina Inc, San Diego, USA) to generate whole
genome data. Alignment and comparison of the whole genome data (see 3. below) will enable
assembly of a consensus reference genome for authenticated specimens of Aerodramus
inexpectatus germani from Mantanani Besar

3. The genome of house-farm white-nest swiftlets and topotypical wild Thunberg's swiftlet
Aerodramus f. fuciphagus (Thunberg) of Java, Indonesia.
Participating organisations and personnel: Artem InternusaPT, Indonesia, & Micropathology Ltd,
UK [Sarah Ball, Boedi Mranata, Earl of Cranbrook]

Dr Boedi Mranata has observed that recently-founded white-nest swiftlet house-farms of


Kalimantan are more productive than the long-established house-farms of West Java and Banten
provinces. This behavioural difference has commercial impacts and, in order to test for a genetic
background to the effect, his firm Artem Internusa PT has entered into a commercial contract with
Micropathology Ltd to provide genomic analyses. Accordingly, in June 2015, genetic samples were
taken at house farms at Cacaban, Banten, owned since 1996. Collection procedures followed those
for Mantanani (above), but tissue samples were also taken from casualties.
With the agreement of the community head (Kepala Dusun), the commercial contract was
extended to the community-managed natural cave colony at Gua Gajah, Klapanunggal, Cileungsi,
occupied by topotypical wild Thunberg's swiftlets Aerodramus f. fuciphagus. Procedures were
followed, as above, and again a full photographic record was made.
For wild-caught specimens feather samples were collected and processed as in 2. above.
However if any birds became unexpected casualties breast muscle tissue was removed immediately
and preserved in a bijou bottle of absolute ethanol. DNA extraction is performed using the
procedures set out in 2. above. The DNA yield from tissue samples is considerably greater than
from feather tips and provides an adequately abundant source of next-generation sequencing data
for de novo sequence construction of a generic edible-nest swiftlet genome. This generic swiftlet
genome then provides the scaffold against which alignments of the less abundant sequencing reads
from feather DNA can be compared in order to assemble the whole genome sequences of the
authenticated Aerodramus subspecies.
The edible-nest swiftlet reference scaffold genome will also enable comparisons of
genomes of swiftlet populations sampled at additional sites now and in the future. This will
improve resolution of the genetic relationships between the various populations of wild birds and
also elucidate the origins of different populations of house-farm birds. Previous studies on the
genetics of swiftlet populations (Lee et el.,1996;Thomassenet al., 2003, and Aowphol et al., 2008))
pre-dated the innovations of next-generation sequencing and were therefore limited to single gene
studies. However they suggest that there has been interspecies gene-flow in Aerodramus resulting
in hybridisation during the genetic events that have accompanied adaptation to house-farming. The
current investigations will help to elucidate these observations.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

This is highly novel and exciting because other studies on the genetics and evolutionary
events in the domestication of species are based on reconstruction of the genetic events that
occurred millennia ago. However in the case of these swiftlets the genetic events underlying the
adaptation of wild edible-nest swiftlets to habitation of house-farms can be studied in the present
time.
Eventually whole-genome sequence data of sufficient populations of house-farm birds may
be available to determine if genetics has influenced the reported differences in productivity. For
example by comparison of swiftlet genomes from West Java and Kalimantan bird-houses to
determine if there are any variants that occur in coding genes that may be critical in nest-
productivity.

4. Genetic resources of house-farmed white-nest swiftlets (Aves, Apodidae) in Malaysia


Participating organisations and personnel: UniversitiTunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Universiti
Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), Micropathology Ltd. [W.L. Goh, Gideon Khoo, Mustafa Abdul
Rahman, Vincent Wei Sheng Siew, Earl of Cranbrook]. Funding by Malaysian Ministry of
Education, Fundamental Research Grant Scheme FRGS 2/2014/SG05/UTAR/02/2,
Micropathology Ltd and private resources.

During October 2015 genetic samples were taken from house-farm swiftlets in Kemaman town,
Terengganu (by courtesy of Mr Goh Chin Choon). It is intended that further collections will be
made in other States of northern Peninsular Malaysia, and also from sea caves in the Terengganu
islands, occupied by 'Southern' Grey-rumped swiftelts Aerodramus inexpectatus subsp.
Collection procedures will be as for specimens from Sabah and Java (above). Sequences of
the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region and nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 (Fib7) will be
obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-cloningand direct sequencing. Specific
primer sequences are available in Thomassen et al. (2003),Thomassen et al. (2005)and Goh et al.
(2013). A set of nuclear microsatellite markers will be developed, to compare with the eight
polymorphic loci reported by Aowpholet al. (2008). Microsatellite data will be scored using
fragment analysis by commercial contract. Genetic structure of theswiftlet populations and the
assessments of putative hybridization will be simulated using various analyses such as analysis of
gene flow, heterozygosity level, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), pairwise FST and
phylogenetic tree reconstruction.Software to be used includes ARLEQUIN, NEWHYBRIDS,
PAUP and STRUCTURE.

5. Swallows and swiftlets: Assessing potential competitive interactions


Participating organisation and personnel: Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science,
University of Malaya. [Mohammad Saiful Mansor, Muhammad Rasul Abdullah Halim, Rosli
Ramli, Earl of Cranbrook].

Urban areas in Malaysia (as elsewhere in South-East Asia) are important wintering roost
sites for migratory hirundines, principally Barn swallows Hirundo rustica. In the 1960s, monthly
counts of roosting swallows were made at three towns in Pahang, Malaysia (Medway, 1973). Again
in 2015, monthly counts of roosting swallows are being made at one of these towns (Bentong) to
compare with those of the 1960s.The methods were standardised and will be conducted for 13
months. In the present century, as elsewhere throughout South-east Asia, Bentong has been
affected by the development of urban 'house-farming' of edible-nest swiftlets. The size of the large
population of swiftlets Aerodramussp. resident in the town and environs will be evaluated by sight
of returning birds at dusk, supplemented by photographs. Both groups of birds feed exclusively on
aerial arthropods and therefore may compete for this limited resource. Preliminary assessment of
the foods of swallows and swiftlets are being made by faecal and regurgitated samples, and it is
planned to extend comparative evaluation by genetic means.

7. Future benefits
The house-farm swiftlets are clearly undergoing a process comparable to domestication, seemingly
with concurrent genetic selection and consequent behavioural and (perhaps) physiological /
metabolic changes. Elucidation of the phylogenetics of house-farm swiftlets will be a first instance

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

of in an unprecedented study of any bird species at this critical phase of the relationship between
man and bird. domestication. For the practitioners, the house-farm owners and managers,
knowledge of the genome of the swiftlets in their care will potentially facilitate selection for
improved characters, such as larger nests, more rapid nest replacement, and disease control.
For government bodies and regulators, understanding the genetic relations between wild
and house-farm birds will clarify the status of the latter and potentially influence legislation on
internal and external movements of the birds and their eggs, and marketing of their health-giving
nests and derivative products.
These advances will fail in one important objective: the protection of the wild progenitors
of house-farmed edible nest swiftlets. Over-exploitation, illegal and untimely harvesting, and
quarrying threaten the conservation status of natural cave colonies throughout Southeast Asia.
These threats are not diminishing. Available evidence so far gathered shows that house-farm birds
are already genetically distinct. Protection of their original progenitors, and their cave breeding
sites, becomes not less, but much more important.
The long term sustainability of the new and increasing populations of house-farm swiftlets
is dependent on the natural resource of aerial insects, their only food. The maintenance of diverse
insect populations, in turn, is dependent on a healthy environment. Monitoring the birds therefore
provides a continuing assessment of the state of the aerial environment. Unpredicted fluctuations in
the populations of swiftlets and swallows could be a signal of impending environmental collapse.
From these beginnings a fuller programme of research can emerge. Dissipation of scientific
effort could be prevented by the establishment of a forum for discussion of objectives and
allocation of resources. The economic value of the edible birds'-nest industry in the region is huge.
Is it too much to expect public, commercial and personal sources to combine to create an
international Foundation for swiftlet research and enterprise that will act as a coordinating body>?

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

Figure 1.Recorded white-nest harvests (Aerodramusfuciphagusvestitus) in kg from Baturong caves,


Sabah, 1947-1982.Data from Francis (1987).x axis Recoded annual nest harvest in kg. y axis, years from
1947

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

60

50

40

30

20

10

Figure 2.Recorded white-nest harvests (Aerodramusinexpectatusgermani) in kg (y axis) from Mantanani


Island 1930-1965 (no data for blank years).From Francis (1987). X axis, annual nest harvest in kg y axis
years from 1930

References
Aowphol, A., H. K. Voris, K. A. Feldheim, P. Harnyuttanakorn & Thirakhupt (2008) Genetic
homogeneity among colonies of the White-nest Swiftlet (Aerodramus fuciphagus) in
Thailand. Zoological Science 25: 372380
Chantler, P. (1999). Family Apodidae (swifts).In J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott & J. Sargatal (Eds),
Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 5: Barn-owls to hummingbirds. pp. 388-457.
Barcelona, Lynx Edicions.
Chasen, F. N. (1939). Birds of the Malay Peninsula. Vol. IV. Birds of the low country jungle and
scrub. London, Witherby.
Cranbrook, Earl of, W. L. Goh, C.K. Lim & M.A. Rahman (2013). The species of white-nest
swiftlets (Apodidae, Collocaliini) of Malaysia and the origins of house-farm birds:
morphometric and genetic evidence. Forktail 29: 78-90.
Francis, C. (1987). The management of bird's nest caves in Sabah. i-xii, 1-217. Sandakan, Wildlife
Section, Sabah Forest Department.
Gibson-Hill, C. A. (1949) An annotated checklist of the birds of Malaya. Bulletin of the Raffles
Museum 20: 1299.
Goh, W.L., C.K. Chan & M.A. Rahman (2013).Isolation of mitochondrial control region for white-
nest swiftlets (Aerodramus fuciphagus) using primer walking techniques. Pertanika
Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 36: 115-122.
Langham, N. (1980) Breeding biology of the edible-nest swiftlet Aerodramus fuciphagus. Ibis 122:
447460.
Lee, P. L., D.H. Clayton, R. Griffiths & R.D. Page (1996). Does behavior reflect phylogeny in
swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae)? A test using cytochrome b mitochondria DNA sequences.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93(14): 70917096.
Lim C.K. & Earl of Cranbrook (2014).Swiftlets of Borneo: builders of edible nests. 2nd edn. Kota
Kinabalu, Natural History Publications (Borneo).

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Lourie, S.A. & D.M. Tompkins (2000).The diets of Malaysian Swiftlets. Ibis 142 (4): 596-
602.
Marcone, M.F. (2005). Characterization of the Edible Birds' Nest, the 'Caviar of the East'. Food
Research International 38 (10): 1125-1134.
Mallinson, S., H. Odgers, Chiwon Chin C. & Earl of Cranbrook (2015).A brief account of the
present state of Sabah's birds'-nest caves and the conservation status of edible-nest
swiftlets. Sabah Society Journal (submitted).
Medway, Lord (1961). Birds nest businessmen. The Sarawak Gazette February 28, 1961: 2021.
Medway, Lord (1963). The antiquity of the trade in edible birds' nests. Federation Museums
Journal 8: 36-47.
Medway, Lord (1966). Field characters as a guide to the specific relations of swiftlets. Proceedings
of the Linnean Society London 177: 151-172.
Medway, Lord (1973). A ringing study of migratory Barn Swallows in West Malaysia. Ibis 115:
60-86.
Medway, Lord (1976), Migratory birds, In Medway, Lord, & D.R. Wells, Birds of the Malay
Peninsula, Vol. V Conclusion and Survey of every species. Ch. 5, 33-55. London, H.F &
G. Witherby Ltd.
Medway, Lord, & D.R. Wells (1976) Birds of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. V Conclusion and Survey
of every species. London, H.F & G. Witherby Ltd.
Nguyn Quang, P., Y. Vo Quang & J-F. Voisin (2002), The white-nest swiftlet and the black-nest
swiftlet: a monograph. Paris, ditions Boube.
Nguyn Quang, P. & J-F.Voisin (2007). On an ecological form of the white-nest swiftlet
Aerodramus fuciphagus (Aves, Apodidae) breeding in houses in Vitnam. Revue
Ecologique (Terre and Vie) 62: 4957.
Nugroho, E., I. Whendatro & I.M. Madyana (1994). Merubah rumah seriti menjadi rumah walet.
Semarang, Eka Offset.
Nugroho, E., I. Whendatro, I.M. Madyana& E.N. Kosumo (1996). The guide book to breeding
swiftlets in faming houses. Semarang, EKA Offset.
Pckert, M., J. Martens, M. Wink, A. Feigl & D. T. Tietze (2012) Molecular phylogeny of Old
World swifts (Aves: Apodiformes, Apodidae, Apus and Tachymarptis) based on
mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution63: 606 - 616.
Poole, C. (2010). Swiftlet farming comes to Cambodia. Birding ASIA 13: 6263.
Price, J. J., Johnson, K. P., and Clayton, D. H. (2004).The evolution of echolocation in swiftlets.
Journal of Avian Biology35: 135 143.
Rheindt, F.E., J.A. Norman & L. Christidis (2014). Extensive diversification across islands in the
echolocating Aerodramus swiftlets. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 62: 107-117.
Sabah Wildlife Department (2009).http://www.etawau.com/Poultry/Birds_Nest.htm
Sankaran, R. (1998). The impact of nest collection on the Edible-nest Swiftlet
Collocaliafuciphagain the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Coimbatore, Salim Ali Centre
for Ornithology and Natural History.
Stresemann, E. (1931). Notes on the systematics and distribution of some swiftlets (Collocalia) of
Malaysia and adjacent subregions. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum 6: 83101.
Thomassen, H. A., A. T. Wiersema, M.A.G. de Bakker, P. de Knijff, E. Hetebrij& G.D.E. Povel.
(2003). A new phylogeny of swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae) based on cytochrome-b DNA.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29: 8693.
Thomassen, H. A., Tex, R-J,. Bakker, M. A. G. & Povel, G. D. E. (2005). Phylogenetic
relationships amongst swifts and swiftlets: a multi locus approach. Molecular
Phylogenetics and Evolution, 37: 264 - 277.
Thorburn, C. (2014a). The edible birds' nest boom in Indonesia and South-east Asia: a nested
political economy. Food Culture & Society 17 (4): 535-553.
Thorburn, C.C. (2014b). The edible nest swiftlet industry in Southeast Asia: capitalism meets
commensalism. Human Ecology 43: 179-184.
Trubus (2005). Panduan praktis sukses memikat walet. Jakarta, Penebar Swadaya.
Wells, D. R. (1999). Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula Vol. 1.Non-Passerines.London, Academic
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Wibowo, S. (1995). Budidaya sarang walet. Surabaya, Arkola.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Cryptic Species: Genetics and Systematics

Hoi-Sen Yong1*, Praphathip Eamsobhana2, Phaik-Eem Lim3,


Sze-Looi Song4, I. Wayan Suana5
1*
Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,
yong@um.edu.my; 2Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol
University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand; 3Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of
Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4
Chancellory High Impact Research, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;
5
Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Mataram University, Mataram, Indonesia

Abstract Cryptic species are also known as sibling species. They are referred to as species complex,
i.e. closely related species that appear as a single species based on morphological characters. The
occurrence of cryptic species has posed problems in taxonomy, ecology, control of pests and
vectors/carriers of diseases, biodiversity assessment, and other disciplines. Both genetics and
systematics concern the study of relationships among taxa. In addition to morphological data, molecular
data have been used extensively for genetic and systematic studies. Cytogenetic data in some cases also
serve as good parameters for differentiating sibling/cryptic species. In general, sound systematics and
genetics are important and relevant to various fields of biology, including biodiversity and conservation,
and other scientific disciplines.This keynote discusses selected taxonomic groups in which identification
has proven problematic based on morphological characters. The role of genetics and systematics in
differentiating cryptic species is illustrated by examples of invertebrates (nematode parasites of the genus
Angiostrongylus, tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera)and vertebrates (tree frogs of the genus
Polypedates, and murid rats of the genusLeopoldamys).

Keywords:cryptic species, genetics, systematic

1. Introduction
The morphological species concept stresses likeness and similarity. Species are therefore
defined on the possession by their members of certain morphological characteristics not
possessed by members of other species. In the vast majority of cases, systematic categories are
based on an enumeration and evaluation of morphological resemblances. However there are
closely related species that appear as a single species based on morphological characters. They
are referred to as cryptic species or sibling species. The component species are members of a
species complex. When present, these cryptic species have posed problems in taxonomy,
ecology, management/control of pests and vectors/carriers of diseases, biodiversity assessment,
and other disciplines.
Both genetics and systematics concern the study of relationships among taxa. In addition to
morphological data, molecular data have been used extensively for genetic andsystematic
studies. Cytogenetic data in some cases also serve as good parameters for differentiating
sibling/cryptic species. In general, sound systematics and genetics are important and relevant to
various fields of biology, including biodiversity and conservation, and other scientific
disciplines.For example,a good understanding of the genetics and systematics of commensal
rodents and other vertebrate as well as invertebrate pests are of paramount importance vis--vis
their control and management.In the field of parasitology, correct identification of the parasites
(as well as vectors and hosts where relevant) is of paramount importance with regards to
treatment and epidemiology of the disease.Incorrect identification (and wrong diagnosis) could
be fatal in patient management and in the public health measures taken for controlling the
disease.
This keynote discusses selected taxonomic groups in which identification has proven
problematic based on morphological characters. The role of genetics and systematics in
differentiating cryptic species is illustrated by examples of invertebrates (nematode parasites of
the genus Angiostrongylus, tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera)and vertebrates (tree
frogs of the genus Polypedates, and murid rats of the genusLeopoldamys).

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

2. Species Complex of Nematode Parasites of the Genus Angiostrongylus


The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a food-borne zoonotic parasite of
considerable public health importance worldwide (Eamsobhana, 2014). It is the primary cause
of eosinophilic meningitis or eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Under natural
conditions, various species of murid rats are its definitive or final hosts. Until their
discrimination and confirmation as distinct species, all the lungworms from murid rats were
referred to as A. cantonensis, for example, in Australia (Mackerras and Sandars, 1955) and
Malaysia (Lim et al., 1965). The Australia and Malaysia taxa were subsequently recognized as
distinct species, viz. A. mackerrasae (Bhaibulaya, 1968) and A. malaysiensis (Bhaibulaya and
Cross, 1971), respectively.
Both mitochondrial and nuclear genes have been used to differentiate A. cantonensis and A.
malaysiensis. The nuclear genes, 66 kDa protein gene (Eamsobhana et al., 2010b) and small
subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene (Eamsobhana et al., 2015) clearly separated A.
cantonensis and A. malaysiensis. Likewise, the mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase
subunit I (COI) (Eamsobhana et al., 2010b) and cytochrome b (CYTB) (Yong et al., 2015a)
unequivocally separated A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis. Both the mitochondrial and
nuclear genes show that A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis are closely related compared to
other congeners. Based on cytb gene, the Thailand geographical isolates of A. cantonensis have
a genetic distance of p = 02.93%, while the A. malaysiensis isolates have a genetic distance of
p = 00.12%. The p-distance between A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis is 8.349.19% (Yong
et al., 2015a).
Another example of sibling species in the genus Angiostrongylus is A. costaricensis from
South America. It is a zoonotic parasitic nematode that causes abdominal or intestinal
angiostrongyliasis in humans. Molecular phylogeny based on COI nucleotide sequences
(Eamsobhana et al., 2010a) and ITS-2 gene (Jefferies et al., 2009) indicated possible occurrence
of cryptic species for the A. costaricensis taxa from Costa Rica and Brazil. The sibling species
status is supported by the complete mitochondrial genome (Yong et al., 2015c) the two taxa
have a genetic distance of p = 16.2% based on 12 protein-coding genes, p = 15.3% based on 36
mitochondrial genes, p = 13.1% based on 2 rRNA genes, and p = 10.7% based on 22 tRNA
genes. These two taxa have been proposed to be accorded species status.

3. Species Complex of Bactrocera Fruit Flies


Tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera are destructive or potential pests of
commercial fruits and vegetables. Seventy-three species have been listed in the Pacific Region
(Vargas et al., 2015). Many examples of species complexes of Bactrocera fruit flies have been
documented. For example, the occurrence of eight species of B. tau has been revealed by COI
sequences (Jamnongluk et al., 2003).Molecular phylogenetic studies based on mitochondrial
and nuclear genes reveal that the taxa of B. caudata from the northern and southern
hemispheres belong to distinct genetic lineages (Lim et al., 2012; Yong et al., 2015b). Based on
concatenated mitochondrial COI, COII and 16S nucleotide sequences, the genetic distance
between the northern and southern hemisphere taxa is p = 4.46-4.53%; the genetic distance for
intra northern hemisphere taxa is p = 0.00-0.77%, and that for intra southern hemisphere taxa is
p = 0.00% (Yong et al., 2015b). Their sibling species status is supported by the complete
mitochondrial genome in which the Malaysia and Indonesia taxa of B. caudata have a genetic
distance of p = 7.77% based on 13 protein-coding genes (unpublished data).

4. Species Complex of Polypedates leucomystax Tree Frogs


The Four-lined Tree Frog Polypedates leucomystax is widely distributed throughout
South and Southeast Asia.Based on morphological, behavioural and genetic divergence,two
sympatric morphotypes (Morph A and Morph B) of P. leucomystaxwere reported to occur in
Peninsular Malaysia (Narins et al., 1998).Similar finding was also reported from Vietnam
(Inger et al., 1999).

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Analyses based onmultiple mitochondrial and nuclear genes revealed specifically


distinct groups in the P.leucomystax complex, comprisingP. macrotis, and the Malay
(Polypedates sp. from Malay Peninsula), North China (P. braueri), South China
(Polypedatescf. mutus 1), Indochina (P. megacephalus), Sunda (P. leucomystax) and Laos
(Polypedates cf. mutus 2) clades (Kuraishi et al., 2013). Most of these groups occur
sympatrically, and when allopatric, they also show high genetic diversity and/or morphological
and acoustic differences.
P. leucomystaxMorph A of Narins et al. (1998) is attributed to be conspecific with
theSunda (P. leucomystax) clade and Morph B to the Malay clade (Kuraishi et al., 2013).P.
leucomystax Morph B (Narins et al., 1998) and Polypedatessp. Malay Clade (Kuraishi et al.,
2013) have now been referred toP. discantus (Rujirawan et al., 2013). The taxon from Sulawesi
is now named P. iskandari (Riyanto et al., 2011) and that fromYunnan, ChinaP. impresus (Pan
et al., 2013).

5. Species Complex of Giant Rats genus Leopoldamys


The genus Leopoldamys as currently constitued, is represented by some seven species
L. ciliatus, L. diwangkarai, L. edwardsi, L. milleti, L. neilli, L. sabanus, and L. siporanus (Yong
et al., 2013). They are giant rats with long tails, whence the common name long-tailed giant
rats. Two morphologically similar species are present in Malaysia, viz. L. ciliatus and L.
sabanus. Based on cytogenetic and serological evidence, these two taxa have been shown to be
valid species (Yong, 1970).Three pairs of Ag-NORs(argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions)
were present in L. ciliatus while L. sabanus had four pairs of Ag-NORs (Yong et al., 2013).
The Sundaic mountain leopoldamys L. ciliatus was previously referred to as a
subspecies of Edwards leopoldamys L.edwardsi (see Corbet & Hill, 1992;Medway, 1983;
Musser and Carleton, 2005;Yong, 1970). The complement of Ag-NORs shows distinct
differences between L. ciliatus (represented by three pairs) (Yong et al., 2013) andL.
edwardsi(represented by five pairs) (Badenhorst et al., 2011).Nucleolar organiser regions thus
serve as an adjunct to delimit L. ciliatus from phenotypically similar species L. edwardsi and L.
sabanus.Although the systematic status ofthese taxa are without doubt valid, thequestion
whether they are actually conspecific with allopatric taxastill remains.

6. Conclusion
We have highlighted the widespread occurrence of cryptic/sibling species with examples of
both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa. Various approaches, e.g. serology, cytogenetics and DNA
sequencing, have contributed to the determination of cryptic species. Mitogenome
phylogenetics will prove to be particularly useful in the future. Sound systematics (particularly
correct identification) is of paramount importance in all disciplines of biology for sound
inference, decision or judgement.

Acknowledgements
We thank our institutions for supporting our collaborative research.

References
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Waters P.D., Robinson T.J. (2011). Chromosomal evolution in Rattini (Muridae,
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Bhaibulaya M., Cross J.H. (1971). Angiostrongylus malaysiensis (Nematoda:
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Corbet G.B., Hill J.E.(1992). "The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region: A Systematic
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Eamsobhana P. (2014). "The Rat Lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Parasitology,
Genetics and Molecular Phylogeny 2nd edition" Aksorn Graphic and Design, Bangkok.

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Eamsobhana P., Lim P.E., Solano G., Zhang H., Gan X., Yong H.S.(2010a). Molecular
differentiation of Angiostrongylus taxa (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae)by cytochrome c
oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Acta Trop., 116, 152-156.
Eamsobhana P., Lim P.E., Zhang H. Gan X., Yong H.S. (2010b) Molecular differentiation and
phylogenetic relationships of three Angiostrongylus species and Angiostrongylus
cantonensis isolates based on a 66 kDa protein gene of A. cantonensis (Nematoda:
Angiostrongylidae). Exp. Parasitol., 126, 564-569.
Eamsobhana P., Lim P.E., Yong H.S. (2015). Phylogenetics and systematics of
Angiostrongylus lungworms and related taxa (Nematoda: Metatsrongyloidea) inferred from
the nuclear small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences. J. Helminthol., 89, 317-325.
Inger R.F., Orlov N., Darevsky I. (1999). Frogs of Vietnam: a report on new
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Jamnongluk W., Baimai V., Kittayapon P. (2003). Molecular phylogeny of tephritid fruit flies
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Jefferies R., Shaw S.E., Viney M.E., Morgan E.R. (2009). Angiostrongylus vasorum from
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Kuraishi N., Matsui M., Hamidy A., Belabut D.M., Ahmad N., Panha S., Sudin A., Yong H.S.,
Jiang J.-P., Ota H., Thong H.T., Nishikawa K. (2013).Phylogenetic and taxonomic
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Lim P-E., Tan J., Suana I.W., Eamsobhana P., Yong H.S. (2012). Distinct genetic lineages of
Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.
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Medway Lord(1983). "The Wild Mammals of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia) and
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Musser G.G., Carleton M.D.(2005). Superfamily Muroidea. In: Wilson D.E., Reeder D.M.
(eds.)"Mammal Species of theWorld. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd
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behavioural and genetic divergence of sympatric morphotypes of Polypedates leucomystax
in Peninsular Malaysia. Herpetologica, 54, 129-142.
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validity of Polypedates impresus Yang 2008. Asian Herpetol. Res., 4(2), 124-133.
Riyanto A., Mumpuni, McGuire J.A. (2011). Morphology of striped tree frogs, Polypedates
leucomystax (Gravenhorst, 1829) from Indonesia with description of a new species.
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Rujirawan A., Stuart B.L., Aowphol A. (2013). A new tree frog in the genus Polypedates
(Anura: Rhacophoridae) from southern Thailand. Zootaxa, 3702(6), 545-565.
Vargas R.I., Piero J.C., Leblanc L. (2015). An overview of pest species of Bactrocera fruit
flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological
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Yong H-S., Eamsobhana P., Song, S-L., Prasartvit A., Lim P-E. (2015a) Molecular
phylogeography of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) and
genetic relationships with congeners using cytochrome b gene marker. Acta Trop., 148, 66-
71.
Yong H.S., Lim P.E., Belabut D.M.,Eamsobhana P. (2013). Variation in the nucleolar organizer
regions of the long-tailed giant rats (Rodentia, Muridae, genus Leopoldamys) in
Malaysia.Raffles Bull. Zool.,61(2), 855-859.

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Yong H-S., Lim P-E., Tan J., Song S-L., Suana I.W., Eamsobhana P. (2015b) Multigene
phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): distinct genetic lineages in
northern and southerm hemispheres.PLoS ONE, 10(6), e0129455.
Yong H-S., Song S-L., Eamsobhana P., Goh S-Y., Lim P-E., Chow W-L., Chan K-G.,
Abrahams-Sandi E. (2015c). Mitochondrial genome supports sibling species of
Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae). PLoS ONE, 10(7),
e0134581.

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Fouling Control in Membrane Processes:


Vibration and Surface Corrugation
Muhammad R. Bilad
Singapore Membrane Technology Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute,
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637141, Singapore

Abstract-Membrane processes have become the most important technology for water and wastewater
treatment, including surface water filtration, wastewater treatment and desalination. However, their
widespread applications are still restricted mainly due to the membrane fouling. Common approaches for
fouling control are based on (1) optimizing operational conditions in favour of fouling mitigation, (2)
improving membrane properties and (3) exploiting the hydrodynamics near the membrane surface. In this
paper, two approaches for membrane fouling control are presented. They were applied for membrane
bioreactor (MBR) and membrane distillation (MD) processes. The feasibility of a novel magnetically induced
membrane vibration (MMV) system. The results showed clear advantages of the vibrating over the aerated
system by ensuring higher fluxes at lower fouling rates. The optimised MMV system is presumed to lead to
significant energy and cost reduction in up-scaled MBRs. Another effective way of fouling control in MBR
was by applying corrugation on the membrane surface. Corrugations were formed by incorporation an
imprinting step within membrane preparation procedure. The corrugation consisted of valleys-and-hills
topography, which increased both membrane effective surface area and mean pore size that lead to higher
permeability. Surface corrugations were proven effective to reduce membrane fouling propensities, without
affecting permeate quality. Surface corrugation was also effective for fouling control in MD. For MD
application, a two-layer corrugated composite membrane (CCM) was fabricated. The first layer controlled
pore size, while the second formed surface corrugation and enhanced hydrophobicity. After tested using
seawater and concentrated brine against a reference (flat membrane), the CCM showed much stable flux
(only reduced by 10.7%) than the reference (reduced by 66.6%) after more than 100 h of operation. The
advantage was even more pronounced when tested using feed with higher salt concentration.

Keywords:membrane technology,membrane bioreactor, membrane distillation, membrane fouling,


corrugated membrane

1. Introduction
Membrane processes have become the most important technology for water and wastewater
treatment, including surface water filtration, wastewater treatment and desalination (Shannon et al,
2008). However, their widespread application is still restricted mainly due to the membrane fouling
and its consequent on capital and operational costs (Baker et al, 2012). Most traditional approaches
for fouling control are based on optimizing operational conditions in favour of fouling mitigation,
improving membrane properties and exploiting the hydrodynamics near the membrane surface (Le-
Clech, 2006). In this paper, two approaches for membrane fouling control are presented. They were
applied for membrane bioreactor (MBR) and membrane distillation (MD) applications.
MBRs have been widely investigated as an advanced wastewater treatment process, and
gain recently have gained substantial popularity. Their advantages over the conventional activated
sludge systems have been widely acknowledged. In MBRs, membrane fouling is commonly
managed by applying shears on the membrane surface. Hydrodynamic control is implemented via
the cross-flow velocity or as the secondary flow of the coarse air bubbles. For the latter, shears are
generated on by inducing a secondary flow of liquid that disrupts the mass transfer boundary layer,
and promotes local mixing near the membrane surface. Unfortunately, this approach is energy
intensive, weak to moderate impact, poorly controlled, and sometime is detrimental for sludge
properties (Cui et al, 2003). Considering the limited efficiency of the coarse bubbles aeration in
submerged MBRs, the enhancement of shear rates via mechanical means seems a potential option
for fouling control.
In membrane distillation (MD), water is desalinated via porous and thin membrane, driven
by partial pressure between two membrane sides. MD uses porous hydrophobic membranes that
act as an interface between the liquid feed and vapour (Guillen-Burrieza et al, 2013). The
hydrophobic nature of the membrane allows only the vapour to pass through its pores. Due to its
underlying principle of operation, MD has been known to tolerate very high feed salinities. Thus,

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one niche MD application area is for desalination of high salinity seawaters or for brine reduction
in seawater desalination plants. However, like the rest of membrane processes, membrane fouling
is a main challenge for MD, in addition to low flux and high energy intensity (Kullab and Martin,
2011). Fouling leads to blockage of the membrane pores, reducing the effective vapour transport
area, and ultimately decreasing the permeate flux. This might also lead to higher pressure drop and
temperature polarization. Moreover, additional thermal resistance is created by the fouling layer.
As a result, the overall heat transfer coefficient is altered. Hence, much research is being carried out
to address fouling in MD and its mitigation techniques.
This study assesses two alternative approaches for fouling control in submerged MBRs and
MD: membrane vibration and membrane surface surface corrugation (Bilad et al, 2012; Kharraz et
al, 2015a; Kharraz et al, 2015b). In the first approach, a novel magnetically induced membrane
vibration (MMV) system is proposed as an alternative shear enhancement device for fouling
control in MBRs. In the second approach, the corrugated membrane was applied in both MBR and
MD, but the techniques for fabricating the corrugated surface for both applications were different.
For MBR application, the corrugations on the membrane surface were formed by incorporating an
imprinting step during a single-step phase inversion process. Surface corrugation is formed on the
membrane surface in a single-step process and thus applicable in the phase inversion method. The
resulting membranes were characterized and tested for activated sludge filtration in a lab-scale
MBR. The characteristics and fouling propensity of the corrugated membranes were compared to a
reference (non-patterned flat membrane). For MD application, because of the strict requirement on
membrane pore size distribution (very narrow, and low maximum pore size), some modifications
were applied from the aforementioned method. The corrugated membranes consist of two layers,
thus further referred to as composite corrugated membrane (CCM): the first layer serves as a base
membrane where the overall pore size is controlled, while the second, top layer is devoted to the
formation of corrugations and inducing surface hydrophobicity. The resulting CCM were
characterized and tested for seawater and brine desalination in a lab-scale direct contact MD
(DCMD) system.

2. Material and Method


2.1 Magnetic membrane vibration
In the MMV system (Figure 1), vibrations move the membrane and provide shear exactly at the
liquidmembrane interface. The system includes a vibration driver, an electric wire, a vibration
engine and the actual vibrating module. The signal is provided by the vibration driver, and the
vibration itself is created in the vibration engine. The performance of MMV was evaluated in a lab-
scale MBR treating synthetic wastewater. The feed solutions were prepared by diluting 0.45 ml/l of
molasses stock solution. The membranes mounted on the system were from commercial suppliers.
Two commercial membranes were used in this study, namely PVDFT and PEK from Toray and
Kubota, respectively.

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the (a) lab-scale MBR setup equipped with the MMV system, (b) MMV
module in front view, and (c) MMV module in side view.

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2.2 Surface corrugated membrane for MBR application


All membrane samples were prepared via the phase inversion process using polyvinylidene
difluoride (PVDF), dimethylacetamide (Alfa Aesar) and de-ionized water as the polymer, solvent
and non-solvent, respectively. To form a flat-sheet membrane, after casting the polymer solution,
the cast film was immediately immersed into a coagulation bath containing water (acts as the non-
solvent) (Figure 2A). The corrugated membranes, however, were prepared by introducing the
imprinting of the spacer on the membrane top surface as an intermediate step between casting and
coagulation. The spacer was imprinted on top of the cast liquid polymer film down to at certain
depth, allowing it to have sufficient contact with the upper-part of the cast film. Later, the
imprinted film together with the spacer atop of it was immersed into the coagulation bath to
complete the membrane formation. The performance of MMV was evaluated in a lab-scale MBR.
Two different spacers (fine and coarse) were used as imprinting masters.

(A)

(B)

Figure 2. Illustration of membrane imprinting method for corrugated membrane fabrication for (A) MBR
and (B) MD applications.

2.3 Composite corrugated membrane for MD application


To form CCM for MD application, two-layer membranes were prepared (Figure 2B). After fully
dissolved and degassed, the polymer solution was casted on a non-woven support, and was
immersed immediately into a coagulation bath to form the first layer. The immersed film was left
for at least 45 min to form a solidified membrane. The resulting film was dried for 2 days on a
bench under room condition. To form the second (upper) layer, polymer solution was casted on top
of the first layer. Immediately after casting, the spacer was imprinted on the top of the film,
followed by immersion into a coagulation bath. Due to the vertical shrinkage of the film, the net-
spacer delaminated from the membrane matrix, leaving the membrane with a corrugated surface
that has a shape opposing the shape of the imprinted spacer.

3. Results and Discussion


3.1 Performance of MMV
In order to observe the impact of the vibration on the filtration performance, the membranes were
placed inside the MBR tank at two different zones: the one that exposed to aerations (aerated zone)
and the one that was not exposed to aeration (non-aerated zone). The filtrations were performed in
four different modes (Figure 3):

Mode-1: filtration in the non-aerated zone without vibration. In this mode, the fouling is
only controlled by the limited movement of liquid induced by the aerated zone.
Mode-2: subsequent filtration just after Mode-1 without cleaning the membrane. This
mode was performed to observe the impact of vibration on cleaning a fouled membrane.
Mode-3: filtration in the aerated zone (aerated filtration). The coarse bubble aeration
velocity was set at 0.3 m3/h.

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Mode-4: filtration in the non-aerated zone (vibrated filtration).


For Modes-2 and -4, the membrane was continuously vibrated. For all modes, filtrations were run
at a fixed flux of 22 L m-2 h-1 for 30 min and the performance was evaluated using the filtration
resistance profiles.

Figure 3. Filtration resistance for () Mode-1, () Mode-2, () Mode-3 and () Mode-4, using (a) PVDFT and
(b) PEK.

Mode-1 shows the highest filtration resistance followed by Mode-3, and -4, for both tested
membranes (Figure 3). This order clearly represents the magnitude shear rates at the membrane
surfaces. In the non-aerated zone, the membrane surfaces experienced very limited shear rates, only
from movement of the bulk liquid. In the aerated zone, a higher degree of shear rates was realized
at the membrane surfaces due to both the liquid movement and the air bubbles scouring. In the case
of the vibrated filtrations, the shear rates were high enough to develop the back transport from the
membrane that finally exceeded the fouling rate, thus promoting the removal of colloids,
macromolecules and other foulants from the membrane surface. As a consequence, almost no
fouling was built-up in Mode-4 by both the PVDFT and PEK.
The impact of vibration to clean a fouled membrane is clearly seen in Mode-2. A
significant drop of filtration resistance was immediately obtained just after the vibration started.
This result confirms the ability of the developed MMV system for in-situ cleaning of pre-fouled
membranes. The impact of vibration might be different on membranes with different properties, as
also shown when comparing Figure 3a with b. The vibration may control fouling via two
mechanisms: (1) preventing the convective flow of foulants onto and into the membrane, as seen
from the result in Mode-4 and (2) removing the foulants from the pre-fouled membrane, as seen
from the result in Mode-2.
In the long-term filtration and after seven days of operation, fouling was found to be more
severe for all membranes in the vibrated system compared to the ones in the aerated system
(Figure 4). This is an obvious contradiction with all the previous results, but can be explained by
the arrangement of the membranes. Apparently, the membranes in the MMV system were situated
so near to each other that the liquid between the membranes moved in-phase and almost became
stagnant, moving together with the membrane. To confirm this, the filtration was stopped, the
second (middle) vibrated membrane was omitted from the reactor, and the filtration was continued.
The remaining membranes were chemically cleaned prior to the filtration re-start. The two
vibrating membranes (now with a distance of 10 mm in between) performed better in terms of
fouling than the aerated ones throughout the 15 extra days of operation. These results not only
confirm the efficacy of the MMV system in a long-term filtration process, but also suggest the
importance of adequate design and arrangement of the membranes in one module.

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Figure 4. The profile of filtration resistance during the long-term filtration. Membranes 13 and 4-5 were
operated in the MMV and aerated system, respectively.

3.2 Performance of corrugated membrane in MBR


The spacer imprinting method was effective to form homogeneous corrugation on the membrane
surface for both MSF (using fine spacer) and MSC (using coarse spacer) (Figure 5). The
topography of the corrugated surface is controlled by the shape of the spacer that acted as a
template/master. The shapes of the pattern are strongly affected by the nature of the spacers. The
fine spacer has a smooth (smaller strings) structure located in close proximity, enabling them to
access deeper depth of the cast polymer film and produce more corrugates, which resulted in a
rougher macro-scale surface. Consequently, the MSF membrane had small droplets-like patterns
originated from the troughs of the spacer. The coarse spacer, on the other hand, has a coarse
structure, with relatively thicker and larger strings than that of the fine spacer, disallowing it to
reach deeper into the cast film, which resulted in an corrugated membrane having diagonal line-like
patterns.

Figure 5. Pictures and dimensions of the fine (a) and coarse (d) spacers, top surface of the corrugated
membranes: MSF (b) and MSC (e), and side view picture of the corrugated membrane surface: MSF (c) and
MSC (f).

A significant difference in properties was observed for the two corrugated membranes
(data not shown). Their pore sizes and bubble points were larger than the flat one, which partly
contributed to their higher clean water permeance (CWP). These mean that the imprinting step
promoted changes in the microstructure of the resulting membranes. However, this enlargement of
the pore size is still acceptable for MBR, assuming that the largest pores would be blocked by the
activated sludge flocs, soon after operation started. Therefore, large pores in this case were not
considered as membrane defect, but they occurred because of changes in the membrane formation
mechanism.
In order to confirm the advantage of the corrugated membranes, the membranes were
applied in a lab-scale MBR (Figure 6). The three membranes were tested in parallel at a constant

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flux of 18.44 Lm2h1. Therefore, their performances could be directly compared based on their P
(pressure drop) increments. In this test, three features are to be observed; the initial P, the increase
rate of P, and the critical P. The initial P value is a function of both membrane resistance and
the fouling rate at the initial stage of filtration, which mostly occurs via irreversible adsorption and
pore blocking. The increase rate of P corresponds directly to membrane fouling rates. Here, the
threshold P of 20 kPa was chosen as the maximum P.
The flat (MF) membrane reached the critical P just after 5 days (after which it was
cleaned and returned to the filtration system), while the corrugated membranes were still running
well below the critical P over the entire testing duration. After 25 days, the P only reached 14.5
and 7.9 kPa for MSC and MSF, respectively. Overall, the results show the advantage of corrugated
membranes in prolonging the filtration operation. Based on the collective results from lab-scale
MBR operation, the membrane fouling rates were in the order of MF>MSC>MSF.

Figure 6. Long-term MBR performance of flat (MF) and corrugated membranes (MSC and MSF).

3.3 Performance of composite corrugated membrane in MD


The formation of CCM that meet the demand for MD application was achieved (Figure 7). After
immersion in the coagulation bath (step 7 in Figure 2B), solidification and gelation of the cast film
takes place. As a result, the cast film shrinks and releases the spacer from the solidified polymer
matrix, leaving behind a corrugated surface.

Figure 7. (a) Image and dimensions of the used spacer, and (b) top surface of the CCM.

Figure 8 shows the results of two DCMD experiments using seawater using the CCM and
a reference (flat composite membrane, FCM). The FCM had a higher initial flux of 18 Lm-2h-1 but
experienced flux decrease throughout the experiment (103 h) to 6 Lm-2h-1, a 67% reduction from its
initial flux. On the other hand, the CCM suffered a flux reduction of only 10.7% from an initial
flux of 11.2 Lm-2h-1. For both membranes, the reduction in flux is an evidence of membrane
fouling. Despite having higher initial flux than CCM, Flux of FCM declined faster, leading to a
smaller final flux. The difference in the initial fluxes could be attributed to the difference in
membrane structure. Levelling the initial flux was nearly impossible because the two membranes
have different properties originated from their different in formation mechanisms.

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Figure 8. Evolution of flux over a long-term DCMD test of flat composite membrane (FCM) and composite
corrugated membrane (CCM) using feed of (a) seawater (65 mS/cm), and (b) concentrated seawater
(115 mS/cm). Other test parameters: Tfeed: 65 C; Tpermeate: 25 C.

To investigate the performance of CCM under high salt concentrations, a second set of
tests were conducted using concentrated seawater (43% higher conductivity than normal sea water)
in Figure 8b. Due to higher feed concentration, the FCM experienced much higher fouling and
scaling rates. This was confirmed by the higher rate of flux reduction compared to the seawater as
the feed (Figure 8a). Although having a higher initial flux (18 Lm-2h-1), the FCM reached a point
of no flux in 92 h. Furthermore, due to the excessive salt deposits on the membrane surface, the
FCM experienced pore wetting, supported by an increase in permeate conductivity. The CCM,
conversely, was proved to have better fouling resistance, even with higher feed concentrations. It
experienced a fouling rate close to seawater test, suggesting a small impact of salt concentration on
membrane fouling/scaling propensity.

4. Conclusions
The MMV was proven better over the aerated system in terms of realisable flux and membrane
fouling control. Significant performance improvement was obtained due to the enhanced shear at
the liquidmembrane interface. The long-term experiments confirmed the efficacy of the MMV
system, but also suggested the importance of an appropriate membrane arrangement. Fouling
control in MBR was also effectively achieved by applying corrugated membranes. Homogeneous
surface corrugation could be formed by incorporating an imprinting step in the fabrication process.
The enhanced fouling resistance of the corrugated membranes was attributed to their higher pore
size, increased surface area and, to a lower degree, improved flow dynamics across their surface.
When applied for MD application, a modification of fabrication method is required and resulting in
two-layer of CCM. A CCM showed a better flux stabilization compared to the reference (flat
membrane). The structure and properties of the corrugated CCM significantly contributed to higher
flux stability as confirmed by its steady flux values during the tests. The enhanced flux stability of
the CCM was mainly due to the improved flow dynamics at the membrane surface because of
higher turbulences and increased surface area induced by surface corrugations.

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Acknowledgements
The works on MMV were supported by by K.U. Leuven (CECAT excellence, GOA and IDO
financings), by the Flemish Government (Methusalem funding) and by the Federal Government
(IAP grant). The works on corrugated membrane were funded by the Cooperative Agreement
between the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE and the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA, Reference no.
02/MI/MI/CP/11/07633/GEN/G/00.

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doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2014.10.018.
Kharraz, J.A., Bilad, M.R. and Arafat, H.A. (2015b). Flux stabilization in membrane distillation
desalination of seawater and brine using corrugated PVDF membranes, J. Membr. Sci. 49,
404414. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2015.08.039
Kullab, A. and Martin, A. (2011). Membrane distillation and applications for water purification in
thermal cogeneration plants, Sep. Purif. Technol. 76, 231237.
doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2010.09.028.
Le-Clech, P., Chen, V., Fane, T.A.G. (2006). Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater
treatment, J. Membr. Sci. 284, 1753. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2006.08.019.
Shannon, M.A., Bohn, P.W., Elimelechm M., Georgiadis, J.G., Marias, B.J., Mayers, A.M.
(2008). Science and technology for water purification in the coming decades, Nature, 452,
301-310.

ISBN 9786021570425 IS-52


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Theory of Metallic Nanoclusters


(abstract only)

Elias Saion
Department of Physics, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract-Nanomaterials have fascinated many scientists primarily because of their size dependent physical
and chemical properties not found in their bulk materials, which make them unique materialsfor nanoscience
and nanotechnology. Various inorganic nanomaterials including semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum
dots), metal nanoparticles, andbimetallic nanoparticles, are highlighted in terms of their synthesis, properties,
and applications. A special attention is given to understanding metallic nanoclusters in terms of the optical
absorption induced by UV-visible light andconventionally described as the collective oscillation of
conduction electrons of metal nanoparticles in continuous energy states; despitesimilar particle sizewith the
quantum dots that enjoy the discrete energy states. Associating the geometrical structure with the established
crystalline solid and the electronic structure with the jellium model in discrete energy states;the optical
absorption of metallic nanoclusters may be defined quantum mechanically as the intra-band excitation of
conduction electrons, imitating the photoelectric effect in bulk metals. The optical absorption maxima of
platinum nanoparticles were measured and compared with the theoretical calculation. The agreement of the
results suggeststhat the theory of metallic nanoclusters be based on quantumelectronic excitation and is
fundamental to understanding and exploiting metal nanoparticles in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

ISBN 9786021570425 IS-53


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

SECTION II: PHYSICS

OP-01
Fundamental Theories of Extra Dimensions and Neutrino
(abstract only)

Muhammad Yusuf1* and Tasrief Surungan2


1*
Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural
Sciences, Gorontalo State University, Gorontalo, Indonesia, myusuf@physicist.net
2
Theoretical and Computational Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hasanuddin
University, Makassar, Indonesia, tasrief@unhas.ac.id

Abstract-In this paper we discuss the principles and theories of some frontier topics in theoretical physics
such as the existence of Higgs boson in standard model, the need of extra dimensions in string theory and its
mathematical aspects, and cosmoparticle which is the theory connectingcosmology and particle physics. We
also discuss conformal field theory and the theory explaining the existence of neutrino in the universe.

Keywords:Higgs Boson, extra dimension, string theory, neutrino

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-1


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-02
Temporal Statistical Analysis of the Volcanic Eruption in
Mt. Banda Api, Banda Islands, Maluku

Josephus Rony Kelibulin1, Desi Kiswiranti2*, and R.R Lokollo1, H. Andayani1

1Department of Physics, Pattimura University, Ambon,


*kelibulin_ronny_josephus@yahoo.com
2Department of Physics, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta

Abstract-Mt.Banda Api (641 m) is a volcano islands located on 4o3130 S and 129o5217" E. More than
27 eruptions have been reported since four of the last century. The volcanoe has the potential to cause natural
disasters with the different intensity and power. Volcanic activity is a natural occurrence that is difficult to
predict and may be considered as chaotic with no clear shape. Statistical methods can be applied to explain
the pattern of volcanic eruptions as well as to help forecast future volcanic eruption activity. In this study,
three temporal statistical methods were applied (Exponential distribution, Weibull distribution and Log-
Logistic distribution). In general, the exponential distribution provides the highest probability of eruption that
occurred within a specific time in the future with a 95% confidence level. In 2014, probability of eruptions in
Mt. Banda Api is 49,16 %. Pattern of volcanic eruption in Indonesia are not normally distributed, so that the
pattern of volcanic eruptions is a random. Qualitatively, the biggest eruption will follow the longest repose
time interval. However, the magnitude of reponse time has no influence on the magnitude of VEI and doesnt
affect to the probability of occurrence the volcanic eruptions. The average potential energy of the volcanic
eruption in Mt. Banda Api period 1800-2013 amounted to 1,0195 x 1019ergs and the average thermal energy
of the volcanic eruption period 1800-2013 amounted to 2,0378 x 1021 ergs. Therefore, the total energy of the
volcanic eruption in Mt. Banda Api amounted to 2.0479 x 1021ergs.

Keywords: Mt. Banda Api, volcanic eruptions, VEI, reponse time, exponential distribution, log-logistic
distribution, Weibull distribution, thermal energy, potential energy

1. Introduction
Mt. Banda Api (Figure 1) has a height of 641 m above sea level. The mountain is located in
the district of Banda Island, Central Maluku, Maluku.Geographically is located at 4o31'30"S and
129o52'17"E. Mt. Banda Api arises from the north of a row of volcanoes located in the Banda
volcanic arc (Van Bemmelen, 1949, p.219). Arc was formed approximately 1.5 million years ago.
The mechanism of complex formation is seen based on the theory of plate tectonics is the
interaction between the main plate (Pacific and Indo-Australian plate) with multiple microplate
well as the influence of transform faults and Irian faults causes the complexity of the region when
viewed from the regional geological structure . These events cause the Banda arc and ocean regions
as the source of tectonic earthquakes (PVMBG, 2014).

Figure 1. Mt. Banda Api (sumber : http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=265090)

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-2


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

As a volcanic island, the potential danger of the eruption apart form the primary hazards
such as falling throw pyroclastics (bombs and volcanic ash), pyroclastic flows (hot clouds), and
lava flows, also potentially occur secondary hazards such as lava, eruption (phreatic) secondary to
contact between the product volcanoes are still hot with seawater and volcanic avalanches likely to
cause a tsunami.
Eruptionof an islandvolcano like Mt.Banda Api often high risk and greater social impact
for local residents than residents around the volcano in the area of land.Evacuation of the
population at the time of the eruption has to do with the crossingof the volcanic island to another
island that is considered more secure. Eruption in 1988, almost 8000 people were evacuated from
the island ofAmbon to Banda Islands and the island of Seram (Wahyudin, 2011).

2.Time Series Analysis Eruption at Mt. Banda Api


Based on the data recorded since 1500, Mt. Banda Api erupted more than 27 times (Badan
Geologi, 1979). Only four events cause the casualties, i.e. eruption in 1598, 1615, 1690 and 1988.
The repose time ranged between 1-80 years. Variation of the repose time is generally proportional
to the level of energy eruption that followed. If the repose time between eruptions is short, then
energy that follow the eruption too small, otherwise if the repose time is long, then energy of the
eruption that follow also great (Kirbani and Wahyudi, 2007).
12

10
Frekuensi Kejadian Erupsi

2 Std. Dev = 17.96


Mean = 15.5
0 N = 26.00
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0

Repose Time

Figure 2. Histogram repose time on Mt.Banda Api.

Figure 2 is a histogram that shows the time series of repose time at Mt. Banda Api start in
1586 until 1988. From the above histogram, the mean of repose time on Mt.Banda Api is of 15.5
years. This does not mean that every 15 years eruption may occur. Based on Table1, the size of
skewness is 2.269, then the ratio of skewness is 4.98 while the kurtosis measure is 5.96, then the
ratio of kurtosis was 6.72.
Table 1. Statistic of repose time of Mt. Banda Api
Repose
N Valid 26
Missing 0
Mean 15.46
Std. Deviation 17.96
Variance 322.66
Skewness 2.269
Std. Error of Skewness .456
Kurtosis 5.960
Std. Error of Kurtosis .887

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-3


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Statistically, the distribution of time series of volcanic eruptions can be expressed as an


exponential distribution (Wickmann, 1965),

, = 0 (1)

where,
N = counteruptions that have longer the repose time than t
No = counteruptions that have longer the repose time than 0 years
= repose time
= exponential attenuation coefficient

Value of for the eruption of Mt. Banda Api is 0.0647/year. Exponential distribution (1)
has a medium value (T, meanvalue) 1/, in terms of time series of volcanic eruptions can be
referred to as the mean eruption repose time. T for Mt. Banda Api with =0.0647/year amounted to
15.5years. This does not mean that every15.5 years always eruption, so wrong if T is said to be the
return period. The events that have exponential Poissonian distribution is essentially random.
Time seriesof volcanic eruptions has a probability density function/PDF (Wickmann, 1966)
wasnt the eruption,

PDF No Eruption (, ) = (2) (3.7)

Not eruption PDF function (, t) can be categorized as a Poissonian distribution function. Eruption
PDF function can be formulatedas follows:

PDF Eruption (, ) =1- (3) (3.8)


Based on Table 2, Mt. Banda Api has = 86 year, so has the probabilityof eruption at 18.6 %.

Based on probability of eruption Mt. Banda Api is18.6%, so this time there is a value at
risk can not be ignored, so there is no other way but to nomitigation measures that minimize
negative impacts caused by the eruption of Mt.Banda Api.

Table 2. The eruption probability of Mt. Banda Api


Distribution Eruption probability (2014)
Exponential 18.6 %
Weibull 26.17
Log-Logistik 49.16

Weibull Distribution
It may be argued on physical grounds that the hazard rate should bellowed to systematically
increase/decrease with time to include gimes of increasing volcanic activity or
waning/extinguishing activity. This can be accomplished by the Weibull distribution, commonly
used in failure analysis and successfully applied to various volcanoes (Ho, 1991; Bebbington and
Lai, 1996a, b ; Watt et al. , 2007):

= (4)

where is a power parameter, usually referred to as the shape parameter. For = 1, the Weibull
distribution includes the exponential distribution as a special case, but it also accommodates the
possibilities of increasing or decreasing hazard rates if >1 or <1, respectively. As the Weibull
distribution represents a model of simple failure, it best illustrates scenarios that consider this
ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-4
Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

failure after a given time as a result of only one dominant process in the system. In 2014, the
eruption of Mt. Banda Api has a probability of 26.17% (Table 2).

Log-Logistic Distribution
A certain parameters can increase the likelihood of eruption, while other parameters will
cause a decrease in the probability of an eruption. Factors that influence can be formulated with a
log-logistic distribution (Dziermaand Wehrmann, 2010):
1 1
= = (5)
1+ 1+

which includes a scale parameter b and a shape parameter . A loglogistic distribution can
sometimes achieve a better t particularly to very long or short repose intervals (Connor et al.,
2003). In 2014, the eruption of Mt. Banda Api has a probability of 49.16% (Table 2).

Correlation Analysis between Repose Time and VEI


Qualitatively, the largest eruption will follow the longest rest interval greater than100 years
(Simkin and Siebert, 1984, 1994). Variations of repose time are generally comparable to the energy
level of the eruption that followed. If the short reponse time between eruptions, the eruptive energy
usually follow it too small, otherwise if the long repose time then the energyof the eruption that
followed was also large. This is caused by the accumulation of energy in a relatively long time.
Repose time and magnitude of eruptions during the eruption process is fundamentally different
because the controlling behavior during the active growth phase of a volcano tends to have a long
repose time. Correlation repose time and VEI Mt. Banda Api is shown in Figure 3.
Korelasi Repose Time dan VEI
Gunung Banda Api
100

80
Repose Time

60

40

20

0
-.5 0.0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

VEI

Figure 3. Correlation of repose time and VEI Mt. Banda Api.

To find out more about the correlation between repose time withVEI at Mt.Banda Api using SPSS.

Table 3. Analysis of correlation between


repose time and VEI on Mt.Banda Api
R Sig. (2-tailed)

VEI 0,301 0,135

Repose 0,301 0,135


Time

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-5


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

According to Table 3, the significance of the results of the correlation between repose time
withVEI magnitude of 0.135(>0.05) then Ho is accepted. This shows that the repose time does not
affect with the VEI. The correlation coefficient between repose time andVEI is positive, which
means that the greater the repose time the greater the VEI index. The correlation coefficient is
0.301 magnitude whose value is much smaller than 1 (perfect correlation coefficient). This shows
the weak relationship between the two variables. From the above results, it can be concluded that
repose time has no effect on theVEI. This can be affected by several other factors such as
differences in chemicalcompositi on both before and after the eruption, topography, morphology,
characteristics of volcanoes, etc.

Potential Energy and Thermal Energy of Volcanic Eruption on Mt. Banda Api Period
1800-2013
Yokoyama (1956) estimated the energy at the time of volcanic eruptions are divided into
various form ssuch as potential energy and thermal energy. The potential energy is represented by
changes in the level of lava in the hole/vent volcano during an eruption. Energy of eruptions can be
formulatedas follows:

= (6)

where,
Ep = potential energy (Joule)
m = total mass of materials in eruption (kg)
g = acceleration of gravity (m/s2)
h = high column of smoke during eruption (m)

Eruption on Mt. Banda Api


Period 1800-2013
2E+21
Potential Energy (ergs)

1.5E+21
1E+21
5E+20
0
1800 1850 1900 1950 2000
Year

Figure 4. Eruption on Mt. Banda Api (1800-2013)

During the period of 1800-2013 eruption, Mt. Banda Api generated a potential energy of
1.0195x1019ergs. Figure 4 shows the eruption of Mt. Banda Api periodicity of 1800-2013. In the
picture looks the pattern eruption on Mt. Banda Api.
Thermal energy is represented by the quantity of hot lava and gases from volcanic fragments
respectively. The equation used byYokoyama to high temperatures>1000C was as follows:
= + (7)

where,
Eth = thermal energy
V = ejecta volume
= the mean of density
T = lava temperature
= specific heat lava (when T=800 oC, =0.25 cal/gr.oC and when T=300 oC, =0.20 cal/gr.oC)
J = work equivalent of heat, 4.1855 x 107 ergs

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-6


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

During the period of 1800-2013 eruption, Mt. Banda Api generated the thermal energy of
2.0378x1021ergs. Therefore, the total energy of the eruption of Mt. Banda Api from 1800 to 2013
amounted to 2.0479x1021 ergs.

3. Conclusion
The time series eruption on Mt. Banda Api has the characteristics of stochastic random,
with count eruption as afunction of repose time have an exponential distribution and PDF
Poissonian function with the attenuation coefficient is equal to 0.0647or medium repose time value
of 15.5year. The probability of eruption on Mt. Banda Api in 2014 based on the exponential
distribution by 18.6%. Weibull distribution gives the probability of eruption at 26.17% while the
Log-Logistic distribution gives the probability of eruption at 49.16%. Volcanic eruption probability
>50%, so it needs to be aware of risk that must be borne. Eruption of Mt.Banda Api during the
period of 1800-2013, generate an average potential energy of 1.0195x1019ergs and the average
thermal energy of 2.0378x1021ergs. Therefore, the total energy of the eruption of Mt. Banda Api
from 1800 to 2013 amounted to2.0479x1021ergs.

References
Bebbington, M. S and Lai, C. D. (1996a). Statistical Analysis of New Zealand Volcanic
Occurrence Data, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research Vol. 74, p. 101-
110.
Bebbington, M. S and Lai, C. D. (1996b). On Non homogenous Models for Volcanic Eruptions,
Math. Geol. 28/5, p.585-600 .
Dzierma, Y.and Wehrmann, H. (2010). Eruption Time Series Statistically Examined:
Probabilities of Future Eruptions at Villarica and Llaima Volcanoes, Southern Volcanic
Zone, Chile, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 193, 82-92.
Ho, C. H. (1991). Time Trend Analysis of Basaltic Volcanism for The Yukka Mountain Site,
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research Vol. 46, p. 61-72.
Kirbani, S.B and Wahyudi. (2007). Erupsi Gunung api Kelud dan Nilai-b Gempa Bumi di
Sekitarnya, Laboratorium Geofisika UGM, Yogyakarta.
Simkin, T. and Siebert, L. (1984). Explosive Eruptions in Space and Time: Durations, Intervals,
and a Comparison of the Worlds Active Volcanic Belts. In Boyd, R. F. (ed) Explosive
Volcanism: Inception, Evolution, and Hazards, National Academy Press, Washington, D.
C., 110-121.
Simkin, T. and Siebert, L. (1994). Volcanoes of the World, 2nd Edition, Geoscience Press,
Tucson.
Van Bemmelen. R. W. (1949). The Geology of Indonesia v. I.A. Government Printing Office.
Wahyudin, D. (2011). Potensi Bahaya dan Dampak Erupsi Gunung Banda Api, Maluku Sebagai
Pulau Gunung api, Jurnal Lingkungan dan Bencana Geologi Vol. 2, PVMBG.
Watt, S. F. L, Mather, T. A., and Pyle, D. M. (2007). Vulcanian Explosion Cycle : Patterns and
Predictability, Geology 35/9, p. 839-842, doi : 10.1130/G23562A.1.
Wickmann, F.E. (1965). Repose Period Pattern of Volcanoes II. Eruption Histories of spme Indian
Volcanoes, Arkiv Foer Mineralogi Och Geologi, Band 4 Nr 6, Uppsala.
Yokoyama, I. (1956). Energetics in Active Volcanoes, Earthquake Research Institute.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-7


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-04
The Role of ZnPc Functional Layer in Detecting MMP3
Biomolecule Using QCM Sensor System
Djoko J. Santjojo* and Masruroh

Collaborative Research Group for Advanced System and Material Technology (ASMAT),
Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia, dsantjojo@gmail.com

Abstract-A quick response QCM biosensor has been developed by utilizing a ZnPc functional layer. The
layer is intended to improve immobilization of biomolecules especially Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3)
rheumatic arthritis antibody. A polystyrene interlayer was deposited on a QCM by means of spin coating
technique. The ZnPc layer was deposited on top of the polystyrene using vacuum evaporation technique. The
deposition rate was controlled by a variable powered heating system. Evaluation and analysis of the ZnPc
morfology and microstructure was carried out by SEM and surface topography measurements. The sensitivity
of the QCM sensor system to the MMP3 molecule was increased significantly since the size and
microstructures of the ZnPc layer enhanced adsorption and traping of the MMP3 molecules. The adsorption
was associated with fibrous microstructures of the layer, while the traping behaviour was related to surface
roughness.

Keywords: ZnPc functional layer, MMP3 biomolecule, QCM sensor

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-8


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-5
Determination of in-situ Permeability by Using Stoneley
Wave Characteristics
Kosim

Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas of Mataram, Jl. Majapahit No. 62 Mataram
83125, kosim.unram@gmail.com

Abstract-Permeability is one of the necessary to determine the presence of oil or gas reservoir drilling a
well in economic value. Based on the research literature there is a relationship between Stoneley wave
attenuation factor and permeability. The relationship has been made a model by Matheu and Thoksoz. Then
the model is modified to use field data to determine the value of in-situ permeability rocks. Results obtained
equation of a quadratic equation complex permeability and modified Bessel functions. Characteristics of the
Stoneley wave used are velocity of wave, frequency and attenuation factor. Application modeling on field
data is assumed that the reservoir rocks of the earth around the elastic, porous which has a fracture.

Keywords:in-situ permeablility, Matheu and Thoksoz model, Stoneley wave

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-9


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-06
Development of a Quake Catcher Device to Record Earth
Quake Events

I Wayan Sudiarta1* and Made Sutha Yadnya2


1
Physics Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Mataram,
wayan.sudiarta@unram.ac.id
2
Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Mataram
Jl. Majapahit No. 62 Mataram NTB 83125

Abstract-Earthquakes often occur in Indonesia, especially in the area around the subduction zone at Sunda
Arc. Large earthquakes, for example in Aceh (2004) and Yogyakarta (2006), have caused material losses and
large casualties. Mitigation efforts should be conducted to reduce the impact caused by an earthquake. One
mitigation effort is by creating a map of earthquake-prone areas which is important for planning earthquake-
resistant building. Mapping of earthquake prone areas can be done by analyzing the physical properties of
soil layers. This can indirectly be determined by measuring the rate of propagation of seismic waves during
an earthquake recorded using seismometers. Vibration sensors such as MEMS accelerometers and a
datalogger can also be applied to make an earthquake recording system. In this paper, we report our progress
in developing a prototype device called "Quake Catcher" that can accurately record earthquake waves. The
Quake Catcher device consists of several important components: MEMS sensor, microcontroller, GSM
shield, real time clock (RTC) module, SD memory card and battery.

Keywords: quake catcher, seismic wave, mitigation

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-10


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-07
Load Weight of Boat: Experimental Approach and
Hydrostatic Calculations
Agus Dwi Catur1*, Sukartono2, Sinarep1, and Masrun1
1
Faculty of Engineering, Mataram University, Jl. Majapahit No. 62 Mataram, Indonesia,
agus_dc1@yahoo.co.id
2
Faculty of Agriculture, Mataram University, Jl. Majapahit No. 62 Mataram, Indonesia

Abstract-Wooden boats still dominate the small inter-island transportation around the island of Lombok
(gili) and the sea area of Indonesia. The limited wood to make wooden boats is expensive. Long-tail boats
prototype has been designed and made of composite sandwich with bamboo - fiberglass reinforcement and
polyurethane rigid foam. Load weight of boat obtained by experiments and hydrostatic calculations.Building
boats was done by a wet lay up method on the mold. Load weight of boat was measured by weighing the load
on the boat at the certain water line. Load weight of boat was also obtained by the hydrostatic calculations.
Load weight of boat obtained from the experiment was closed to the hydrostatic calculations.

Keywords:boat, hydrostatic, loads,sandwich

1. Introduction
Wooden boats still dominate for transport connections between the islands and for
fishermen. The more expensive and limited large wooden building boats made from non-wood
constantly being developed to replace the wooden boat. Deforestation issue is widespread, the use
of wood as a boat must be suppressed. One of non-wood boat is a boat made from a composite of
polyester reinforced with fiberglass.
The boat is made from polyester-fiberglass composite heavier than wooden boats. This
boat will sink when there is a leak, because its density is greater than the density of sea water. This
makes the fishermen still choose to wear wooden boat. To fulfill these fishing boats was developed
with high buoyancy and payload was adequate. This caracter are on a boat with a sandwich
material.
In Indonesia, most of the fishing boats in the wake traditionally are made of wood and was
built without planning drawings or mathematical calculations. The boat was manufactured only by
example with no hydrostatic parameters. The fishing boat is a floating vehicle that combines speed,
custody, and storage facilities. As a function of storage and loading load fish catch and fishing
equipment, boats must have high buoyancy.
The buoyant force is a resultant force direction upward carried by the fluid on an object
when the object is in the fluid. The specific gravity of water and the amount of water that is
transferred can determine the object will float or sink. A very large boat has a great immersed
volume. This can move water very much and the boat will float.
The boat floats if the weight of the boat plus the load there on equal to the buoyant force.
Boat buoyant force can be estimated using an approach hydrostatic data analysis. Based on this,
research on cargo boats made of composite sandwich has been done and will be described in this
paper. Testing buoyancy boat with experimental done. Boat design is used to calculate the load
cargo boat with formulas approaches. The results of both methods were compared in this paper.

2. Basic theory
Archimedes law states that an object partly or completely immersed into a liquid substance
will experience an upward force equal to the weight of liquid removal.
Fa= V g .(1)

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-11


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Description:
Fa: buoyancy force
g: gravitational acceleration of the earth
: density of liquid
V: volume objects immersed in liquids.
Calculate the volume of the beam is very easy because of its simplicity. On other hand,
Boat shape calculation is not simple; calculate the volume of the boat required accuracy. To
calculate the volume of the boat is done by formulas approaches. The formula was made by
Simpson. Simpson's rules are used to calculate the area and volume of objects that are irregularly
shaped. The rules assume that the boundary objects can be divided so as to follow the laws of
mathematics. The accuracy of the calculation depends on the distribution of these boundaries so
that the curves follow the laws of mathematics.

First Simpsons rule assumes that the curve is a parabolic of the second order as the Figure 1.

Figure 1. Parabolic curve

2
Area under curve = 0 = h/3(y1+4 y2+y3)
Second Simpsons rule assumes that the equation of the curve is of the third order as the Figure 2.

Figure 2. Polynomial third order curve

3
Area under curve = 0 = 3/8 h (y1 +3y2+3y3 +y4)
Simpson rules can also be used to calculate the volume of an irregular object. By shredding the
object so that the curve can approximate the laws of mathematics. The area of the elementary strip
in figures 3 (a) and (b) is `Y' square metres. Then the volume of the strip in each case is equal to Y
dx and the volume of each boat is equal to Volume.
4
Volume = 0
= h/3(A+4B+2C+4D+E)
E is area of water plan at baseline, this position is the bottom of the boat.
D is area of water plan at h meters from baseline
C is area of water plan at 2h meters from baseline
B is area of water plan at 3h meters from baseline
A is area of water plan at 4h meters from baseline

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-12


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Figure 3. Irregular object: hull of boat

Thus the displacement volume of a boat to any particular draft can be found, first by
calculating the areas of water planes or transverse areas at equidistant intervals and then using these
areas as ordinates to find the volume by Simpson's rules.

3. Method
Research working order as shown in Figure 4.

Start

Boat design

Hydrostatic Calculation

Boat Manufacture

Testing of loading

Data analysis

Conclusion and recommendation

Conclusions and suggestions


End

Figure 4. Flow chart

In designing process, the boat must accommodate the equipment and the completeness of
what is needed on the boat. It will determine its layout on the boat and the layout of the equipment.
The equipment include fishing gear, the engine, hold the fish, anchors and others. The boat is
designed not have all the boat deck. Deck located on the bow is important to strengthen the
construction of the bow. The completeness of the designed boat is ballast chamber, fishing gear
place, bow deck, engine support, katir binder, anchor rope, roof and tie anchor boards.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-13


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

In the boats manufacturing need lines plan (Figure 5) which is drawing the outline plan of a
boat on the water line and each ordinate. Lines plan is used to design the shape and size of boats
models. Lines plan pictures consist of body plan, profile plan, half breadth plan. Body plan is
drawing the outline plan of the boat seen from the front (cross-sectional boat front view). Profile
Plan picture boat elongated wedge shape looks aside. Half breadth plan is half slice the width of the
boat looked up.

a. b.

Figure 5. Boat Lines Plane : a.perspective b. two dimensional

a. Polyurethanefoamis attached tothe mold b. The hull formed by lamination to


polyurethane rigid foam
Figure 6. Boat manufacturing

Hydrostatic calculation of boat is based on numerical data obtained through the design of
the boat. Data processing is performed to obtain the value of the volume of the boat submerged into
water (volume displacement) and buoyancy force (tonnes displacement). Volume displacement is
obtained by calculation using the Simsons rule. Ton displacement is obtained by calculation using
archimides. Density of sea water is 1.025 Kg/m3.
Boat building begins with the manufacture of the hull. Boat hull was made of sandwich
composite. The sandwich core made of polyurethane rigid foam. Polyurethane rigid foam is
attached to the mold by meanstied with thread (figure 6.a). The foam serves as the core which
would then be laminated with composite resin. Boat hull formed after the lamination process
(Figure 6.b).

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-14


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

a. Load on the boat b. Cm scale on the hull


Figure 7. Experiment to get tons of displacement

Tons of displacement can be obtained with experimental. Load adding on the boat (Figure
7a). The first load is the weight of the boat it self. The test starts with a weigh boat. In order to
facilitate, the two scales used to weight were placed at either end of the boat. Weight of the boat is
the sum of the weight shown by both scales. Boat floated later to the sea. The position of the water
line is measured from the base line to the water line (Figure 7b). The base line position is the
bottom of the boat. The next load is loaded into the boat starts on the boat plus 50 kg weight and
then coupled with an interval of 50 kg. Each load is loaded,it is measured the position of the water
line to the base line.

4. Result and discussion


Sandwich composite boat planned and maked. Calculations have been made to obtain water
plan area, the volume displacement and ton displacement. Tons displacement testing has been done.
Water plan area, tons displacement and volume displacement poured in Table 1.

Table 1 Results of water area calculation plan, the volume of displacement and displacement ton
Water line water plan Volume Ton displacement Load weight
position (m) Area (m2) displacement (m3) (ton) (ton)

0 0.00

0.075 2.31
0.565 0.579 0.384
0.152 3.00

0.228 3.86

0.228 3.86

0.305 4.35
1.583 1.623 1.428
0.381 4.65

0.457 4.87

0.457 4.87

0.534 5.03 2.605


2.732 2.800
0.61 5.03

0.687 5.24

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-15


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Area of water plant in the base line is zero, because the shape is only a line. With Position of
the water line added then increases too area of water plan. Added area of water plan follow a
parabolic curve is increased dramatically and then remained constant. This trend can be seen in
most of the fishing boats. The highest area of water plan occurred in the highest position of the
water line. The position of the highest water line was 0.687 m with an area water plan of 5.24 m2.
Ton displacement obtained from experimental presented in figure 8. In Figure 8 also
displayed ton displacement calculation results.
3
y = 2,811x2 + 2,192x - 0,016
R = 0,998
2.5

2
Ton displacement, ton

y = 2,735x2 + 2,439x - 0,189


R = 0,992 eksperimen
1.5
Calculation
1 Poly. (eksperimen)
Poly. (Calculation)
0.5

0
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80
-0.5
Waterline position, m

Figure 8. Ton displacement of boat: eksperimental and calculation

Weight of boat was 0.195 ton and waterline position when the boat dipped is 0.23 m. When
the load is increased, the position of the water line became higher. The position of the highest
waterline was 0.69 m ie occurred in the weight of the boat and a load of 2.65 tonnes. This value is
lower than tons displacement calculation results. Value ton displacement calculation result was
2.799 tons. Difference of both is 0.149 tons.
Ton displacement calculation results almost identical to the results of experiments. It can
be seen in Figure 8. The two graphs are very close. The two graph form a second order polynomial
curve. The difference between the two is at 5.3% which is not great at the highest water line
position.
Ton displacement represents load weight added by boat weighing. Load weight was
obtained by tapering down ton of displacement of boat weighing. Boat weight is constant, so that
graph tendency of load weight is equal to ton displacement graph tendency. Load weight result of
biggest calculation is 2.605 ton. The biggest of load weight of experiment result is 2.455 ton at
0,69 m water line position.

5. Conclusion
Load weight and tons of displacement of the boat obtained from the experiment is closed to
the hydrostatic calculations. The difference between the two water linesis 5.3% at the highest
position. Load weight chart and tons displacement form a second order polynomial curve. Heavy
payload experimental results are 2.455 tons of water line which is at 0.69 m position.

Acknowledgements
This study was funded by DP2M higher education. Thank you to the manager of the
mechanical engineering workshop, Wen Hadi, Rahmad.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-16


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

References
Anonim. (2002). Composite Material Handbook, Volume 3: Polymer Matrix Composite, material
usage, design and analysis, Departemen of defense, USA.
Anonim. (1996). Rules and regulation for the classification and construction of ships : Fiberglass
reinforced plastics ships, Indonesian classification biro, Jakarta.
Derret, D. R. Revised byBarrass, C.B.(1999). Ship Stability for Masters and Mates, Fifth
edition, Butterword Heineman.
Mathur, V.K.(2005). Composite Materials from Local Resources, Construction and Building
Materials, 20(7), 470477.
Watson, D. G.M. Watson. (1998). Practical Ship Design, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Book Series,
volume 1, Elsevier Science Ltd.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-17


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-08
Performance of Hinged Blade Savonius Turbine
Sinarep* and Agus Dwi Catur

Faculty of Engineering, Mataram University, Jl. Majapahit No. 62 Mataram, Indonesia,


sinarepdarek@yahoo.co.id

Abstract-Savonius blade rotates the rotor shaft in the side where blade moves on the direction of
the wind while on the otherside drag deccelerates the movement of the rotor. To minimize friction,
the rotor blade is made of hinged blade. Tangential direction of blade movement is currently in the
direction of the wind, so the blade swinging enlarges the area of the wind. Meanwhile, when the
tangential direction of the blade movement is opposite to the wind direction, the blade will swing
minimize the extent of the wind, thus minimizing drag. Performance of hinged blade savonius wind
turbine is discussed in this study. This turbine types have good properties in the utilization of wind
energy than basic savonius wind turbine. Swinging blade type can increase the power coefficient of
the turbine without adding the turbine area.

Keywords: wind, turbine, blade, performance.

1. Introduction
Vertical axis wind turbine is independent to speed and wind direction. It can accommodate
wind direction and works properly with a wide range of wind speed. Vertical axis wind turbine is
different to horizontal axis in term of wind direction and area where it employed. Vertical axis
wind turbine can eliminate disadvantage of horizontal axis. Therefore the vertical wind turbine can
be as alternative to fully develop in Indonesia.
Generally, vertical axis wind turbine is completely suitable to Indonesian wind condition.
Therefore it has to be built and installed right way. Recently, there are many type of vertical axis
wind turbine that already built and install worldwide, such as Savonius wind turbine, Darrieus wind
turbines, aerodynamic turbines, spiral wind turbine, helical wind turbine, sail wind turbine, and
many more.
Vertical axis wind turbine with fix blades has a great rotation constraint. Blade tangential
rotating motion in the direction of the wind will push the turbine rotor and generate torque.
However, the blade which is opposite to the direction of motion tangential winds cause drag that
reduces torque of the rotor.
Innovation is already done by many researches to improve the performance of the vertical
axis wind turbine that has been installed at this time. One of them is the blade arrangement that can
reduce barriers and increase torque.
Invention has been done by Kaliski, A, 2005 and has been patented by number US
6,910,873 B2. The invention in the form of a vertical axis wind turbine Savonius is by using self-
regulating rotor. The main aim of invention is to increase aerodynamic efficiency. Shape of the
rotor will change the appropriate option turbine base on the operating conditions. The conversion of
wind energy into rotating energy is optimised.
The blade arrangement innovation on vertical axis wind turbine made by Baylei, JL, 2008,
with US patent number 20,080,075,594A1. The vertical axis wind turbine blade is oriented
horizontally arranged so that the blade opens when the direction of rotation has same direction to
the wind direction and it closes when the direction of the blades has opposite direction of the wind
direction. The blade is made split into upper and lower blade and the hinged radial direction.
Opening and closing movement of the blade is done by a hydraulic cylinder which is set based on
the operation of wind speed and direction sensor.
Sail type wind turbine was patented byGoldwater, JM, et al, 1987 with the number of
4,684,817. The Turbine rotor consists of four blades and each blade consists of 18 sails or more.
The blade is in the form of truss lattice. This grille serves to hold the sail when receiving wind
blows. Each sail can be swung on its hinges. The curvature of the blade can also be arranged to
ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-18
Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

form an arc as needed.When the direction of motion of the blade is tangential to the direction of the
wind, the wind will push the sail on the blade, so that the rotor rotates. And when the wind
direction is opposite to the direction of the blade rotation, then the sails on the blade will swing in
the direction of the wind rotor, thereby reducing drag. The opening and closing of the sail will pass
the motion of the wind and the wind diverting motion is what makes this invention named valvular
sail.
The developments of vertical axis wind turbines continue to be done to reduce the force
that obstruct the rotor rotation (drag), in other words, to increase the rotor torque. However, the
inventions are still too complicated to be applied in the remote area that is far from the
technological means. Micro controller or even speed sensor is very difficult to obtain in a remote
island, generally, the Indonesian archipelago in case the wind turbine was damaged. Therefore, the
simple mechanical blade adjustment mechanism and maintenance needs to be developed.
The simple blade setting is the right option developed for turbines which will be operated
in remote areas. This meant that the operation and maintenance of turbines can be done easily by
the community. The blade can swing when operated so I can minimize the barriers of turbine.
Hinged blade wind turbine with a blade arrangement mechanically simple and performance
characteristics studied inthis paper.

2. Experiment set up
The type of wind turbine that is madeis Ssavonius turbine rotor with the blade can swing.The rotor
consists of a four blade and each blade consists of three sail composite rigid and hinged (Figure 1).
The blade comes with apivotsail. This shaft serves for the rotary axis for retaining the sail at the
same timewhile receiving wind gusts.
.

Figure 1 Schematic drawing of turbine rotor

The experimental scheme of wind turbines that have been installed in the wind tunnel is
shown in Figure 2.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Figure 2. Scheme experimental wind turbine in the wind tunnel.

Wind tunnel building process starts with cutting steel profiles and plate multiplex. Welding
and gluing carried out to form a hollow space. The room is then called a wind tunnel. Mounting
order to withstand wind tunnel is made of steel profiles.To keep the wind flow evenly and same
direction is done by installing a small holes in the honey comb-shaped cross section of the wind
tunnel. Wind turbines are installed in this wind tunnel with a ball bearing pads.
A fan is mounted to a wind tunnel. The discharge flow of the fan is regulated by voltage
regulator. Steel frame is made to sustain the fan and the wind tunnel. Turbine rotor shaf tconnected
to a rotor diameter of 17mm. Rope brake dynamometer is used to determine the rotor torque. Rotor
torqueis measured by mean of the force acting on a rope.
The manufacturing of turbine starts with the blade fabrication. Each blade consists of three
sail composite rigid and hinged. The rigid sail fitted with a pivot screen. The construction sail rigid
blade is a composites and wich, which is a structure consisting of two thin laminate called skin
flanking lightweight core. Skin rigid sail made from polyester catalyzed 60% by volume, with
reinforcement hybrit 20% sisal fibre and fibre glass 20% by volume. The second skin blade rigid
sail made by wet method composite lay-up in the mold, then the core in the form of rigid
polyurethane foam inserted between both skins.
The base of the blade is made of rigid perforated screen to put blade shaft. The number of
blade is needed are 4 blades. The connection between the sai lrigid blade to the blade arm is a shaft
on the base of the rigid sail and elastic rubber on the tip of the blade. Elastic rubber is useful to
close the rigid sail with the blade arms when the wind moves in the opposite directionto the
tangential motion of the blade. Meanwhile, when the direction of rotation of the blade has same
direction to the direction of the wind, the elastic rubber is useful to prevent pulsating rotation of the
turbine.
The armof blade is made by composite curved shape of the curve so that the rotating
components are light. The arm connects the axle rigid sail with the rotor shaft. The rotor shaft is
steel which connects the upper and lower blade arm.
To measure the torque of the shaft, a rope is wrapped around the rotor shaft. Rotor shaft
diameter is 17mm. End of the rope is connected fixed to the holder and the other end connected to a
spring balance. This spring balance is connected tot he threaded support in order to easily set the
force acting to the rope.
One of the independent variable in this study is the wind speed. Therefore, the speed of
wind blowing turbine is set by regulating the voltage of power supply of fan motor. The wind speed
will push the blade and induce the turbine rotor to rotate. Loading on the rotor shaft in the form of
shaft torque, this torque will affect the rotational speed of the turbine rotor.
ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-20
Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

The rotor torque is measured by measuring the friction force between the ropes with the
rotor shaft. This frictional force is read on the spring balance. Torque shaft is multiplication of
readable force on a spring balance to the radius of the rotor shaft. To provide load torque varying
the rotor shaft, the friction force can be varied. Frictional forces between the rope with the rotor
shaft are increased if the rope is tightened and vice versa. The amount of rotation of the rotor shaft
is measured with a tachometer. From these data, the performance of the wind turbine such as the
ratio of energy flow as Cp (also called power coefficient) of the turbine can be calculated.
The basic principle of the wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of the wind into rotary
energy to the rotor, and then the rotationof the rotor is used to turn a generator to produces
electricity. The kinetic energy U (Joules) of the wind with the mass m (kg) moving with velocity
(m/sec) defined by equation1

U = .m.V2

= ..As.x.V2 .............................................................................................. 1

Where = wind density (kg/m3)

As= cross section area of turbine (m2),


x = windpath length (m) .

While wind power is Pw is the equation 2.


U
Pw = t

(..A s .x.V 2 )
=
t

= ..As.V2.(x/t)

= ..As.V3 ...................................................................................... 2

Asis across-sectional area of the wind formulated by equation 3:

As = h . d ..................................................................................................................... 3

h is theheightof the rotor(m) anddis thediameter of therotor(m).

The output power of turbine rotor Pm (watts) is calculated by multiplying the rotor shaft
angular velocity (rad /sec) with a rotor torque T (Nm), as equation4. While the speed of the rotor
shaft angle is obtained by number of revolutions perminute turbine rotor shaft (n )

Pm = T.
T.2.n
Pm = 60
........................................................................................................ 4

The turbine power coefficient Cp is the ratio between the power of the turbine rotor with wind
power, defined in equation 5.

Cp = Pm/Pw ............................................................................................................ 5

Coefficient of blades tip speed (tip speed ratio) Zis the ratio between the tip speed of the
blades (Vb) with wind speedsV. The blade tip speed is a multiplication of the angular velocity of
the of blade rotor radius(R).

Z = Vb/V
.R
= V

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-21


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

d
2..n.( )
2
= 60.V
.n.d
= .................................................................................................. 6
60.V

3. Result and discussion


The number of revolutions per minute of turbines to the wind speeds with no load is shown
in Figure 3. It can be seen that the higher the wind speed given in wind turbines the higher the
turbine rotor shaft rotation. The Momentum of moving winds pushes the blade and strucks the
blade in the direction of the wind. However, since the blade is connected to the shaft, the blade will
rotate around the shaft. The faster the wind blows on the blade the greater the kinetic energy of
wind or wind momentum. The great momentums give greater thrust so the faster the rotation of the
turbine rotor.
When the blade rotates in same the direction of the wind, the wind accelerates the
movement of blade, thus speeding up the rotation of the rotor blade. While onthe other side of the
blade moves opposite direction of the wind, air friction with the blade obstructs the movement of
the blade thereby inhibiting rotation of the rotor blade. The obstruction of blade affects the number
of turns per unit of time. Figure 3 shows that the hinged blade turbine has a rotational speed greater
than the rotational speed of the rotor with fixed blade atthe same wind speed. This indicates that the
resistance of the fixed blade is greater than the obstacles to the hinged blade.
With increasing wind speeds up to 14m/s, the wind turbine rotor speed will increase for
both blade turbines with fixed or hinged blade; it can be seen in Figure 3. However, the trend of
increasing is different. On wind turbine with a fixed blade the trend is slope slightly, this is
influenced by the presence of greater barriers to the fixed blade. Although the greater the wind
speed the greater the kinetic energy of wind that rotates the blade, the barriers to blade rotation is
also getting bigger. This phenomenon can be seen in chart 3 for fixed blade shaft rotation. The
increase of rotation is sloping slightly with increasing of wind speed.

210
200
190
180
170
160
rotor velocity, RPM

150 y = -0.191x2 + 19.11x - 32.76


140 R = 0.998
130
120
110
100
90 fixed blade
80 y = -0.268x2 + 19.72x - 63.49
70 hinged blade
60 R = 0.998
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
wind velocity, m/sec

Figure 3. Rotation speed of no load turbine rotor to wind velocity

Table1 shows rotation speed of the wind turbine rotor to the torque load and the wind
velocity of the hinged blade wind turbine. In Table 1, the first line shows the force of friction rope
load to the turbine rotor shaft in kilograms by small to large force with the friction rope tightening.
The second row of Table 1 shows the friction rope load force to the turbine rotor shaft in Newton.
The third line Table 1 shows the torque on the rotor shaft turbine in Newton meters. The torque is

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-22


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

obtained by multiplying the load force of friction rope to the turbine rotor shaft in Newton and the
radius of the rotor shaft is 0.0085 m. Column 2 of Table 1 indicates the wind velocity before the
turbines ranging from small to large to regulate motor speed while the start line4 to line 16 on
column 3 to column 14 of Table 1 shows the number of revolutions of the turbine rotor.
Table 1 shows that on the same torque, the higher the wind velocity, the higher the
rotational speed of the rotor. In contrast in the same wind velocity, the greater the torque imposed
on the rotor shaft, the lower the rotational speed of the rotor. The kinetic energy of the wind rotates
the blade rotor, part of the energy isused to overcome the friction between the rotor shaft and the
bearing so that the rotor rotates continuously.
Table 2 is a table of the turbine shaft torque load and the wind velocity for the wind turbine
blade fixed or hinged. It can be seen that the same torque load, the higher the wind velocity, the
higher the rotational speed of the rotor. On the same wind speed, the greater the torque imposed on
the rotor, the lower the rotational speedof the rotor. The kinetic energy of wind is converted into
kinetic energy to rotate the rotor. Most of the kinetic energy is used to overcome the torque load on
the shaft and partly to overcome the friction between the rotor and the bearing, so the rotor rotates
continuously.

Table 1 Rotor rotation of hinged blade wind turbine with load. (RPM)
Shaft rotation of wind turbine rotor hinged blade with load (RPM)

F(kg) 0,529 0,765 1,118 1,412 2,000 2,471 2,941 3,235 3,529 3,706 3,824 3,882

F(N) 5,195 7,512 10,975 13,864 19,64 24,265 28,881 31,768 34,659 36,392 37,552 38,121

T(Nm) 0,0442 0,063 0,0933 0,1178 0,1669 0,2063 0,2455 0,2700 0,2946 0,3093 0,3192 0,324

5,7 12

6,1 17 11

6,5 26 20 14

6,8 34 29 24 18 12

7,5 49 43 37 30 24 18 12

8,3 58 53 47 41 35 30 23 18 12

9,0 70 65 60 55 50 46 39 34 30 26 19

9,5 78 73 68 63 58 53 49 42 38 33 28
V
(m/dt) 10,0 84 80 75 71 66 61 57 52 47 42 38

10,4 90 86 81 77 72 68 63 59 54 50 45

10,8 118 113 105 98 93 87 80 76 70 63 57 55

11,2 118 114 109 104 102 97 93 89 85 81 77 60

11,6 126 123 118 114 109 101 95 88 81 74 66 60

12,0 134 132 123 116 110 101 93 86 76 67 55 55

12,6 146 138 132 125 118 109 97 85 72 60 53 49

13,2 154 142 135 124 113 106 98 83 68 53 50 45

When Table 1 with Table 2 were compared, the rotation of wind turbine rotor with hinged
blade is greater than the rotation of the wind turbine with fixed blade to the wind velocity and the
same load torque. This indicates that the hinged blade is able to increase the rotational speed of the
rotor. The blade hinged gets less air resistance than a fixed blades of blade hinged rotate faster.
ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-23
Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Table 2.Rotor rotation of fixed blade wind turbine with load (RPM)
Shaf trotation of wind turbine rotor fixed blade with load (RPM)
F(kg) 0,529 0,765 1,118 1,412 2,000 2,471 2,941 3,235 3,529 3,706 3,824 3,882

F(N) 5,195 7,512 10,975 13,864 19,64 24,265 28,881 31,768 34,659 36,392 37,552 38,121

T(Nm) 0,0442 0,0639 0,0933 0,1178 0,1669 0,2063 0,2455 0,2700 0,2946 0,3093 0,3192 0,324
5,7 10

6,1 14 12

6,5 22 17 12

6,8 30 26 20 15 12

7,5 39 39 33 26 20 15 16

8,3 47 48 43 36 30 26 19 14 18

9,0 56 54 56 51 44 40 35 29 25 22 15

V 9,5 62 61 63 58 51 45 44 38 34 30 24
(m/dt) 10,0 66 66 68 65 60 52 50 47 42 38 33

10,4 72 73 71 68 65 59 55 54 49 46 41

10,8 103 94 91 86 85 79 70 68 65 58 52 50

11,2 100 94 93 90 90 87 83 81 79 75 71 55

11,6 109 103 101 100 96 87 85 79 74 67 60 54

12,0 114 110 105 101 97 86 81 76 69 60 48 49

12,6 121 116 113 108 104 93 84 74 63 51 45 42

13,2 129 122 116 107 97 89 84 72 59 44 42 37

The turbine performance is evaluated against the parameters of dimension less tip speed ratio
based on the data in Table 1 and Table 2. The evaluated turbine performance is turbine power
coefficient. The formula used to get a tip speed ratio and the power coefficient of the turbine is the
equation1 to equation 6.The turbine power coefficient chart with hinged blades is showed in figure
4 and the coefficient of power turbines with fixed blade is shown in Figure 5.

0.03 0.03

0.025 0.025

0.02 0.02
Cp

0.015
Cp

0.015

0.01 0.01

0.005 0.005
y = -1.327x2 + 0.271x + 0.003
y = -1.073x2 + 0.251x + 0.005
R = 0.448
R = 0.541 0
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

Z Z

Figure 4. Graph turbine power coefficient Cp with Figure 5. Graph turbine power coefficient Cp
hinged blade. with fixed blade (not hinged).

Turbine power coefficient as shown in Figure 4 and 5 rises with the increasing of tip speed
ratio then dropped. Figure 4 is a graph turbine power coefficient Cp with a hinged blade to the tip
speed ratio. While Figure 5 shows the graph of the power coefficient Cp turbine with fixed blade to
the tip speed ratio. The relations of turbine power coefficient to the tip speed ratio have the same

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

tendency. The relations of turbine power coefficient to the tip speed ratio compose a polynomial
curve. There is a maximum turbine power coefficient on the curve.
Comparation of graphs 4 and 5 shows that the power coefficient of the turbine with hinged
blade is higher than the coefficient of power turbine swith fixed blade. This means that the wind
energy is converted into mechanical energy is greater in the hinged blade wind turbine than the
fixed blade wind turbine. The wind energy on the fixed blade wind turbine is more changed to
friction so the energy loss is higher and the efficiency is lower. On the other hand, the hinged blade
wind turbine is less converted the wind energy to overcome the friction, so the energy loss is less
and the turbine efficiency is higher.
The highest turbine power coefficient of the hinged blade is 0.02626 with tip speed ratio of
0.1589 that is occurred in wind velocity on the wind tunnel of 11.2m/sec, while the highest power
coefficient of the fixed blade turbine is 0.0244 with tip speed ratio of 0.1476 that is occurred in
wind velocity on the wind tunnel of 11.2m/ sec.

4. Conclusion
Savonius wind turbine with hinged blade has better performance to convert wind energy
than Savonius wind turbines with fixed blade. Wind converted into rotor power is increased by
mean of hinged blade without adding the wind turbine cross section area. Turbine power coefficient
with hinged blade is higher than the coefficient of power turbines with fixed blade.

Acknowledgements
This paper is a result of research funded by competitive grants scheme DP2M Higher
Education. We extend our thanks to the Research Institute of the University of Mataram, DP2M
Higher Education and Laboratory of Production Processof the University of Mataram.

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Ali, M.H. (203). Experimental Comparison Study for Savonius Wind Turbine of Two & Three
Blades At Low Wind Speed, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER),
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Teknologi Bidang Sumber Energi Baru dan Terbarukan Untuk Mendukung Keamanan
Ketersediaan Energi Tahun 2025, Kemenristek, Jakarta.
Bailey, Self Regulating Wind Mill with Horizontally Oriented Blades, United States Patent
0075594, 2008.
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Auto Interior Material: Mechanical Performance, Journal of Industrial Textiles,38,69.
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Kaliski, Self Regulating Rotor, United States Patent6.910.873, 2005.
Mathur, V.K.. (2005). Composite Materials from Local Resources, Construction and Building
Materials, l20(7), 470477
McGowan, J, G., et al. (2004). A Hybrid Wind-Diesel System for the US Navy at Guantanamo
Naval Base Using an Energy Saving Performance Contract, Proceedings of the AWEA Annual
Conference Chicago.
Qasim, A.Y., Usubamatov, R. and Zain, Z.M. (2011). Design of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with
Movable Vanes, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(11), 896-902.
Saxena, M., Asokan, P. and Morchhale, R.K. (2000) Jute Composite as Wood Substitute, Building
Materials News Letter, in Women in Urban Governance, World Habitat Day, Building
Materials and Technology Promotion Council,New Delhi, India, 6770.
Sinaga, R.N.M. (2008).Optimalisasi Ekstraksi Energi Angin Kecepatan Rendah di Indonesia
dengan Aplikasi Konverter Boost, National Innovation Contest, Bandung.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-25


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-09
The Effect of Biogas Flow Rate Biogas in the Purification
of Carbon Dioxide Process with Pumice Absorber
Arif Mulyanto*, Nurchayati, Rudy Sutanto, and Pandri Pandiatmi

Jurusan Teknik Mesin Fakultas Teknik Universitas Mataram, gamulkky@yahoo.co.id

Abstract-Biogas is an alternative energy solution that could be a replacement for fossil fuel energy. Biogas
is cheap and environmentally friendly. The compositions of biogas are CH4, CO2, N2, H2, O2 and H2S. CH= is
the main component in the biogas which has a high calorific value. In addition to the indispensable CH 4,
there is also a CO2 content that actually interferes with or damage. If this element is present in biogas, it will
disturb the combustion process itself. Therefore, the effort to reduce CO2level is expected to raise the quality
of biogas.The study was conducted to reduce levels of CO 2 in the biogas using absorbent pumice sludge. The
method used in this study was true experiment that is taking into account variations in the flow rate of biogas
(2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 L/ min) were passed through the absorbent. After that, levels of CO2 absorbed and CH4were
examined using gascromatography method. Results of research revealed that the greater flow rate of the
biogas passing through the absorbent pumice sludge, the lower CO2 gas level with average decrease of
14.38%, and the greater methane gas levelwith average increase of 11.79 % for each time the changes of
biogas flow rate.

Keywords: biogas, pumice, CO2, CH4

1. Introduction
Along with the rapid development of industrial technologies, the demand for renewable
energy sources becomes a very important consideration. This is due to scarcity of petroleum energy
sources and crude oil price escalation. Innovative research to find renewable energy sources is
continuously developed. The research is not only important to find a new energy resources, but also
able to find an environmental friendly energy resource.
Biogas is a cheap and environmentally friendly substitute energy. The composition of
chemical compounds contained in biogas are CH4, CO2, N2, H2, O2 and H2S. CH4 in biogas is a
major component in the combustion with large percentage, so that it can generate high heat. In
addition to methane (CH4), which is a indispensable compound, there are also other substances that
actually interfere with or damage. One of them was carbon dioxide (CO2). The level of CO2 in the
biogas is the second highest with approximate percentage of 40%. It is known that CO2 element is
the result of combustion and, if there are other elements in the burning, it will disrupt the
combustion process itself. Therefore, it is expected that the reduce of CO2 can raise the quality of
biogas.
Pure CH4 produced from biogas has become a very important consideration due to the
effect on the heating value / heat generation. The presence of CO2 in the biogas is very undesirable
because the higher level of CO2 in the biogas will decreasethe heating value of biogas and is very
disturbing in the combustion process. It decreases the purity of CH4.
The CO2 content reducing process can be done by passing the biogas into pumice resulted
in absorption process. CO2 gases react immediately with the pumice while CH4does not.Reaction
with the pumice decreases CO2 concentration so that then the ratio of the concentration of CH4is
greater than the concentration of CO2.
Gas separation technology has been developed with the use of membranes. In this case,
zeolite Mixed Matrix Membranes are used for CO2 / CH4separation. Gas separation membrane is
actually not new a technology. The separation technology isselectedbased on two criteria,
technically and economically easy to do (Mulder, 1996).
CO2 in the biogas need to be removed because the gas can reduce the heating value of
biogas combustion. In addition, the percentage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the biogas is 30-45%
which is large enough to to significantly reduce the heating value of biogas combustion. The
ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-26
Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

heating value of pure methane combustion gas at 1 atm pressure and 15.5oC tempraturewas 9100
kcal / m3 (12 740 kcal / kg) while the heating value of biogas combustion was approximately 4800
to 6900 kcal / m3 (Harasimowicz, et al, 2007).

2. Research Methods
The research method used to achieve the purpose of this research was devided into several
experimental stage:
The first stage was analyzing the starting composition contained in biogas in order to
determine the initial concentration of CO2 and CH4 presented in biogas.The second stage was
conducting test to measure the ability of pumice in the binding with CO2 in biogas elements that
will raise quality of biogas.

2.1. Research variables


The variables of research are chosen among others:
Fixed variable:
composition of biogas consisted of CH4, CO2, etc.
temperature of operating : at room temperature (30oC)
Changed variable
biogas flow rate: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 L / min
absorber: pumice

2.2. Equipment and materials


a. Equipment of research:
digester reactor
gascromatography
pH meter
flowmeter
b. Material of research:
Biogas produced from households and livestock waste.
Pumice

2.3. Testing Procedure


The main material of this research,which is biomass from household and animal
waste, was mixedwith water at a ratio of 1: 1 and stirred until dissolved. The mixture was put
into the digester before all channels and holes were closed so that no air enter the system. Then,
it was allowed to stand for 3-4 weeks in order to produce biogas.
Phase I, Composition analysis before purified biogas
Analysis in the first stage used gas chromatographyto find out biogas composition,
especially the concentration of CO2 and CH4.
Phase II, biogas purification process
Research was continued by reduced CO2 content in the biogas through a carbondioxide
absorbtion process using pumice absorber. CO2 absorption was done by feeding biogas in
to the pumice absorber continuously with certain flow rates (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 L/min).
Biogas and pumice contact each other and chemical reaction occured. Every 2 minutes,
post absorbtion biogaswas taken for analysis. The amount of CO2 absorbed and CH4
produced are measured using gascromatography methods. In this study, the variable studied
was the effect of the flow rate of biogas to the CO2 absorbed and CH4 produced.

2.4. Analysis of Data


The data analysis was conducted after and refers to the experimental data, by
comparing the content of CO2 and CH4 before and after purified, studying the efficiency and
effectiveness of pumice in reducing levels of CO2 in the biogas purification andfinding the
purified CO2 percentage in each flow rate of biogas variations.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-27


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

3. Results and Discussion


Based on the research data,it is revealed that CO2 content in biogas of before purification
processwas 43.69% while the methane gas level was 39.95%. In fact, CO2 is a gas resulted from the
combustion process and must be purified. The results showed that the greater the flow rate of
biogas, the hingher methane level(withapproximate increaseaverage of 11.79%) (graph 1), the
lower carbon dioxide content (with approximate decrease average of 14.38%) (chart 2). Rising
levels of methane gas at various flow rate shows that pumice is able to absorb the gases
carbondioxide.The higher biogas flow rate, the greater the ability of carbondioxide to react with
pumice in short time so that only a small fraction of carbon dioxide gas that can be absorbed by
pumice.

60 60

45 45

CH4 Levels (%)


CO2 Levels

30 30
(%)

15 15

0 0
0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15
Biogas Flow Rate (lt/menit) Biogas Flow Rate (lt/menit)

Figure 1. Relationship biogas flow rate with CO2 Figure 2. Relationship biogas flow rate with CH4 content
content

CO2 CH4
60

45
Gas Levels (%)

30

15

0
0 5 10 15
Biogas Flow Rate (lt/menit)
Figure 3. Relationships the biogas flow rate with gas
levels percentage

The biogas flow rate of 2 L/minute showed the highest methane content increasewhich was
around 22.25% with carbondioxide gas level decrease was around 27.83%. More methane gas level
was increasedwiththe decrease of carbondioxide gas.So, rising methane gas do impacts methane
percentage level although it does not react with pumice. The decrease of CO2concentration as the
result of reaction with pumice influenced of the ratio CH4 to CO2 concentration. The concentration
of CH4became greater than the concentration of CO2 (chart 3).

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-28


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

4. Conclusions
The conclusion of this research is that pumice can be considered not good enough at absorbing
carbondioxide because the carbondioxidelevel, which isapproximately 31.54%, is still high. The
methane gas level at at the lowest biogas flow rate (2 L/min) was about 48.84%.

References
Harasimowicz, M., Orluk , P., Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G. and Chmielewski, A.G. (2007).
Application of Polyimide Membranes for Biogas Purification and Enrichment, Journal of
Hazardous Materials, 144, 698 702.
Mulder, M. (1996). Basic Principles of Membrane Technology, Kluwer Academic Publishers,
London, pp. 51 59, pp. 307 319, pp. 465 479.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-29


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-10
Characterization of Electric and Magnetic Properties of
Barium M-Hexaferrite Doped with Zinc

Aris Doyan*, Susilawati and Ilham Halik

Master of Science Education, Post Graduate Mataram University


Lombok Indonesia
* arisdoyan@yahoo.co.id

Abstract- Barium M-hexaferrite (BaM) is permanent magnet material included to the hard magnetic. It is
not suitable for some applications, so it is required to conduct such an engineering to decrease its
magnetization characteristic to be soft magnetic. This study aims to know the effect of the calcinations
temperature on the barium M-hexaferrites te doped by Zn. The synthesis process of BaM uses coprecipitation
method by varying the dopant concentrations of 0.0; 0.3; 0.6; and 0.9 as well as by varying the calcinations
temperatures of 80 oC, 400 oC, 600 oC and 800 oC. After the synthesis process, the sample characteristic is
conducted by using XRD (X-Ray Difraction) and obtained the results that it is formed BaM phase as
hexagonal crystal. The SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) testing results on the sample containing Ba, Fe,
Zn, and O elements and the TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) testing obtains the results that the
sample particle size is 100 nm indicating that the sample has been the nano particle. LCR meter is used to
know the electricity characteristic and it is obtained that the electrical conductivity value is 3.74 x 10-4 S/m
and 4,52 x 10-5 S/m meaning that the sample has characterized as semi-conductor. On the other hand, the
VSM (Vibrating Sampel Magnetometer) is used to know the magnetization characteristics and it is obtained
that the coercivity value is 0.1T while the remanence value is 0.5 emu/gram indicating that the BaM sample
has characterized as softmagnetic.

Keywords: Barium M-Hexaferrite, Zinc dopant.

1. Introduction
The development of Barium M-hexaferrite (BaM) has been a concern for researchers
because it has many applicable advantages in scientific and technology fields. Barium hexaferrite
with its hexagonal structure and derivative structure has specific magnetic characteristic so it can be
used as the permanent magnet, magnetic reducer media and other micro wave application
equipment (Afidah, 2011).
Barium ferrite with hexagonal molecule structure is known as permanent magnet
(Mahbubatin, 2011). Barium M-hexaferrite asferrite magnet not only has relatively high
permeability, permittivity and spontaneous magnetization, but also is composed of oxide
components so it has high electrical resistivity or is a good isolator (Sulistyo, 2012). Based on the
theory, Barium M-hexaferrite has magnetization saturation and very high intrinsic coercivity
causing the increasing of material anisotropic characteristic and this will affect on the weakened
absorption characteristic so it is difficult to use as certain magnetic application material.
The magnetic characteristic of Barium M-Hexaferrites can be reduced by the substitution
of Fe3+ with divalent ions (Zn, Co, Ni, and others) (Rosyidah, 2013). The metal used as the
substitution material need tohavealmost similar atomic size to the iron so it can change the BaM
structure. The addition of Zn dopant ion is expected to be able to reduce the magnetic anisotropic
characteristic of barium M-hexaferrite BaFe12-xZnxO19, as the result of disturbed magnet moment
direction by the substation ion so that the domain is random (Ramli, 2012).
In this study, BaM is substituted with Zn dopant to reduce the coercivity value so that it
can be applied to some magnetic material applications. Zinc is used as the dopant because it has
atomic radius similar to the basic material that is iron so it can change its crystal structure.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-30


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

2. Method
The synthesis is conducted by coprecipitation method and varying the dopants of x = 0.0;
0.3; 0.6; and 0.9 as well as varying the calcinations temperatures of 400 oC, 600 oC and 800 oC. The
basic materials used in this study are BaCO3, FeCl3. .6H2O, and ZnCl2 as the dopants in the form of
powder with the purity of 99.99%. The stages in these studies are:
a) Dissolving the (FeCl3.6H2O) into H2O using magnetic stirrer for 30 minutes (1st solution).
b) Dissolving the BaCO3 into HCl using Hot plate magnetic stirrer at the temperature of 70 oC
(2nd solution)
c) Dissolving the powder of ZnCl2 into H2O with (3rd solution)
d) Mixing the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and distrirred for 30 minutes (4th solution)
e) Titrating the 4th solution with NH4OH until there is precipitation, then washing it with
aquades until reach neutral pH
f) Drying the sample at the temperature of 80 oC
g) Calcining the sample at the temperatures of 400 oC, 600 oC and 800 oC for 4 hours
h) Conducting the test using XRD, SEM, TEM, LCR Meter and VSM

3. Results and Discussion


Barium M-hexaferrites Synthesis
This study aims to synthesize barium M-hexaferrites with Zn doping using coprecipitation
method by varying the concentration of x dopants of 0.0; 0.3; 0.6; and 0.9 as well as varying the
calcinations temperatures of 400 oC, 600 oC and 800 oC. Figure 1 is the synthesis result as barium
M-hexaferrites powder. The powder has different colours. The color change in the powder depends
on the dopant concentration and calcinations temperature (Silvia, 2012).

(a)1 (a)2 (a)3 (a)4

(b)1 (b)2 (b)3 (b)4

(c)1 (c)2 (c)3 (c)4

Figure 1. The sample color change (a) concentrations of x = 0,3; (b) x = 0,6;
(c) x = 0,9. (1) 80oC; (2) 400oC; (3) 600oC; (4) 800oC.

XRD Testing
The sample characteristics using X-Ray Difraction (XRD) aims to know the phase formed.
The XRD testing can be used to analysis quantitatively and qualitatively. This measurement is
using X-Ray Difractometer (XRD) at the voltage of 40 kV and current of 30 mA by using CuKa
target with wave length of ( = 1.541 A)
1500

1000
Intensity (cps)

500

0
Integrated Intensity (cps deg)

400

300

200

100
0
20 30 40 50 60 70 80
2-theta (deg)

Figure 2. The Diffraction pattern in XRD of BaFe12-xZnxO19 material, calcinations


at the temperatureof 800oC with substitution composition of x = 0.9.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-31


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Based on the results of XRD testing in figure 2, it is seen that the BaM phase peaks in
position of 2 theta 33.211o; 35.666o; 49.477o; 54.119o; 62.484o. The measurement result
quantitatively shows that there are two phases, namely Barium Iron Oxide of 53% and Zinc phase
with the amount of 47%. At the previous study, it is also resulted in the iron oxide phase (Mohsen,
2010). Aside of the formation of barium M-hexaferrites,X-Ray Difractometer can also be used to
know the crystal formation or the amorphous phase. In this study, it is obtained the particles with
sizes of a = b = 2.644; and c = 5.034, while the alpha angle of 90o, beta angle of 90o, and gamma
angle of 120o. By these particles with the sizes so it can be ensured that it has formed hexagonal
crystal (Saidah, 2012).

SEM Testing
SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) is a tool used to know the morphology or surface
micro structure of solid substance. It is also can be used to know the elements contained in material
which has been resulted by the synthesis process as well as its percentage.

Figure 3. the results of SEM diagram showing the elements containing in


synthesis powder of BaFe12-xZnxO19 calcination at the temperature of
800 oC and dopant composition of x = 0,9.

Figure 3 shows quantitative analysis of the distribution of each substance contained in


barium M-hexaferrites. The oxygen is seen to be very dominant compared to other elements; then,
iron is the second large element based on the SEM testing, next one is barium and the one with the
lowest distribution is zinc.
This result is similar to the previous study which shows that the Fe percentage is the
highest compared to other composing elements, namely 47,41% (Sholihah, 2012). Another study
states that the amount of oxygen atom has the highest percentage that is 93,90% (Ramli, 2012),
(Saidah, 2012).

Figure 4. The SEM observation result at Barium M-Hexaferrites powder


calcinated at the temperature of 800 C

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Figure 5. The distribution pattern of elements contained in barium M-hexaferrites doped with Zn

Based on the figure 8, it is seen the evenly distribution of grain and some granulations are
attaching to one another. The picture results of SEM in figure 4 still cannot centainly explain the
particle size indicating that barium M-hexaferrites powder particle has reached nano orde (Ramli,
2012). This results in some property characteristics and chance to manipulate or generate new
characteristics which are not in bulk material (Saidah, 2012).
Based on the results of SEM picture in figure 5, substances contained in sample powder
can be ditinguished by differing the color of each element. Barium is given blue color, iron is
yellow, zinc is purple and oxygen is green.

TEM Testing
The peak of the characteristic testing of barium M-hexaferrites material is using TEM tool.
The use of TEM tool is important to known the particle size with high accuracy level because TEM
is able to measure the particle size until nano orde.
Based on Figure 6, it is seen that the particle size reaching nano orde that is 100 nm. This is
consistent with the XRD test results stating the sample particle of barium M-hexaferrites has
reached a nano-order. The particle size does determine the magnetic characteristics of barium M-
hexaferrites, this is because the fact that when the particle size gets smaller, there is a tendency of
the single domain formation in the particle (Silvia, 2012).
The previous study got similar results, the powder particle sizes of barium M-hexaferrites
synthesized are 38 nm, 34 nm, and 33 nm by using sol-gel method (Kaur, 2013), 40 nm by using
the self-propagating method (Swamy, 2011), and 50- 100 nm by using sol gel method (Kenagesan,
2011). Whereas in other research, it is found that the particle size was much larger namely 20-30
m using gel casting methods (Hovis, 2001).

Figure 6. The observation results of barium M-hexaferrites using TEM tool


with a scale of 100 nm and 5 nm

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-33


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

The particle size increases by the increase of calcination temperature (Rashad, 2011). This
statement is consistent to results of previous studies which state that the particle size of barium M-
hexaferrites using coprecipitation method with a calcination temperature of 1000 C had a particle
size of 91.1 nm and after calcined at a temperature of 1200 C particle size was reduced to 100.7
nm (Rashad, 2012). It means that the calcination temperature greatly affects the particle size of
barium M-hexaferrites.

LCR meter Testing


LCR meter is a tool to measure the values to know the electricity characteristics of a sample.

Table 1. The testing results of electricity characteristic of barium M-hexaferrites


sample using LCR Meter
Zn 0.9 Zn 0.9
No doping
800 0C 400 0C

D 1.17 cm 1.17 cm 1.17 cm

t 0.314 cm 0.296 cm 0.394 cm

Z 6.46E+03 7.37E+02 3.19E+05

A 1.075131546 1.075131546 1.075131546

3.74E-04 S/m 4.52E-05 S/m 1.15E-06 S/m

Note: D = sample diameter


T = sample width
Z = impedance
A = sample surface area
= electrical conductivity

Based on Table 1, it is known that the conductivity value of sample without doping is
1.15E-06 S/m. This conductivity value indicates that the sample still has conductor characteristic.
On other hand, the sample with doping of x = 0.9 and the calcinations temperature of 800 oC has
conductivity value of 3.74E-04 S/m meaning that the sample has semi conductor characteristic. The
sample with doping of 0.9 at the calcinations temperature of 400 oC has conductivity value of
4.52E-05 S/m, meaning that the sample still has semi conductor characteristic similar to the
calcinations temperature of 400 oC. Although it is semi conductor material, the sample in
calcinations temperature of 800 oC has smaller conductivity value compared to the sample
incalcinations temperature of 400 oC.
In another study, conductivity value of 1 x 10-5 - 6 x 10-5 S/m is obtained the by conducting
synthesis using sol gel method with doping (Parween, 2012). Besides, the conductivity value of
10,03 x 10-4 S/m is obtained using sol gel method and doping with Mg (Chauhan, 2012). There is
different result by Sudati (2012) who is conducting the synthesis with doping Co and Zn and
getting the conductivity value of 0.05 S/m.
Based on the analysis results in table 1, it is known that the calcinations temperature has
effect on the electrical characteristics of barium M-hexaferrites powder sample. The higher the
calcinations temperature,the smaller the barium M-hexaferrites conductivity value.

VSM Testing
The magnetization characteristic of barium M-hexaferrites can be identified using VSM
(Vibrating Sample Magnetometer) testing. The magnetic characteristic analysis is conducted using
VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer) tool in the laboratory of Magnetic- BATAN. The type of
VSM used is VSM of Oxford VSM 1.2H type. The information obtained is the magnetic
characteristic as the outside magnetic area change illustrated by the hysteresis curve.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

The magnetic characteristic can be known by the hysteresis curve; from the hysteresis
curve, it can be known the remanence magnetization (Mr) and coercivity area (Hc).

Figure 7. Hysteresis curve of barium M-hexaferrites powder

One of the main goals of barium M-hexaferrites doping is to engineer the magnetization
characteristic. This study is expected to reduce the sample coercivity area value so it is able to be
used for various applications.
Based on the VSM testing results, the coercivity area value of barium M-hexaferrites
powder is 0.1 T. In the previous studies, barium M-hexaferrites have coercivity area values of 163
mT (Hasanah, 2012), 0,32 T (Sulistyo, 2012). Whereas, the magnetic moment value is 0.5
emu/gram. In the previous studies, it has magnetic moment value of 0.44 emu/gram (Sholihah,
2012). This means that the doping process has been successfully conducted to reduce the coercivity
area value.

4. Conclusion
Based on the results and the discussion in the previous chapter, this research has
concluded:

1. It has been successfully carried out the synthesis of barium M-heksaferit doped with Zn as
dark colored powder with a particle size of 100 nm.
2. The electric conductivity value of barium M-heksaferit doped by Zn 0.9 is 3.74x10-4 at
calcination temperature of 400 oC and 4.52x10-5 at the calcination temperature of 800 oC.
Meanwhile, barium M-hexaferrites without doping has electrical conductivity value of
1.15x10-6.
3. Barium M-heksaferit doped with Zn has electrical characteristic as semiconductor material.
4. Barium M-hexaferrites has coercivity area value of 0.1 T and the magnetic moment of 0.5
emu / g which means it is a soft magnetic material.

Acknowledgements
To all those who have helped so that this article has been realized. This research has funded
by grants of University Superiority Research (PUPT) Ministry of Research and Technology and
Higher Education of Fiscal Year 2014/2015.

References
Afidah, N,. Indahnia,. E,. & Darminto. (2011). Sintesis Barium M-Hexaferrites BaFe12O19 dengan
Variasi Temperatur Kalsinasi. Paper presented in the National Seminar of Post Graduate
XI ITS, Surabaya, 27 June.
Chauhan, C.C., Jotania, R.B,. Jotania, K.R. (2012). Conductivity and dielectric properties of m-type
barium magnesium hexaferrite powder. International Journal of Advanced Engineering
Research and Studies. I. 25-27

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-35


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Hasanah, E, Budi, A, S,. Adi, W, A,. & Suguhartono, I. (2012). Analisis Struktur Dan Sifat
Magnetik Paduan Magnet Nanokristalin Barium Hexaferrites Bafe12o19 Dengan Metode
Mechanical Milling. Paper presented in the National Seminar of Applicable Physics III
University of Airlangga, Surabaya,15 September
Hovis, D.B. dan Faber, K.T. (2001). Textured microstructures in barium hexaferrite by magnetic
field assisted gelcasting and templated grain growth. Scripta Materialia. 44: 2525-2529
Kanagesan, S., Jesurania, S., Sivakumara, M. Thirupathia, C. dan T. Kalaivania. (2011). Effect of
Microwave Calcinations on Barium Hexaferrite Synthesized via Sol-Gel Combustion.
Journal of scientific research. 3:451-456
Kaur, T dan Srivastava, A.K. (2013). Effect of pH on Magnetic Properties of Doped Barium
Hexaferrite. International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology.
3: 171-173
Mahbubatin, N,. & Zainuri. M. (2011). Sintesis Dan Karakterisasi Barium M-Heksaferrit Doping
Co (BaFe12-xCo xO12) Dengan Metode Kopresipitasi. Paper presented in the research
national seminar, State University of Yogyakarta. 14 May
Mohsen, Q. (2010). Factors Affecting the Synthesis and Formation of Single-Phase Barium
Hexaferrite by a Technique of Oxalate Precursor. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 7:
914-921
Parween, N. (2014). Study of Barium Hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) Synthesised by Sol Gel Auto-
Combustion Technique. Thesis. National Institute of Technology, Rourkela
Ramli, I,. Saidah, I, N,. Findah, R, S,. & Zainuri, M. (2012). Pengaruh Variasi Ph Pelarut Hcl
Pada Sintesis Barium Mheksaferrit Dengan Doping Zn (BaFe11,4Zn0,6O19) Menggunakan
Metode Kopresipitasi. Paper presented in the National Seminar of Applicable Physics III
University of Airlangga, Surabaya,15 September
Rashad, M.M dan Ibrahim, I.A. (2011). Improvement of the magnetic properties of barium
hexaferrite nanopowders using modified co-precipitation method. Journal of Magnetism
and Magnetic Materials. 323: 21582164
Rashad, M.M dan Ibrahim, I.A. (2012). Structural, microstructure and magnetic properties of
strontium hexaferrite particles synthesised by modified coprecipitation method. Jurnal
Materials Technology. 27: 308-314
Saidah, I.N dan Zainuri, M. (2012). Pengaruh Variasi pH Pelarut HCl Pada Sintesis Barium M-
Heksaferrit Dengan Doping Zn (BaFe11,4Zn0,6O19) Menggunakan Metode Kopresipitasi.
Jurnal Sains Dan Seni ITS. 1: 41-46
Sholihah, F.R., dan Zainuri, M. (2012). Pengaruh Holding Time Kalsinasi Terhadap Sifat
Kemagnetan Barium M-hexaferrite (BaFe12-xZnxO19) dengan ion doping Zn. Science and
Art Journals ITS. 1: B25-B29
Silvia, L. (2013). Pengaruh Ion Doping Zn pada Sifat Kemagnetan Barium M-Hexaferrites
BaFe12xZnxO19 berbasis Pasir Besi Tulungagung. Physics and its Application Journals . 9:
121-124
Sulistyo, Marhaendrajaya, I,. & Priyono. (2012). Sintesis Dan Karakterisasi Material Magnetik
Barium Hexaferrite Tersubstitusi Menggunakan Teori Sol-Gel Untuk Aplikasi Serapan
Gelombang Mikro Pada Frekuensi X-Band. Physics Periodic Journal. ISSN : 1410 - 9662.
No: 2. pp: 63 - 68
Swamy, P.M.P., Basavaraja, S,. dkk. (2011). Barium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by self-
propagating low-temperature combustion method and its characterization. Indian Academy
of Sciences.34:13191323.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-36


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-11
Synthesis by Coprecipitation Method and
Characterization of Nickel-doped Barium M-Hexaferrite
(BaFe12O19)
Susilawati*, Aris Doyan, and Munib
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Mataram, Jl. Majapahit No. 62 Mataram,
susilawatihambali@yahoo.co.id

Abstract-Barium M-hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) as an absorber of microwaves has been synthesized by


coprecipitation method and its effect on changes in temperature and dopant substitution were analyzed. Basic
materials used in the synthesis were BaCO3, FeCl3.6H2O and nickel metal. This study used a variation of
calcination temperature of 80 C, 400 C, 600 C and 800 C for 4 hours with a variety of dopants 0; 0.4; 0.7
and 0.9.The results indicate that the formation of single phase and uniform distribution on M-barium
hexaferrite (BaFe12-xNixO19) at 800 C calcination temperature and variations in dopant x = 0.7. The elements
of barium are spread very evenly matched with the concentration of each element in the compound BaFe 12-
xNixO19. The addition of the dopant concentration can increase the value of conductivity that is in the range of
10-6 to 10-4 with a coercivity value at x = 0.7 and calcination temperature of 800 C at 0.05 T and
magnetization value of 2.25 emu / g

Keywords: coprecipitation, Nickel-doped, Barium M-hexaferrite

1. Introduction
Barium Hexaferrite has stoichiometry with steady hexagonal structure as the oxide
ferromagnetic with dielectric and magnetic characteristics largely used in the RF (Radio
Frequency) application and microwave. Barium Hexaferrite (BaM) is grouped into 6 types based on
the chemical formula and its crystal structure, namely M (BaFe12O19), Y (BaMe2Fe12O22), W
(BaMe2Fe16O27), Z (Ba3Me2Fe24O41), X (Ba2Me2Fe28O46) and U (Ba4Me2Fe36O60) [1]. M, Y, W, Z,
X, and U state the type of the Barium Hexaferrite determined by the number of iron and oxygen ion
contents in the compound. While, M states a variable which can be changed by Zn, Ti, Co, Ga, Al
ions, as well as other metal cation with the similar size based on the characteristics desired.
The electrical and magnetic characteristics of the Barium Hexaferrite substation mostly
depend on its synthesis condition since it is caused by the dis-proportionality charge distribution in
the substitution process of multivalent cation [2]. The magnetic material of barium M-hexsaferrite
(BAM) has large crystal anisotropy and modifiable location resonance in a wide frequency range
by ion substitution in hexsaferrite and soft to the relatively large permeability and has high
saturation magnetic polarized and consists of strong anisotropy crystalline uniaxial, high Curie
temperature and large coercivity terrain [3].
By the vast coercivity terrain, it causes the increasing material anisotropic characteristic so
that its absorber characteristic is getting weaker, so it reduces the anisotropic characteristic so, the
doping is required [4]. The doping in this study in the formation of BaFe12O19 is Ni by variation of
calcinations temperature and doping used so that it results in BaFe12-xNixO19.

2. Materials And Methods


The basic material is barium carbonate (BaCO3) dissolved with HCl and FeCl3 dissolved
with water. Then, both solution results are mixed and added the doping material in the form of
liquid pure nickel element with 20000 rpm which then is reacted with NH4OH to make the mixture
into precipitate. The reacting process of these materials is called as the coprecipitation method
which is one inorganic compound synthesis methods based on the deposition of more than one
substance together when passing through the saturation point. On the formation of barium ferrite-
xNixO19 BaFe12 substitution, it uses the variations of x = 0; 0.4; 0.7; and 0.9 the sintering
temperature of 32 C, 400 C, 600 C and 800 C [5].
Schematically, this study procedure is shown in Figure 1 below:

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-37


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

BaCO3 FeCl3

Each is dissolved

NH4OH Nickel

Mixed to get precipitate

The materials are filtered by


filter paper

The materials are calcinated for 4


hours by temperature variations

The materials are characterized


by XRD, FTIR, LCR and VSM

data analysis and conclusion

Figure 1. The flowchart of Barium M-hexaferrite BaFe12-xNixO19


synthesis process using co precipitation method

3. Result and Discussion


The temperature change of variable x calcinations and concentration shows the tendency of
powder color change of synthesis results along with the increasing temperature and dopant ion like
in the Figure 2.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Figure 2. The temperature change of variable x calcinations and concentration to


the powder color change of BaFe12-xNixO19

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-38


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Based on Figure 2, it shows that at the same calcination temperature with the increasing dopant
ion concentration, so it gets more color changes to brown-black powder. At temperatures above 800
C, the sample tends to be blackish brown indicating all the content elements of H2O and HCl
100% have been run out[5]. This indicates that the heating process of the basic material of BaCO 3
dissolved with HCl is in the perfect process. Whereas, by the same dopant ion concentration and
the calcination temperature increase, these result in the powder color obtained to be increasingly
dark brown [5].

a. XRD analysis
The barium M-hexaferrite powder in variation of x = 0,4 by the calcinations temperature of
800 C so it forms BaFe11,6Ni0,4O19, , the XRD testing is conducted to know the Ni dopant
substitution. XRD used in this sample testing is the wave length of 1541862 A with the brand of
Rigaku SmartLab conducted in the testing in LIPI Fisika Serpong South Tangerang. Given the
almost similar atomic radius so it can change the basic material structure, but only can cause little
shift of diffraction pattern peak position (angle of 2). The substitution effect is very small shown
in the Figure 3.

5.0e+003

4.0e+003
Intensity (cps)

3.0e+003

2.0e+003

1.0e+003
Integrated Intensity (cps deg)

0.0e+000
1500

1000

500

0
20 30 40 50 60 70 80
2-theta (deg)

Figure 3. The pattern of XRD x=0,4 and temperature of 800 C (BaFe11,6Ni0,4O19)

Table 1. XRD Result Peak


No. 2-theta(deg) Chemical Phase Name
Formula
1 24.22(2) Unknown Unknown
2 27.9302 Barium Iron Oxide Ba3FeO5
3 28.5287 (2,2,0)
Unknown Unknown
4 31.6708 Nickel Oxide (1,0,0) Ni1,334O2
5 31.9202 Barium Iron Oxide Ba FeO Ni O
3 5 1,334 2
(0,2,2) Nickel Oxide
6 33.238(7) Barium
(0,0,2) Iron Oxide Ba3FeO5
7 35.687(7) (1,2,2)
Unknown Unknown
8 49.528(14) Barium Iron Oxide Ba3FeO5
9 62.49(2) (2,4,1) Iron Oxide Ba3FeO5
Barium
(1,1,5)
Based on the figure 3 and table 1, it is shown the X-ray diffraction pattern by the nickel
dopant concentration increase of 0,4, there is a peak in the angle of 31,6708 deg containing the
foreign phase after it is conducted the nickel oxide increase and in the angle of 31,9202 deg, there
is peak containing the iron barium of nickel oxide. By the dopant concentration increase, there are
the foreign peaks as the compound of the dopant [6].
There is more stable diffraction pattern after the phase decomposition transformation at the
temperature of 840 C with a concentration x = 0.4, so that it forms a fairly stable single phase [4].
M-hexaferite barium phase formed at high temperatures (T 500 C) will form a single phase,

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-39


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

namely the hematite phase [7]. Besides, it also forms barium M-hexaferite at the temperature of
975 C with doping concentration less than x = 0.8.

b. FTIR analysis
To find out the doping process of Ni dopant to the crystal structure bond, it is used Fourier
Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The analysis results using FTIR for the
BaFe12-xNixO19 are as in Figure 4 and 5 below.

Figure 4. The Absorption Pattern of BaFe12-xNixO19 towards the changes in


calcination temperature at x = 0.7

Based on Figure 4, it shows that for the dopant variation of x = 0,7, there is a significant shift
in the peak by the increasing calcination temperature. At wave number of 1000 cm-1 1500 cm-1 at
the same concentration, these will have more peaks along with the increasing calcination
temperature which is the basic material of absorption peak indicated the bond changes. While the
wave number 3400 cm-1 is an -OH absorption where the higher the calcination temperature, the
absorption is weakened. This is because H2O decreases by the increasing of calcination
temperature.

Figure 5. The Absorption Pattern of BaFe12 -xNixO19 towards the dopant ion
concentration changes at T = 800 C.

Based on Figure 5, it shows that the wave number below 600 cm-1, by the increasing
calcination temperature, the peak tends to shift to the left. This shows that the wave number is a
metal FeO at M-hexaferite phase of barium and hematite. At the calcination temperature of T = 800
C, the peak shifts significantly by the increasing dopant concentration when compared to other
calcination temperatures. At wave number 1000 cm-1 -1500 cm-1 at the same calcination
temperatures, these will get more peaks along by the increasing dopant concentration as the
absorption peak of the basic material. While the wave number 3400 cm-1 is -OH absorption where
the higher concentration of dopant ions, the absorption is weakened.
The characteristics of vibration lower than 600 cm-1 is the bond between oxygen atoms and
metal ions (MO) and the peak will increasingly be in the range of 800-1500 cm-1 showing the
absorption peak of the basic material of BaCO3 and also the absorption in the range of 2151.35 -

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-40


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

2923.88 cm-1 is OH absorption [8]. The OH absorption is in the range of 3640 cm-1 and in the range
of 600-1650 cm-1 show more peak as the basic material absorption [9]. The vibration characteristics
at 450 cm-1 and 570 cm -1 are the characteristic of the Fe-O bond as the characteristic of Ba ferrite
[10].

c. SEM analysis
To determine the distribution of elements contained in the material barium M-hexaferrite
(BaFe12-xNixO19), it is conducted using SEM-EDX tool. The sample data characteristics by
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) obtained are as in Figure 6 below.

(a) (b)
Figure 6. The photo of SEM BaFe12-xNixO19 at x = 0.9 and T = 800 C with a magnifications of
(a) 2000 and (b) 5000

Based on figure 6, the powder size is still difficult to determine because the powder is
clustered and the observable range clearly is still limited, because the particle dimensions of
powder has reached the nano order. There is particle size powder increase by the increasing dopant
ion concentration variable and calcination temperature [11].
The element results of EDX from barium M-hexaferite (BaFe12-xNixO19) show the content of
material composition of barium M-hexaferite containing the main element of Fe, Ba, C, O and Ni.
This is based on the color backscatter observation like in the figure 7 below.

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Figure 7. The element spread of BaFe12-xNixO19 at x=0,9 and T = 800 C (a) Ba (b) Fe (c) Ni and (d) O

In Figure 7, it shows the element content spread of barium is evenly spread based on the
concentration of each element in BaFe12-xNixO19 compound. This is based on the fact that the
spread will be evenly based on the component in BaM itself [12].

d. TEM Analysis
The TEM analysis is used to identify the particle dimension of barium M-hexaferrite
powder qualitatively. The TEM results obtained are shown in the figure 8 below.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-41


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

(a)

(b) (c)

Figure 8. The photo of TEM at x = 0,7 by T = 800 C

Based on the figure 8, it shows clearly that in the particle structure of BaM. There is a
change by the increasing dopant ions. At the high temperature and high doping concentration, it
will form a structure with hexagonal shape [13]. This is seen clearly in figure 8 (a) showing the
similar particle size distribution by the smallest size crystal reaching 20 nm so that it can be said
that this material is nano-material like in the figure 8 (b) with orde around 5 nm. While the intra-
particles distance is seen clearly in the figure 8 (c) that the particle size has reached the nano orde.

e. LCR analysis
The measurement by LCR meter of temperature variation with the concentration is still x =
0,7, it is obtained the results like in the figure 9 below.

(Ohm)
1.00E+06
1.00E+05
1.00E+04
1.00E+03
Z rata
1.00E+02
1.00E+01
1.00E+00
1 2 3

Figure 9. The Resistivity Graph of Barium M-Hexaferrite (BaFe12-xNixO19)

Based on the figure 9 above, it is seen that there is a close relationship between the dopant
ion concentration increase and its resistivity value. The higher the dopant ion concentration its
show that the lower its resistivity value.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-42


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Table 3. Conductivity value


Radius 1,17 1,174 1,17

Area 1,07 1,08 1,07

Width 3,94 3,3 3,14

Conductivity 1,01E-06 6,33E-05 5,51E-04

(S/cm)
1.00E+00
1.00E-01
1.00E-02
1.00E-03 Konduktifitas
1.00E-04
1.00E-05
1.00E-06

Figure 10. Conductivity Value of Barium M-Hexaferrite (BaFe12-xNixO19)

From table 3 above, it is obtained that the higher the dopant ion concentration so the higher the
conductivity value.
This conductivity is in the range of 10-6 until 10-4 (figure 10). By the dopant ion increase, so the
conductivity value is getting higher [14].

f. VSM analysis
The synthesis results of barium M-hexaferrite are characterized by the magnetic
characteristic using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in the Science and Technology Science
of Advanced Material BATAN. The measurement result is the hysteresis curve showing the
magnetisation (M) and coercivity (H) like shown in Figure 11. Based on the literature about barium
M-hexaferite without doping (x = 0), it has the coercivity of 0,0782 T and the magnetization of 0,02
emu/gram. The BaM characteristics have the coercivity value of 0,0005 T and magnetization value
of 0,02 emu/gram [15].

Figure 11. Hysteresis curve in calcinations temperature of 800 C at x = 0,7

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-43


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

In figure 11, it shows that the hysteresis curve in barium M-hexaferrite sample with the
dopant ion concentration of x = 0,7 and the calcination temperature of 800 C have the coercivity
value of 0,05 T and the magnetization value of 2,25 emu/gram. This is greater than the one without
doping (x = 0). The best radar absorber material is in the low coercivity value and high
magnetization that is around 0,1104 T and 29 emu/gram at x = 0,4 [16]. It has coercivity value of
0,0506 T and magnetization value of 14,782 emu/gram at x = 0,3 [17].
While, based on the heating time, it is obtained that the coercivity value is 0,0082 T and the
magnetization value is 0,55 emu/gram at the heating for 4 hours [18]. The higher the calcination
temperature used so the coercivity and magnetization values will increase. At T < 800 C, it has
coercivity value below 0,025 T and the magnetization below 0,53 emu/gram [19]. This shows that
in this study by calcinations temperature T 800 C, it is obtained the coercivity value of 0,05 T
and magnetization of 2,25 emu/gram.

4. Conclusion
Based on the results and discussion that the barum M-hexaferrite powder has been
synthesized sucessufully using coprecipitation method by diffraction pattern forming stable enough
caused by the dopant at the temperature of 800 C for 4 hours at x = 0,7 and these show that it
forms the single phase. The elements of barium are spread evenly based on the concentration of
each element in BaFe12-xNixO19 compound.
The dopant concentration increase can increase the conductivity value in the range of 10-6
-4
until 10 with the coercivity value at x = 0,7 and the calcinations temperature of 800 C is 0,05 T
and the magnetization values if 2,25 emu/gram.

Acknowledgements
This research have been sponsorship by PUPT research menristekdikti 2013 and 2016. Thank
you very much to Mataram University Research Center for helping at administration procedure.
Futhermore thank giving to analytic Laboratorium Mataram University and LIPI Serpong Jakarta.

References

[1] Ahmeda, Okashab, Kershi, Inuence of Rare-earth Ions on The Structure and Magnetic
Properties of Barium W-type Hexaferrite, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 320,
(2008) pp. 11461150.
[2] Priyono W. G. Prasongko, Pembuatan Material Magnetik Komposit BaFe9Mn0,75Co0,75Ti1,5O19
/ Elastomer untuk Aplikasi Penyerap Gelombang Elektromagnetik, Science and Mathematic
Journal Vol. 21(1): 15-19, (2013).
[3] A. Rinata, Widyastuti, H. Purwaningsih, Pengaruh Presentasi berat Barium heksaferrite
(BaFe12O19) dan Ketebalan Lapisan terhadap Reflection Loss pada Komposit radar Absorbent
Material (RAM), Material and Metallurgic Engineering Journal, ITS Surabaya 92011).
[4] D. Pangga, Pengaruh Subsitusi Ion Dopan Co/Zn Terhadap Struktur Kristal Barium M-Hxaferrit
BaFe12O19. Thesis of Physical Department. Surabaya: ITS (2011).
[5] Munib, Pengaruh Temperatur Kalsinasi dan subsitusi Logam Nikel (Ni) pada Pembetukan Fasa
Barium M-Hexaferrite (BaFe12-xNixO19) menggunakan FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red
Spectroscopy). JPPIPA, (2015).[6] Y. Sarwanto, Adi W., Sukirman E., dan A. Manaf Analisis
fasa bahan Magnetik Sistem Ba1-xLaxO6Fe2O3. Proseding Pertemuan ilmiah Ilmu
Pengetahuan dan Teknologi Bahan 92012) ISSN 1411-2231.
[7] S. Rosler, Wartewig, P., dan Langbein, H., (2003), Synthesis and Characterization of
Hexagonal Ferrites BaFe12-2xZnxTixO19 (0 x 2) by Thermal Decomposition of Freeze-dried
Precursors, Cryst. Res. Technol, Vol. 38, No. 11, pp 927-934.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-44


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

[8] C. C. Chauhan, R. B. Jotania dan K. R. Jonatia, Structural Properties of Cobalt Substituted


Barium Hexaferrite Nanoparticles Prepared By A Thermal Treatment Methode, Journal
Nanosystems Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Vol. 4, pp 363 369, (2013).
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Hexaferrites Via a Soft Mechanochemical Route, Journal of Solid Chemistry 177 (2004) 3903-
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[10] T.H. Ting dan K.H. Wu, Synthesis, Characterization of Polyaneline BaFe 12O19 Composites
with Microwave Absorbing Proferties, Journal Of Magnetism and Magnetic materials, Vol. 322,
pp 2160 2166, (2010).
[11] N. Afidah, E. Indahnia, dan Darminto, Sintesis Barium M-Hexaferit BaFe12O19 Dengan
variasi Temperatur Kalsinasi. National Seminar Nasional of Post Graduate Program XI- ITS,
Surabaya. 2011.
[12] I. N. Saidah. dan M. Zainuri, Pengaruh variasi pH Pelarut HCl pada Sintesis Barium M-
Hexaferrite dengan Doping Zn (BaFe11,4Zn0,6O19) menggunakan Metode Kopresipitasi. Science
and POMITS art Journal Vol.1, No.1, (2012)pp 1-6,.
[13] R. Jotania, P. Sharma dan H.S. Virk, Effect of Cationic CTAB Surfactan on The
Microstructutal and Magnetic Properties of Bred Barium M-Hexaferiite/arium Hexaferrite.
Journal of Nanoscience Letters. (2011).
[14] A. Syamsir dan Astuti sintesis nanokomposit Pani/TiO2/Karbon sebagai menyerap
gelombang mikro. Physical Journal Vol.1 No.1 October (2012).
[15] S. Linda, Pengaruh Ion Doping Co/Zn Terhadap Sifat Kemagnetan Barium M-Hexaferrit
BaFe12-2xCoxZnxO19. Final Task of Physical Department. Surabaya: ITS (2011).
[16] R. Agustianto dan Widyastuti,Pengaruh Dopan Co-Zn dengan varaisi Fraksi Mol dan variasi
pH Terhadap Sifat Magnetik dan Struktur Mikro Barium M-Heksaferit dengan Metode Sol-Gel
Auto Combustion. Pomits Engineering Journal Vol. 3. No. 1. (2014) ISSN : 2337-3539 (2301
9271).
[17] K. C. Rosyidah dan M. Zainuri, Synthesis and Structure, magnetic and Electrical Properties
Characterization of Core-Shell Structured Barium M-Hexaferrite/Polyaniline Composite Based
on Natural Iron Sand. Pomits Engineering Journal Vol. 1. No.1 (2013) pp 1-4.
[18] F. Rahmawati S., dan M. Zainuri, Pengaruh Holding Time Kalsinasi Terhadap Sifat
Kemagnetan Barium M-hexaferrite (BaFe12-xZnxO19) dengan Ion Doping Zn. Science and Art
Journal ITS Vol. 1. No.1. (2012) ISSN : 2301-928X.

[19] A. N. Kosasih, dan Zainuri, Sintesis dan Karakteristik Sifat Magnetik Serbuk Barium M-
Hexaferrit Dengan Doping Ion Zn Pada Variasi Temperatur Rendah. Pomits Engineering Journal
Vol. 1 No. 1. (2013

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-45


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-12
Experimental Study on Performance Improvement of
Savonius Wind Turbine by Equipping Them with Wind
Concentrators
Ida Bagus Alit* and I Made Mara

Faculty of Engineering, Mataram University, Jl Majapahit No.62 Mataram,


alitbw@yahoo.com

Abstract-Savonius turbine is a vertical axis wind turbine that operates well at slower speed. Savonius wind
turbine is characterized by a good initial torque and simplicity in its production. However, due to the low
power coefficient it requires the addition of a concentrator. The snail-shell-like concentrator designed in this
study serves to increase the wind speed and direct it to one side of the blade, therefore, increasing the drag
force and power coefficient. This study used an experimental research method and aimed to determine
performance of the Savonius turbine on four different concentration ratios (1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 6:1). The
independent variable was the wind speed (from a speed of 2 m/s to 5 m/s) and the dependent variables were
the rotor rotation, sharp power and power coefficient. The result showed that the additional of the
concentrator in wind Savonius turbine improved turbine performance at any concentration ratio. Concentrator
increased the rotation of the rotor, sharp power and power coefficient. Power coefficient of Savonius turbine
can be increased to up to 26% with one without a concentrator.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, wind concentrators, efficiency

1. Introduction
A wind turbine is a device converting kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical power and
can be connected to a generator to produce electrical power. There are two types of wind turbine;
vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) and horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). Vertical-axis wind
turbine has the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. Moreover, the benefit of this arrangement is
that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind direction to operate effectively, which is
an advantage on the site where the wind direction is highly variable. However, the key
disadvantages include the relatively low rotational speed with the consequential higher torque and
inherently lower power coefficient. Various studies have developed to increase the efficiency of
VAWT by mean of better design on the blade to operate on 180o and lower TSR (Cooper &
Kennedy, 2004), the use of guide blades to determine the effect of blade geometries of guide blades
and the gap between the rotors and power coefficient. The usage of concentrator has studied to
eliminate the negative moment of rotor and to increase the wind speed to the turbine blade (Rus,
2012). This research is aimed to study the effect of concentrator ratio to the performance of
Savonius wind turbine.
.

Figure 1. Force schematic of 2 blade Savonius wind turbine

The Savonius turbine is one of the simplest turbines designs, so it is also less expensive
contraction. Aerodynamically, it is a drag-type device. It consists of two or three blades. Because
of the curvature, the blade experience less drag when moving against the wind than when moving
with the wind. The differential drag causes the rotor of Savonius turbine to rotate. Since Savonius

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-46


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

turbines are drag-type devices, they extract much less of the wind power than other similarly-sized
lift-type turbines. Looking down on the rotor from above, a two-scoop device would look like an
"S" shape in cross section (Ali, 2013), it is shown in Figure 1

The performance of a wind turbine can be measured by the power coefficient and the tip speed
ratio. The power coefficient is the ratio of power of the rotor to the wind power.

= 1 3

2
(1)
Tip speed ratio (Tsr) is the ratio between the tangential speed of the tip of a blade and the actual
velocity of the wind. The tangential speed of the tip of blade has nominal value capricious in
accordance to wind speed. The Tsr can be calculated as the following equation;

= 60
(2)
where: Pr is the power of rotor, As is the swept area, v is the wind velocity, D is the rotor diameter
and n is the rotor rotation.
Any type of turbine rotor has a different power coefficient, as it is shown in the following graph. It
depict that the value of Tsr on various wind turbine.

Figure 2. Cp-Tsr diagram for difference type of wind turbine (DAmbrosio & Medaglia, 2010)

2. Experimental set-up
The Savonius wind turbine was tested with the application of wind concentrator. The wind
velocity is generated from 2 5 m/s. The wind concentrator ratio was 1:1 (without concentrator),
2:1, 3:1 and 6:1. The ratio of wind concentrator is the ratio between the areas of input air and the
areas of output air of the wind concentrator (Ai/Ao),

C11 C21 C31

Figure 3. Wind concentrator design

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-47


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

In this experiment, the Savonius wind turbine has 2 semi cylindrical blades with the aspect ratio of
1. The experiment is done to measure the rotor rotation; the voltage and the current were produced
by the generator. These valuesare needed to predict the performance of the Savonius wind turbine.
The schematic diagram of the experimental setup is shown in figure. 4.

Figure 4.The schematic diagram of the experimental set up

3. Discussion of Results
This experimental study is done on the Savonius wind turbine has 2 semi cylindrical blades and
the application of wind concentrator. The use of 2 blades experience better stability than 3 or more
blades (Kadam & Patil, 2012). The wind velocity is measured using anemometer that is put in the exit
side of the wind tunnel and the rotation of the turbine rotor is measured by digital contactless
tachometer. The result of this study is analyzed and summarized on the following graphs.
180
160
Rotor rotation (rpm)

140
120
100
80 C0
60 C11
40 C21
20 C31
0
2 3 4 5
Wind speed (m/s)

Figure 5. The rpm-v curve on various concentrator ratio.

As the wind speed increases, the rotor speed also tends to increase. The reason of this is
because the wind momentum to push the turbine blade becomes higher in every second so the
drive force on the blade is increased as well. The increasing of this driving force will increase
the rotor speed. In addition, the rotor speed also increases by using wind concentrator because
the wind concentrator act as a device to eliminate the negative force on the turbine rotor and
increase the wind velocity, so the speed of wind ram the wind blade is higher than without
using wind concentrator (Altan, Darbari & Altigan, 2012). The higher the concentrator ratio, the
higher the rotor speeds. This is due to as the ratio of wind concentrator increases, the velocity of the
wind come to the blade also increases. In this study, the highest rotor speed obtained on the wind
concentrator ratio of 6:1 and the wind speed of 5m/s is 170,07 Rpm.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-48


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

3
C0

Power of rotor (Watt)


2.5
C11
2
C21
1.5
C31
1
0.5
0
2 4 6
wind speed (m/s)

Figure 6. The power of rotor- wind speed curve on various wind concentrator ratio

The Figure 6. shows that the wind speeds give great effect on the electrical power of the entire wind
concentrator ratio. The increase of wind speed and wind concentrator ratio causes escalation to the
rotor speed and increasing the rotor power. The wind concentrator ratio of 6:1 gives better
performance on Savonius wind turbine than without wind concentrator.
The performance [dimensionless value; power coefficient (Cp)] was analyzed as a function of
dimensionless value tip speed ratio on the wind speed as shown in the figure 7.

0.250
C0
0.200 C11
C21
0.150 C31
CP

0.100

0.050

0.000
- 0.200 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000
TSR

Figure 7. The Cp-Tsr curve on various concentrator ratio

The increasing of Tsr from 0.4 to 0.8 tends to raise the power coefficient up to 0.19. Power
coefficient is a performance indicator of a wind turbine. The higher the Cp is, the better the wind
turbine performance. On this study, the best performance of the Savonius wind turbine is obtained
on the wind concentrator ratio of 6:1. The application of wind concentrator on savonius wind
turbine can increase the performance of wind turbine 26%.

4. Conclusions
Despite of relatively lower power coefficient, the Savonius wind turbine is suited to install in
the low wind speed area. In order to increase the power coefficient, it can be done by implementing
wind concentrator. Adding wind concentrator willsignificantly increase the performance of
Savonius wind turbine. Wind concentrator can eliminate the negative moment or drag force at the
turbine blade. The power coefficient of Savonius wind turbine increases by 26% by implementing
the wind concentrator ratio of 6:1.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-49


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Acknowledgement
This research received funding from competitive grant provided by Ministry of Research,
Technology and Higher Education.

References
Ali, H.A. (2013). Eksperimental comparison study for Savonius wind turbine of two & three blades
at low wind speedInternational journal of modern research IJMER., Vol.3, pp. 2978-2986
Altan, B.D and Atilgan, M. (2012). A study on increasing the performance of Savonius wind
rotors.Journal of mechanical science and technology. Pp.1493-1499.
Cooper, P. and Kennedy, O. (2004). Development and analysis of a novel vertical axis wind
turbine. Proceding solar 2004 life, the universe and renewable pp.1-9, Australian and New
Zealand solar energy Society (ANZES)
DAmbrosio, M. Medaglia, M. (2010). Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: History, Technology and
Applications. Master thesis in Energy Engineering. Hogskolan Halmstad
Kadam, A.A. Patil, S.S. (2012). A review study on Savonius wind rotors for accessing the power
performance. IOSR Journal of mechanical and civil engineering. pp.18-24.
Patel C.R., Patel V.K., Prabhu S.V, Eldho T.I. (2013). Investigation of overlap ratio for Savonius
type vertical axis hydro turbine. International journal of soft computing and engineering
(IJSCE), Vol.3, pp. 379-383
Rus L.F. (2012). Experimental study on the increase of the efficiencyof vertical wind turbines by
equipping them with wind concentrators. Journal of sustainable energy. Vol.3 pp. 30-35

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-50


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-13
The Effect of Agent Gas Flow Rate of Horse Manure
Gasification Process to the Performance of Combustion
Engine
Rudy Sutanto*, Pandri Pandiatmi, Arif Mulyanto, and Nurchayati

Faculty of Engineering, Mataram University, Jl Majapahit No.62 Mataram,


r_sutanto10@yahoo.com

Abstract-on the contrary with the well known gasification of coal and agricultural, gasification of feces
dropped from particular horse farms has never been researched. Horse feces has great potency to be
developed as raw material of gasification considering the fact that it containsenough carbohydrate, fat and
crude fiberto increase carbon production which will indirectly increase the production of methane gas and
carbon monoxide as well. On other hand, the high percentage of watercontained in horse feces not only can
interfere with gasification performance but also will make the whole process difficult. Therefore, there is
initial process needed in order to reduce the water content. Gasification reactor used in the research has a
diameter of 600 mm and a height of 1.500 mm. The study was conducted using a thermal decomposition
method wherein gas agent used is in the form of air with flow rate variety (10, 15, 20 and 30 L / min).
Furthermore, the effect of air flow rate in the gasification process on performance of combustion engine
observed from the engine rotation (1500, 2500, 3500 and 4500 rpm) and the fineness of the engine rotation
(braking force, fuel consumption) were studied.Results of this research showed that escalating the flow rate
of the gas agent not onlyincreased the effective generated power by2.2% but alsodecreased fuel consumption
by 21.4% at the same engine rotation. This occurs more due to the heating value of the syngas which increase
the product up to 22.67%.

Keywords: gasification, horse manures, syngas, agent gas, effective power

1. Introduction
One of the alternative energy that is now being developed is the energy derived from the
organic materials because organic compounds are classified as a renewable energy. The existence
of the organic materials are easily obtained, continuity guaranteed, and environmentally friendly.
This is the main supporting factor of the organic materials to be considered as a future energy in
order to realize the green technology. Syngas is a product of the green technologies that are now
being developed. This is because the gas produced from the thermal decomposition of solid
biomass by providing some heat to supply limited oxygen to produce synthesis gases or gas capable
of fuel consisting of CO, H2, CO2, CH4 and H2O as the main product and a small amount of carbon
char and ash as by-products. In this case of course utilized is a gas CO, H2 and CH4 has a heating
value which can be used as fuel. In general, the gasification process involves four stages of the
process such as drying, pyrolisis, partial oxidation and reduction.
Gasification is a process of converting a compound containing carbon to change the
material either liquid or solid to fuel gas which is capable of combustion through the combustion
process with the air supply is limited between 20% to 40% of the air stoichiometry. Reactor where
the process of gasification is called gasifier. During the gasification process, will be formed
according to a process called local temperature distribution in the reactor gasifier. These areas are:
drying, pyrolysis, reduction and Combustion. Each region occurs at a temperature range between
25oC to 150oC, 150oC to 600oC, 600oC to 900oC and 800oC to 1400oC. Gas resulted from the
gasification process is called producer gas or syngas.
The review of research results (review) to the contemporary technology of thermal
gasification written by Wang, L., Weller, CL, Jones, DD and Hanna, MA (2008), showed that the
advantages and disadvantages of each reactor and the type of reagents used for the gasification
process. Besides the benefits available, it turns out that thermal biomass gasification process still
has challenges in terms of tar and char formation as the effect of low excessive and heating value

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-51


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

syngas if operating conditions are not in accordance with the characteristics of the biomass
processed.
Adjar Pratoto and Slamet Raharjo (2008), numerical simulation-steam gasification of
biomass (oil palm empty fruit bunches) using thermodynamic equilibrium model. From the
simulations, it appears that the production of hydrogen increases with rising temperatures. At low
temperatures, low hydrogen production and increases with increase in temperature until it reaches a
peak and then decline again hydrogen production.
Syngas composition varies depending on the biomass feedstock, but the average can produce
syngas with H2 concentration of 18-20%, CO by 18-20%, amounting to 2-3% CH4, 12% CO2, H2O
and the remaining 2.5% N2, with gas heating value of about 4.7 - 5 MJ/m3, (Dr. Haifa Revelation,
et.al, 2011). Gasification of coal and agricultural wastes bait are well known gasification compared
to farm waste gasification in form of feces, especially horse feses (biomass) wich has never been
done. However, horse feses has great potential to be developed as feedstock gasification although
farm waste gasification with feces, especially horse feses (biomass) has never been done. This
research will be developed using horse feses as the feedstock in the gasification process with
consideration that the size of the fine grain, carbohydrate, fat and crude fiber is high enough so that
it can increase production of carbon which will indirectly increase the production of methane gas
and carbonmonoksida.
Horse feces has a high enough carbon content so to be used as fuel. One method that can be
used to process horse feses into fuel is gasification. With the technique of gasification, horse feses
is expected to be a potential fuel source (syngas) to overcome the energy crisis, but so far the
manufacture of syngas through the technique of gasification of farm waste (feces) has not been
tried and researched, therefore research to utilize horse feces as a new alternative energy source that
is renewable and environmentally friendly needs to be done thoroughly until application phase.
Horse feces has the exact shapes and sizes with a high water content. As gasification bait, it
will be difficult to directly processe the horses feces because it can interfere with the performance
of gasification. Therefore, the initial processing such as reduction of water content in horse feces
needs to be done. The production ratio of horse feces has reached 5.5 tons/year/head with energy
conversion coefficient of 14.9 Gjoule/ton (Hall, DO et al, 1993).

2. Research Method
The research method used to achieve research purposed was testing potential horse feses as the
main material in the gasification reactor by thermal decomposition method with gas media such as
air. Further testing of syngas performance as motor fuel was done by observing the engine rotation
and subtlety of the engine rotation.

Variables Research
In this research, the variables chosen among others:
fixed variable
the syngas composition (a mixture of CO, CO2, CH4 gases)
gasify reactor type
changed variable
agent gas flow rate: 10 l/min; 15 l/min; 20 l/min; 30 l/min
agent gas: air and engine rotation: 1500, 2500, 3500 and 4500 rpm

Tools and materials


1. Equipment used in the research:
The series of gasify reactor and the series of combustion engines
2. Materials :
Horse feces
3. testing Instrument :
Gasifier used in the research has a 600 mm diameter and 1,500 mm heigh reactor and a 100
cc with 4 stroke engine.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-52


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Testing Procedure
The main material is needed in this research is horse feces which has a high water content. As
gasification bait, it will be difficult if horse feses is directly processed because it can interfere with
the performance of gasification. Therefore, the initial processing of the horse feses needs to be
done. The initial processing such as reduction of water content in horse feses through the drying
process in advance. Research continued with the process of making syngas with horse feses
feedstock. In this case, gasification reactor of updraft types and hermal decomposition method are
used with the media agent in the form of air and gas flows using a compressor. Agent gas flow rate
was varied respectively 10, 15, 20 and 30 l/min. Furthermore, we will study the effect of the gas
that comes out of the gasifier on the performance of the combustion engine seen from the engine
rotation (1500, 2500, 3500 and 4500 rpm) and the fineness of the engine rotation (braking force,
fuel consumption). The variables recorded are the amount of braking force and fuel consumption
for two minutes.

Data analysis
The data analysis was conducted after and refers to the experimental data, by knowing torque,
effective power and fuel consumption on the performance of combustion engines to the flow rate of
agent gas in the gasification proces.

3. Results and Discussion


Research result obtained by the relationship between the engine rotation with a torque (Figure
1) shows that the torque produced by the engine to increase in tandem with the increase in engine
rotation, this situation arose as a consequence of the braking force is used against the centrifugal
force of the shaft machine what rotating more than increase with changes in engine speed increases.
In practice, the torque of the engine is useful to overcome obstacles when the vehicle goes uphill,
or when accelerating the velocity of vehicle (automotive), while the electric generator is useful to
overcome any barriers to increasing power load.

Engine Rotation vs Torque Engine Rotation vs Fuel Consumption


8.00 4500
Bahan Bakar A Bahan Bakar A
7.00 4000
Bahan Bakar B
Fuel Consumption (lt/jam)

Bahan Bakar B
3500
6.00 Bahan Bakar C
Bahan Bakar C
3000
5.00 Bahan Bakar D
Torque (Nm)

Bahan Bakar D
2500
4.00
2000
3.00
1500
2.00
1000
1.00 500

0.00 0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Engine Rotation (RPM) Engine Rotation (RPM)

Figure 1. Relationship of the engine rotation against Figure 2. Relationship of the engine rotation against
torque Fuel Consumption

The relationship between the engine rotation to torque as shown in figure 1 shows that the
greater the flow rate of agent gas (air), the torque produced an average increase of 2.2% for a wide
variety of engine rotation. This is because in the combustion process of horse feces in the
gasification reactor running more perfect, so there aremore CO2 produced and the heat formed
higher the temperature. Heat generated in the higher oxidation process would give positive effect to
the pyrolysis process so that carbon is formed even greater, while in the process of CO2 reduction
and the carbon will be decomposed into carbon monoxide gas. Thus the greater the flow rate of
agent gas (air), themore the CO gas formed. This was followed by 22.67% increase in the heating
value over the same time with the increase in the flow rate of agent gas in the gasification. Since
heating value of the syntesis gas produced in the gasification process is increased with the

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-53


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

increasing of agent gas flow rate, the fuel needed to move engine will be less. The average
reduction of fuel consumption is 21.4% for a wide variety of engine rotation ( figure 2).

Engine Rotation vs Effective Power Engine Rotation vs SFCE


3500 25
Bahan Bakar A Bahan Bakar A
3000 Bahan Bakar B Bahan Bakar B

SFCE (lt/(Watt.jam))
Effective Power (Watt)

20
Bahan Bakar C Bahan Bakar C
2500
Bahan Bakar D Bahan Bakar D

2000 15

1500
10
1000
5
500

0 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Engine Rotation (RPM) Engine Rotation (RPM)

Figure 3. Relationship of the engine rotation against Figure 4. Relationship of the rotation engine against
effective power SFCE

Research data obtained by the relationship between the engine rotations with effective
power (Figure 3) shows that the more the concentration of carbon monoxide in syntesis gas, the
greater the effective power generated in the same rotation.This is because the biogas with gas
concentrations of carbon monoxide has a heating value of combustion that great anyway, so the
centrifugal force that occurs in the engine shaft arise as a result of the fuel combustion process will
be greater. This situation had an impact on the greater the torque obtained.It will indirectly be
followed by the larger the shaft power or effective power generated with an average increase of
2.2% (Figure 3).
The figure of relationships between the engine rotation with SFCE (Figure 4) shows that
the specific fuel consumption effectively required by the engine decreases with increasing engine
rotation.This happens because the faster the engine, the higher the consumption of fuel used per
hour to generate each kW effective power, or shaft power is less. That fuel consumption will
further increase with increasing engine rotation (figure 2) indicates that the higher rev the engine of
a combustion engines it will be followed by greater fuel consumption, although fuel consumption
riseis followed by the increase in shaft power or effective power, Similarly, the greater the flow rate
of the agentgreat, the SFCE will decrease on average by 23% for a wide variety of engine rotation.

4. Conclusion
The conclusion drawn from these results is that the gasification process not only can be
done with the feedstock coal and agricultural waste, but for also livestock solid waste which even
can give remarkable results. The influence of the flow rate of gas agents have an impact on the
production of CO gas growing along with increasing the flow rate of agents gas, as well as the
heating value generated would be higher with a rise of 22.67% followed by the increase in effective
power engin 2.2% and fuel consumption has decreased by approximately 21.4% to a wide variety
of engine rotation.

References
Adjar Pratoto and Slamet Raharjo 2008, "Biomass Gasification-steam to Produce Hydrogen -
Simulation of the Equilibrium Model", Annual National Seminar on Mechanical Engineering
(SNTTM) VII, Manado, November 4 to 6 in 2008
Dr. Haifa Revelation, Ir. Imam Djunaedi, Ir. M. Affendi, Drs. Sugiyatno, MT., Drs. Joseph Suryo
Utomo MT 2011, "Design and Development of Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor Model for
Biomass Gasification" Physics Research Center (Research Centre fo Physics) LIPI
Hall, DO et al (1993), "Biomass for Energy: Supply Prospects", in: Renewable Energy, Johansson,
TB eds., Pp.594, Washington, Island Press.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-54


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Wang, L., Weller, C.L., Jones, D.D. and Hanna, MA, (2008), Contemporary issues in thermal
gasification of biomass and its application to electricity and fuel production, Biomass and
Bioenergy 32, 573-581.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-55


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-14
Solution of the Wood Saxon Potential in Different Angular
Momentum Using Finite Difference Method
Siti Alaa, Dian W. Kurniawidi, Susi Rahayu

Program Studi Fisika, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas
Mataram,siti.alaa@gmail.com

Abstract-In this research, the radial part of Schrodinger equation in presence of the angular momentum l=0,
l=1, dan l=2 for wood saxon potential has been solved by using finite difference method. We obtain wave
solution for wood saxon potentialfor different angular momentum.

Keywords: Wood Saxon, Schrodinger, angular momentum, finite difference

1. Introduction
A basic problem in the nuclear physics is the motion of the free electrons which have
influence on the abundance of metallic clusters. These electrons are moving in the orbital around
the central nucleus and in a mean potential which is produced by the positively charged ions and
the rest of the electrons. Therefore, a mean field potential is always empirical and one of them is
the woods-saxon potential (Berkdeymer et.al., 2004).
The woods-saxon potential is a mean field potential for the nucleons (protons and neutrons)
inside the atomic nucleus (Woods and Saxon, 1954), which is used to approximately describe the
force applied on each nucleon in the shell model for the structure of the nucleus (Gonul and Koksal,
2006). The woods Saxon potential plays an essential role in microscopic physics since it can be
used to describe the interaction of a nucleon with the nucleus (Pahlavani et.al, 2000). Within the
Wood-Saxon model, we can also examine the Coulomb interaction of the outgoing charged lepton
with the nucleus (Engel, et al, 1993).
The analytical and numerical solutions of the wave equation for modern physics have taken
a great deal of interest for long time (Akpan et.al., 2005). Single particle wave equation and level
density calculation using wood saxon potential can be obtained analytically through simple
potential such as finite square well or oscillator harmonic potential (Kurniadi et.al., 2007). Finite
difference providing an improved representation of a range of scale in the evaluation of second
order derivates are presented and compared with well known schemes (Lele, 1990). Therefore, the
purpose of our study is to analyze solution of Schrodinger equation for Woods Saxon potential with
different angular momentum case.

2. Formulation
Schrodinger equation for spherical coordinate
2 2 2 2
+ + = (1)
2 2 2 2
where E and V are the total (non relativistic) and potential energies of particle of mass m.
Schrodinger equation in radial form is needed for spherical potential as a major part of nuclear shell
model.
2 2
2 = +1 (2)
2
This radial equation is concerned with the radial aspect of the motion of electron; with the total
energy E includes the electron kinetic energy of motion (Beiser, 2003). If we search the solution
using finite difference, we get Schrodinger equation for finite difference.
2 2
2 = + 1 + ( (3)
2
1 2 + 2 2
2 + 2 +1 2 1 = +1 + ( (4)
2

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-56


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

In this paper, potential in Schrodinger equation can be change with Wood Saxon potential. The
Wood Saxon potential has form
0
= 0 (5)
1+
where = 3. 1016 is thickness surface parameter and 0 =0 1/3 single particle radius
potential, 0 = 30 , r = 10-15-10-13, and A is nuclear mass nomor. For this research, Pb atom
with A= 208 is used. We get wave function for wood saxon potential for E=1.21 x 10-11 as a
function of r showed in Figure 1.

Figure 1. A plot of Wood saxon potential

3. Result and Discussion


The angular momentum can be defined in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, modern
physics quantum mechanics, nuclear physics, and quantum field theory (Borrelli, 2011). Angular
momentum for electron is conserved and quantized. The combination of the total quantum number
with the letter that represents orbital angular momentum provides a convenient and widely used
notation for atomic electron states. Wood Saxon solution calculated by using finite difference
method for different angular momentum l=0, l=1 and l=2 is shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Figure 2. Wave function for Wood saxon potential solution for l=0 and l=1

The Schrodinger equation solution for angular momentum l=0 have three peak and for l=1
have two peak. The maximum value of the wave equation for l = 0 and l = 1 are almost the same at
around 105. The highest valueof schrodinger equation solution for l=1 is in r=6,1 .10-14 m while for

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-57


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

l=0 is in r =4,5. 10-14 m. A different value got for l = 2, the solution looks stationary but suffered a
wave attenuation. The maximum value of the wave equation for l = 2 is very small if comparedto
the maximum value of l = 0 and l = 1.The maximum value of wave is shown at l = 2 which is is 0.8.

Figure 3. Wave function for wood saxon potential solution forl=2

4. Conclussion
The solution for wood saxon in different angular momentum can be obtained using finite
difference method. The results in this research can extent for another nuclear potential which
correspond to modify nucleus for relativistic theory.

References
Akpan N. IKot, et. al. (2005). Solution of Schrodinger equation with generalized inverted
hyperbolic potential.
Beiser, Arthur. (2003). Concept of Modern Physics 6th edition. The McGraw-hill: India
Berkdemir, Ayse., Berkdemir, Cuneyt., and Sever, Ramazan. (2004). Eigen values and Eigen
functions of woods-saxon potential in PT Symmetric Quantum Mechanics. Arxiv.org
Borrelli, Arianna. (2011). Angular momentum between physics and mathematics. Mathematics
meets physics, pp 395-440.
Engel, J. et al. (2013). Quasi elastic neutrino scattering from oxygen and the atmospheric neutrino
problem. arXiv:nucl-th/9304017v1
Gonul B. and Koksal K.. (2006). A note on the woods-saxon potential.
Kurniadi, Rizal., Waris, Abdul., and Perkasa, Yudha S.. (2007). Single particles level density
calculation using extended wood saxon potential. International conference on advances in
nuclear science and Engineering in conjunction with LKSTN, pp 313-315.
Lele, Sanjiva K. (1992). Finite difference schemes with spectral-like resolution. Journal of
computational physics 103, 16-42.
Pahlavani, M.R., Sadeghi J., and Ghezelbash, M. (2009). Solution of the Centra Wood-Saxon
Potential in 0 case using mathematical modification method. Applied Science, vol. 11,
pp. 106-113.
Woods, R.D.; Saxon, D.S. (1954). "Diffuse Surface Optical Model for Nucleon-Nuclei
Scattering". Physical Review 95 (2): 577578.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-58


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-15
Comparing the Mapping of the Value of Peak Ground
Acceleration (PGA) in Indonesia Based on Mc.Guirre and
Esteva Models

Tati Zera

Fisika-FST UIN syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. Jln. Ir. H. Juanda no 95 Ciputat


tati_zera@uinjkt.ac.id

Abstract-Indonesia is an archipelago country that stretches on -110 60 lattitude and 950-1410 of longitude
and lying on the confluence of the three major tectonic plates, the Eurasia, Indo Australia and Pasific. This
condition makes Indonesia region as an area with high seismic activity. One of the important effects of
earthquakes is the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA). This value is needed to determine how strong the
foundation of a building to be made. This study was conducted to compare the mapping of the PGA value
across Indonesia based on historical earthquakes data during 1915 2015 with magnitude Mb > 5 SR and
depth h < 80 km (shallow earthquake). The two calculation models of PGA based on the model of first
generation shows result in range 9.039126 511.1717 gal by Mc. Guirre and 0.4614 187.0864 gal by
Esteva. The two models show the similarity contour and showed some maximum points which located on the
western coast of Sumatera, Nusa Tenggara and Papua.

Keywords: Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Historical Earthquakes data, Mc. Guirre, Esteva.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-59


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-16
Emission Wavelength of CdS Nanoparticles
Semiconductor
Suryajaya

Program Studi Fisika Fakultas MIPA Universitas Lambung Mangkurat Jl. A. Yani Km 36
Banjarbaru, Kalimantan Selatan, suryajaya@gmail.com

Abstract-In this paper, our work in measuring the emission wavelength of CdS nanoparticles semiconductor
would be presented. The nanoparticles were prepared by aqueous phase synthesis using a mixture of
surfactants, mercaptoethane sulfonate and mercaptoethanol to control the size. Absorption spectrocopy was
applied both to record the absorption spectra and to determine the size (radius) of CdS nanoparticles. The
radius yield was about 2 nm. The emission wavelength of CdS nanoparticles were measured by Perkin Elmer
Luminescen Spectrometer. The result was at 450 nm. On the other hand, the adding of mercaptoethanol with
a range from 0.1 to 1.4 mM were relatively not changed the size and emission wavelength of the CdS
nanoparticles.

Keywords: emission wavelength, Cds, nanoparticle

1. Introduction
By far, nanoparticles of cadmium sulphide (CdS) is the most studied systems among the
semiconducting nanoparticles due to its potential technological applications in photovoltaic (Britt,
1993) and electroluminescence devices (Lakowicz, 1999) as well as other optoelectronics
applications (Nanda, 1999). Various deposition techniques, both physical and chemical techniques,
such as: molecular beam epitaxy (Boieriu, 2000), ion implantation (Desnica, 2001), magnetron
sputtering technique (Hernndez-Contreras, 2002), electrochemical technique (Morris, 1992),
Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films method (Nabok, 2002), aqueous colloid solutions (Winter, 2005),
precipitation technique (Nanda, 1998), and the reserve micelle method (Zhang, 2002), have been
used to deposite CdS nanoparticles.
In this research, CdS colloid nanoparticles semiconductor would be produced by aqueous
synthesis method and then mixed with mercaptoethanol, as a second surfactant to modify the
electrically charged. The colloid nanoparticles would be analyzed using spectrophotometer for the
spectra absorption. The size of the particles would be calculated theoretically using Efros equation
(Suryajaya, 2008). Then the emission wavelength was measured by luminescence spectrometer.

2. Experimental Details

Preparation of colloid nanoparticles


High purity chemicals purchased from Sigma-Aldrich were used to synthesize CdS colloid
nanoparticles. Firstly, an aqueous solution of 0.02 M mercaptoethane sulfonate was mixed with
0.04 M solution of CdCl2. Then, 0.04 M solution of sodium sulphide is added dropwise to the
mixture while it is stirred. The result was a yellow solution of CdS colloid nanoparticles.
Mercaptoethanol is then added to the colloid nanoparticles as a second surfactant. All solutions
were prepared using deionised water, at room temperature.

Experimental Methods
Before and after added by mercaptoethanol, absorption spectra of the colloidnanoparticles
would be recorded using GENESYSTM 10 SERIESUV-Vis spectrophotometer.The absorption
spectra of the solutions were measured by putting the solution into 2 mL quartz cuvette, mounted
into a sample holder in the spectrophotometer.The size of CdS nanoparticles can be evaluated from
the blue shift of the absorption bands with respect to the band gap values of bulk CdS as a
consequence of quantum confinement effect. In this work, the radius of semiconductor clusters is
ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-60
Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

calculated using Efros equation for the energy spectrum in nanoparticles of direct band gap
semiconductors, having parabolic E(k) dispersion. It is assumed that the particles' radius is smaller
than Bohr exciton radius. Hence, in the case of strong confinement, (Yoffe, 2002)

2
E( n , l ) E g (2n , l ) (
2 R 2

1)

where Eg is the band gap for bulk semiconductors, is the reduced effective mass of exciton,
1

1 1
* , and ( n, l ) are the roots of Bessel functions (for the ground state (0,1) ).
*
me m h

The emission wavelength of CdS colloid nanoparticles would be evaluated with Perkin
Elmer LS 5B Luminescence Spectrometer.Firstly, scanning mode was used to get excitation
wavelength of the sample. Then, at that excitation wavelength, the solution would be lighted.
Theoretically, the emission would be detected at longer wavelength.

3. Results and Discussion

The absorption spectra of CdS and ZnS nanoparticles modified


The absorption spectra of CdS colloid solution with and without mercaptoethanol are
shown in Fig. 1. As can be seen, the typical absorption spectra of CdS shows the gradually increase
of absorbance to the absorption edge of about 409 nm which is blue shifted from the absorption of
bulk CdS (512 nm). The observation of the blue shift of optical absorption is a typical experimental
confirmation of nanoparticles' presence (Yoffe, 2002) and believed to be due to the effect of
quantum confinement in the nanoparticles.

Figure 1. The UVvis absorption spectra of CdS colloid nanoparticles with and without ME

When mercaptoethanol is added to the colloid solutions of CdS, the absorption edge of the
solutions were not significantly changed (see Figure 1) the intensity is slightly lower as compare to
the absorption spectra of CdS without mercaptoethanol. It seems, the adding of mercaptoethanol is
not change the nanoparticles sizes but reduce the absorbances intensity. Theoretically, these
differences would be affected the material in luminescence property. From the experiment, only a
little amount of mercaptoethanol could be mixed to the solutions without cause any sedimentation.
The working variations of surfactant concentration (mercaptoethanol) would only be in the range
from 0.1 to 1.3 mM.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

According to (Nabok, 1998), the values of blue shift of the absorption bands can be used to
evaluate the size of nanoparticles. Similar to the routine described earlier (Suryajaya, 2008), in
order to obtain the exact positions of absorption maxima, the Gaussian fitting of absorption spectra
was performed and the spectra were re-plotted in energy coordinates (see Fig. 2.). The observed
energy dispersion may reflect the combination of the size distribution of nanoparticles and the
presence of higher index energy levels of size quantization (Nabok, 1998). Only the first maxima
(in each spectrum) corresponding to the ground state levels were chosen for further analysis.

Figure 2. Gaussian fitting of the UVvis absorption spectra of CdS

Effective mass approximation (EMA) method was use to calculated the radius of semiconductor
clusters. Based on Efros equation for the electron energy spectrum in nano-particles of direct band
gap semiconductors, having parabolic E(k) dispersion (Yoffe, 2002).
Equation 1 was based on the assumption of strong confinement in the particles smaller than Bohr
exciton radius, 3 nm, for CdS (Yoffe, 2002), so that electrons and holes are quantized separately in
the conduction and valence bands, respectively. Using equation 1, the radius of nanoparticles of
CdS without mercaptoethanol was obtained at about 1.8 nm which are less than Bohr radius.The
results of CdS nanaoparticles radius without and with mercaptoethanol are presented in the table 1
below.

Table 1. The results of Gaussian fitting of the absorption spectra of CdS mixed without and
with mercapto ethanol

Concentration of ME (mM) Energy of CdS (eV) Radius of CdS (nm)

0 3.061 1.882
0.1 3.121 1.799
0.3 3.116 1.806
0.5 3.106 1.819
0.7 3.101 1.825
0.9 3.102 1.824
1.1 3.097 1.831
1.3 3.087 1.844

As can be seen in table 1, the radius of CdS nanopaticles are varied in a very narrow range when
the surfactant ME with different concentration mixed to the colloid solution. But above the
concentration of 1.3 mM, the solution was sedimented.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Emission wavelength Measurements


The emission of CdS nanoparticles was measured by Perkin Elmer LS 5B series
Luminescence Spectrometer. Firstly, scanning mode was used to get excitation wavelength of the
sample. For CdS colloid nanoparticles without mercaptoethanol, the excitation wavelength was
scanned about 435 nm. Then, after the solutions lighted at its excitation wavelengths, the emission
wavelength yield were about 450 nm. (shows in figure 3)
While CdS added with 0.1 mM mercaptoethanol shows a smaller excitation wavelength, at
413 nm and the emission wavelength was at 443 nm.The experiment shows that the excitation
wavelength of CdS colloid nanoparticles were range from 413-435 nm (in Table 2).

(a) (b)

Figure 3. (a) Excitation and (b) emission of CdS nanoparticles

Table 2. Excitation and emission wavelength of CdS nanoparticles


Sample Excitation (nm) Emission (nm)
CdS 435 450
CdS + ME 0.1 mM 413 443
CdS + ME 0.3 mM 413 445
CdS + ME 0.5 mM 423 449
CdS + ME 0.7 mM 424 450
CdS + ME 0.9 mM 424 451
CdS + ME 1.1 mM 424 452
CdS + ME 1.3 mM 424 452

4. Conclusions
The colloid nanoparticles of CdS modified with mercaptoethanol were successfully
synthesized. The absorption spectra of the nanoparticles were recorded using UV-vis
spectrophotometer and then EMA method was used to calculate the size (radius) of nanoparticles.
The results show that the variations of surfactant concentration (mercaptoethanol) with a range
from 0.1 to 1.3 mM could decrease the size of the CdS nanoparticles in a very narrow range. The
particle core radius of about 2 nm was obtained. The colloid nanoparticles of CdS emit a radiation
at about 450 nm.

Acknowledgements
At this opportunity, I would like to thank Edy Giri Putra for Luminescence measurement at Batan. My
special thanks also go to Ministry of Research and Technology for their financial support in basic
research grant in 2012.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-63


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

References

Boieriu P., Sporken R., Xin Y., Browning N. D., and Sivananthan S. (2000). Wurtzite CdS on
CdTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Journal of Electronic Materials 29, 718-722.
Britt J. and Ferekides C. (1993). Thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8 % efficiency. Applied
Physics Letters, 62, 2851.
Desnica U.V., Gamulin O., Tonejc A., Ivanda M., and White C.W. (2001), CdS nanocrystals
formed in SiO substrates by ion implantation. Materials Science and Engineering C 15, 105
107.
Hernndez-Contreras H., Contreras-Puente G., Aguilar-Hernndez J., Morales-Acevedo A., Vidal-
Larramendi J., and Vigil-Galn O. (2002). CdS and CdTe large area thin films processed by
radio-frequency planar-magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 403, 148-152.
Lakowicz J. R., Gryczynski I., Gryczynski Z., and Murphy C. J. (1999). Luminescence spectral
properties of cds nanoparticles. J. Phys. Chem. B, 103, 7613-7620.
Morris G. C. and Vanderveen R. (1992). Cadmium sulphide films prepared by pulsed
electrodeposition. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 27, 305-319.
Nabok A. V., Richardson T., McCartney C., Cowlam N., Davis F., Stirling C. J. M., Ray A. K.,
Gacem V., and Gibaud A. (1998) . Size-quantization in extremely small CdS clusters formed
in calixarene LB films. Thin Solid Films 327-329, 510-514.
Nabok A. V., Iwantono B., Hassan A. K., Ray A. K., and Wilkop T. (2002). Electrical
characterisation of LB films containing CdS nanoparticles. Materials Science and
Engineering C 22, 355-358.
Nanda K. K., Sarangi S. N., Mohanty S., and Sahu S. N. (1998). Optical properties of CdS
nanocrystalline films prepared by a precipitation technique. Thin Solid Films 322, 21-27.
Nanda K. K., Sarangi S. N., and Sahu S.N. (1999). Visible light emission from CdS nanocrystals.
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 32, 2306-2310.
Suryajaya, Nabok A.V., Davis F., Hassan A.K., Higson S.P.J. and Evans-Freeman J. (2008).
Optical and AFM study of electrostatically assembled films of CdS and ZnS colloid
nanoparticles. Applied Surface Science, 254, issue 5, 4891-4898.
Suryajaya, Nabok A.V., Tsargorodskaya A., Hassan A.K. and Davis F. (2008). Electrostatically
self-assembled films containing IIVI semiconductor nanoparticles: Optical and electrical
properties, Thin Solid Films, 516, 8917-8925.
Winter J. O., Gomez N., Gatzert S., Schmidt C. E., and Korgel B. A. (2005).Variation of cadmium
sulfide nanoparticle size and photoluminescence intensity with altered aqueous synthesis
conditions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 254, 147-
157.
Yoffe A. D. (2002). Low-dimensional systems: Quantum size effects and electronic properties of
semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-
dimensional systems. Advances in Physics 5, 799-890.
Zhang J., Sun L., Liao C., and Yan C. (2002). Size control and photoluminescence enhancement of
CdS nanoparticles prepared via reverse micelle method. Solid State Communications 12,4
45-48.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-64


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-17
The Effect of Gravel Absorber Application of Plate Solar
Collectors on the Heat Transfer Rate
Made Wirawan*, Mirmanto, Badri, Lalu Wira
*
Faculty of Engineering, University of Mataram, Jl. Majapahit No. 62 Mataram,
wwiralo@yahoo.co.id

Abstract-The collector of solar energy can be used for heating fluids such as liquid or gas. The
optimizedabsorption of the solar energy depends on the collector dimension and component, i.e. the width,
bodyof collector, tube formation, cover, isolation system and absorber material. The current research uses
gravelabsorbers with two variation of shapes which are compared with the black sand beach absorber.In order
to achieve the aim of the research, the experiments of water heating used three collectors with three different
absorbers namelyaregravel (4.75 6.3), gravel (9.5-12.5) and black sand beach. The variation ofwater flow
rates had been performed to investigate the maximal performance. The water flow ratesused were 200, 250
and 300cc/minute.The result showed the solar collector heat utilization value was influenced bythe absorber
material, flow rates of water and the time. The gravel and sand absorbers showed capabilities for saving
heat.The maximal heat transferred to water occurred at the peak of solar intensity 12.30 to 14.00 P.M.

Keywords:absorber, gravel, heat, collector

1. Introduction
Since many years ago people have been using fossil energies such as liquid fuel, coal and
gas. However, these energies cannot be renewed and the sources are now very limited so that these
energies are not enough to compromise human demands. Therefore, alternative energies, e.g. solar
energy should be deeply utilized and developed.
Solar energy is one of renewable energies that havea high potency to be used and
developed wisely. This is suitable with the Indonesia climate and condition. Indonesia locates
between 60 North Latitude - 110 South Latitude. At this position Indonesia gets the sun shining all
day/ year, and even the sun ray is uniformly throughout Indonesia territories.
In order to directly increase the efficiency of the use of the solar energy, a flat plate solar
collector can be employed. Hence, in Indonesia, technologies converting solar energy should be
improved and developed. One of these technologies is flat plate solar collector. Actually a common
solar collector has been used for years and its absorber is constructed from iron/steel materials. In
this research, the absorbers are made of gravels and black beach sand. These absorbers are expected
to be able to substitute the iron/steel absorbers. The use of gravels and sand as the absorbers can
reduce the price of the solar collector unit.
Solar collector can be defined as a heat transfer system that converts solar radiation into
useful energy. When the sun light falls on the collector absorber, part of the light is reflected to the
environment and the other part is absorbed and converted into heat energy. The heat energy is
finally transferred to the fluid flowing inside the collector Permana (2011). Designing solar
collector need to consider several aspects, i.e. ecology, efficiency, and economic, see Stefanovic
and Bojic, (2006). In general, there are two types of the collector, e.g. concentrating collector and
non concentrating collector. However, in this study, the concentrating collector is not given in
detail because this research focuses on the flat plate collector. In the flat plate collector the sun
radiation comes through the transparent cover and reaches the absorber. Then part of the energy is
removed by the working fluid, e.g. water flowing inside the tube half or fully buried in the
absorber. All walls and the bottom of the collector are usually insulated using good insulation
materials to minimize the heat loss to the surrounding/ambient. The components of the collector are
(1) glass cover, (2) riser tubes, (3) absorber, (4) header, (5) Insulations, (6) casing.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Flat plate collectors have been designed and made using many types of material, however,
the main aim of this flat plate is to collect the heat as much as possible and to reduce the cost. The
solar collector has a long life although it is affected by the ultraviolet ray, corrosions and blockage,
acidity, alkalinity, frozen, dust and the glass cover humidity, Kalogirou (2009). The amount of the
solar energy absorbed by the collector depends on the components and design of the collector,while
the component of the collector such as absorber, pipe, wall, cover and isolation depends on the
material. Previous study using non metal absorbers, e.g. sand absorber, had ever been conducted.
The results indicated that using sand absorbers degraded the heat gained and even captured lower
heat than using aluminum absorbers at 01.00 pm, however, the sand absorber could retain the heat
in a long time which was good when the sun ray dimmed soon. Additionally, the previous study
also varied the water mass flow rates. At high mass flow rate the heat absorbed by the water was
higher, Wirawan and Sutanto (2011). The effect of cover gaps was previously investigated, e.g.
Burhanudin (2005). He performed experiments with several cover gaps (3 cm, 6 cm and 9 cm). The
smallest gap was found to be the best because using 3 cm gap of the cover resulted in higher outlet
water temperatures.

2. Experimental facility and procedures


The test loop of the research is shown in figure 1, while the test section is presented in figure 2.
The experiments were conducted at 10.00 am with clear sky conditions. Three identical collectors
with different absorber materials were place together directly under the sun at the same angle and
faced to the North direction. The first absorber was constructed using gravels with the gravel
dimensions of around 4.75 - 6.3 mm (Gravel A), the second absorber was arranged using gravels
with the gravel sizes of 9.5 - 12.5 mm (Gravel B), while the third absorber was made of black
beach sand. The working fluid removing the heat from the absorber was water flowing inside the
serpentine pipe half buried in the absorber.

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the test rig/flow loop.

All temperatures were measured using K type thermocouples calibrated against a mercury
thermometer, while the volumetric rate was measured manually using a glass volume meter and a
stopwatch. The water was flowed gravitationally from the reservoir. The water level inside the
reservoir was kept constantly. Before entering the solar collector the water temperature was
measured at the entrance of the collector. The outlet water temperature and the volumetric flow rate
of the water were measured at the outlet of the collector. The working fluid used was varied from
200 cc/minute to 300 cc/minute.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

3. Data reductions
With an assumption that the collector operates steadily, the heat used/removed by the water
can be expressed as, Holman (1988):
quse m c p To Ti (1)
where quseis the heat removed by the water, m represents the mass flow rate, To is the temperature
of water at the outlet and Ti is the inlet water temperature. As only part of the heat coming to the
absorber can be removed, then the heat loss is given by:
qloss qin quse (2)
where qlossis the heat loss and qin is total energy coming to the collector, Duffie and Beckman
(1980).
qin Ac I (3)
where Ac is the aperture area of the collector, while I is the sun radiation reaching the collector. The
efficiency, of the collector is then estimated as:
quse
(4)
qin

4. Results and discussions


The heat transferred from the collector to the working fluid (water) is symbolized as Quse.
In this research, the heat absorbed by the water, Quse is estimated using equation (1) and presented
in figure 2. Figure 2 shows that the heat absorbed by the water increases with the increase of the
time, e.g. at 10.00 to 12.30 o'clock. After that, the heat, Quse decreases and the solar energy coming
to the collector also decreases.The heat absorbed by the water depends on the solar radiation,
absorber material and the water volumetric rate. The absorber Gravel B (mesh 9.5-12.5 mm) can
obtain the highest hate rate at 12.45 pm, namely 192.64 W at the water volumetric rate of 200
cc/minute and 218.26 W at the water volumetric rate of 250 cc/minute, however, at the water
volumetric rate of 300 cc/minute, the maximum heat removed by the water was approximately
228.66 W and this was obtained using the black beach sand absorber at 13.15 pm.
The volumetric rate also affects the amount of the heat absorbed by the water. At the water
volumetric rate of 300 cc/minute, the collector resulted in the highest amount of the heat. This was
due to the equation (1) which apparently demonstrated that as the volumetric rate increased, the
heat absorbed by the water increased too. However, at the high volumetric rate the heat transferred
from the absorber to the water may be able to be lower, this is due to the high velocity of the water
which reduces the time for water to contact with the absorber.
Despite the collector performance is influenced by Quse, the collector efficiency is also
important. The efficiency stands for the collector potency for converting the solar energy to the
useful energy. Relating to the amount of the useful energy, from the three collectors, the highest
efficiency was gained from the Gravel B absorber, i.e. 34.54 % and 50.30 % at the water
volumetric rates of 200 cc/minute and 250 cc/minute respectively,while at the water volumetric rate
of 300 cc/minute, the maximum efficiency was attained using the black beach sand absorber, i.e.
43.54 %.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Figure 2. Heat removed by the water for volumetric rates of (a) 200 cc/minute, (b) 250 cc/minute and (c) 300
cc/minute.

The efficiency increased although the sun ray started to dime. This was owing to the character
of the absorber. Despite the sun energy was converted and removed by water, the sun energy was
also gathered by the absorber for several minutes/hours. Figure 3 presents the efficiency of the
collector. The collector with the black beach sand absorber demonstrates the better potency to
accumulate the heat, compared to the other absorbers at all water volumetric rates tested.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Figure 3. The experimental efficiency of the three collectors at (a) 200 cc/minute, (b) 250 cc/minute and (c)
300 cc/minute.

5. Conclusion
Based on the research results and analysis, some conclusions may be drawn as follows:
1. The absorber material determines the amount of the useful energy or heat removed by the water.
2. The volumetric rate of the working fluid also affects the amount of the heat removed by the
working fluid (water).
3. The heat absorbed by the water increase with an increase in the observation time until the
midday, after that the heat decrease.
4. The maximum useful heat was attained using Gravel B ( mesh 9.5-12.5 mm) absorber at 12.45
pm, i.e. 192.64 W at 200cc/minute and 218.26 Watt at 250 cc/minute, while at the water
volumetric rate of 300 cc/minute, the maximum useful heat was gained using the black beach
sand absorber collector, i.e. 228.66 W at 13.15 pm.
5. The highest efficiency was gained from the Gravel B absorber, i.e. 34.54 % and 50.30 % at the
water volumetric rates of 200 cc/minute and 250 cc/minute respectively,while at the water
volumetric rate of 300 cc/minute, the maximum efficiency was attained using the black beach
sand absorber, i.e. 43.54 %.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-69


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Acknowledgement
The authors would like to acknowledge the Indonesia Ministry Research, Technology, and
Higher Education, for the funding (Hibah bersaing grand) and the Mataram University for the
facility.

References
Burhanudin A. (2005). "Karakteristik kolektor surya plat datar dengan variasi jarak penutup dan
sudut kemiringan kolektor" Tugas Akhir, Universitas Negeri Solo, Solo.
Duffie J.A., Beckman W.A. (1980). "Solar Engineering of Thermal Process 2nd Edition", John
Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.
Holman J.P. (1988). "Perpindahan Kalor" Penerbit Erlangga, Jakarta.
Kalogirou S. (2009). "Solar Energy Engineering: Processes and Systems 1 st Edition" British
Library, USA.
Permana H., Hasbeya H. (2011). Preparasi pengukuran suhu kolektor surya dan fluida kerja dengan
datapaq easytrack2 system. Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya Jurusan Fisika FMIPA Universitas
Negeri Jakarata.
Stefanovic V.P., Bojic M.L. (2006). Development and investigation of solar collectors for
conversion of solar radiation into heat and/or electricity. Thermal Science, 10, 177-187.
Wirawan M., Sutanto R. (2011). Analisa laju perpindahan panas pada kolektor surya tipe plat datar
dengan absorber pasir. Jurnal Dinamika Teknik Mesin, 1, 65 -72.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-70


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-18
Application of Microtremor HVSR Study for Mapping of
Local Seismic Hazard in Tanjung Sub-District, North
Lombok (Indonesia)
Syamsuddin* and Isya Ashari

Geophysical Laboratory, Physics Study Program, Mataram University, Indonesia,


syamsuddin@unram.ac.id

Abstract-Tanjung Sub-District is one of the areas badly damaged by the last earthquake happened at June
22, 2013. Therefore, it is necessary to microzonation in the region to anticipate similar events. One technique
to estimate the potential due to the earthquake is by comparing the spectrum of horizontal and vertical
spectrum from measurement microtremor, known techniques Nakamura or HVSR (horizontal to vertical
spectral ratio). This study conducted microtremor measurement in Tanjung Sub-District, North Lombok with
123 of measuring points with measurement duration varies between 20 minutes to 60 minutes. This study
aims to map the distribution of the value of physical quantities related to the vulnerability of an area to which
the frequency response of earthquake ground shaking, vibration amplification soil and soil vulnerability
index. The study results showed that the value of the resonant frequency in the Cape region ranges from
0.401 to 16.92 Hz. In general, the lower frequency is 0.40 to 5.91 Hz contained 87 data (71%) are located in
the north of the region, which means that the northern part of the region has a high vulnerability. On the other
hand, amplification and vulnerability index show a very interesting pattern forthe the zone suffered severe
damage caused byearthquake ofJune 22, 2015.

Keywords: Microtremor HVSR, mapping of local seismic hazard, earthquake

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-71


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-19
Preliminary Study and Synthesis of Thin Film of
Crystalline ZnO (Zinc Oxide) with Sol-Gel Spin Coating
Technique

Aris Doyan*, Yayuk Aandayani, Susilawati, Siti Azizatul Fitri

Master Program of Science Education, University of Mataram,arisdoyan@yahoo.co.id

Abstract-ZnO thin coating has been applied to the device-device electronics, optoelectronics, sensor optical
waveguides, light emitting diode (LED), UV liquid crystal displays laser, piezoelectric transducer and anti-
reflection coating. A thin film of crystalline ZnO (zinc oxide) on a glass substrate by sol-gel method
centrifuges has been synthesized in this research. Sol-gel-making process in this study used a base material
powder of zinc acetate dehydrate {Zn (CH3COO)2.2H2O}, ethanol (C2H5OH), and monoethanolamine (MEA:
C2H7NO), each of which serves as solutes, solvents and stabilizers. As the sol material, ZnAc powder was
dissolved in ethanol solution, heated to a temperature of around 70 with hot plate and stirred using a
magnetic stirrer for 30 minutes or until the powder completely dissolved to form a white turbid solution. Sol
gel material was added to a solution of monoethanolamine (MEA) until the solution was clear white. Sol-gel
material synthesized was divided into different concentrations (0.5 M, 0.6 M, 0.7 M, 0.8 M, 0.9 M, and 1 M).
Approximately 4 to 6 drops glass sol-gel material are dripped and centrifuged for 15 minutes with rotation
speed of 1000 rpm - 3000 rpm in the preparation process. Then the samples were dried in a furnace at a
temperature of 100 for 10 minutes, followed by calcination at 150 for 1 hour, the process of pre-heating
at a temperature of 350 for 1 hour, and the post-heating at 550 for 1 hour.

Keywords: Zinc-oxide thin film, sol-gel spin coating, electronic device

1. Introduction
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is the material semiconductor that has the properties: high conductance,
irregular atomic structure, serrated surface morphology, having hexagonal crystal structure, non-
stoichiometri, atomic oxygen deficiency or excess zinc atom (interstitial), low Resistivity
controllednative defect, direct bandgap, the direction of polarization uniaxial and has a high
transmittancein area of visible light to the infra-red rays (400 - 1300) nm
Thin film technology has been widely used in everyday life. In particular thin layers of
materials engineering, materials commonly used is In2O3, WO3, SnO2, TiO2, ZnO, ITO and many
other materials. ZnO is one of the manufacture of thin layers. ZnO is a semiconductor material of
n-type group II-IV with a wide band gap of 3.20 eV at room temperature (Yaoming, 2010).
Moreover, ZnO has properties close to the emission of UV light, photocatalysts, conductivity and
high transparency. This material is used as a thin layer of base material, because it has several
advantages in application, particularly in the field of solar cells, nanodevice and sensors.
(Guanglong, 2007).
Various methods of growing a thin layer that has been used before, such as RF Sputtering
(Yunanto et al, 2006), Chemical sollution Deposition (Surono and Sutanto, 2014), Ultrasonic Spray
Pyrolysis (Aji et al, 2013), Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposition (Weng et al 2011), Physical Vapor
Deposition (George et al, 2010), and sol-gel (Siregar, 2015). However, among these methods, sol-
gel method is widely used, because of its low cost, its composition is homogeneous, do not use a
vacuum chamber with a high level, the layer thickness can be controlled, and microstructure are
quite good (Ahzan, 2012).
One of the interesting properties of ZnO to be observed is the process of crystal formation
which occurs at temperatures below 400C. It depends on the type of deposition and solvent used.
Based on research conducted by Tirado (2011), using PVP and ethanol as a solvent and with
heating at 80C the ZnO crystal structure has been formed. According to Torres (2010), ZnO
crystals have been formed by heating at 200C, using a solvent etilon glycol and glycerol.
According to Davood (2009), heating at a temperature below 300C the heating initial stage, in
which the crystal structure has been formed but has not been oriented perfectly. Furthermore, with
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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

higher heating at a temperature of 400C and 500C, the crystal structure of ZnO will be oriented
perfectly. In the manufacture of thin layers by sol-gel technique, there are several variables that can
be studied, among other things such as concentration, heat treatment (heating), rotational speed,
play time and so on. Therefore, in this study observed a thin layer of ZnO to variations in the
concentration of 0.5 M, 0.6 M, 0.7 M, 0,8 M, 0.9 M, 1 M, and variations in the heating temperature
of 150C, 350C and 550C.

The Problems
Based on the above background, the problems studied were:
a. How synthesis of thin layers of crystalline ZnO?
b. How the influence of variations in concentration and temperature heating on the formation of
thin layers of crystalline ZnO?

The Purposes
a. Based on the formulation of the problems mentioned above, the purpose of this study
is:Synthesize thin layers of crystalline ZnO?
b. Analyze the effect of variations in concentration and temperature heating on the formation of
thin layers of crystalline ZnO?

2. Material and Methods

Substrate materials to be used in this study is a glass slide that is cut to a size of 10 mm x 5
mm, and a thickness of 1 mm. Before use of the glass slide is washed in stages with ultrasonic
cleaner. Washing gradually aims to remove dirt and oil that is attached to the glass. Leaching the
first stage, the glass substrate is inserted into a measuring cup containing a mixture of water and
detergent, then vibrated by the ultrasonic cleaner for 30 minutes. Furthermore, the glass substrate is
rinsed with water until clean. Laundering in the second stage, the substrate is inserted into a glass
beaker containing alcohol, then vibrated by the ultrasonic cleaner for 30 minutes. The glass
substrate is dried in a furnace at 100C for 1 hour. The glass substrate that is clean, then stored in
plastic clip.
Sol-gel-making process in this study using basic ingredients zinc acetate dehydrate (ZnAc),
ethanol and MEA (Mono Ethanolamine) which each serve as a solute, solvent and stabilizer
(stabilizer). In this study, sol-gel materials to be synthesized is divided into 5 (five) concentration,
which is 0.5 M, 0.6 M,0.7 M, 0.8 M, 0.9 M, and 1 M. The solution ZnAc and ethanol stirrer on a
hot plate at a temperature of 70 for 30 minutes, or until the solution looks homogeneously
mixed.
Layer growth process begins with a drop of sol-gel material on a glass substrate is
approximately 4 to 6 drops. Then centrifuged for 15 minutes with rotation speed of 1000 rpm -
3000 rpm. After the surface evenly coated substrate, then the substrate is dried in a furnace at
100C for 10 minutes.
The heating process is done in three stages. The first heating at a temperature of 150
(calcination) for 1 hour, aims to eliminate water and residual solvent content in the coating
gradually. The second heating is done at a temperature of 350 for 1 hour. The temperature rise is
set slowly from room temperature to 350 . This stage is regarded as pre-heating phase that serves
to remove ethanol, water, and MEA, and facilitating change ZnOH into ZnO. The next stage is the
post-heating or final heating at a temperature of 550, for 1 hour. Similar to the process of pre-
heating, regulated temperature rise slowly from room temperature to 550. Post-heating is used to
form ZnO particles with a uniform crystal orientation, and eliminating pores.

3. Result and Discussion


Materials used in research synthesis of ZnO crystals with a thin layer of sol-gel method is:
1. Powder zinc acetate dehydrate {Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O} with M = 219,49 g/mol
2. Ethanol C2H5OH with M = 46,07 g/mol

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

3. Mono ethnolamine (MEA) C2H7NO with M = 61,06 g/mol

The synthesis of ZnO crystals with a thin layer of sol-gel method following the chemical equations
sol-gel as follows:

()4 + 2 ()4 + (hydrolysis)


()4 + ()4 ()4 ()4 + (condensation)

Sol-gel solution for a wide range of concentrations that have been synthesized are stored in a
test tube as follows:

Figure 1. Results of Sol-Gel-Varying concentrations from left to right with


a concentration of 0.5 M; 0.6 M; 0,7M; 0.8 M; 0.9 M; 1 M respectively

Figure 2. Results Crystal ZnO Thin Films for the heating temperature of 150

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Figure 3. Results of Thin Film Crystalline ZnO for the heating temperature of 350

Figure 4. Results of Thin Film Crystalline ZnO for the heating temperature of 550

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

4. Conclusion

In this research have been synthesized a thin film of crystalline ZnO (zinc oxide) on a glass
substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique using centrifuges. Sol-gel-making process in this study
using a base material powder of zinc acetate dehydrate {Zn (CH3COO)2.2H2O}, ethanol (C2H5OH),
and monoethanolamine (MEA: C2H7NO), each of which serves as solutes, solvents and stabilizers.
As the material sol, ZnAc powder dissolved in ethanol solution, heated to a temperature of around
70 with hot plate and stirred using a magnetic stirrer for 30 minutes or until completely
dissolved powder and a white turbid solution. Sol gel material in order to be given a solution of
monoethanolamine (MEA) until the solution is clear white. Sol-gel materials are synthesized is
divided into different concentrations of 0.5 M, 0,6 M, 0.7 M, 0.8 M, 0.9 M, and 1 M. In preparation
dripped glass sol-gel material is approximately 4 to 6 drops, then played with centrifuged for 15
minutes with rotation speed of 1000 rpm - 3000 rpm. Then the samples were dried in a furnace at a
temperature of 100 for 10 minutes, followed by calcination at 150 for 1 hour, the process of
pre-heating at a temperature of 350 for 1 hour, and the post-heating at 550 for 1 hour.

Acknowledgements

This research have been sponsorship by fundamental research menristekdikti 2015 and 2016.
Thank you very much to Mataram University Research Center for helping at administration
procedure. Futhermore thank giving to analytic Laboratorium Mataram University.

References

Rachmantio, H. 2004. Pengantar Material Sains I Buku Atom-Molekul-Padat. Yogyakarta :


Tabernakelindo.
Rachmantio, H.. 2004. Pengantar Material Sains II Buku Sifat Fisik dan Mekanik. Yogyakarta :
Tabernakelindo.
Subaer. 2008. Pengantar Fisika Geopolimer. Solo : Direktorat Jendral Pendidikan Tinggi.
Surjono, H. D.. 2007. Elektronika Teori dan Penerapannya. Jember: Cerdas Ulet Kreatif Publisher.
Ahzan, S., dkk.. 2012. Sintesis Lapisan ZnO dengan Metode Sol-gel Spincoating dan Karakteristik
Sifat Optiknya. Tidak Diterbitkan. Tesis. Surabaya: Fisika MIPA Institut Teknologi
Sepuluh November.
Ardhiarisca, O.. 2013. Karakteristik Optik dan Struktur Kristal Film Tipis TiO2:Au Ditumbuhkan
dengan Metode Spin Coating. Tidak Diterbitkan. Skripsi. Jember: Universitas Jember.
Aditya, H.Y. dan Sutanto, H.. 2014. Analisis Sifat Optik Lapisan Tipis Bilayer ZnO/TiO2 yang
Dideposisikan Menggunakan Metode Sol-Gel Spray Coating dan Aplikasinya sebagai
Fotodegradasi Zat Warna. Youngster Physics Journal. ISSN: 2303-7371, Vol 3, No. 3,
hal. 223-230.
Aji, W.P., dkk.. 2013. Pengaruh Suhu Tumbuh Terhadap Struktur Kristal Lapisan Tipis ZnO 0.02
mol. Seminar Nasional Fisika, Universitas Negeri Jakarta.
Cheng, X.L.. 2004. ZnO Nano Particulate Thin Film: Pepaation, Characterization and Gas
Sensing Property. Elsevier Sensor and Actuators B, Vol 102, hal 248-252.
Ekem, N., et al.. 2008. Some Physical Pproperties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering
Technique. Elsevier International Association for Hydrogen Energy, Vol 34, hal. 5218-
5222.
Lv., Jianguo, et al.. 2011. Effect of annealing temperature on photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin
films prepared by solgel method. Elsevier Superlattices Microstructures, Vol 05, hal.
003.
P., George A., et al.. Microstructure and Field Emission Characteristics of ZnO Nanoneedles
Grown by Physical Vapor Deposition. Elsevier Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol
123, hal. 634-638.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Raza Z., et al.. 2011. Optical and Structural Properties of ZnO Thin Films Fabricated by Sol-Gel
Method. Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol 2, hal. 340-34.
Siregar, N., et al.. 2015. The Effect of Concentration of Structure and Optical Properties of Thin
Films Synthesized by Sol-Gel Methods Spin Coating. International Journal of Sciences,
Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) ISSN 2307-4531, Vol 22, hal. 428-434
Surono, A.T., Sutanto, H.. 2014. Sifat Optik Zinc Oxide (ZnO) yang Dideposisi di Atas Substrat
Kaca Menggunakan Metode Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) dan Aplikasinya untuk
Degradasi Zat Warna Methylene Blue. Youngster Physics Journal. ISSN: 2303-7371, Vol
2, No. 1, hal. 7-14.
Weng, M.H., et al.. 2011. Structure, Optical and Electrical Properties of ZnO Thin Films on The
Flexible Substrate by Cathodic Vacuum Arc Technology with Different Arc Currents.
Elsevier Ceramics International, Vol 05, hal. 043.
Widodo, S.. 2010. Teknologi Sol Gel Pada Pembuatan Nano Kristalin Metal Oksida Untuk
Aplikasi Sensor Gas. Seminar Rekayasa Kimia dan Proses. ISSN : 1411-4216, Universitas
Diponegoro Semarang.
Yunanto, dkk.. 2006. Deposisi Lapisan Tipis ZnO sebagai Lapisan Tipis Tipe N dan Jendela Sel
Surya CuInSe2. Indonesian Material Science Journal. ISSN 1411-1098 Vol.8, hal 183
187.
Zhu, B.L.. 2009. Low Temperature Annealing Effects on the Structure and Optical Properties of
ZnO Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition. Elsevier Vacuum, Vol 84, hal. 12801286.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OP-20
Study of Geothermal Maronge, Sumbawa West Nusa
Tenggara
Romi Aprianto

University of Samawa, Sumbawa Besar, rom.jenggot@gmail.com

Abstract-This study aims to determine the physical characteristics, analyze chemical properties, determine
the type, estimate subsurface temperature, estimate geothermal gradient, and examine the use of hot springs
in Maronge, Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara. Study was undertaken by collecting geological and
geochemical data, followed by laboratory analysis. Study area for geothermal characteristization consists of
four hot springs. The percentage of ions HCO3-, Cl- and SO42- in hot water samples analyzed showed that the
hot springs area of research is the chloride water type. Subsurface temperatures estimated using
geothermometer Na - K in the research area on the hot springs 1 to 4 are 210,68oC, 248,45oC, 243,28C and
258,91oC, and included in the high enthalpy which has a temperature limit > 225 oC. Geothermometer Na - K
Mg showed that the hot springs in the study area are in partial equlibrium. It is further revealed that
geothermal energy in the areas of research can be used as a power plant.

Keywords: hot spring, geothermal

1. Background
The potential of geothermal energy in Indonesia that reach 27 GWe is closely associated
with Indonesia's position in the world tectonic framework. Based on the appearance of geothermal
surface per unit area, Indonesia is the in the fourth place of world rank. More than that, Indonesia is
the world second largesttectonic framework in terms of high temperatures. Most of the geothermal
energy used throughout the world is an energy extracted from the hydrothermal system, due to the
utilization of hot-igneous system and conduction-dominated system requires high extraction
technology. The hydrothermal system is closely related to the system of volcanism and the
formation of a volcano on an active plate boundary zone where there is high heat flow (heat flow).
Indonesia is at the confluence of three active plate which allows geothermal energy transferred
from the depths to the surface through the fracture system. This strategic position puts Indonesia as
the country with the richest geothermal energy scattered along the volcanic arc. So, most of the
geothermal resources in Indonesia has a high eltalpi. (Wahyuningsih, 2005)
Geothermal is a renewable energy source and a clean and safe alternative energy. Most of
the waste gas is carbon dioxide (CO2) and condensate water that has been taken can be reinjected
into the reservoir to maintain the continuity of the reservoir. Based on the characteristics,
geothermal energy can be used directly or indirectly. In order to optimize the utilization of
geothermal energy, direct use can be developed concurrently with the development of geothermal
energy for electricity.
Sumbawa island is on Sundas orogen track volcanic (volcanic belt). Along this path there
are many geothermal manifestations, which indicates the potential of geothermal energy at a
particular depth. This potentcy will be able to generate electrical energy comes from geothermal
energy if properly managed and planned. (Sundhoro et al, 2005).
Geothermal Maronge is one of three potential geothermal in West Nusa Tenggara beside
Hu'u in Dompu with a 69 MWeenergy potentcy and Sembalun in Lombok with about 60 MWe - 70
MWe energy potency. Hu'u potential areas and Sembalun is already in the process of exploration,
while areas of potential Maronge has not observed to determine the geothermal potential in detail
yet. Based on this fact, researchers are interested in studying more about the potential of
geothermal in the area Maronge. Purpose of this study is to determine the physical characteristics of
the hot springs, the chemical properties of the hot springs, hot springs type, estimating subsurface
temperature and geothermal gradient in order to find any benefits that can be obtained from the hot
springs as a source of energy, agriculture and a tourist attraction site.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

2. Literature Review
Geothermal energy can be found in many places on this earth. However, geothermal area
which has a high temperature that can be used for electrical energy is not available in many
places.Geothermal energy is the natural heat energy from inside of the earth to the earths surface
that is transferred by conduction and convection. Generally, increased changes of temperature with
depth in the earths crust is about 30C/km. If we assume the average temperature is 15C, the
temperature of 3 km depth will reach 105C. However, the temperatur is unfavorable economically
to be used as a source of geothermal energy.(Suparno, 2009)

Figure 1. The conceptual model of the geothermal in young igneous rock system (Suparno, 2009)

Figure 1 displays a conceptual model of a geothermal system in the area of active andesitic
stratovolcano. Andesite magma intrusion temperature usually ranges from 850 to 1050 C.
Meteoric water down from the top to the bottom surface of the ground and heated by intrusive
rocks causes the circulation of hot water. As the effect of onset of circulation, the hot water is rich
of chemical elements such as Cl, F, Br, B, SO4, HCO3, silica, cations, and metal dissolved as a
result of reaction with the source rock. Vapors contained in magma such as H2O, CO2, sulfur
compounds, HCl, HF, Hg, and As will be easily dislodged and flowed into the fluid. The fluid
generally be "neutral-chloride" and tried to break up through the cracks of the rocks due to its
density decreased. Mineral alteration and vein are formed in the reservoir rock. The hot fluid often
rises up through the cracks until it reaches the boiling point of the depth level where the vapor
phase that contains steam and non-condensible gases are formed. This gas comes to the surface as
Fumarole.

2.1 Geothermal Exploration Targets


According DiPippo (2007), there are five objectives that must be achieved in the geothermal
exploration program:
a. Determining the position of the hot rocks
b. Estimating the volume of the reservoir, the temperature of the fluid, and permeability
formations.
c. Predicting the form of coming fluid (dry, liquid or two-phase mixture (vapor and liquid)).
d. Determining the chemical nature of the geothermal fluid
e. Estimating the potential of electrical energy that can be produced up to a minimum of 20
years.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
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Almost all geothermal area has always been characterized by the presence of earth thermal
manifestations. The presence of exact manifestations is caused by geothermal sources. However,
the exact location does not found yet. In the spite of the fact, the surface of the soil which is usually
hotter than the surroundings is enough to indicate the existence of geothermal resources
underneath. Without the geothermal source, the soil surface will not become hot. Volume reservoir
following reservoir rock permeability to note that the well's ability to produce or drain the fluid can
be taken into account. If the volume is small and permeability is low, the production capacity will
be low and it is probable that the well would has a very short lifespan.
According to Eliasson (2004), based on small large fluid temperature, geothermal
reservoirs can be categorized into four, which are:
a. High temperatures, when the fluid temperature> 250C
b. Medium temperature, when the fluid temperature range is between 150C- 250C
c. Low boiling temperature, if the fluid temperature range is between 100C- 150C
d. Low temperatures, when the fluid temperature range is between 50C- 100C
Based on 4 categories, only reservoir medium temperature and high temperature reservoir that can
stimulate investment geothermal energy power generation projects. Physical and chemical
properties of reservoir fluids from the well drilling will determine the feasibility of geothermal
projects.

2.2 Hot Water Type


The fluid type can be determined based on the content of chemical elements found in the
most dominant hot spring and the physical processes that occur in it. There are some types of hot
fluid (Huenges, 2010), such as Chloride, Sulphate, Bicarbonate, and Dilute Chloride Bicarbonate.

Figure 2.Trilinier diagram for the determination of the type of hot springs is based on the content of
chloride ions, sulfate and bicarbonate. (Modified Giggenbach in Huenges, 2010)

2.3 Temperature of Subsurface


Subsurface temperature calculation can be performed using a system of equations
geothermometer solution with parameter elements Na, K and Mg.
a. Geothemometer Na-K
Geothermometer with a ratio of Na / K gives an indication of the high temperatures beneath
the surface by seeing the elements sodium and potassium. The equation can be used to calculate
the temperature of Na K comparison (Giggenbach, 1988) as follows:

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

1390
ToC =
log Na / K 1.750 - 273 (1)

b. Geothermometer Na-K-Mg
Formed as a result of exchange reactions with Na-K-Mg at a low temperature. Estimated
subsurface temperature also affected the percentage of Na/1000 - K/100 - which can be
calculated using the the value of each element ratio with total number of elements which are
then plotted on Ternary diagram. (Huengen, 2010). Formula number of elements Na-K-Mg as
follows:
Na + K + Mg = ot (2)

Figure 3. Ternary diagram for determining the temperature of subsurface (Giggenbach in Huenges, 2010)

3. Methods

3.1 Stages of the Research


The methods in this research are study of literature, field research, and laboratory analysis. This
reseach consist of several stages:
1.1.1. Preparation
Each research activiy, always begins with preparation involves everything needed during the
impelementation of the research. At this stage, things done are preparation of administration, tools
and equipments, study of literature, and costplanning and schedule of activity.
1.1.2. Field Research
The activities at this stages are recording physical and chemical characteristics of the
hotsprings data dan collecting rocks and hot water samples.
1.1.3. Laboratory analysis
Samples of hotsprings taken from the research location were analyzed in laboratory. This stage
aims to determine the elements contained in the hot water.
1.1.4. Data Processing
After the elements contained in hot water are known, then analyzed the data to determine the
physical characteristics of hot water, hot water chemical properties, the type of hot water,
subsurface temperature, and depth of reservoir.
1.1.5. Interpretation

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
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The final stage of this research is the interpretation of the data based on the result of field
research on geological data, geochemical data and the processing results of laboratory analysis, and
other supproting data related with the research.

4. Result and Discussion


4.1 Physical Characteristics of Hotsprings

Table 1.Phyisical and chemical characteristics of Hotsprings Maronge


Hotsprings Temperature (C) Discharge Colour Taste pH
1 42 1.5 L/30 second Limpid Insipid 7,1
2 41 1.5 L/30 second Limpid Insipid 7,1
3 33 1.5 L/50 second Limpid Insipid 7,04
4 33 1.5 L/50 second Limpid Insipid 7,02

4.2 Geochemistry of Hotsprings

Table2. Result of laboratory analysis of the hotsprings elements contained in research area
Hotsprings
No Parameter Unit
I II III IV
1 Ca (Calsium) mg/L 4,7 5,15 4,6 6,7
2 Mg (Magnesium) mg/L 0,1 0,18 0,12 0,12
3 Na (Natrium) mg/L 149,6 147,4 155 145,6
4 K (Kalium) mg/L 11,25 17,9 17,7 19,95
5 SO4 (Sulfat) mg/L 43,65 29,55 38,28 34,25
6 Cl (Clorida) mg/L 381,1 129,57 198,17 175,3
7 NH3 (Amoniac) mg/L 0.38 1,04 1,35 1,04

4.3 Type of Hotsprings


Determination of the type of hot water based on geochemical analysis performed using diagram
trinilier classification, which is based on the relative content of anion chloride, sulfate, and
bicarbonate. The amount of the content of these ions is expressed in units of mEq/L (miliequivalent
per liter). So it must be converted from ppm to mEq/L.
Meq/L = ppm/Weight of Equivalent (3)
Weigh of Equivalent = MrCompund/Valence (4)
Hotspring 1
Table3 Calculation of chloride ion, sulphate, and bicarbonatelevel from ppm to mEq/L at hotspring 1
HCO3 SO4 Cl
Coumpund
H C O S O Cl
Amount of Atoms 1 1 3 1 4 1
Mass of Atoms (Ar) 1 12 16 32 16 35.5
Amount of Atom Mass 1 12 48 32 64 35.5
Mr 61 96 35.5
Valence of each Coumpound 1 2 1
Weight of Equivalent (WE) 61 48 35.5
Level (ppm) 0 43.65 381.1
Meq/L 0 0.909375 10.73521
Level Amount (Meq/L) 11.64458627
Percentase/Coumpound 0 7.809423015 92.19058

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Hotspring 2
Table 4. Calculation of chloride ion, sulphate, and bicarbonate level from ppm to mEq/L at hotspring 2
HCO3 SO4 Cl
Coumpund
H C O S O Cl
Amount of Atoms 1 1 3 1 4 1
Mass of Atoms (Ar) 1 12 16 32 16 35.5
Amount of Atom Mass 1 12 48 32 64 35.5
Mr 61 96 35.5
Valence of each Coumpound 1 2 1
Weight of Equivalent (WE) 61 48 35.5
Level (ppm) 0 29.55 129.57
Meq/L 0 0.615625 3.649859
Level Amount (Meq/L) 4.265484155
Percentase/Coumpund 0 14.43271098 85.56729

Hotspring 3
Table 5. Calculation chloride ion, sulphate, and bicarbonate level from ppm to mEq/L at hotspring 3
Coumpund HCO3 SO4 Cl
H C O S O Cl
Amount of Atoms 1 1 3 1 4 1
Mass of Atoms (Ar) 1 12 16 32 16 35.5
Amount of Atom Mass 1 12 48 32 64 35.5
Mr 61 96 35.5
Valence of each Coumpound 1 2 1
Weight of Equivalent (WE) 61 48 35.5
Level (ppm) 0 38.28 198.17
Meq/L 0 0.7975 5.582254
Level Amount (Meq/L) 6.379753521
Percentase/Coumpund 0 12.50048293 87.49952

Hotspring 4

Table 6. Calculation of chloride ion, sulphate, and bicarbonate level from ppm to mEq/L at hotspring 4
Coumpund HCO3 SO4 Cl
H C O S O Cl
Amount of Atoms 1 1 3 1 4 1
Mass of Atoms (Ar) 1 12 16 32 16 35.5
Amount of Atom Mass 1 12 48 32 64 35.5
Mr 61 96 35.5
Valence of each Coumpound 1 2 1
Weight of Equivalent (WE) 61 48 35.5
Level (ppm) 0 34.25 175.3
Meq/L 0 0.713541667 4.938028
Level Amount (Meq/L) 5.651569836
Percentase/Coumpund 0 12.62554808 87.37445

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
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Table 7 Result of percentase calculation of chloride ion, sulphate, and bicarbonate


Hotspring
No Parameter
1 2 3 4
1 % Cl 92.19057698 85.56728902 87.49951707 87.37445192
2 % SO4 7.809423015 14.43271098 12.50048293 12.62554808
3 % HCO3 0 0 0 0
Hotspring Type Chloride Chloride Chloride Chloride

Based on percentage value of ion in sample of hot water which has analyzed the content of
chemical elements, especially content of anions bicarbonate, chloride, and sulphate, it is known that
the four hotspringsMaronge including the type chloride. It is characterized by high content of
chloride ions compared with bicarbonate and sulphate.

4.4 Temperature of Subsurface

4.4.1 Geothermometer Na-K

Hotspring 1
1390
toC = - 273
log Na / K 1.750
1390
toC =
log 149,6 / 11,25 1.750 - 273
1390
toC =
1.12 1.750 - 273
toC= 210,68 oC

Hotspring 2
1390
toC = - 273
log Na / K 1.750
1390
toC =
log 83.47 / 1.44 1.750
- 273

1390
toC =
0,92 1.750 - 273
toC = 248,45 oC

Hotspring 3
1390
toC =
log Na / K 1.750 - 273
1390
toC =
log 255 / 17,7 1.750
- 273

1390
toC =
0,94 1.750 - 273
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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
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toC = 243,28 oC

Hotspring 4
1390
toC =
log Na / K 1.750 - 273
1390
toC =
log 145,6 / 19,95 1.750
- 273

1390
toC =
0,86 1.750 - 273
toC = 258,91 oC

Tabel 8. Temperature of subsurface at research area


Hotspring I Hotspring II Hotspring III Hotspring IV
Subsurface temperature (C)
210.68 248,45 243,28 258,91

4.4.2 Geothermometer Na-K-Ca


Table 9. Temperature of subsurface based on contentof Na-K-Ca
Hot
+ + %Na %K %()
Springs 1000 100 1000 100
1 0,1496 0,1125 0,316228 0,578327766 25,868 19,45 54,68
2 0,1474 0,179 0,424264 0,750664069 19,636 23,85 56,52
3 0,155 0,177 0,34641 0,678410162 22,848 26,09 51,06
4 0,1456 0,1995 0,34641 0,691510162 21,055 28,85 50,09

Figure 4.Ternary Diagram for determining subsurface temperature

Estimated temperatures below the surface is calculated using geothermometer Na - K. hot spring
1 has a below the surface temperature of 210,68oC, hot spring 2 has a below the surface

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-85


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

temperature of 248,45oC, hot spring 3 has a below the surface temperature of 243,28C, and
hotspring 4 has a below the surface temperature of 258,91oC (Table 8).
Based on the results of plotting of the level of chemical elements contained in the ternary
Na-K-Mg diagram, (Figure 4) it can be seen that the hot springs in the study area included in the
partial equilibrium. There has been interaction between the rocks with hot fluid before to the
surface, so that the temperature of the hot water is classified as a high-temperature geothermal
source. Springs that appear on the surface has begun to be affected by the water on the surface so it
has a different temperature.

4.5 Geothermal Reservoir


Reservoir conditions in the study area can be determined based on the content of the
elements of the hot area of research. Based on the relative content of Cl, HCO3, and SO42-, hot
water in the study area contains relatively very high Cl compared to the HCO3, and SO42-
compounds. This shows that the hot water in Maronge is originating from volcanic activity.
Na-K geothermometer calculation is performed to determine the temperature of the
geothermal reservoir below the surface. This Geothermometer is used to heat water that has
undergone interaction with the surrounding rock for a long time. This Geothermometer, unlike
geothermometer silica, are not affected by the mixing or loss steam. Based on the distribution of
hot springs and reservoir temperature indicated by geothermometer dissolved elements, it can be
concluded that the geothermal reservoir in the study area that supplies the hot springI 1, hot spring
II, hot spring III, and hot spring IV have a temperature of about 210.68oC, 248.45oC, 243.28C and
258.91oC. Further north, the higher temperature the reservoir is. While getting to the south of the
study area, the temperature of the hot water reservoir gets smaller. Hot springs Maronge are type of
chloride which is a direct output vertically (upflow) of the water reservoir. Reservoirs of hot
springs in the study area is included in the high enthalpy, which has a temperature limit > 225oC, so
it is included in the high-temperature geothermal.

4.6 Gradient of Geothermal


The depth of the magma chamber in the research area can be calculated by the ratio of the
surface temperature with the temperature of the subsurface from geothermometer analysis. If
thestudy area is assumed as a volcanic-magmatic pathway, the depth will increaseby 100
meters;andthe temperature will be increase by about 2,5oC up to 3C. Table 10 indicates the
approximate depth of the reservoir hot area of research.
Table 10 Estimated depth of the Maronge geothermal reservoir
Hot Springs Surface Temperature (C) Subsurface Temperature (C) Depth of Reservoir (km)
1 42 210.68 6.7472
2 41 248.45 8.298
3 33 243.28 8.4112
4 33 258.91 9.0364

4.7 Utilization of Geothermal at Research Area


In optimization of geothermal resources, utilization of geothermal energy for direct use can
be developed along with the development of geothermal energy as an alternative to electricity.
Utilization of hot springs can be determined by knowing the physical characteristics, types of hot
springs, the depths of the reservoir, perform chemical analysis of the value of the pH and
temperature of the subsurface.
Based on the analysis of field data and geochemical data, the temperature of the hot springs
at the surface is between 33oC - 42oC at pH 7. Geothermometer calculations indicating that the
temperature of the bottom surface of the reservoir is 210,68oC - 258,91oC. It is included to the type
of high-enthalpy reservoirs since the temperature > 225oC and a high-temperature geothermal
sources. Therefore, the study area is very suitable to be developed as a source of electrical energy.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

5. Conclusion
Based on the research results and observations,the conclusions are : hot springs area of
research is the chloride water type. Subsurface temperatures estimated using geothermometer Na -
K in the research area on the hot springs 1 to 4 are 210,68oC, 248,45oC, 243,28C and 258,91oC,
and included in the high enthalpy which has a temperature limit > 225oC. Geothermometer Na - K
Mg showed that the hot springs in the study area are in partial equlibrium. Utilization of
geothermal energy in the areas of research can be used as a power plant.

References
DiPippo, R,. 2007. Geothermal Power Plants, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Eliasson, ET., Power generation from high-enthalpy geothermal resources, GHC Bulletin, June-
2004, pp 26-34.
Huenges, E. 2010. Geothermal Energy System. Weinhem: Wiley-VCH.
Sundhoro, H et al. 2005. Geothermal Integrated Survey (Geology, Geochemistry and Geophysics)
Regional Hu'u, Dompu, West Nusa Tenggara).Kolokium Hasil Lapangan DIM.
Suparno, S. 2009. Geothermal Energy (A Present from the heart of the earth). FMIPA UI.
Wahyuningsih, R. 2005. Potential and Mining Working Area Geothermal in Indonesia. Kolokium
Hasil Lapangan DIM.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OPE-01
Effects of Experiment Learning Strategy versus
Expository and Cognitive Style for Physical Learning
Result for Senior High School Student at Class XI of
SeniorHigh School
Prayekti

Universitas Terbuka. Jalan Cabe raya Pondok Cabe Pamulang Tangerang Selatan 15418.
prayekti@ut.ac.id

Abstract-The research was aimed to know Effects of Experiment Learning Strategy versus Expository and
Cognitive Style for Physical Learning Result on Senior High School Student at Class XI of Senior High
School. Data was collected by test and observation. It is processed by ANCOVA and different test (t-test).
(1) The result showed that all learning system groups have an increasing of physical learning result with
learning on the two systems. (2) Average grade of student's physical learning result who has cognitive style
of field dependent is higher than the student with cognitive style of field independent. (3) Experiment
learning strategy gives an effect of higher increasing physical learning result than expository learning
strategy. (4) Student group with cognitive style of field independent have lower average grade of student
physical learning result who uses experiment learning than expository learning. (5) An increasing result
achieved by student from pretest to post-test is higher because capability and skill of student when did an
experiment.

Keywords: cognitive style, field independent, field independent, expository, experiment, learning result.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-88


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OPE-2
Instrument Development for Causalitic Hypothetical
Physics Learning Model Predicted Capable of Increasing
Problem Solving Ability of Pr-Service Physics Students
Joni Rokhmat1*, Marzuki2, Hikmawati1, and Ni Nyoman Sri Putu Verawati1

1
Physics Education, University of Mataram, Lombok, Indonesia, joni.fkip.unram@gmail.com
2
Dept of Physics University of Mataram, Lombok, Indonesia

Abstract-We have developed a set of instruments of hypothetical physics learning model of causalitic
(causality and analytic) predicted effective in increasing problem solving ability including the abilities of
understanding, selecting, differentiating, determining, applying, and identifying. This research used a
modified two-phases embedded experimental (Creswell & Clark, 2007: 68). This report is progress of the
first year activity of the scheduled three years research. The instruments include design of the hypothetical
learning model, Student Work Sheet (SWS), learning plan based on multi-effect phenomenon, preface task,
observation guide, also student and lecturer books for the subject of Fundamental Physics I. Each of SWS is
complemented a scaffolding step and consists of one, two, or three phenomena, also all of those will be
examined their effectiveness in the second year.

Keywords: hypothetical Physics learning model of causalitic, problem solving ability, instrument, and
scaffolding model of Student Work Sheet.

1. Introduction
The Process of Causality and Analytical Thinking or Process of Causalitic Thinking (PCT),
Causalitic = Causality and Analytical, in a standard forms proved couldincrease the Problem
Solving Ability (PSA) of the pre-service Physics teachers whichincludes the abilities of
understanding, selecting, differentiating, determining, applying,and identifying in the class of
fundamental Physics 1 (Rokhmat, 2013 and Rokhmat, et al., 2015). This fact is in line with the
summary of statements given by Paul & Elder (2003: 3), Amer (2005: 1-17), Zschunke (2000: 2),
Cohen (2000: vii), Parselle (n.d.),and Hamilton (2001: 36-44) that development of the process of
causality thinking will increase the PSA.The proof above resulted from a research, which produced
a hypothetical model of development of the PCT effectively predicted could increase the PSA of
the pre-service Physics teachers above. The hypothetical model is made based on analysis of the
results of implementation of the instruments of PCT of standard form, responses of the students and
lecturer of Physics, and good practices of students experiencing very significant increase in their
PSA after developed PCT in a Physics lecturing. The more effectiveness of hypothetical model
above which complemented by the scaffolding instruments is reasonable. This confidence is
because the standard model of the PCT development has given evidence that it could increase
students PSA in understanding, selecting, differentiating, determining, applying, and in
identifying. The increase of each element of the PSA in general happened for movement, Newtons
law about movement, work and energy, linear momentum, and thermodynamics (Rokhmat, 2013
and Rokhmat, et al., 2015).
The Process of Causalitic Thinking (PCT) with the standard forms has a number of lacks.
These include: (1) Relative need a longer time; (2) The phenomena or problems of Physics used
more complex; (3) Lecturer has no time to discuss the subject; and (4) Most Student uses almost of
all of time to try to study in dept about the subject. The other lacks are related to preparation of
instruments and the strategy of implementation, such as: (1) The pattern of the instrument of PCT is
too general; (2) It was no preface-task; (3) The Physics phenomenon was not arranged in
scaffolding from the simple form up to the complex one; and (4) Division of students was done
homogenously [ibid].

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Hypothetical actions assumed useful to handle the lack above include: (1) Ask for the students
to do preface-task for facilitating them to understand the Physics subject in order they have an
adequate knowledge before develop the PCT in class learning; and (2) Increase the activity in PCT,
such as ask for the student to redo the PCT as a homework. While the two others are (3) Provide
instruments of PCT in scaffolding pattern and combine the complex phenomenon Physics with the
simple one; and (4) Division group of students heterogeneously, each group consists of the students
of low, moderate, and high grade [ibid].
This paper will discuss the instruments have been developed in this first year research to
support the hypothetical model of Physics learning based on the Process of Causalitic Thinking
(PCT). The instruments especially include the Preface Task (PT) (eleven set), Student Work Sheet
(SWS) (24 set), and two Practice Books (Lecturer and Student Books) and their characteristics. All
of the instruments is used in Fundamental Physics I lecturing which lades ten sub subjects, i.e.
measurement, kinematics one and two dimensions, rotation movement, Newtons law about
movement, work and energy, linear momentum, gravity, thermodynamics, equilibrium of rigid
body, and fluid. However, for supporting the discussion of instruments developments this paper
also explain understanding of the Problem Solving Ability (PSA) and Process of Causalitic
Thinking (PCT).

2. Literature Review

2.1. Understanding of Problem Solving Ability (PSA)


We use many opinions about problem solving to derive the understanding of Problem
Solving Ability (PSA) (Rokhmat, 2015). Those include opinions of Marzano & Brown (2009),
Marzano and Kendall (2008) in Marzano & Brown (2009), also Isakses and Treffinger (1985) in
Amer (2005). In work of problem solving, Students need to use their knowledge to generate and
stanch their opinion (Marzano & Brown, 2009). Marzano and Kendall (2008) recommended seven
questions to encourage a problem solving. These questions refer to objective, obstacle, the way to
handle an obstacle, determining of the best solution, the real event, the compatibility of the result
and proposed solution, and/or the best way to change thought of the problem faced (Marzano &
Brown, 2009).
There are two approaches of problem solving, i.e. analytic and integrative. The proponents
of the first approach state that there is only one solution of a phenomenon. They are advisable to
develop a strategy based on analytical process to a situation then determine the cause and its
solution of the phenomenon. On the other hand, the proponents of the second one state that there
are many solutions of a phenomenon. Target of a problem solving is not only its solution but
include the process of learning. They are advisable to develop a no tight phenomenon. One or more
elements of its causes are changeable. We hope that the leaner of this approach be able to identify
all of the cause conditions and determine all of consequences or effects having possibility to occur
(Marquardt, 2004) in Rokhmat (2013) and Rokhmat et. al. (2015).
He also states four steps of learning which consists of two phases: (1) diagnostic and (2)
strategy and implementation. The first phase includes steps of understanding and framing of
phenomenon, also framing and formulating of objective while the second one includes the step of
developing and examining of a strategy, also getting action and reflection of the action [ibid].
Isakses and Treffinger (1985) in Amer (2005) stated six steps of creative problem solving.
These include finding of mess, data, problem, idea, solution, and finding an acceptance. They
enclose the steps into three main components, i.e. understanding the problem, generating an idea,
and planning an activity.
Based on the four paragraphs above we interpreted the problem solving as an ability of the
Students to use their knowledge in selecting and/or predicting deductively all of possible effects
when they solve a phenomenon having one or more causes, and an ability in identifying how the
causes can result in a determined effect. This Problem Solving Ability (PSA) has six indicators, i.e.
understanding, selecting, differentiating, determining, applying, and identifying. Understanding is
an ability to understand an idea of a problem. While, selecting is an ability to select and/or predict
all of possible effects can occur. Differentiating has meaning an ability to differentiate and select
which of causes can result in a determined effect. Determining is an ability to determine which of
ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-90
Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

concept, principle, theory, and/or law of Physics useful for identifying one or more causes which
result in effect. While, applying has a meaning an ability to apply the concept, principle, theory,
and/or law of Physics to identify causes. The last, identifying is an ability to identify conditions of
causes so that they result in a determined effect.

2.2 Causality and Analytical Thinking


2.2.1. Understanding of Thinking
Thinking has eight elements that construct it. Those include generating objective, proposing
question, applying information, needing concept, making conclusion, making assumption,
generating understanding, and realizing a point of view. Every structure of these elements had a
special meaning. When we change objective it will affect the question and when we change
question it will encourage us to find new information, and so on finally a new point of view will
emerged (Paul & Elder, 2003) in Rokhmat (2013) and Rokhmat et. al. (2015).

2.2.2. Three Principles of Causality


One of philosophy approach about theory of causation is difference-making theory. It guides
an idea that the cause creates a difference in effect. Dickinson & Shanks (1995) in Gopnik &
Schulz (2007) stated that cause has to result in or at least change the possibility of effect. There are
two views of causality concept. The first states that causality includes two events in a series. One
cause in a series will be followed by effect (Lenzen, 1954). While the second one states that
causality includes two events simultaneously, i.e. cause and effect occur in the same time. Rokhmat
(2013) and Rokhmat et. al. (2015) stated that there are three principles of causality. The first states
that causality is reproduciblein a space and time. This argues that space and time are not the causes
of phenomenon to occur. An example of this when we do an experiment of Physics in a laboratory
and result in a conclusion so we will have the same conclusion when we do it in laboratory and
time which one of them or both are different. Second principle states that the same initial
conditions result in the same phenomenon series (Lenzen, 1954). The last one states that one event
of cause will produce event of effect and when the events are separated by space so they also have
to be separated by time needed by information to move from the location of cause to effect (Hill,
2011).

2.2.3. The Models of Causality Thinking


Refers to the ideas of Hill (2011) and Meder (2006) with a modification we have five models
of causality thinking which includes four basic models and one composite model. Those are: (1)
Simple Causality Model (SCM), (2) Divergent Causality Model (DCM), (3) Convergent Causality
Model (CCM), (4) Chain Causality Model (ChCM), and (5) Composite Causality Model (CoCM).
The chart of the four basic models is shown in Figure 1.

Simple Causality Divergent Causality Convergent Causality Chain Causality


Model (SCM) Model (DCM) Model (CCM) Model (ChCM)

X X X

Y
X Y

...
Y Z Y Z
Z

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Figure 1 Four Basic Causality Models, (based on [15, 18] after be added by Simple
Causality Model (SCM)) (Rokhmat, 2013 and Rokhmat et. al., 2015).

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Figure 1 shows a chart of the four basic causality models. The circles state variable of
events and the arrows indicate the direction of causality influence. Description of Figure 1: (a)
Simple Causality Model (SCM), one cause X influences one effect Y; (b) Divergent Causality
Model (DCM), one cause X influences two effects Y and Z or more; (c) Convergent Causality
Model (CCM), two causes X and Y or more separately influence one common effect Z; and (d)
Chain Causality Model (ChCM), an initial cause X influence an between-event Y which influence
the last effect Z. The fifth model is Composite Causality Model (CoCM). This model is at least as a
composite of the two of DCM, CCM, and/or ChCM (Rokhmat, 2013 and Rokhmat et. al., 2015).

2.2.4. Analytical Thinking


Rokhmat (2013) and Rokhmat et. al. (2015) stated that in Bloom taxonomy, analytical
thinking is a higher order thinking of category C-4 (analysis) (Marazano & Kendall, 2008).
Analytical thinking is a component of systemic and critical thinking. In addition, it is closely
related to creative thinking, i.e. that both are complementing each other (Amer, 2005). He defines
the analytical thinking as a tool of thinking strongly useful for understanding elements of a
phenomenon. He also defines it as: (1) An ability to investigate scrutiny, classify a fact and thought
into its strength and weakness; and (2) A development process of thinking capacity, the way to
differentiate, solve problem, analyze data, also to memorize and use information.
The basic idea of analytical thinking technique is make a handful of its elements, compare
them, makes a rank, selects the most valuable, and discards the remaining (Figure 2).

Analytical Thinking
Elements

Select one
List a
best
handful

Figure 2 Analytical Thinking, Amer (2005) in Rokhmat (2013) and Rokhmat et al.
(2015)

2.2.5. Indicators of Analytical Thinking and Understanding of Explanation


We determine indicator of analytical thinking based on some ideas from Paul & Elder
(2003), Zschunke (2000), Amer (2005), Cohen (2000), and Hamilton (2001), also relate it to ability
of causality and analytical thinking for supporting problem solving ability. The indicator
qualitatively is defined as an ability of Students to identify how the conditions of causes of every
phenomenon can result in a determined effect. We define explanation based on statements from
Kasser (2006) and Hempel in Kasser (2006) and relate it to explanation about facts and/or events in
Physics. An explanation is true when it is derived from fact, concept, principle, theory, and/or law
of Physics, also combined to the conditions of causes of a Physics problem or phenomenon.

2.2.6. Indicator of Causality and Analytical Thinking


The Students having ability in causality and analytical thinking are they who be able in cause
predicting, effect determining, and cause identifying. The three indicators as follow: (1) Cause
predicting is an ability to predict all components of causes in a phenomenon; (2) Effect determining
is an ability deductively to determine all effects having possibility to occur; and (3) Cause
identifying of cause is an ability to identify the conditions of all causes resulting in a determined
effect (Rokhmat, 2013 and Rokhmat et. al., 2015).

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

2.2.7. Relation between Causality Thinking, Analytical Thinking, and Problem Solving Ability
We have discussed that the indicator of causality thinking is an ability to analyze a
phenomenon into one or more components of causes and effects regarding to the five models of
causality thinking. An Analytical thinking will develop when Students arrange a number of the
causes and effects. Process of analyzing the phenomenon into its causes and effects needs an
understanding of its idea and objective, as well as a consideration and ability in analyzing
difference of the causes. Understanding, consideration, and ability of analyzing above are included
of the meaning of analytical thinking. Thus, ability of analytical thinking has a significant role to
the ability of causality thinking. This fact is in line with Paul & Elder (2003), Zschunke (2000),
Amer (2005), Cohen (2000), and Hamilton (2001) in (Rokhmat, 2013 and Rokhmat et. al., 2015).
Problem Solving Ability (PSA) has six indicators including understanding, selecting,
differentiating, determining, applying, and identifying. While, problem solving is interpreted as an
ability to use knowledge in deductively selecting and/or predicting all effects of a phenomenon and
in identifying how one or more causes result in a determined effect. The first three indicators are
derived from indicators of analytical thinking included from statements of Paul & Elder (2003),
Zschunke (2000), Amer (2005), Cohen (2000), and Hamilton (2001). While, the fourth and fifth
indicators support ability of Students when they are identifying the causes in which they have to
determine which concept, principle, theory, and/or law of Physics will be used as well as in
applying them (ibid).
Based on descriptions above it is clear that ability of causality and analytical thinking
supports the PSA. Causality thinking directly supports ability of Student in using their knowledge
to deductively select and/or predict all possible effects in a phenomenon. While, analytical thinking
supports Students in identifying how causes can result in a determined effect. Thus, it is proved that
Causality and Analytical Thinking so support the PSA (ibid).

3. Research Method
Sample of this research was the Students of Physics Educational Program joining to class
of Fundamental Physics I in one of University in Mataram of year 2015/2016. The sample
consisted of 49 Students, 39 female and 10 male. For the need of validation of the research
instruments, they were asked for fulfilling three sets of attitude scale about Preface-Task (PT) and
Student Work Sheet (SWS), also about two Practice Books (PB) including Lecturer and Student
Books. The results of the attitude scales are used as the base of perfecting the instruments. This
research is a multi-years research (three years) which uses mixed method modified from Embedded
Design (Creswell & Clark, 2007). We choose model of embedded experimental with two-phase
approachment. This method consists of two main processes: (1) Quantitative accompanied by
qualitative embedded in the quantitative process; and (2) Process of interpretation based on the
results of the process (1). In the first year, this research aims to produce three main instruments,
those are PT, SWS, and PB (Lecturer and Student Book). Next, in second year the three main
instruments will be implemented and its results be used as the base of a learning model of
causalitic. While, in the last years, will be arranged a physics textbook based on the Process of
Causality and Analytical Thinking or Process of Causalitic Thinking (PCT) for lecturing of
Fundamental Physics 1 (Figure 1).

4. Result and Discussion


The results of this research include all of the instruments of the Process of Causalitic Thinking
(PCT). However, this paper will more emphasize to discuss the characteristic Preface Task (PT),
Student Work Sheet (SWS), Practice Book (Lecturer and Student Book) as the main instruments
for the PCT and to discuss a hypothetical strategy of its implementation so predicted can increase
Students Problem Solving Ability (PSA) including the ability to understand, select, differentiate,
determine, apply, and to identify. The number of those instruments respectively is eleven, 24, and
two set and all of those lades Physics sub subject measurement, kinematics one and two
dimensions, rotation movement, Newtons law about movement, work and energy, linear
momentum, gravity, thermodynamics, equilibrium of rigid body, and fluid which are joined in
Fundamental Physics I lecturing.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

4.1 Characteristic of Preface Task (PT)

4.1.1. Characteristic of Preface Task


Preface task (PT) is designed to facilitate Students in having conceptions of the subject matter
of Fundamental Physics I. Those concepts include the ten sub subjects above. Target of the PT is
that Students developing their knowledge about the concepts expected useful for solving Physics
phenomena in the class learning. There are eleven PT having been arranged in the first year of this
research. In exception, the sub subject of movement of one and two dimension (has two PT), each
of the PT lades one subject matter so total number of PT is eleven. Each Preface task (PT) consists
of four to six problems and most of every problem has sub-problems. The problems in the PT are
designed structurally so they guide the student in effort to understanding the related concept. It
starts from the terminologies usually used in the concept, its understanding, up to its
implementation in daily life.

4.1.2. Implementation Strategy of PT


Each Preface task (PT) is given to Student one or more days before developing Problem
Solving Ability (PSA) through solving every problem on Student Work Sheet (SWS). The PT must
be done by every Student and only university textbooks be permitted as its reference. The use of the
book is aimed to avoid in using of Physics books being discuss its concept shallowly. Although
they are recommended to do the problems cooperatively, every Student has to make its report
individually. This strategy aims to assure that every Student experience the learning process so it
has a possibility they have knowledge about the concept before join to class learning.

4.2. Characteristic of Student Work Sheet (SWS)


Rokhmat (2013) and Rokhmat et. al. (2015) state that the Student Work Sheet (SWS) is
designed to facilitate the students in developing a Problem Solving Ability (PSA) through Process
of Causalitic Thinking (PCT) when they solve Physics problems or phenomena, causalitic is
abbreviation of causality and analytic. The process consists of predictions causes and
determinations effects having possibility to happen. The causes and effects are placed into causality
table so form one causal model, such as Simple Causal Model (SCM), Divergent Causal Model
(DCM), Convergent Causal Model (CCM), Chain Causal Model (ChCM), or Composite Causal
Model (CoCM). Whereas, the process of analytical thinking develop when Student identify how the
conditions of causes so can result in each effect.
The SWS consist of five main parts, those are instruction, sample of the five forms of
causal table, Physics phenomena, blank of general causality table, and blank of cause identification
for each effect. In general, there are two Physics phenomena in each SWS, which are arranged from
the phenomenon with high level of assistance phases up to the low one. Phenomenon without any
assistance phase is called as the standard formed phenomenon.
Most Physics phenomenon in each Student Work Sheet (SWS) consists of two sorts,
standard and scaffolding forms. The standard form have no assistance phase in the cause prediction,
effect determination, and in the cause identification so that the student stands alone in the PCT. The
scaffolding one is designed with assistance phases. The phases include writing one or some of all
causes, effects, and/or cause identifications. While, the students must complement to write the other
causes and/or effects in the causality table and write the other identifications. The amount of the
causes, effects, and/or identifications already written in the SWS depends on in what level the
assistance phases we want to design.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Initial
Study

Output:
Year I
Model of 10
Development Pre-Tasts, 20
Analysis of 10 Pre- Validatio SWSs, &
of Subject Tasts, 20 n Practice
SWSs, &
Practice Books Books for
Hyphotetical
Physics
Learning
Model Based
on PCT
Implementation
of Hypothetical
PCT Learning Filling of Interpretatio
Pre- Model Widely Post- Attitude n of Result
Development of Test Scale &
of Data
Test Causalitic Interview
Year II Learning Model Analysis
QUAN(qual)
with Output
Fixed
Observation Learning
Model based
on PCT

Development PCT Filling of Interpretation


Text Book Post- Attitude of Result of
Pre- Implementation of
Test Scale & Data Analysis
Test the PCT Textbook
Interview QUAN(qual)
Year III with Output
PCT Textbook
for Lecturing
of
Observation
Fundamental
Physics 1

Figure 1 The Phases of Research with The Model Modified from Embedded Experimental
Two-Phase (Creswell & Clark, 2007)

4.2.1. Physics Phenomenon in Scaffolding SWS


Rokhmat (2013) and Rokhmat et. al. (2015) state that there are eight levels of assistance
phases for the phenomenon in scaffolding SWS. The level is determined by how many the
assistance phase is given. The SWS of scaffolding level-1 is named for it when one of the causes
and effects or more (not all) is written in its causal table while the number of all effects is known
yet. Scaffolding level-2 is the name of the SWS being similar to the level-1 but in this level one or

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more identification is written. The scaffolding level-3 and 4 respectively similar to the level-1 and
level-2 but in these levels the number of all possible effects be informed.
The scaffolding level-5 is the name of the SWS when all of causes and/or effects is written in
its causality table without any identification. While the scaffolding level-6 similar to the level-5 but
one or more cause identification is written. The two last, scaffolding level-7 and level-8
respectively similar to the level-3 and level-4 but these levels especially used only for the causal
model of chain.

4.2.2. Characteristic ofPhysics Phenomenon in SWS


Phenomenon of Physics used in the SWS has special characteristic. One cause or more in the
phenomenon is designed as a variable so it can have more than one possible value. Fixed value of
each cause will result in one effect. Each different value of the variable cause produces special
combination of the cause condition so that the number its combinations results in the same number
of effects. Thus, the phenomenon of Physics used in these SWS possible to have several effects and
its number of effects is the same as the number of the possible cause combination.

4.2.3. The SWS Developed in This Research


Total number of Student Work Sheet (SWS) has been developed in this first research is 24
set. For the ten sub subject laded in Fundamental Physics I lecturing as mentioned in part of result
and discussion of this paper, respectively is designed as many as one, four, two, five, and two for
each of other six sub subjects. The SWS has one and three Physics phenomena (respectively in
second and first SWS for Newtons law about movement) while the 22 others each SWS has two
Physics phenomena. In general, the phenomena have Composite Causal Model (CoCM) but one of
them has Chain Causal Model (ChCM) such as the first SWS for Newtons law about movement.

4.2.4. Strategy of Implementation of PCT Student Work Sheet (SWS)


Strategy of SWS implementation aims to increase the effectiveness of Physics learning in
understanding concept and its implementation to quantification problems. The strategy is especially
to make learning be shorter in time, use scaffolding phenomenon, lecturer has time to discuss, and
student more ready to develop PCT. The strategy includes (1) Ask for the students to do preface
task for facilitating them to understanding the Physics concept in order they have an adequate
knowledge before; (2) Increase activity in PCT, such as ask for student redo PCT in SWS as a
homework; (3) Reduce the number of phenomena in each SWS from four items to be one, two, or
three items; (4) Provide instruments of PCT in scaffolding pattern and combine the complex
phenomenon Physics with the simple one; and (4) Division group of students heterogeneously so
each group consists of the students of low, moderate, and high grade.

4.3. Practice Books Based on PCT


Practice book as part of learning instruments supporting the development of Problem Solving
Ability (PSA) through Process of Causalitic Thinking (PCT). This consists of two, lecturer and
Student books. Lecturer book is designed with aim to guide any lecturer in conducting Physics
learning based on this PCT while Student book is used to guide Student to increase their PSA
through PCT. Recently these books are designed for lecturing of Fundamental Physics I with ten
sub subjects as mentioned in the part of result and discussion above.

4.3.1. Lecturer Practice Book


This book lades all Pre-service Task (PT) and Student Work Sheet (SWS) facilitating student
in developing their Problem Solving Ability (PSA) through Process of Causalitic Thinking (PCT).
It is designed especially for guiding lecturer as the user of this book in conducting a lecturing based
on PCT. Moreover, it is complemented three main parts other, that is (1) standard and basic of
competences, (2) discussion, and (3) information kinds of PSA having possibility to be developed
when implement the instruments. Standard and basic competences be a guide so lecturer what
competences should students have after finishing their lecturing. In addition, these competences
also underlain lecturer when he develops evaluation instruments. Part of discussion is used to
inform the user of this book about advanced explanation of concept and if it is possible this part

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also present the concept graphically. Secondly, this part discusses what should we do to implement
the concepts in a quantification problem. Finally, the last section, present some examples the PSA
possible be developed related to the phenomena being in the SWS.

4.3.2. Student Practice Book


Student practice book is a collection of all Pre-service Task (PT) and Student Work Sheet (SWS)
being used to abridging Student in their learning through PCT. The book remains completed by
discussion to advanced concept and facilitate Student how implement the concept into
quantification problem. Different from the first book, it has no information about what PSA
possible be developed regarding implementation of the SWS.

5. Conclusion
It has developed a number of instruments of hypothetical Physics learning model based on process
of causalitik (causality and analytic) thinking which predicted will increase problem solving ability
of pre-service teacher. The instruments consisting of eleven Preface Tasks (PT), 24 Student Work
Sheet (SWS), and practice books including lecturer and student practice books. All of PT and SWS
lade sub subject of measurement, kinematics one and two dimensions, rotation movement,
Newtons law about movement, work and energy, linear momentum, gravity, thermodynamics,
equilibrium of rigid body, and fluid which are joined in Fundamental Physics I lecturing.

Acknowledgements
We gratefully acknowledge the staff leader of ministry of research, technology, and High
Education of Indonesia who has supported financially, research institution, and all staff leader in
Mataram University who have permitted us to do my research project so finally this research could
be conducted. We also acknowledge our family who have fully supported us in finishing this
research and writing this paper. In addition, we appreciate all of help given by our colleague,
especially all of Physics education lecturer and all first year Physics education Students of year
2015/2016 so we could do this project fluently.

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

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They Must Meet, Second edition.

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OPE-3
Device Development of Physics Learning with Scientific
Approach and the 5E (Engage, Explore, Explain,
Elaborate, Evaluate) Learning Cycle Model to Increase
Students Life Skills
Hikmawati1*, Joni Rokhmat1, and Sutrio1
1*
Mataram University, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, hikmawati.fisika@yahoo.com

Abstract-The purposes of this research are: 1) to develop a physics learning device with scientific approach
and the 5E (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate) learning cycle model; and 2) to test the
effectiveness of the learning physics device with a scientific approach and the 5E learning cycle model in an
effort to improve students' life skills. Physics learning device developed consists of: Syllabus, Lesson Plans,
Subject Matter Book, Student Experiment Sheet, Three Dimensional Media, and Student Achievement Test
integrated with life skills. Device development model used is the Four D model (Define, Design, Develop,
and Disseminate). Define phase aims to establish and define the requirements that are needed in the learning
based on the needs analysis, analysis of student, task analysis, analysis of the concept, and the formulation of
learning objectives. Design phase aims to design learning device prototype. Develop phase aims to produce
learning device which has been revised based on input from the validator. Disseminate aims at the
implementation stage of the learning in the classroom. The phase of Define, Design, and Develop were
implemented in the first year, while the Disseminate phase will be conducted in the second year. The score of
Validator assessment of the learning device is in the range 1 to 4. The Validator provides an average score of
3, which means that the quality of learning device fit to use because it is in a good criteria and slightly
revised.

Keywords: learning cycle, life skills.

1. Introduction
Students life skills in senior high school such as private Madrasah Aliyah (MA) incorporated
in Rayon 03 West Lombok is still relatively low when compared with provincial and national. It
can be seen from the percentage of mastery of the Physics material matter at National Examination
in the Academic Year 2009/2010under 60% is still quite a lot (Jufri, et al., 2013), as shown in the
following table.

Table 1.Percentage of mastery of the Physics material matter at National Examination


Numbers Ability Tested Rayon Provincial National
Matter
4 Calculating the value of the motion system 55.75 70.35 81.02
objects in images associated with a strap on a flat,
smooth
7 Analyze the relationship between magnitudes 0.00 2.84 55.42
associated with rotational motion
11 Determine quantities related to the law of 11.95 45.73 68.36
conservation of mechanical energy
25 Comparing the Coulomb force a distance of 1 12.39 32.82 43.29
charge be changed with another charge
36 Calculating the electron energy changes 53.98 80.31 81.08
experienced excitation of the data necessary
40 Identify the benefits of radioisotopes in the life of 11.06 24.83 34.73
the types of radioactive materials

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Based on the interview with the Chairman of the Working Group Madrasah 2 West Lombok
stated that the implementation of the scientific approach as expected has not been fully
implemented by teachers in all subjects so that it becomes one of the causes of the low quality of
education and the nation's competitiveness.Remarks Chairman of the Working Group Madrasah is
reinforced by the results of the analysis IbM Program Team, Jufri, et al. (2013) on the ability of
teachers in Science (Biology, Physics and Chemistry) in designing innovative learning tools based
lesson study before being given the training needed to be improved.The ability of teachers in
designing learning device associated with the level of scientific literacy and inquiry of the teachers
concerned. Jufri&Hikmawati (2012) found that the level of scientific literacy (46%) and inquiry
(59%) of teachers teaching science in Lombok is still relatively low.
The foregoing is certainly a problem of education that needs to be addressed by the parties
concerned, including universities. The research activities on the development of the learning device
physics with scientific approach and the 5E (Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration,
Evaluation) learning cycle model is one of the things that can be done in an effort to improve the
life skills of students in private Madrasah Aliyah West Lombok.
The purpose of this study is to contribute directly to the improvement of the quality of
education through improvement of process quality and learning outcomes physics Madrasah Aliyah
in Madrasah Working Group 2 West Lombok. The specific objectives of this study are as follows:
(1) Develop a learning device physics with a scientific approach and 5E learning cycle model
consisting of: syllabus, lesson plans, books Topic, Student Worksheet, Media Three Dimensional,
and test results are integrated with the learning of life skills; (2) Test the effectiveness of the
learning device physics with a scientific approach and 5E learning cycle model in Madrasah Aliyah
contained in Madrasah Working Group 2 West Lombok.

2. Research Methods

The development of learning tools model in this study using a model four-D (Define, Design,
Develop, Disseminate) as suggested by Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel in Trianto (2008) and
Ibrahim (2003). Define phase aims to establish and define the conditions needed for learning is
determined on a needs analysis, analysis of student, task analysis, analysis of the concept, the
formulation of learning objectives. Design phase aims to design prototype learning device to
perform the preparation of lesson plans, selection Book format Topic and Student Worksheet,
media visual three-dimensional models, and test results are integrated with the learning of life
skills. Develop phase aims to produce learning tools which have been revised based on input from
the validator. Disseminate aimed at the implementation stage of the learning in the classroom.
Phase Define, Design, and Development was implemented in the first year, whereas
Dessiminate phase will be conducted in the second year. The study design to test the effectiveness
of the device in the second year uses one group pretest-posttest design because it only uses a single
group without a comparison group (Arikunto, 2006).The first step measurement as the initial test,
then subjected to treatment in a given period of time, then performed the final test. The application
of classroom learning tools will be done in Madrasah Aliyah Class X contained in Madrasah
Working Group 2 West Lombok. This design was chosen because according to the research
objectives as previously described. But it must be acknowledged that the study design like this still
has weaknesses, especially in terms of testing the influence of the independent variable (the
learning device physics with a scientific approach and 5E learning cycle model) on the dependent
variable (life skills).It is caused by the disuse of the control group. To reduce the weakness, in this
study carefully analyzed aspects of the sensitivity of the items obtained from the students' initial
test and final test.
The sensitivity of a test is the test's ability to measure the effect of learning. In other words, a
matter which sensitivitis means the matter can provide information that the measurement result is a
result of the learning is done (Ibrahim, 2005).Analysis completeness or achievement expressed as a
percentage of student learning that individual completeness Percentage (Pindividual) and classical
completeness (PKlasikal). Assessment activities carried out by observing the class each time face to
face. Observations were made by two observers, observations were made every 2 minutes. Based
on the average assessment of two observers to each category observed, for each Learning

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Implementation Plan will be determined percentage (P). Assessment of the feasibility study using a
scientific approach and 5E learning cycle model is done each time face to face by two observers.
Criteria for each phase in the syntax in question is implemented and not implemented, then
expressed in figure 1 with the lowest score and the highest score 4. From the scores are calculated
percentage. Neither the student response, will be analyzed by descriptive quantitative
percentage.Developed learning tools fit for use if the quality of lesson plans, books Topic, Student
Worksheet, media three-dimensional model of teaching and learning are test results in both
categories. Implementation of effective learning device is said to support learning activities if the
enforceability of lesson plans, student activities, student responses, and student learning outcomes
categorized either.

3. Discussion
3.1 Scientific Approach
Scientific approach in learning includes observing, ask, reasoning, tried, forming networks for
all subjects. The learning process with this approach touches three domains, namely: attitude,
knowledge, and skills so that the learning outcomes of students who gave birth to a productive,
creative, innovative, and affective through the strengthening of attitudes, skills and knowledge are
integrated.The realm of attitudes include the transformation of a substance or teaching materials
that the students "know why." Realm of skills include the transformation of a substance or teaching
materials that the students "know how". The realm of knowledge include the transformation of
substance or teaching materials that the students "know what it is." The end result is an increase
and balance between the ability to be a good man (soft skills) and people who have the skills and
knowledge to live a decent (hard skills) of the participants learners that includes aspects of
competence attitudes, knowledge, and skills (Kemendikbud, 2013).
Ibnu (2014) argues that the purpose of the curriculum to pursue the adequacy of material
facing the National Examination Schools / Madrasah and the policies of the lack of proper
education authority gave a large contribution to the development of unfavorable conditions skill
development (scientific approach) in students. Widespread public perception of the success of
education is also already one.Parents are more likely to respect and pride when her son honored
ranks in the classroom, school and even the region than on the skills their children to practice the
scientific approach and process skills. It educates children if necessary to take shortcuts to achieve
mastery of teaching materials without a good learning process. Ibnu suggest that students should be
familiarized with the scientific process skills and independence in learning.
Learning tools developed in this study is an effort to improve the life skills through the
application process skills approach to learning. The use of student worksheets and three-
dimensional media in this study is expected to increase the activity of students in the experiment to
prove to yourself the truth of the theory contained in Dynamic Electrical material. Student
worksheets can train students to make hypotheses, conduct experiments, collect data, analyze data,
and make conclusions.

3.2 The 5E Learning Cycle Model


According to Bass, et al, (2009), a cycle of learning (learning cycle) was first developed by
Robert Karplus in 1960 in the program the Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIs).
Learning cycle consists of three phases: discovery, invention concept, and concept application. In
1989, developed into the learning cycle model 5E model by the Biological Sciences Curriculum
Study. Phase 5E learning cycle model adapted from Bass, et al, (2009) is as follows.

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Table 2. Learning Phase in 5E Learning Cycle Model


Phase Student Activity
Engage Asking questions about objects, living beings, or the events of daily
life.
Explore Plan and conduct simple research to collect relevant data.
Explain Using the data and scientific knowledge to explain his understanding.
Elaborate Develop strategies, concepts, principles, and understanding towards
new issues and questions.
Evaluate Demonstrate the knowledge, understanding and skills using inquiry
strategies through formal and informal formative assessment.

Lesson plan using 5E learning cycle model for the subject matter: potential difference, emf
source, and the electric current requires the allocation of a 2-hour lesson (90 minutes). The purpose
of learning is after conducting the demonstration, experiment, question and answer, and discussion,
students can:
1. Explain the difference electromotive force (emf) and voltage clamp
2. Describe the source of electromotive force (emf)
3. Explain the concept of electric current
4. Assembling simple electric circuit
5. Describe the relationship chart strong electric current and potential difference
6. Formulate relations potential difference with the electrical current in the conductor ohmic
7. Applying current concepts to solve problems related

The following activities are carried out at every stages of 5E learning cycle model for Dynamic
Electrical material.

Table 3. Application of 5E learning cycle model for dynamic electrical material


Time Allocation Stages Activity
Introduction (10 Engage Students begin learning to pray
minutes) Students observe a simple circuit, in the form of batteries,
connecting cables, and lamps. Then students watched
demonstrations shown by the teacher. Teacher asks: 1) "why the
lights can be lit?" Answer: because there is no electricity; 2) "why
can appear an electric current?" The answer: because there are
battery; 3) "why the battery can generate an electric current?" The
answer: because no potential difference between the poles of the
battery; 4) What is the relationship potential difference and electric
current?
Teachers express purpose of learning today
Core activities (70 Explore Students observe the demonstration 1 (in the teaching materials) on
minutes) the source of the electromotive force (emf). After that the students
do questions and answers related to the demonstration to
understand the concept of emf source. Guided by the teacher
through the questions, the students also understand the concept of
electromotive force (potential difference)
Furthermore, students are directed to understand the concept of
electric current with a question and answer technique. Students are
given the problem: what is the relationship strong electric current
and potential difference?
Students are divided into 8 groups, each group consisting of 4 to 5
students. Students perform experiments on the relationship
potential difference and electric current in a closed circuit loop (no
on teaching materials) with the help of Student Worksheet 1. For
students doing experiments, the teacher directs and conduct
performance appraisal
Explain Students discuss with the group about the experimental results
obtained, ie the relationship potential difference and strong

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electrical currents they earn


One representative group of students presented the results of
experiments they earn. Another group to give feedback and
comments. During the class discussion, the teacher gives a
correction to the draft obtained by students
Elaborate Students are given the strengthening of the concept of potential
difference, a source of electromotive force (emf), as well as electric
current
End activities (10 Evaluate Student learning is directed in order to conclude today. Expected
minutes) conclusion is: the ohmic conductor, the potential difference
comparison with a strong electric current is constant. This
statement represents a decline of Ohm's Law
Students answer questions reflection of the teacher to determine the
extent to which students understand the lesson today
Students are given homework to make an article about the sources
of emf often they encounter in everyday life

Research Lawson (2001) found that the learning cycle model has proven effective in helping
students form concepts and conceptual systems and develop a pattern of reasoning that is more
effective, especially because it allows students to use reasoning (if / then / as it is) to test their ideas
could participate in the process of knowledge construction. Usmiatiningsih research results (2013)
show that the learning of physics in the subject matter of Light with 5E model is able to develop
critical thinking skills and students' attitudes toward science. Students can formulate the problem,
observing, analyzing, presenting the results, and communicate the results of the work in class
discussions.Hikmawati (2015) concluded that the application of the learning cycle model 5-E
(Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate) in the learning of physics is an effort that can be
used by teachers to achieve the expected goals. Based on the research of experts and observers of
education, this model can develop students' life skills, in addition, learning cycle model can also be
applied at every level of education from primary school level, secondary, and college students.

3.3 Life Skills


World Health Organization (WHO) in Khera and Khosla (2012) defines life skills as the ability
for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and
challenges of everyday life. Further explained that the United Nations International Children's
Emergency Fund (UNICEF) defines life skills as changes in behavior or behavioral development
approach designed to address the balance of three areas: knowledge, attitudes and skills. In other
words, life skills are skills necessary for successful living.
Life skills is a skill that must be owned by the students (learners) to dare to face the problems
of life and living naturally without feeling pressured, then proactively and creatively search for and
find a solution so that they can overcome them. Life skills consist of General life skills and Specific
life skills. General life skills consisting of personal and social skills, while the life skills that are
specific comprised of academic and vocational skills. According to Anwar (2006), life skills is one
of the key words in the development of a good education in the nuances of academic education
(academic skills) and education which is vocational (vocational skills).
Life skills-oriented education program through a broad-based approach or are known as the
Broad Base Education is very possible to be implemented on any type and level of education. In
addition the system does not change the existing curriculum, this program does not add to the
burden of new subjects, but only change the orientation of the learning program (BBE Team,
2012).According Mugambi&Muthui (2013) argues that the curriculum of life skills plays a major
role in allowing students to use the knowledge, attitudes and values into capability on what to do
and how to do it. Some of the factors that affect the implementation of the curriculum of life skills,
namely: teaching approaches, lack of conceptualization of life skills, human resources are limited,
lack of supervision, teacher preparation is still lacking, a lack of choice of strategies and learning,
limited use of learning resources, assessment methods were bad, and negative attitudes of students

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towards life skills. Implementation of Life Skills Education depends mainly on the competence of
teachers on the other hand also influenced by extrinsic factors.
In this research, the development of the learning device physics approach to scientific and
learning cycle model 5E intended to enhance students' life skills Madrasah Aliyah in Madrasah
Working Group 2 West Lombok especially their academic (thinking skills and cognitive learning
outcomes) and social skills (ability to cooperate and communicate oral and written).

3.4 Results
Learning tools developed in this study is a prototype learning device physics with a scientific
approach and 5E learning cycle model in an effort to improve the life skills of students in
secondary schools. Learning tools developed in this physics lesson consists of 6 components,
namely the syllabus, lesson plans, books Topic, Student Worksheet, Media Three Dimensional, and
test results for the material Electric Dynamic Learning to Competency Standards: Applying the
concept electricity in a variety of problem solving and technology products. Basic Competency for
standards of competence are as follows: 1) Formulating electrical quantities simple closed circuit
(one loop); 2) Identifying the application of electric AC and DC in everyday life; 3) Using the
electrical measuring devices.

Table 4. Note from the Validator on Learning Tool


No Component Note
1 syllabus Consistency in writing Student Worksheet (LKS) or Student
Experiments Sheets (LES)
2 lesson plans Stages is good, but to write a meeting just hours after meeting
writing to 1, 2, 3, and so on (do not need to be sorted to the bottom)
For teaching materials, simply write its subject matter alone, while
the description is imprinted on the material Books Topic
In the teaching and learning activities, to stage E1, unnecessary to
mention the desired answer for the question serves as motivation. In
the E1 phase, the teacher presents the objectives of learning, instead
of delivering learning. For E1, to consider ways of writing from the
beginning to the last, to be consistent.
3 books Topic For an introduction to the tools that will be used in the experiment
is added in the learning material, so that at the time of the trials was
too dangerous and display Student Worksheet not too much (can
make students become bored)
At the time of presenting the material, teachers can use the method
of demonstration
4 Media Three The components and procedures are adequate to support device for
Dimensional use in research
Some editors and instructions should be made more operational
5 Student Display Worksheet Students should not be too much so as not
WorkSheet boring students
To introduce experimental tools to students, teachers can use when
learning demonstration
The purpose of the Student Worksheet must be specific, do not use
the word understand or know, but the use of the verb operational
6 Test Results Add instructions do problem
Learning The option of choice, do not use capital letters when the sentence
ends do not matter a question mark or exclamation mark
Option "all right" or "all wrong" should be replaced with "a and b"
or "a, b, and c true"

Score Validator assessment of the learning device (syllabus, lesson plans, books Topic, Media
Three Dimensional, Student Worksheet and test results are integrated with the learning of life
skills) are in the range 1 to 4. Validator giving an average score of 3 means that the quality of
learning tools developed fit for use because it is in a good and slightly revised criteria. Validator
learning tool in the study are experts in the field of Physical Education, especially learning device,
ISBN 9786021570425 PHY-104
Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

namely: Dra. Hj. HaerunisyahSahidu, M.Pd. and Dr.Gunawan, S.Pd.,M.Pd.Here are some notes
from the validator of learning tools that have been developed.

Here are some of the media three-dimensional documentation that has been developed in this
research, about Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's Law.

(a) Experiment board Ohm's Law (b) Experiment board Kirchhoff's Law
Figure 1.Media three-dimensional

Three-dimensional media that have been developed in this research have been published under
the title: Pendekatan Saintifik dan Media Tiga Dimensi and has the ISBN number: 978-979-
1025-94-2. Here's the cover of the book in question.

Figure 2. Book Cover

Media three-dimensional as one type of learning media can be a model, namely the artificial
three-dimensional of some real object that is too big, too far, too small, too expensive, too little, or
too complicated to be brought into the classroom and students are learning in the form original.
Some three-dimensional media are discussed in this book is the media three-dimensional refractive
index, the pinhole camera, a long expansion, Ohm's law, black box resistor circuit, Kirchhoff's
laws, and the Wheatstone bridge.

4. Conclusion
Device development models used in this study is a model of Four D (Define, Design, Develop,
Disseminate). Phase Define, Design, and Develop has done since February to September 2015
(First Year Research). Validator gave an average score of 3, which means that the quality of the
learning device (syllabus, lesson plans, books Topic, Media Three Dimensional, Student Worksheet
and Tests Learning Outcomes are integrated with life skills) developed fit for use because it is in
both criteria and slightly revised.Disseminate stage has the aim of implementing the learningdevice
in the classroom to be done in the second year. The study design to test the effectiveness of the

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

device will use a one group pretest-posttest design. Implementation of effective learning device is
said to support learning activities if the enforceability of lesson plans, student activities, student
responses, and student learning outcomes categorized either.

References

Anwar. (2006). Pendidikan Kecakapan Hidup (Life Skills Education): Konsep dan Aplikasi
Bandung: Alfabeta.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. (2006). Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktik Jakarta: Rineka
Cipta.
Bass, et.al., (2009). Teaching Science as Inquiry USA: Allyn& Bacon.
Corebima, A.D. (2005). Pemberdayaan Berpikir Siswa pada Pembelajaran Sains: Satu Penggalakan
Penelitian Payung di Jurusan Sains UM. Proc. of Nat. Conf.: Sains dan Pembelajarannya
Malang: FMIPA UM, 3 Dec. 2005.
Ibnu, S. (2014).Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 dalam Pembelajaran Sains. Proc. of Nat. Conf.:
Penelitian, Pembelajaran Sains, dan Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 Mataram: Prodi Magister
Pendidikan IPA PPs Universitas Mataram, 7 Desember 2013.
Hikmawati, dkk. (2011). Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Berbasis Inkuiri dengan Media
Poster Pintar dalam Pembelajaran Fisika di Sekolah Menengah. Research Reports Mataram:
Universitas Mataram.
Hikmawati. (2015). Pembelajaran Fisika dengan Model Siklus Belajar 5-E (Engage, Explore,
Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate) sebagai upaya Meningkatkan Kecakapan Hidup Siswa. Jurnal
Pendidikan Fisika dan Teknologi Vol.1 No.1
Ibrahim, Muslimin. (2003). Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Jakarta: Dirjen Dikdasmen
Depdiknas.
Ibrahim, Muslimin. (2005). Asesmen Berkelanjutan: Konsep Dasar, Tahapan Pengembangan dan
Contoh Surabaya: Unesa University Press.
Jufri, A.W. (2007). Penerapan Pembelajaran Berbasis Inkuiri Secara Terpadu dengan Strategi
Kooperatif dalam Mengembangkan Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis Siswa SMA di kota Mataram.
Proc. of Nat. Conf.: Science Education FKIP Unram, November 2007.
Jufri, A. W. &Hikmawati.(2012). Upaya meningkatkan kecakapan hidup siswa melalui
pengembangan model pemberdayaan kompetensi profesional guru dalam merancang media
instruksional sains inovatif berbasis inkuiri. Research Reports Mataram: Universitas
Mataram.
Jufri, A. W., Muntari, Hikmawati. (2013). Pelatihan Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran
Inovatif Berbasis Lesson Study pada Guru Bidang IPA MA di KKM 2 Lombok Barat. Final
Report to the Community science and technology program (IbM) Mataram: Universitas
Mataram.
Khera, S. &Khosla, S. (2012). A Study of Core Life Skills of Adolescents in Relation to Their Self
Concept Developed through YUVA School Life Skill Programme. IRJC, International
Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, Vol.1 Issue 11
Kemendikbud. (2013). Materi Pelatihan Guru: Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 Jakarta:
Kemendikbud.
Lawson, A. E. (2001). Using the learning cycle to teach biology concepts and reasoning patterns.
Journal of Biological Education, (35), (4)
Mugambi, M. M. &Muthui, R. K. (2013). Influence of Structural Context on Implementation of
Secondary School Life Skills Curriculum in Kajiado County, Kenya. International Journal of
Education and Research, Vol. 1 No. 3
Tim BBE Depdiknas. (2012). Pola Pelaksanaan Pendidikan Kecakapan Hidup Surabaya: SIC.
Trianto. (2008). Mendesain Pembelajaran Kontekstual (Contextual Teaching and Learning) di
Kelas Jakarta: Cerdas Pustaka.
Usmiatiningsih, E. (2013). Pengembangan Multimedia Interaktif Berbasis Flash dan
Implementasinya melalui Model 5E untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis dan
Sikap terhadap Sains.Thesis Tidak diterbitkan. Mataram: Prodi Magister Pendidikan IPA
PPs Universitas Mataram.
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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Zakaria, E dan Ihsan, Z. (2007). Promoting Cooperative Learning in Science and Mathematics
Education: A Malaysian Perspective. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Scince& Technology
Education, 2007, 3(1), 35-39. (Online: http://www.ejmste.comconsulted 23 Oct. 2008).

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OPE-05
Testing the Effectiveness of PISA-based Teaching
Materials on the Topic Temperature and Its Changes of
Public and Religion Senior High Schools in Palembang
Syuhendri*, Sanjaya1, Yenny Anwar

*
Sriwijaya University, Jln Raya Palembang-Prabumulih KM 32, Inderalaya, Indonesia,
hendrisyukur@yahoo.com

Abstract-The objective of the research was to investigate the effectiveness of the product of PISA-based
teaching materials on the topic temperature and its changes of religion and public senior high schools in
Palembang. The quasi-experimental research design has been implemented in this research. The sample
based on purposive sampling comprised of students from three senior high schools that represented public
and religion high schools, and the accreditation of the schools in Palembang city. The data from pretest and
post-test of PISA-like instrument were analyzed to determine the mean N-gain, while t-test was used to test
the hypothesis. The findings of the research revealed that the achievement of students taught by using PISA-
based teaching materials was better than the students taught by using conventional materials. It was also
found that the scientific skills of students in experimental group was better than students in control group.
The implication of this study suggested that teachers should develop teaching materials appropriate to
increase students achievement and their scientific skills in order to improve the quality of science literacy for
their students.

Keywords:PISA-based materials, Physics-science, scientific skill.

1. Introduction
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) was established in 1997 by some
advanced countries grouped in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD, 2001). The PISA study is conducted every three years to measure how far students
approaching the end of compulsory education have acquired some of the knowledge and skills
essential for full participation in the knowledge society (OECD, 2015a), starting in 2000 (Willms &
Tramonte, 2015). PISAs target population are the 15-year-old students in each participant country.
Unlike what have been tested in IAEP and TIMSS (Trend in International Mathematics and Science
Studies), in addition PISA tested another subject, i.e. reading literacy (Fuchs & Wmann, 2008).
As a result, it describes the profile of students literacy in reading, math, science, and problem
solving. There were five times of PISA survey so far, namely in PISA 2000 focused in reading
literacy, PISA 2003 focused in math literacy, PISA 2006 focused in science literacy, PISA 2009,
and PISA 2012. PISA 2012 was the programmes 5th survey with afocus on mathematics (OECD,
2014). Indonesia has participated in PISA program since 2001. By 2012, PISA comprised of 34
member countries and 31 partner countries.
In science, PISA measures students ability to use knowledge and to identify problems to
understand the facts and make decision about natural and changes in environment (Balitbang
Kemdikbud, 2015). The serious problem for Indoensia is the mean scores of Indonesian student
science literacy based on PISA studies was very low if being compared with other countries, such
as described in Table 1. This indcates that the lack of Indonesian students in logical, analitical,
sistematical, ctitical, and creative thinking. Moreover, based on PISA 2006 results (OECD, 2006),
most of Indoensan students were in low level, i.e. 20.3% under level 1, 41.3% in evel 1, 27% in
level 2, 9.5% in level 3, and only 1.4% in level 4, meanwhile there was no students in level 5 and
level 6.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Table 1. Indonesia position in PISA studies for Science literacy


The lowest-the highest
PISA Indonesia Science lit. scores of participant
year Ranking mean score countries
2000 38 out of 41 countries 393 333 552
2003 38 out of 40 countries 395 385 548
2006 50 out of 57 countries 393 322 563
International mean score
2009 60 out of 65 countries 383 500
International mean score
2012 64 out of 65 countries 382 500

This condition is very dangerous. Science is a universal knowledge that underlies the
development of modern technology, it has an important role in a variety of disciplines and promote
the power of human thought. The rapid development in the field of information and communication
technology today is based on the development of the science. Therefore, the mastery of science is
needed for the national future.
Based upon that, it needs to improve students literacy in science. Moreover, science literacy
measured in PISA program is in line with National Curriculum 2013. Science literacy is defined as
the capacity to use scientific knowledge, to identify questions and to draw evidence-based
conclusions in order to understand and help make decisions about the natural world and the
changes made to it through human activity (OECD, 2015a). A way to increase science literacy is
by developing PISA-based teaching materials. This study will test the effectiveness of PISA-based
teaching materials that have been developed a year earlier.

2. Method
The study was conducted in junior high schools in the Palembang city, namely schools under
the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Religion. The selected schools were
schools with a high level (accreditedA), medium level (accredited B), and low level (accredited C).
The method used was the quasi-experimental with One Shot Case Study design. In the One-Shot
Case Study outlined that there is a group given treatment and then it is observed its effects. In this
study, students would be given teachig and learning process by utilizing PISA-based teaching
materials and subsequent to see the effectiveness of the application of those materials towards
students ability tosolve PISA problems.
Instruments used in study are a PISA-like tets (some from OECD, 2015a; OECD, 2015b),
observation (field notes), as well as video and pictures of the activities. Observation (notes field) is
used to see the learning process conducted by teacher in the classroom. Field notes are notes about
what is seen or heard during the learning process. Field notes are in terms of records of whatever
important events found during the study either in the observation or in the other events. Field notes
often contain descriptive and reflective aspectsso that it often contains what arethe researcher
experiences and thinking during the research/observation tooks place. Field notes are made as
complete as possible in order to be able todescribe the actual situation. Observations in this study
were used to find out the information about the potential effects of the teaching materials that have
been developed. Video and photos weretaken during the learning process. These Video recordings
and photos are not only used for documentation, but also used for discussion the results of the
study.
The data would be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Data from interviews,
observations, video recordings, and photographs were used as supporting data and would be
analyzed qualitatively descriptively and poured in narrative form. Then, The effectiveness of PISA-
based teaching materials was determined by using the normalized gain scores (N-Gain). The
average normalized gain is the ratio of the actual average gain to the maximum possible average
gain (Hake, 1999). The normalized gain (N-gain) was calculated by using the following equation:

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
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< >= =

(Hake, 1999)
To determine the meaning of N-gain values whether they belonged to high, medium or low
categories, a criteria proposed by Hake (1998) was used.
High-g (<g>) 0.7
Medium-g 0.7 > (<g>) 0.3
Low-g (<g>) < 0.3
Furthermore, analysis was conducted on the gain score to determine the significance of the
effect of the instructional. Statistical tests were carried out to test the proposed hypothesisby using
Paired Sample t-test with a significance level = 5%.

3. Results and Discussions


The study was carried out for three weeks, starting on October 3, 2015. The pre-test in an A
accredited school and in a B accredited school were held on Saturday, October 3, 2015 and
Tuesday, October 6, 2015, respectively. In the next session, it would be described an example of
the learning activities implementing PISA-based teaching materials done by the science teacher.

3. 1. Description and Discussion of Learning Implementation


Learning activities in the accreditation A school on the first day were: 1) pre-test, and 2)
working in group doing experiment. During the pre-test, students seemed workseriously doing the
test. They focused on solving the problems whether for physics, chemistry, and biology PISA-lake
problems. They still wanted to complete the test till the end of the time alocated to solve the
problems. They even wanted to continue working on the test after time was up. They seemed so
enjoy solving the given problems. It means that the students like the PISA-like problems.
The learning activities were performed by an experimental method in which students did
activities in groups guided by Worksheet titled "Sweat" provided by the teacher. There were seven
groups, each goroup comprised of five students. The objectives of group activities were 1) to
investigate the relationship between sweat and body temperature, and 2) to examine any solution
contained in the sweat. The first activity was to measure the body temperature of each member of
the group and write the data in the table provided. Furthermore, one member of each group was
asked to ran and/or jump. Every one minute, other group members measuredthe body temperature
of their friend who had just stoped running and/or jumping, and then placed litmus in his sweat, and
count (the quantity and quality) of the sweet. This data was used to know how the average
temperature of the normal human body's (content of subject-matter); in addition, it was
alsonecessary for mathematicssubject-matter related to the statistics topics (mean, median,
frequency, etc.). The data obtained from the Science learning would be used in the mathematics
learning so that it looks there was integration between science and mathematics topics and also to
make the mathematics content more realistic to the learnners.
After collecting the data and record it in the table provided, then the students had a discussion to
answer some questions related to the experiment conducted. Table provided in the Workseets are 1)
temperature table of group members before doing activities, 2) table of changes of litmus colour
after putting it in the sweat, 3) table of changes of the sweat in five time running and/or jumping,
and 4) table of changes of bodytemperature in five times running and/or jumping. Based on this
data,the students answered questions 1) how the temperature found before and after running and/or
jumping? 2) how the sweat during the running and/or jumpingfor five times? 3) how the changes of
colour the litmus paper? And 4) what kinds of solution that the sweat consists of?
At the accreditation Aschool, majority of the groups answered that the body temperature will drop
become lower than the initial temperature before doing activities that exited the sweat. Only one
group (14.3%) which answered the body temperature will rise. While at the accreditation Bschool,
the answers were relatively varied. There was a group statedthat the body temperature rises. Other
group argued that the body temperature down. Some other groups stated that the body temperature
will be up and down or down and up during the activities.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
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Based on the observations, it seemsthat teacher did not understand the learning material well. The
teacher did not master the concept of how the relationship between a person's physical activity and
changes of his/her body temperature, and how the role of perspiration to change body temperature.
In addition, teacher was also lack understanding of how to use a thermometer to measure body
temperature precisely and exactly. The teacher let students used thermometer based on what their
will even if it was wrong, such as not to calibrate the thermometer in the beginning or put the
wrong part of the thermometer when measuring the body temperature. The teacher also seemed
hesitant in using the thermometer. Teacher should give an explanation at the beginning of the
learning process how to measure the body temperature with a thermometer correctly

3. 2. Description and Discussion of Findings


Based on the analysis of the pre-test and post-test data, the researcher found N-gain valuesfor the
SMP Muhammdiyah 1 Palembang and SMP Srijaya Negara Palembang as shown in Table 1 and
Table 2 below.

Table 2. Gain and N-gain values for SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang

No Respondents Pre-test Post-test Gain N-Gain Categories

1 S.1 80 80 0 0.00 Low


2 S.2 60 40 -20 -0.50 Negative
3 S.3 40 40 0 0.00 Low
4 S.4 40 60 20 0.33 Medium
5 S.5 40 60 20 0.33 Medium
6 S.6 80 0 -80 -4.00 Negative
7 S.7 40 40 0 0.00 Low
8 S.8 60 40 -20 -0.50 Negative
9 S.9 40 60 20 0.33 Medium
10 S.10 60 60 0 0.00 Low
11 S.11 60 40 -20 -0.50 Negative
12 S.12 60 40 -20 -0.50 Negative
13 S.13 20 60 40 0.50 Medium
14 S.14 60 40 -20 -0.50 Negative
15 S.15 60 40 -20 -0.50 Negative
16 S.16 20 60 40 0.50 Medium
17 S.17 40 60 20 0.33 Medium
18 S.18 40 60 20 0.33 Medium
19 S.19 0 80 80 0.80 High
20 S.20 60 40 -20 -0.50 Negative
21 S.21 40 60 20 0.33 Medium
22 S.22 20 60 40 0.50 Medium
23 S.23 60 90 30 0.75 High
24 S.24 60 80 20 0.50 Medium
25 S.25 40 60 20 0.33 Medium
26 S.26 20 60 40 0.50 Medium
27 S.27 80 60 -20 -1.00 Negative
28 S.28 40 80 40 0.67 High
29 S.29 40 80 40 0.67 High
30 S.30 40 80 40 0.67 High
31 S.31 60 80 20 0.50 Medium
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32 S.32 40 60 20 0.33 Medium


33 S.33 40 60 20 0.33 Medium
34 S.34 60 60 0 0.00 Low
35 S.35 40 60 20 0.33 Medium
36 S.36 80 80 0 0.00 Low
Mean 47.78 58.61 10.83 0.04 Low
Max. 80 90 80 0.80
Min. 0 0 -80 -4

Table 1 shows the pre-test, post-test, gain, and N-gain values of students of SMP
Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang. The maximum score on pre-test was 80, while the maximum score
on the post-test rose to 90 (scale 0 - 100). The minimum scores on the pre-test and post-test were
the same, namely zero. Two of the students who got the highest score in the pre-test (80),still got
the same score (80) in the post-test and one fell to 60 and another one drop to zero. A student who
got the lowest score on the pre-test, namely zero, got a score jump to 80 on the post-test. On the
other hand, students who got the highest score on the post-test, namely 90, just getting a score of 60
on the pre-test. It seems that the students who get the highest score in pre-test does not necessarily
get the highest score in the post-test. Mean scores also increased from pre-test to post-test, i.e. from
47.78 to 58.61. Based on these mean scores, it seem that the ability of students to solve the PISA-
like problems remains low after learning process implementing PISA-based teaching materials.
The highest gain score was 80 and the lowest one was -80. It is very interesting that there are
students who obtained an improvement of their score up to 80 points after the learning process, but
there are alsostudents who got decrease scores up to 80 points after the learning process. While the
highest N-gain value was 0.80 (high category) and the lowest one was -4 (negative). The highest
gain score was obtained by the students who received the lowest score on the pre-test, but this
student was not the student who obtained the highest score on the post-test. The students who
obtained the highest score on the post-test, got the N-gain value between before and after learning
of 0.75, also in high category. While the students who got the highest score on the post-test, 50% of
them (two studnets) got N-gain in low category and the rest 50% obtained negative N-gain. Mean
N-gain value for SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang was 0.04 (low category). The classification of
N-gain for this school is 25% negative, 17% low, 44% medium and 14% high. This classifcation is
shwon in the diagram below.

Series1 Series1
High Negati
14% ve
14% 25%

Series1 Series1
Mediu Low
m 17%
44% 17%

Figure 1. Distribution of students N-Gain categories for SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang

The figure displays that the highest N-gain is for the medium category. There are only 14% of the
respondents who got the high increase of their capacity to resolve the PISA-like problems after the
learning process using PISA-based teaching materials. Meanwhile 17% of the respondents got a
slight increase, and 25% of them experienced that whether they were taught by PISA-based
teaching materials or not there was no effect for them to increase their ability to solve the PISA-like
problems.

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Table 3. Gain and N-gain values for SMP Srijaya Negara Palembang

No Respondents Pre-tets Post-test Gain N-Gain Categories

1 S.1 0 40 40 0.40 Medium


2 S.2 40 20 -20 -0.33 Negative
3 S.3 0 60 60 0.60 Medium
4 S.4 40 20 -20 -0.33 Negative
5 S.5 20 60 40 0.50 Medium
6 S.6 20 20 0 0.00 Low
7 S.7 20 80 60 0.75 High
8 S.8 40 20 -20 -0.33 Negative
9 S.9 0 20 20 0.20 Low
10 S.10 20 40 20 0.25 Low
11 S.11 60 0 -60 -1.50 Negative
12 S.12 40 40 0 0.00 Low
13 S.13 60 40 -20 -0.50 Negative
14 S.14 20 40 20 0.25 Low
15 S.15 0 40 40 0.40 Medium
16 S.16 20 40 20 0.25 Low
17 S.17 0 0 0 0.00 Low
18 S.18 20 40 20 0.25 Low
19 S.19 0 40 40 0.40 Medium
20 S.20 0 0 0 0.00 Low
21 S.21 40 40 0 0.00 Low
22 S.22 40 60 20 0.33 Medium
23 S.23 0 40 40 0.40 Medium
24 S.24 0 40 40 0.40 Medium
25 S.25 40 0 -40 -0.67 Negative
26 S.26 20 40 20 0.25 Low
27 S.27 40 20 -20 -0.33 Negative
28 S.28 0 20 20 0.20 Low
29 S.29 20 40 20 0.25 Low
30 S.30 40 40 0 0.00 Low
31 S.31 40 20 -20 -0.33 Negative
32 S.32 0 60 60 0.60 Medium
33 S.33 0 40 40 0.40 Medium
34 S.34 0 40 40 0.40 Medium
35 S.35 20 40 20 0.25 Low
Mean 21.08 34.29 12.97 0.07 Low
Max. 60 80 60 0.75
Min. 0 0 -60 -1.50

The highest pre-test and post-test scores for junior high school students of Srijaya Negara were
60 and 80, respectively. While the lowest scoreswhether for the pre-test and post-test were zero.
There were two students who received the highest score in the pre-test. However, these students did
not get the highest score on the post-test. Both of themgot lower scores in the post-test, even one of
them dropped to get the lowest score on the post-test. Meanwhile 85% of students who received the

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lowest score on the pre-test had increased their score in the post-test. There was one student who
achieved the highest scores on the post-test.This student was not the student who got the highest
score on the pretest. The students got an increase in score from 20 before learning to 80 after the
learning was done. Like the data on SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang, the data for the junior high
school of Srijaya Negara Palembang also showed an increase in the average scores of students from
the pre-test to the post-test, i.e. from 21.08 to 34.29. It means that learning conducted increased the
average students ability in solving PISA-like problems.
The highest gain and N-gain values for SMP Srijaya Negara were 60 and 0.75,
respectively. Meanwhile, the lowest gain and N-gain values were -60 and -1.50, respectively. The
highest N-gain (high category) was obtained by the students who got the highest score on the post-
test. The second highest N-gain was 0.60 (medium category) obtained by two students. Both of
these students got the lowest score in the pre-test. While the lowest N-gain obtained by one of the
students who got the highest score in pre-test but getting the lowest score on post-test. There were
four students who received the lowest score on the post-test, 50% of them got negative N-gain and
the other 50% was in the low category. The average N-gain for Srijaya Negara students was 0.07, at
a low category.

Series1 Series1
High Negativ
2.80% e
3% 22.90
Series1 Series1
Mediu Low
m 42.90%
31.40 43%

Figure 2. Distribution of students N-Gain categories for SMP Srijaya Negara Palembang

Based on Table 2, there was only one out of 35 students (3%) who received N-gain value in high
category. Students who got N-gain in category medium and low were 31% and 43%, respectively.
The rest, 23% of them obtained negative N-gain. It was almost the same as scores obtained by
students of SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang. It means that about one-quarter of students did not
get the benefecial of the learning process using PISA-based learning materials to improve their
ability to solve the PISA-like problems. The difference was for SMP Muhammadiyah 1 the biggest
portion wasfor the N-gain in medium category while for Srijaya Negara the biggest portion was for
N-gain in low category.
Based on the above analysis it can be concluded that the science teaching conducted by the science
teacher utilizing the materials based on PISA-framework has succeeded in improving students
ability to solve problems tested by the PISA program at a very low category. Based on the results
of data analysing for all respondents, it was obtained N-gain for all respondents as shown in Figure
3 below.

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Series1, Pos
t-test, 46.62
Series1, Pre-
test, 34.37

Test Scores (%)

Series1, N-
Gain, 0.07

Figure 3. The average of pre-test, post-test, as well as the achievement of N-Gain of all respondents

Figure 3 shows that the students mean scores both for before and after being given teaching and
learning process were low, i.e. 34.37 and 46.62, far below the thereshold of mastery learning 75%
.The increasingof students scores from the pre-test to post-testwas also not so high, namely with
gain of 12.25 (range 0100) or with N-gain of 0.07 which means that it is at the low category. The
low of respondents achievement was also found by Sulistiawati (2015) in her research by using
some questions from PISA 2009, i.e. 47.7.
Futhermore, the hypothesis was tested to examine whether the instructional based on PISA-
framework materials can be significant or not to improve students' science literacy. The hypothesis
tested is Ho: There is no difference in the averageof students science (physics) scores of junior
high schoolstudents before and after learning process utilizing PISA-based teaching materials, and
Ha: There is a difference in the averageof students science (physics) scores of junior high school
students before and after learning process utilizing PISA-based teaching materials.
The hypothesis testing was done by using Paired Sample t-test utilizing SPSS ver. 17. The test was
made by using a two-tailed test with a significance level = 5%. The results can be seen in Table
below.

Paired Samples Test


Pair 1
Before learning - After Lerning

Paired Differences Mean -12.254


Std. Deviation 28.645
Std. Error Mean 3.400
95% Confidence Interval of Lower -19.034
the Difference
Upper -5.473
T -3.604
Df 70
Sig. (2-tailed) .001

The researcher has obtained t value of -3.604, while t table for = 5% / 2 = 2.5% (two-tailed
test) with degrees of freedom df (n-1) or 71-1 = 70 was 1.994. Based on the criteria that Ho is
accepted if t table t t table and Ho is rejected if -t count < -t table or t count> t table, then Ho

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was rejected. This is reinforced by the significant value of 0.001> 0.05, which means that Ho was
rejected. In conclusion, there is difference in the average of students science (physics) scores of
Palembang junior high school students before and after learning with PISA-based teaching
materials. So,althought there isa relatively low of N-gain gained by the students after learning
process, but statistically there is a significant difference in the average scores of students in
solvingPISA-like problems between before and after implementing of instructional using PISA-
based materials.

4. Conclusion
Based on the description above, it can be concluded that:
1. Science (Physics) learning process conducted by the science teacher by using PISA-based
teaching materials could enhance the ability of junior high school students in Palembang to solve
the PISA-like problems with N-Gain in category Low (very low). Based upon the findings, the
learning conducted by the teachercan not be generalized effective in improving students' ability to
solve the PISA-like problems.
2. Despite an increase in the ability of students to solve PISA-like problems is very low, but the
average ability of the students to solve PISA-like Problems before and after learning process with
teaching material based on PISA framework could significantly increase the student's ability in
handling PISA-like problems.

Acknowledgements
I express my gratitude to the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sriwijaya University,
which is kindly funding the research reported in this paper with the Contarct Number:
1005/UN9.1.6/KP.6.h/2015, date June 22, 2015. I wish also to express my sincere gratitude to the
Science teacher who had been a model teacher in this research as well as to the students who have
participated in the study.

References
Fuchs, T., & Wmann, L. (2008). What accounts for international differences in student
performance? A re-examination using PISA data (pp. 209-240). Physica-Verlag HD.
Hake, R. R. (1998). Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six-thousand-student
survey of mechanics test data for Introductory physics courses. American Journal of Physics,
66(1), 64-74.
Hake, R. R. (1999). Analyzing Change/Gain Score. American Educational Research Division D,
Measurement and Research Methodology.
OECD (2001). Knowledge and Skills for Life: First Results from PISA 2000, OECD Publishing,
Paris.http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264195905-en
OECD. (2006). Programme for International Students Assessment: PISA 2006 Results.
OECD. (2014). PISA 2012 Results in Focus: What 15-year-olds know and what they can do with
what they know.
OECD. (2015a). Take the Test: sample Questions from OECDs PISA Assessment.
OECD. (2015b). PISA 2015 Released Field Trial Cognitive Items.
Sulistiawati. (2015). Analisis Pemahaman Litrasi Sains Mahasiswa yang Mengambil Matakuliah
IPA Terpadu Menggunakan Contoh Soal PISA 2009. Sainteks, 12(1), 21-40.
Willms, J. and L. Tramonte (2015), Towards the development of contextual questionnaires for the
PISA for development study, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 118, OECD
Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5js1kv8crsjf-en.
Web sites:
Web-1: http://litbang.kemdikbud.go.id/index.php/survei-internasional-pisa

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OPE-06
Study of Students Ability to Solve PISA-like Test with
Indonesian Contexts in Physics Education of Faculty of
Teacher Training and Education Sriwijaya University
Ismet1, Hartono1, Effendi2, and Rahmi Susanti3

1) Physics Education FKIP Sriwijaya University, Jln. Raya Palembang-Prabumulih Indralaya, Km


32 Ogan Ilir-Indonesia, ismet_physicunsri@yahoo.com
2) Chemistry Education FKIP Sriwijaya University
3) Biology Education FKIP Sriwijaya University

Abstract-This study is aimed to describe the students ability to solve PISA like test. The study was a
descriptive study that was carried out with 22 5 th semester students oh physic educatoin departemen, Faculty
of Teacher Training and Eeducation, Sriiwijaya University. The instrument used was PISA like test with
Indonesian contexts and consist on 3 levels (low, medium, and high). The data analyzed were both
quantitative and qualitative techniques. The finding shows that 91% of the students could solve the
instruments at low level, 71% were at medium level, and only 45% of students could solve the test at high
level. Based on interviews conducted, it was revealed that the students ability in solve PISA like test at low
level was because the students have not been able to use scientific concepts that have been studied in solving
the test, in addition to the students concepts mastery with other concepts- wich have not been
comprehensive, and the student have not been trained to find correlation between one of the concepts with
others.

Keywords: students ability, PISA like test

1. Introduction
Constitution of The national Education System No. 20 of 2003 declare that the function of
education are to develop skills and build the character and prestige nation civilization in the context
of the intellectual life of the nation. Related with the function, education must be organized to make
every learner is able to compete in the local, national, regional and the global level.
To see the results of the education process that is able to compete globally, it is evaluated
in the form of assessment or assessment education process so as to map the educational outcomes
position of a country compared with other countries. One of the programs launched by the OECD
(Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) is the Program for International
Student Assessment (PISA), which is a program to assess reading literacy, mathematical literacy
and scientific literacy.
PISAs instruments contained in the assessment on the ability of reasoning and thinking
skills. Learners may be able to capable a particular science concept, but not necessarily be able to
use his science knowledge to understand or solve a problem in the real world because it does not
capable way of thinking, so that we can conclude his science literacy is low.
Scientific literacy is one domain of PISA studies. PISA assesses scientific knowledge
relevant with science education curriculum in the participating countries without limiting ourselves
to the general aspects of the national curriculum of each country. PISA assessment framed in the
general life situation of a broader and is not limited to life in school. Those items on the PISA
assessment focuses on the related situation to the individual, families and groups of individuals,
related to the community (social), as well as related to the cross-country life (global). PISA context
includes the areas of application of science in setting personal, social and global, namely: (1)
health; (2) natural resources; (3) the quality of the environment; (4) the danger; (5) the
development of cutting-edge science and technology.

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Scientific literacy is defined as the capacity to use scientific knowledge, to identify


questions and draw conclusions based on the facts to understand the universe and make a decision
on the changes that occur due to human activity. The National Science Teacher Association
(NSTA, 2003) states that scientific literacy is important to measured because the measurement
results can provide information that a person who has knowledge of the facts, concepts, and
networking concepts and process skills that enable a person to think logically. People who have
literacy science in everyday life can be seen from the way he thinks and works. Scientific thinking
is the demand of every citizen, and not just scientists. Thinking of people who have science literacy
is always doing with the procedures specified, and in the process draw conclusions always use the
data, and connect between the data. The realization of citizen science literacy according to the
PISA (2006) is characterized by working and thinking scientifically.
If we observe the apparent reality around us, there is no doubt how powerful the influence
of science on human life order. Technology as a form of application of science products, has
provided a good change noticeably change for the benefit of human life and the changes that can
endanger human life itself.
There are many reasons why science literacy a citizen is considered important to develop.
First, understanding natural science offers personal fulfillment and joy, for the benefit to be shared
with anyone. Second, countries are faced with the questions faced in his life that requires scientific
information and ways of scentific thinking to take decisions and important of peoples who need to
be informed, such as air, water and forests. Natural science understanding and ability in science
will also increase the capacityof students to hold an important and productive work in the future. In
the international scientific literacy scale capability is divided into six ability levels, namely level 1,
which is the lowest level, to level 6, which is the highest level (OECD, 2013). In this paper, the
literacy skills are grouped into three groups, namely low-level, medium level and high level and
will be presented the results of a study on the ability of the students solve problems similar to PISA
in the context of Indonesia.

2. Research Methods
This research is a descriptive research that aims to analyze the students ability to solve problems
like PISA in the context of Indonesia. Instrument test like PISA compiled based on context,
content, and competence.Instrument compiled consists of three categories, namely low category
(level1 and 2) consisting of 15 multiple choice questions, the medium category (level 3 and 4)
consisting of 6 questions in the form of discourse and participants give answers based on the
information contained in the discourse, and high categories (level 5 and 6) consists of 6 questions
open ended. The study was conducted in the first semester 7th students of academic year
2015/2016 in Physics Education Study Program FKIP Sriwijaya University. Data were collected
using interviews, and document results of student work. The data were analyzed descriptively
(qualitative and quantitative).

3. Result and Discussion


Based on the analysis of student answer to the questions provided, obtained the following
results.

Table 1. The mean ability of students is based on the level of question


No Problem Level Mean (%)
1 Low Level 91
2 Medium Level 71
3 High Level 45

Table 1 shows that the low-level questions can be answered well by most (91%) students. Mistakes
that made by students caused not because they do not understand the concept, but it is because
students are not careful and less observant in understanding of the problem, and the students

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interpret the question is not in suitable with the context of the question. In Figure 1 is shown
question and examples of student answers.

Figure 1. a. Examples quotationof question b. examples of student answers

For problems that are often encountered students in learning, students can finish well. An
example is the physical phenomena of the first law of Newton (inertia), students can integrating
their knowledge in solving problems.
Problems for the medium level, the average of student's ability to solve problems getting
decline, and only 75% of questions that can be answered with either. Weakness students in solving
problems at the medium level is because (1) has not been able to integrate the scientific knowledge
to be used in solving the problem, (2) have not been able to utilize the available information on the
discourse to be used in problem solving.

Figure 2. Example of questions and answers about the PISA student in the context of health.

Figure 2 is an example of a medium-level problems associated with the health context.


There is a discourse with pictures. Students are asked to answer questions
Why passive smokers are at greater risk of smoking than active smokers?Based on the responses of
students, the majority (80%) students were not using the information that available in the figure,
that the substances contained in cigarettes and the most harmful to health is hydrogen cyanide
(poison for the death penalty), and the position of these substances is closer to the smoker passive
compared with active smokers. Likewise, the problems in the sample medium oil stove explosion.
In figure 3 is shown question and examples of student answers. Based on the answer of students, it
appears that the student has not been able to link the concept of density in the context of the
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problems. However, after the interview, student can directly explain the problems with using the
concept of science. The inability of students to explain and solve problems using scientific
concepts it has caused have not been able to integrate scientific knowledge in real situations.
Scientific knowledge possessed by students still at the boundary of theoretical knowledge. So that
students can use theoretical knowledge, then studentmust often faced with real phenomena that
occur in real life.

Figure 3. Students example questions and answers about the content question in accordance
with the real situation.

The student's ability to solve the problems at the high level is getting low, and only 45%
student that can solve problems well. Problems at a high level. Students are required to be able to
use the content, procedural knowledge and their own knowledge consistently to give an explanation
in a variety of complex real-life situations that require a high level of cognitive ability are complex.
In resolving the problems at the high level, students have not been able related between one
concept with another concept to be used in problem solving. In Figure 4 are given the questions and
examples of student answers.

Figure 4. Problem and examples of student answers on the science competence to provide a
scientific explanation aspects.

In Figure 4 on aspects of scientific competence, only a small proportion (14%) of students who can
provide answers to the logical scientific explanation, in which the answer to associate the concept
of bonding between the particles (chemical) with the concept of gravity (physics).

4. Conclusion
Based on the results of research and discussion, the following it can be summarized:
1. The ability of the students solve problems similar PISA still at a low level.
2. Students have not been able to integrate the scientific knowledge to be used in solving the
problem.

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3. Students have not been able to utilize the available information on the discourse to be used in
problem solving.
4. Students are still having trouble in linking between concepts to solve problems.

Acknowledgements
Thanks to the research institute of FKIP Sriwijaya University on the research grant, contractno No.
0992/UN9.1.6/KPTS/2015113/UN9.3.1/LT/2015

Refference
Holbrook, J. And Rannikmae, M. 2009. The meaning of sciencetific literacy. International journal
of enviromental & science education, Vol. 4 No. 3: 275-288
National science teacher association. 2003. Standard of science teacher preparation. Washington
DC
OECD. 2009. Take the test sample questions from OECDs PISA assessment. OECD publishing
OECD. 2013. PISA 2015 draft science framework.

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OPE-07
Development of Multiple Representation-based Teaching
Materials of Introduction to Solid State Physics in
Physics Education of Sriwijaya University
Ismet, Depi Oktasari, and Sardianto Markos Siahaan

Physics Education FKIP Sriwijaya University, Jln. Raya Palembang-Prabumulih Indralaya, km 32


Ogan Ilir-Indonesia, ismet_physicunsri@yahoo.com

Abstract-We have successfully developed multiple representations based-teaching materials introduction to


solid state physics by very valid and practical. The development of these teaching materials used Rowntree
development model and Tessmer formative evaluation. Rowntree development model consists of three
stages, namely 1) planning, 2) developing, and 3) evaluating. In evaluating stage, Tessmer formative
evaluation that consists of five phases, namely: (1) self evaluation, (2) expert review, (3) one-to-one
evaluation, (4) small group evaluation, and (5) field test. Data collection technique uses expert validation,
one-to-one and small group evaluation. In the expert review phase, the average result of the experts appraisal
was 82% which is very valid. In one-to-one evaluation phase, the average result of the students response the
use of these teaching materials was very valid (84%). In the small group evaluation, the average result was
very valid (87.11%) increasing up to 3.11%. The result of the study show that teaching material has been
developed very valid and practical, so these teaching material of introduction to solid state physics can be
used as the additional teaching material in the Solid State course in Physic Education of Sriwijaya University.

Keywords:teaching materials, multiple representations, introduction to solid state physics

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OPE-08
Learning Effectiveness of Inquiry-Discovery Model
through Empirical and Theoritical Review of Critica Level
and Physics Concept Understanding among High School
Students in the City of Malang
Wartono

FMIPAMalang State University, Indonesia, wartonoum@yahoo.co.id

Abstract-The new Curriculum 2013 emphasizes the use of scientific approach in Physics class. One such
scientific approach is the inquiry-discovery. In spite of class improvement in its practice, the implementation
is yet a subject of further critics, due to the lack of relationship between empirical experiences and theoretical
level.This research applies inquiry learning-discovery model. This study aims to determine the effectiveness
of the inquiry-discovery learning through a review empirical and theoretical in improving critical thinking
skills and concept understanding of students with high and low prior knowledge. This study was a quasi-
experimental research, with a 2X2 factorial experimental design. The study population includes all students
of class XI SMA Malang MIA in school year of 2014-2015. The study showed that implementation of
inquiry-discovery model resulted in increased critical thinking among students, in comparison to those who
use conventional learning (F=18 354; 0.0000 <0.05), regardless of low or high prior knowledge.
Accordingly, students used inquiry-discovery model showed higher concept understanding in comparison to
those who used conventional learning (F = 4.046; 0.048 <0.05), regardless of their prior knowledge.

Keywords: inquiry-discovery model, critical thinking, concept understanding

1. Introduction
Countries in the world will make every effort to improve the country's progress, because
the developed countries will be able to ensure the welfare of its people. The state is able
to guarantee the implementation of a good education, able to guarantee people's health, is able
to provide employment for the people, able to provide housing for the people, andable to
repair various other necessary infrastructure for the
people. Progress of a country marked by advances in scienceand technology sectors.Advances in
scienceand technology is in need of support physics, because physics is one of the factor that
support the basic science advances intechnology. Thus, the study of physics shouldbe
increased to achieve the advancementof science and technology so as toincrease the country's
progress.
But in reality in our schools, physics considered as difficult subjects. Students do not like in
physics. Many feared physics students because in many containing formula and difficult
calculations. It thus partly because teachers in carrying out learning, still conventional. The teacher
explains the concepts, principles, given examplesof questions and exercises.Students are forced
to learn by rote physics that does not comply with thecharacteristics of the physics.
To answer the above problems, we need the analysis of the factors that influence the success
of physics learning activities. Factors affecting learning is a factor of the student and external
factors. Factors that comes from within the students among others is intelligence, discipline,
diligence, persistence, tenacity and patience. While external factors that are teacher factors,
environment, the school building and classrooms, tools and materials, and
approaches/models/methods of learning. Factors physics teacher in the district of Malang,
relatively well and meet the requirements because they are graduates of physical education S1 and
some S2. The school building and classrooms has been fulfilled relatively good buildings,
classrooms, as well as tools and materials for the physics lab. Environmental factors are relatively

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difficult to be changed. Factors originating from outside the student a very important and decisive
is the approach of the application of learning strategies, models, and learning methods.
Studied correct of physics according physicss scientists is through thinking and the
measures and the actions carried out by the scientists of physics to find the product of physics
Wartono, 2012). Steps thoughts and activities and actions carried out by the scientists of
physics is a thought and scientific work. Product physics resulting from the thinking and the
scientific work can be concepts, principles, laws, formulas, or theory. Learning that has these
characteristics is the inquiry and discover ylearning. Inquiry learning focuses on
the problem or question andon obtaining a product of physics in the form
of concepts, principles,laws, formulas, or theory.
If both the inquiry and discovery learning incorporated as the learning inquiry- discovery
into the learning physics to be complete. Learning begins with the problems or questions then
solved through scientific work (inquiry) and eventually produce physics (discovery). Learning
orientation, drawup hypotheses, testinghypotheses, makinginferences and evaluate (Risqiargues tha
t the inquiry-discoverylearning is learning which are arranged so that children acquire the
knowledge,in which some or all knowledge is found alone with the help of a teacher.
In the inquiry-discovery learning students will conduct experiments, collect data, analyze
the data, summarize and communicate (Joyce and Weil, 1992). Thus the stufents will be directly
involved in learning, both physically and mentally. It thus will ensure that students will understand
well thematerial studied empirically through experiments in groups. Experiments in this group
would benefit thatwill occur peer tutoring. Children who do not understand will be described by a
friend who is more intelligent.
Knowledge acquired through empirical experience and the students performed this group
looks very easy, because it is assisted by LKS and the teacher. The knowledge gained empirically
students will grow much better if equipped with a review of the theoretical. This can be done first
by the teacher and then the next could be handed over to each group. Knowledge, skills, and
attitudes that students obtained through empirical experience and theoretical overview will be able
to equip children to become scientists of physics.
Learning through inquiry-discovery, students are actively thinking about the problems that
exist, how to formulate the problem, how to make a hypothesis, how to conduct an experiment to
produce the data, how to analyze the data, and how to conclude the experimental results and the
last produce science products (Arend, 2001). Activity of students is the main capital for the
real learning process. Learning experienced by students involving mental (psychologies)
activeness and physical. Learning outcomes will ensure the achievement of competence cognitive,
affective and psychomotor domains well as curriculum learning outcomes 2013. The students will
also seep in depth on the long-term retention of students, and can last a very long time and even a
lifetime.

2. Methods
This research was carried out by using a quasi experimental research designs or quasi
experiment. The design of the research using the post test only control group design, i.e. the
granting of tests to both groups implemented after treatment or learning process is given, i.e. the
granting of tests to all students of Class XI MIA in Malang, SMAN consisting of experimental
classes and controls classes. The population in this research is the whole grade XI MIA SMAN
Malang years 2014-2015 lessons consisting of 6 class XI MIA as group 6 experiments and klas XI
MIA as the control group. Design research is as follows.
Table 1 Matrix Draft of Manova
Learning (A)
IndependenVariabel (A)
Dependen Variabel (B) Inquiry-Discovery (A1) Conventional (A2)
Critical Thinking (B1) A1B1 A2B1
Achievement(B2) A1B2 A2B2
(adapted from Arikunto, 2003)
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Description:
A1B1 : critical thinking Test treatment group students who studied with inquiry-discovery
learning
A2B1 : critical thinking Test control group students who studied with conventional learning.
A1B2 : physics achievement test treatment group students who studied with inquiry-discovery
learning
A2B2 : physics achievement test control group students who studied with conventional learning.
Operationally this research design using design of experiments 2 2 factorial. In this study
involving two groups of research subjects, the two groups received different treatment. Research
with factorial design procedure can be described as follows.

Table 2. Research Procedure Factorial 2 x 2


Treat
Group Test
ment
Experiment X O1
Control - O2
(adapted by Kasiram, 2010:222)

Description:
X : Treatment to the experimental group learning using inquiry-discovery
O1 : critical thinking and achievements test of experiments group.
O2 : critical thinking and achievements test of control group.

Treatment instrument for supporting the implementation of the research include a Syllabus,
RPP (Lessons Plan) and LKS (work sheet). The syllabus curriculum 2013 already compiled based
on content standards, which contains the subjects, basic competence (KD), materials, activities,
indicators, objectives, assessment, allocation of time and learning resources.
Critical thinking instruments using the essay test so as to note the reason the solution of the
problem. In this study measured levels of critical thinking including 5 indicators, namely: (1) focus
the question, (2) analyze the arguments, (3) consider whether a source is reliable or not, (4)
specifies an action, (5) interacting with other people. The indicators elaborated on grating
instrument test critical thinking ability. While the achievements of measurement instruments
studied physics using the form of the test mixture arranged by purpose of learning physics in the
RPP and implemented on the part of the assessment instrument. Instrument test arranged by
Taxonomic Bloom that have revised by Anderson on the cognitive aspects, namely
considering/knowing, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating. Respectively in
accordance with the revised Bloom's Taxonomy of the cognitive domain, i.e. C1, C2, C3, C4, C5
and C6. Score to the right of the student's answer is 1, while the score for the wrong student's
answer is 0. The learning achievement test before use, in advance of the construction of the content
and the validation is done and tested. After having analyzed grains and reliability, it is evident that
the extent of the trouble distinguishing power grains, grain, grain and test the validity of the test
relialibilitas, meets the requirements.

3. Results

Critical Thinking
Description of critical thinking values and number of samples in each category from both
groups of students who learn with different learning, presented in Table 3. Critical thinking scores
for high and low prior knowledgeare given in Table 4 and 5, respectively.

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Tabel 3. Score of Critical Thinking Based Learning


Number Score of
Average or
Group Learning of Critical Thinking
Meant
Samples High Low
Experiment PID 210 85 55 72,94
Control PK 210 75 55 65,45
Description:
PID = Inquiry-Discovery Learning
PK = Cnventional Learning

Tabel 4. Score of Critical Thinking High Prior Knowledge


Number Score of
Average or
Group Learning of Critical Thinking
Meant
Samples High High
Experiment PID 70 85 75 80,90
Control PK 70 75 70 73,18

Tabel 5. Score of Critical Thinking Low Prior Knowledge


Number Score of
Average or
Group Learning of Critical Thinking
Meant
Samples High High
Experiment PID 70 70 55 65,00
Control PK 70 60 55 57,27

Description:
PID = Inquiryp-Discovery Learning
PK = Conventional Learning

Physics Achievement
Description of physics achievement test in the subject matter of static fluid based learning is
presented in based on the group in Table 6. Table 7 and 8 show the scores for students of high and
low prior knowledge, respectively.
Table 6. Score of Physics Achievement Based Learning
Number Score of Physics
Average or
Group Learning of Achiebement
Meant
Samples High Low
Experiment PID 210 90 56 68.78
Control PK 210 76 50 65,58

Table 7. Score of Physics Achievement High Prior Knowledge


Number Score of Physics
Average or
Group Learning of Achievement
Meant
Samples High Low
Experiment PID 70 90 71 75,36
Control PK 70 77 69 72,36

Table 8. Score of Physics Achievement Low Prior Knowledge


Number Score of Physics
Average or
Group Learning of Achievement
Meant
Samples High Low
Experiment PID 70 65 56 62,54
Control PK 70 62 50 58,18

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Before test the hypothesis, first test is performed before the requirements analysis, i.e. the test
of its homogeneity and normality test. Testing normality by using statistical Kolmonogov-Smirnov
and Shapiro-Wilk at a 5% significance level with the help of the program SPSS 16.0 for Windows.
The results of the test of normality of data level critical thinking and learning physics achievement
test, with high and low prior knoledge are all eligible.

Hypothesis testing
Hypothesis testing in this study using MANOVA analysis test (Multivariate Analysis of
Variance) at 5% significance level (Sudjana, 1996) with the help of the program SPSS 16.0 for
Windows.
In this study, there are four hypothesis.
The level of critical thinking students who learn Inquiry-Discovery learning through the
empirical and theoretical review, higher than students who learn convenstional leanring, with
details as follow. 1. Students with high prior knowledge, the level of critical thinking students who
learn Inquiry-Discovery learning through the empirical and theoretical review, higher than students
who learn convenstional leanring. 2. Students with high prior knowledge, achievements of the
studied physics students who learn through inquiry-discovery learning through the empirical and
theoretical review, higher than students who studied with conventional learning. 3. Students
with low prior knowledge, the level of critical thinking students who learn Inquiry-Discovery
learning through the empirical and theoretical review, higher than students who learn convenstional
leanring.
Physics achievement students who learn Inquiry-Discovery learning through the empirical
and theoretical review, higher than students who learn convenstional leanring. Details description
as follow. 1. Students with low prior knowledge, achievements of the studied physics students who
learn through inquiry-discovery learning through the empirical and theoretical review, higher than
students who studied with conventional learning. 2. Students with all prior knowledge, the level of
critical thinking students who learn Inquiry-Discovery learning through the empirical and
theoretical review, higher than students who learn convenstional leanring. 3. Students with all prior
knowledge, achievements of the studied physics students who learn through inquiry-discovery
learning through the empirical and theoretical review, higher than students who studied with
conventional learning.

4. Discussion
The learning effectiveness of inquiry-discovery through the empirical and theoretical review
against the critical thinking level the results of this research show that the critical thinking ability of
students learning by inquiry-discovery learning is higher than the students who learn the
conventional learning. Students who learn learning inquiry-discovery more actively participate in
learning is presented because the students are given the opportunity to discover their own
knowledge who want to delivered through direct trial. According the opinion of Wilcox in (Slavin,
2005), in a study with a model of inquiry-discovery learning students are encouraged to learn
mostly through active involvement with their own concepts and principles, and teachers encourage
students to have the experience and experiment that lets them discover the principles for self
Pratiwi (2012).
In accordance with the research conducted by Akinbobola and Afolabu in Widhiyantoro
(2010) a teacher must attempt to use the approach to the inquiry-discovery of social interactions or
inquiry-discovery guideuntuk engaging students in problem-solving activities, self-learning, critical
thinking and understanding, and creative learning. The things that are important in the study of
inquiry-discovery is the students are given the opportunity to conduct experiments, developing
students ' curiosity when the students perform an experiment, then the students find their
hypotheses and conduct discussion on the results of experiments conducted.
With these advantages that have been presented then learning by inquiry-discovery learning
through the empirical and theoretical review gives a better result in the achievement of the level of
critical thinking than students who studied with conventional learning. The results of this research
ISBN 9786021570425 PHY- 127
Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

show that the achievement studied physics students who learn learning inquiry-discovery is higher
than the students who learn the conventional learning. The difference in the average achievement
of learning occurs because of the difference in treatment between the granting of two classes.
Experimental class and the class of the control. Inquiry-discovery learning is learning that is based
on the discoveries and experiences of students. Slameto (2003) argues for the bahwabelajar is a
series of activities of the soul untukmemperoleh a change sebagaihasil behavior of individual
experience in a interaksidengan environment concerns the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
In the study, students of the process do not know own experience be know. Mohamad Surya
(2004) learning mengungkapkan bahwa is a proses perubahan that is behavior change as the
hasilinteraksi between himself and his environment dalammemenuhi the needs of life. The
complete study can be formulated pengertina, sebgaiberikut: "learning is a proes yangdilakukan by
individuals to acquire new perubahanperilaku overall, as hasildari individual pengalamn
interaksidengan itself in its environment" Hamdu (2011).
This research topic students were given a static fluid i.e. law of Archimedes, in the discovery
learning students perform an experiment to find out the sound of the law of Archimedes through
practical work they are doing, so they easily recall the law of Archimedes. Students easily
understand the concept of Archimedes based on practical experience that they do. So the learning
achievements of students who learn to use better discovery of learning in students who studied with
conventional pembelajarn.
Methods of inquiry-discovery according to the Spiritual (2001:39) is a method which leaves
from a view that the learners as subjects on the side as an object of study. These advantages that
have been presented, then learning of inquiry-discovery through the empirical and theoretical
review more effectively in the ability of the learning achievement than conventional physics.
From the research that's been done indicate the level of critical thinking and the learning
achievements of students experiencing learning process inquiry-discovery through the empirical
and theoretical review of higher-value critical thinking students highest i.e. 85 compared to
students who are experiencing learning process with conventional value of 75. For the value of the
learning achievement of students who are experiencing learning process inquiry-discovery through
the empirical and theoretical tinjaun is 90 where as students who mengaalami conventional
learning process is 76.
At the time of Archimedes experiment conducted in experimental classes, students are more
active and enthusiastic in doing experiments, a sense of curiosity in students. Students are very
active and feel happy because they can find their own sound law archimedes through experiment.
According to Zulhelmi (2009), learning guide inquiry-discovery provides opportunities for class
activities based on student (student centered) and lets students learn that not only makes the teacher
as the sole source of learning.
According to him the benefits that accrue to the students of this learning model is able to spur
keinginantahuan and independent study in problem solving. Therefore, in the study of the value of
the level of critical thinking students who learn learning inquiry-discovery through the empirical
and theoretical tinjuan higher than in conventional learning experience of students. As it is known,
is a physics lesson science lesson category that demands against experiments to understand it. In
addition to increasing the level of critical thinking also have an impact on student learning
achievement, because the student independently learns to get results from the experiment they did
and prove theoretically. Students can easily memorize the material as they do the experiment
yourself then explained by their teacher, the teacher did not explain the whole matter.

5. Conclusion
Based on data analysis that has been done, it can be concluded as follows.
Students with high prior knowledge, the level of critical thinking students who learn Inquiry-
Discovery learning through the empirical and theoretical review, higher than students who learn
convenstional leanring. Students with low prior knowledge, the level of critical thinking students
who learn Inquiry-Discovery learning through the empirical and theoretical review, higher than
students who learn convenstional leanring.
ISBN 9786021570425 PHY- 128
Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Students with high prior knowledge, achievements of the studied physics students who learn
through inquiry-discovery learning through the empirical and theoretical review, higher than
students who studied with conventional learning. Students with low prior knowledge, achievements
of the studied physics students who learn through inquiry-discovery learning through the empirical
and theoretical review, higher than students who studied with conventional learning.
Level of critical thinking students for all prior knowledge who learn inquiry-discovery
learning through the empirical and theoretical review, higher than students who learn convenstional
leanring. Physics achievements students for all prior knowlwdge who learn inquiry-discovery
learning through the empirical and theoretical review, higher than students who studied with
conventional learning.

Reference
Arends. R.I., (2001). Learning to Teach. Boston: McGraw. Hill
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2003. Manajemen Penelitian. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Ghullam Hamdu, Lisa Agustina. 2011. Pengaruh Motivasi Belajar Siswa terhadap Prestasi Belajar
IPA di sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Vol.
12 No.1
Joyce, Bruce and Marsha Weil. 1992. Models of Teaching. New Jersey. Prentice Hall, Inc.
Kasiram. 2010. Metodologi Penelitian. Malang: UIN-Maliki Press.
Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia Nomor 65 tahun 2013 tentang
Standar Proses Guruan Dasar dan Menengah
Rahman Risqi, Samsul Maarif. 2014. Pengaruh Penggunaan Metode Discovery terhadap
Kemampuan Analogi Matematis Siswa SMK Al-Ikhsan Pamarican Kabupaten Ciamis
Jawa Barat.Jurnal Ilmiah Program Studi Matematika STKIP Siliwangi Bandung. Vol 3,
No 1.
Sudjana. 1996. Metode Statistika Untuk Bidang: Biologi, Farmasi, Geologi, Pendidikan, Psikologi,
Teknik. Bandung: Penerbit Tarsito
Widhiyantoro Taufik, Meti Indrowati, Riezky Maya Probosari. 2012. The Effectiveness of Guided
Discovery Method Application toward Creative Thinking Skill at The Tenth Grade
Students of SMA N 1 Teras Boyolali in The Academic Year 2011/20112. Pendidikan
Biologi FKIP UNS. Vol 4 No. 3
Wartono, 2012. Strategi Pembelajaran Fisika. Malang: Program Pendidikan Fisika FMIPA
Universitas Negeri Malang

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OPE-09
Student Learning by Experiment for Testing
Characteristics of Resistance, Voltage and Current in the
Resistor Circuit
Eka Murdani

STKIP Singkawang, STKIP Street, Singkawang City, West Kalimantan Province,


Indonesia,ekamurdani@gmail.com

Abstract-Resistor is an important component in electronics which function as the electrical resistance or


resistor of electric current. In this experiment used three identical resistors, that means having an equal
resistance value which is 1000 . Resistor of 1000 is used to minimize the influence of the internal
resistance of the multimeter because multimeter will be used as an instrument to measure of the resistance,
the voltage and electric current in the resistor circuit. From 3 resistors can be made into 4 circuits. They are 3
resistors on the series circuit; 3 resistors on the parallel circuit; mix circuit of 2 series and 1 parallel; and mix
circuit of 2 parallel and 1 series. The characteristics of resistance, voltage and electric current have been
tested experimentally. By using 3 V voltage, the characteristics of resistance and electric current on the series
circuit of 3 resistor is (3000 250) and (1.000 0.025) mA. On the parallel circuit of 3 resistor is (350
25) and (8.50 0.25) mA. On the mixed circuit of 2 series and 1 parallel is (650 25) and (4.50 0.25)
mA. And the last, on the mixed circuit of 2 parallel and 1 series is (1500 50) and (2.000 0.025) mA.
This experimental testing is done directly by students on the learning process, so that learning can be
effective on scientific attitude and knowledge transfer.

Keywords:learning by experiment, scientific attitude, resistor circuit

1. Introduction
The National Education Minister Regulation Number 22 of 2006 about the Content Standard
for Primary and Secondary Education emphasizes that the Natural Sciences (IPA) education
concerns on how to find out about the nature systematically, so that science is not just mastery of a
collection of knowledge in the form of facts, concepts, or principles, but also a process of
discovery. Science education is expected to be a tool for students to learn themselves and their
environment, and prospects for further development in applying science in daily life.
Science learning process emphasizes providing direct experiences to develop competency to
explore and understand nature. Science education is suggested to adopt inquiry approach and
similar approaches so that it can help student to get a deeper understanding of the nature around.
Natural Sciences are needed in daily life to supply human needs with problem solving.
Application of Natural Sciences needs to be done wisely to keep and conserve the environment.
Learning science in Junior High School (SMP/MTs) was emphasized on the students experience
for planning and doing scientifically.
Learning science should be take scientific inquiry apprioach to develop thinking skills,
scientific attitude, and communicate them as an important aspect of life skills (Permendiknas,
2006). Therefore, science learning in SMP/MTs emphasizes to get learning experience directly by
application and development of skill process and scientific attitude. This research used an
experiment method in learning process for getting learning experience directly and for developing
student scientific attitude.

2. Methods
The aims of Natural Science in SMP/MTs for students are: (1) increasing the religious beliefs
to God, (2) Developing an understanding of natural phenomena, concepts and principles of science
that are useful and can be applied in daily life, (3) Developing curiosity, positive attitude, and
awareness of the existence of a relationship of mutual influence between science, environment,

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technology, and society, (4) Doing a scientific inquiry to develop the ability to think, act and
communicate scientifically, (5) Increasing awareness to participate in care-taking, keeping and
conserving the environment and natural resources, (6) Increasing awareness to appreciate nature
and universal regularity as God's creation, and (7) Increasing the knowledge, concepts, and skills
of science as a basis to continue their education to the next level (Permendiknas, 2006). This
research used an experimental method in the learning process to develop an understanding of
natural phenomena, concepts and principles of science that are useful and can be applied in daily
life. Natural phenomenon studied in this research was electricity. Natural Sciences concepts and
principles are the dynamic electricity and Ohm's law. The application of learning is in daily life is a
lamp for lighting a room.
Standard Competency (SK) and the Basic Competency (KD) of Natural Sciences (IPA) for
SMP/MTs students are the national minimum standards to be achieved by students and become a
reference in the development of the curriculum in each educational unit. Achievement of SK and
KD is based on empowering students to develop their abilities, scientific works and knowledge
which are facilitated by the teachers. This research was conducted in class IX in one of Junior
High School (SMP/MTs) in Singkawang City. The application of the experimental method in SK:
(3) Understand the concept of electricity and their application in daily life and KD: (3.2) Analyzing
the dynamic electrical experiments in the series and its application in daily life. SK and KD are
based on the The National Education Minister Regulation Number 22 of 2006 about the Content
Standard for Primary and Secondary Education. This research used an experiment method in
learning process for getting learning experience directly and for developing student scientific
attitude.

3. Results and Discussion


Most of our perception of the teaching is transfer knowledge actively from teacher to the
students. On the other hand, perception of the students about learning is accepting from the teacher
given passively. This perception should be changed. Effective teaching and learning activities
should be able to make students active for building their knowledge by placing the teacher as a
facilitator. A step to make learning effectively is to organize a practicum or experiment. By
experiment, students can develop their ability to think critically, analyze, and evaluate a problem
(Isliyanti and Murdani, 2010, Murdani and Sutarno, 2011).
We often hear resistor in our life every day. Each electronic component always has a resistor.
Resistor is a conductor wire. The function of the resistor is as resistance or a resistor of incoming
current (Ismail, 1995; Soeharto, 1992; Young and Fredman, 2004). This paper discusses about the
physics learning process based on experiment. In this learning, students are asked to solve a
problem, analyze and evaluate the results of experiment about characteristics of resistance, voltage
and current in the resistor circuit. In this experiment, students study some circuit of resistor such as
single, series, parallel and combination series-parallel. The students make own circuit and directly
measured the voltage, electricity current and the equivalent resistance for each circuit.
The First, the research is done by making the concept of the experiment in the form of handy
guides or lab manual. The purpose of the experiment referred to SK: (3) and KD (3.2). The purpose
of the experiment is to determine/verify the characteristics of the circuit resistor series, parallel and
series-parallel combination and apply Ohm's law in the experiments.
Three resistors can be arranged into 4 circuits. They are 3 resistors on the series circuit; 3
resistors on the parallel circuit; combination circuit of 2 series and 1 parallel resistor; and
combination circuit of 2 parallel and 1 series resistor. Based on Ohm's law, the research methods
used in this practicum or experiment is giving electric potential difference on the resistor then an
electric current will flow from high potential to low potential (Giancoli, 1998; Sears and
Zemansky, 1994; Tipler, 1996).
In the first experiment, three pieces of resistors arranged in series circuits with the following
instruction: (a) Take three identical resistors (has a resistance equal of 1000 Ohm), (b) row three
resistor in series, and then measure the equivalent resistance to 3 resistors with an ohmmeter, (c)

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

apply 3 volts electrical potential difference at the two ends of the series resistor wire, measuring
the voltage in each resistor using a voltmeter, and the current flowing using ammeters.
The second arrangement is parallel circuit of three resistors. Experiment steps are the same as
that of the first experiment and differ only by replacing series circuit into parallel circuit. The third
experiment is combination circuit of 2 series and 1 parallel circuit. And the fourth experiment is
combination circuit of 2 parallel and 1 series resistor.
In this experiment three identical resistors were used, that means they have an equal resistance
value of 1000 . Resistor of 1000 was used to minimize the influence of the internal resistance
of the multimeter because multimeter were used as an instrument to measure of the resistance, the
voltage and electric current in the resistor circuit. The characteristic of resistance, voltage and
electric current have been tested experimentally. By using 3 V voltage, the expected results of
resistance and electric current characteristics measured by students were (a) (3000 250) and
(100 2.5) 10-5 A for the series circuit of 3 resistor, (b) (350 25) and (850 25) 10-5 A for the
parallel circuit of 3 resistor, (c) (650 25) and (450 25) 10-5 A for the combination circuit of 2
series and 1 parallel resistor, and (d) (1500 50) and (200 2.5) 10-5 A for the combination
circuit of 2 parallel and 1 series resistor. This experimental testing is done directly by students on
the learning process, so that learning can be effective especially on scientific attitude and
knowledge transfer.
The Second, the author collaborated with science teacher at a junior high school in
Singkawang City to apply an experiment in learning. Writers and teachers jointly create learning
scenarios or RPP for SK (3) and KD (3.2). Indicators of learning are: (1) Mention component of
electrical circuit, (2) Describe the function of electrical components, (3) Mention the type of
electrical circuit, (4) stringing and determine the characteristics of resistance, voltage, and electrical
current in the circuit resistor in series, parallel and series-parallel combination, (5) Mention Ohm's
law, (6) Writing Ohm's law formulas, (7) Calculate the electric current with Ohm's law and
compared with the results of ammeters, and (8) explain the definition of electrical resistance.
The aims of learning through experimental methods for students were to analyzed the dynamic
electrical experiments in the series and its application in daily life. Activities in Scenario Learning
were: (1) in the introduction activity, the teacher gave apperception and pre-test, (2) in the main
activity, the teacher gave the material shortly, experiment modules and students performed
experiments, filled the table observations and answered the questions on the experiment module,
(3) in the closing activity, the teacher gave the post-test and reinforcement learning material or
students concluded the learning material together with the teacher.
Pre-test: (1) There are three pieces of identical resistors of 1000 Ohm, arranged on series,
connected with a voltage of 3 volts. Determine: (a) the equivalent resistance of the circuit in the
series, (b) voltage on each resistor, and (c) the electric current flowing in each resistor with Ohm's
law, and (2) Determine the same thing if the resistor is parallelized. Post-test: (1) There are three
pieces of identical resistors of 100 Ohm, connected with a voltage of 6 volts. Determine: (a) the
equivalent resistance of the circuit in the series, (b) voltage on each resistor, and (c) the electric
current flowing in each resistor with Ohm's law, and (2) Determine the same thing if the resistor
arranged in parallel.
Pre-test score of 25 students is (2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8, 9, 9,
and 9). Post-test score of 25 students is (6, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 12, 12,
12, 12, 14, 14, 14, and 15). Average Scores of pre-test is 4.96 and post-test is 10.32.
Maximum score is 17. Improved cognitive learning results obtained from the average score
pre-test and post-test were normalized by testing the normalized gain (N-gain) using equation (1)
(Hake, 1999).

= (1)

By is normalized gain (N-gain). The criteria of N-gain is given in Table 1.

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Table 1 The criteria of N-gain (Hake, R.R., 1999)


N-gain Criteria
0.7 High
0.3 < 0.7 Medium
< 0.3 Low

Calculated N-gain value by using equation (1) is 0.45. Based on Table 1, value of 0.45 gives
information that there has been an increasing in cognitive learning outcomes by medium criteria.
Student learning by experiment method can improve their cognitive learning outcomes in medium
criteria on SK: (3) and KD (3.2) or on the topics dynamic electricity and Ohms law.

4. Conclusion
The characteristic of resistance, voltage and electric current have been tested experimentally.
By using 3 V voltage, the characteristics of resistance and electric current on the series circuit of 3
resistors were (3000 250) and (100 2.5) 10-5 A. On the parallel circuit of 3 resistors, the
values were (350 25) and (850 25) 10-5 A. On the combination circuit of 2 series and 1
parallel resistors, the values were (650 25) and (450 25) 10 -5 A. Lastly, on the combination
circuit of 2 parallel and 1 series resistors, the value were (1500 50) and (200 2.5) 10-5 A. This
experimental testing was done directly by students on the learning process, so that learning can be
effective especially in term of scientific attitude and knowledge transfer. Average Scores of pre-test
was 4.96 and that of post-test was 10.32. N-gain value of 0.45, gives information that student
learning by experiment method can improve their cognitive learning outcomes in medium criteria
on the topics dynamic electricity and Ohms law.

Acknowledgements
Our thanks to Drs. Andi Mursidi, M.Si, the chairman of STKIP Singkawang who helped the
foundation during this research and publication in International Conference on Mathematics,
Sciences, and Educations 2015, Mataram University, Lombok, 2015.

References
Giancoli, D.C.(1998). Physics 2Fifth Edition. Jakarta: Erlangga Publishing.
Hake, R.R. (1999). Analyzing Change/Gain Scores. USA. Department of Physics. Indiana
University
Isliyanti, A., Murdani, E., et al. (2010). Pembelajaran Praktikum Fisika Berbasis Penelitian:
Karakteristik Kawat Pada Sekering Pengaman. Bandung: Prosiding Seminar Nasional Fisika
2010.
Ismail, B.(1995). Rangkaian Listrik Jilid 1. Bandung: ITB Bandung Publishing.
Murdani, E., Sutarno, D. (2011). Karakterisasi Kawat Untuk Sekering Pengaman. Bandung:
Prosiding Simposium Nasional Inovasi Pembelajaran dan Sains (SNIPS) 2011.
Permendiknas. (2006). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia Nomor 22
Tahun 2006 Tentang Standar Isi Untuk Satuan Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah. Jakarta.
Sears, F.W., Zemansky, M.W.(1994). Physics for University 2. Bina Cipta Publishing.
Soeharto. (1992). Fisika Dasar II Listrik-Magnet. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Tipler, P.A.(1996). Physics for Science and Technic Third Edition. Jakarta: Erlangga Publishing.
Young, H.D., Fredman, R.A.(2004). Physics for University 2 Tenth Edition.Jakarta: Erlangga
Publishing.

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OPE-10
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)
Model with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Approach
on Prospective Physics Teacher
Endang Purwaningsih, Muhammad Nur, and Wasis

Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang No 5 Malang Jawa Timur,


endang.purwaningsih.fmipa@um.ac.id

Abstract-This study aims to describe constituent latent variables and its contribution on TPACK. TPACK
are formed by six latent variables, namely: Technological Knowledge (TK), Pedagogical Knowledge (PK),
Content Knowledge (CK), Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), Pedagogical Content Knowledge
(PCK), and the Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK). The subject of study were 78 prospective
physics teacher enrolled in Learning Program Development of Physics Course and would conduct teaching
practice in school. Data were obtained with a questionnaire and analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling
(SEM) approach. The results showed that constituent latent variable gave contribution positively. TCK gave
the greatest contribution to TPACKs prospective physics teacher.

Keywords: technological pedagogical knowledge, structural equation model, prospective Physics


teacher

1. Introduction
Based on RI Law No. 14 2005, the teacher is a profession, so that a teacher must be a
professional and have knowledge that reflected in teacher competency. A professional teacher
should understand about the Pedagogical and Content Knowledge, as well as having specific
knowledge that integration between them and this is known by the Pedagogical Content
Knowledge (PCK) (Shulman, 1986; Lee, 2008). PCK is an essential component for professional
development of teachers, as stated in the National Science Education Standards (National Research
Council, 1996:62) The results of the study indicate that in order to improve the professionalism of
teachers, one factor is enriching PCK teachers (Loughran, Berry, & Mulhall, 2006).
The development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) had an incredible
impact on the world of education, especially in use of computers and Internet. Based on PCK
which has been found, Mishra and Kohler added a component that is knowledge of the technology
that will give an important role to produce effective teaching (Mishra and Koehler, 2006: 1023).
Integration between content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK) and technological
knowledge (TK) forms the theoretical framework TPACK (pronounced T-PACK). The integration
is shown in Figure 1. It is seen that in the model: (1) there are three main components, namely the
PK, TK and CK; (2) forming the interaction among them is the TCK, TPK, and PCK; and (3)
TPACK as the heart. In Figure 1 also appears that the TPACK are within the scope of (the dotted
line) "context" certain

.
Figure 1 TPACK framework and its Components(http://tpack.org)

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Based on the literature, seven construction shows that Technological Knowledge (TK) is
knowledge of how to operate computers and relevant software. Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) is
knowledge of how to design a lesson plan, utilize individual differences, design methods of
learning, manage a class, and plan an assessment. The Content Knowledge (CK) is knowledge of
the content of material to be covered or taught. PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) is
knowledge about ways to teach a content specific material so that the material easy to understand
students. TCK (Technological Content Knowledge) is knowledge about use of technology so that it
can create new representations for the content of material specific or how content matter can be
visualized through the aid of technology. An example of application of the TCK is using computer
simulations to show the movement of a combination of two waves. TPK (Technological
Pedagogical Knowledge) is knowledge of how various technologies can facilitate pedagogical
approaches such as the use of asynchronous discussion forums are used in teaching and to
understand that the use of technology can change the way teachers teach. Technological
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is a knowledge needed by teachers to facilitate student
learning on specific material content through pedagogy and appropriate technology (Cox &
Graham, 2009; Mishra and Koehler, 2006; Shulman, 1986). The exposure indicates that the
framework TPACK potentially provide a new direction for teachers to integrate ICT in learning
(Hewitt, 2008).
This study aims to determine the structural equation model that describes the contribution of
the TK, PK, CK, TPK, TCK, and PCK towards TPACK. Based on the modeling, the appropriate
form of development can be designed the TPACK. This study used the following hypothesis. (1)
there is a significant contribution between the TK to TPK; (2) there is a significant contribution
between the TCK to TK; (3) there is a significant contribution between the PK to TPK; (4) there is
a significant contribution between the PK to PCK; (5) there is a significant contribution between
the CK to TCK; (6) there is a significant contribution between the PCK to CK; (7) there is a
significant contribution between the TK to TPACK; (8) there is a significant contribution between
the PK to TPACK; (9) there is a significant contribution the TPACK to CK; (10) there is a
significant contribution between the TPK to TPACK; (11) there is a significant contribution
between the TCK to TPACK; and (12) there is a significant contribution between the PCK to
TPACK.

2. Method
This study is a survey research. The population was 100 people prospective physics teachers
enrolled in the Development of Physics Learning Program course at Physics Department,
Universitas Negeri Malang Indonesia. 80 samples were determined by the formula of Taro Yamane
(Riduwan, 2007: 65). Randomization used Randomizer Research Program.
Research used self-assessment instrument (self-assessment) on ability of the seven
components. This instrument was a modification of instruments that have been developed by
Schmidt et al. (2009) and Kohet al. (2011). Latent variable exogenous the TK were represented by
14 indicator variables, latent variables exogenous the PK were represented by 8 indicator variables,
latent variables exogenous the CK were represented by 7 indicator variables, latent variables
exogenous the PK were represented by 8 indicator variables, latent variables endogenous the TPK
were represented by 7 indicator variables, variable the TCK endogenous latent variables were
represented by five indicators, the PCK endogenous latent variables were represented by 9
indicator variables and endogenous latent variables TPACK were represented by three indicator
variables. Outer model describe a specification relationship between latent variables with the
indicator, while the inner model describe a specification relationship between the latent variables
(Jaya and Sumertajaya, 2008: 122). The design of structural models (inner model) is shown in
Figure 2

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Figure 2 Structural models of TPACK

Path diagram consists of structural models between the latent variables are represented by
inner model, and measurement models of each indicator variable of latent variables are represented
by the outer models. Research path diagram is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Path Diagram Research

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To examine the amount of the contribution of the causal relationship between the variables of
latent exogenous to endogenous, researchers used the Partial Least Square (PLS) method. Selection
of PLS method due to the small study sample size of less than 100 (Jaya and Sumertajaya, 2008:
119). Step analysis of the data in the PLS methods, among others: (1) designing a model of
structural (inner model), (2) designing measurement models (outer model), (3) constructing the
path diagram, (4) converting the path diagram into a system of equations, (5) goodness of Fit, and
(6) hypothesis testing (Jaya and Sumertajaya, 2008: 122-127). Calculations and data analysis
research carried out by Smart-PLS software 3.2 version.

3. Result
Data analysis was conducted by testing the goodness of fit models with software Smart-PLS -
PLS Algorithm to obtain several indicator variables that have a loading factor of less than 0.7.
Furthermore, indicator variables with a loading factor of less than 0.7 is removed (in-trimming) of
the model and the goodness of fit models tested again. The result of all variables indicators have
loading factor> 0.7, so the model is valid convergent. Path diagram model of TPACK is shown in
Figure 4.

Figure 4 Path Diagram of TPACK Model after Trimming

The results of goodness of fit testing showed that the model TPACK tested; (1) convergent
validity, it is shown by the value of AVE for all latent variables more than 0.5 and the loading
factor of more than 0.7; (2) discriminant validity, it is shown by the cross loading analysis which
shows that the ratio of the value of the latent variables loading factor is greater than the other; and
(3) reliable, it is shown by the value of the entire composite reliability latent variables is greater
than 0.7. From these conditions it was decided that the model fit, so the hypothesis testing can be
conducted using this model.

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Hypothesis testing is done by software Smart-PLS - bootstrapping. If the tstatistic greater than or
equal to ttable by 1.96, the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is
accepted (Jogiyanto, 2011: 72-73). The result of hypothesis testing is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Results of Testing Hypothesis


No Direct Impact coefficient Path tstatistic Decision Description
1. TK to TPK 0,914 12,851 H0 rejected Positive effect, significant
2. TK to TCK 0,828 8,461 H0 rejected Positive effect, significant
3. PK to TPK -0,040 0,457 H0 accepted No positive effect
4. PK to PCK 0,411 2,593 H0 rejected Positive effect, significant
5. CK to TCK 0,103 0,986 H0 accepted No positive effect
6. CK to PCK 0,498 2,997 H0 rejected Positive effect, significant
7. TK to TPACK 0,502 3,426 H0 rejected Positive effect, significant
8. PK to TPACK -0,033 0,377 H0 accepted No positive effect
9. CK to TPACK 0,233 2,044 H0 rejected Positive effect, significant
10. TPK to TPACK -0,037 0,328 H0 accepted No positive effect
11. TCK to TPACK -0,081 -0,101 H0 accepted No positive effect
12. PCK to TPACK 0,356 2,759 H0 rejected Positive effect, significant

From the hypothesis test is known that the null hypothesis for the hypothesis third, fifth,
eighth, tenth, and eleventh accepted, whereas for the others rejected. Hypothesis testing results
show that: (1) the latent variables of the TPK positively influenced by the TK; (2) the latent
variable of the TCK positively influenced by the TK; (3) the latent variables of the PCK positively
influenced by the PK and the CK, and the CK more positively and significant contribution to the
PCK; (4) the latent variables of TPACK positively influenced by the TK and the CK, the latent
variables of the TK most positively contribution to the TPACK; and (5) the TPACK latent
variables is affected positively by the PCK. Path diagram for significance can be shown in Figure
5.

Figure 5. Path Diagram for Significance of TPACK

Based on magnitude of the path coefficient of the TPACK path diagram, the components that
have the greatest contribution to the TPACK is the TK that were represented by 13 indicators. If
seen from the average score of the TK indicator of 2.9, it means that prospective physics teachers
have the ability to use technology (computer and internet) with different variations. This ability is
very helpfulprospective physics teachers in developing the TPACK. This shows that the integration
of the TK into the learning (the PK) also need to be strengthened.
The results also showed that the PK, TPK and TCK do not contribute to the TPACK. The PK
contributions to the TPACK indirectly obtained by the PCK. The amount of contribution the PCK
against TPACK too small. To develop the TPACK with optimal results, there should be the
contribution of each component. Therefore, it is necessary to develop learning model that further
strengthen the content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge to reinforce the PCK. One way that

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

can be done to strengthen the PCK for prospective physics teacher is by Content Representation
(CoRe) and Professional Experience Repertoire (Pap-eR) (Loughran et al., 2006).

4. Conclusion
Based on the research can be concluded as follows: (1) there is a significant contribution
between the TK to the TPK; (2) there is a significant contribution between the TCK to the TK; (3)
there is no significant contribution between the PK to the TPK; (4) there is a significant
contribution between the PK to the PCK; (5) there is no significant contribution between the CK to
the TCK; (6) there is a significant contribution between the PCK to the CK; (7) there is a
significant contribution between the TK to the TPACK; (8) there is no significant contribution
between the PK to the TPACK; (9) there is a significant contribution between the TPACK to the
CK; (10) there is no significant contribution between the TPK to the TPACK; (11) there is no
significant contribution between the TCK to the TPACK; and (12) there is a significant
contribution between the PCK to the TPACK.
To further this research, it is expected to have all components on TPACK have a balanced
contribution. Therefore, it is necessary to design a learning model that can improve the PCK, or
integrate the knowledge content (CK) and pedagogical knowledge (PK) or integrate technological
knowledge (TK) with PK and CK thus to contribute to the TCK and TPK.

References
Cox, S., & Graham, C. R. (2009). Diagramming TPACK in practice: using and elaborated
model of the TPACK framework to analyze and depict teacher knowledge. TechTrends,
53(5), 6069.
Hewitt, J. (2008). Reviewing the Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge
(TPCK) for educators. Canadian Journal of Science. Mathematics, and Technology
Education, 8(4),355-360
Jaya, I Gede Nyoman Minsra and I Made Sumertajaya. (2008). Structural Equation Modelling with
Partial Least Square. Paper are presented at the National Seminar of Mathematics and
Mathematics Education, 2008. Mathematic Education Department Universitas Negeri
Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, 28 November 2008.
Jogiyanto. (2011). Konsep dan Aplikasi Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Berbasis Varian
dalam Penelitian Bisnis. Yogyakarta: Unit Penerbit dan Percetakan STIM YKPN Yogyakarta.
Koh, J.H.L dkk. (2011). Modelling Primary School Preservice Teachers Technological
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for Meaningful Learning with Information and
Communication Technoliogy (ICT). Computers and Education, 57(1), 1184-1193.
Lee, Eunmi. (2008). Experienced Secondary Science Teachers Representation of Pedagogical
Content Knowledge. International Journal of Science Education, 30(10):1343-1363.
Loughran, J.J, dkk. (2006). Understanding and Developing Science Teachers
Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers.
Mishra, P. dan Koehler, M.J. (2006) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge : A
Framework for Teacher Knowladge. Teachers College Record, 108(6):10171054..
National Research Council. (1996). Executive Summary of National Science Education Standards,
(Online), (http://executivesummary.pdf), accessed on 15 March 2012.
Riduwan. (2007). Metode dan Teknik Menyusun Tesis. Bandung: Penerbit Alfabeta.
Schmidt, dkk. (2009). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): The
Development and Validation of an Assessment Instrument for Preservice Teachers. Journal of
Research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123-129.
Shulman, L.S. (1986). Paradigms and Research Programs in the Study of Teaching: A
Contemporary Perspective. In M.C. Wittrock (Ed), Handbook of Research on Teaching (3rd
edition).NewYork: Macmillan.

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OPE-11
Prospective Physics Teacher Ability to Design Lesson
Plan of Physics Subject in Secondary High School in
Term of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge
(TPACK) Framework
Endang Purwaningsih and Lia Yuliati

Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang No 5 Malang endang.purwaningsih.fmipa@um.ac.id

Abstract-This study is a qualitative descriptive research aimed to describe the ability of prospective physics
teachers in designing a lesson plan on mechanical wave subject matter for secondary high school students in
grade XI. The study was conducted on prospective physics teachers at Physics Department, Universitas
Negeri Malang Indonesia, who enrolled in Development of Learning Physics Program Course and
preparation for teaching practice in school. Data was obtained from an assessment instruments for lesson
plan, questionnaires to measure each component of TPACK, and an interview guide. The results showed that
prospective physics teachers have adequate ability to use technology, especially internet and computers for
physics teaching and learning and can choose learning methods and strategies in accordance with the
teaching materials. Prospective physics teachers understanding of the curriculum and teaching materials,
especially essential materials, still experiencing problems that require further practice. The results of this
study recommends to develop a learning models for prospective physics teachers to plan and implement a
learning that strengthens ability of choosing essential materials, to integrate know, pedagogy and technology
in learning, and to plan an authentic assessment varied.

Keywords: lesson plan, prospective Physics teacher, technological pedagogical content knowledge

1. Introduction
One duty of teachers as professionals is to plan and implement the learning process, assess
and evaluate learning outcomes, improve, develop academic qualifications and competence on an
on going basis in accordance with science, technology, and art development (by Law of Indonesia).
Lesson plans can serve as a guide for teachers and students in order to implement of learning leads
to the achievement of learning goals, and reduce trial and error activities. Awareness and
responsibility of teachers to prepare lesson plans will be the benchmark for effective learning
(Yaumi, 2013). In fact, many (67%) of teachers who are already certified as a professional teacher,
still considers the RPP as administrative activities (Purwaningsih, 2010). This was also the case in
other subjects. For example, chemistry teacher at the North Sumatra design lesson plan also not
optimal (68.18%). RPP has not fully reflected the characteristic as desired learning curriculum
(Silaban, 2011). These findings indicate that there are still obstacles experienced by teachers in
preparing lesson plans.
Based on the condition that occurs in teachers in designing lesson plans, the problem in this
study is: what is the prospective physics teachers ability in designing lesson plans based on
framework TPACK? What is the prospective physics teacher ability toward TPACK and its
components according to the self-assessment? What follow-up and what can be done to overcome
these problems?
Designing lesson plans is defined as process of arranging the subject matter, using of
instructional media, using approaches and teaching methods, and taking measures to achieve the
goals (Majid, 2011). The principle of lesson plans preparation on the curriculum 2013 include:
contemporary-oriented, develop independence, student-centered, and using ICT. Lesson plan
components consisting of: identity of the school, subject, and grade/semesters; Time Allocation;
Core competencies, basic competencies indicators of achievement of competencies; learning
materials; Learning Activities; assessment; and media/tools, materials, and learning resources.

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Relating to use of technology in learning, Mishra and Koehler (2006) integrated


Shulmaninvention (1986) on the PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) with technological
knowledge (TK) to become TPCK. The integration between the content knowledge (CK),
pedagogical knowledge (PK) and technological knowledge (TK) establish a framework TPCK. For
ease of pronunciation of the acronym used TPACK (T-PACK).The integration resulted in seven
components, namely the PK.TK, TCK, TPK, PCK and TPACK. Technological Knowledge (TK) is
the knowledge of how to operate computers and relevant software. Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) is
the knowledge of how to plan a instructional, overcome individual differences, using teaching
methods, classroom management, and assessment plan. Content Knowledge (CK) is the knowledge
of the content of material to be covered or taught. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) is the
knowledge on ways to teach a particular content material so that the material is easily understood
by the students. Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) is the knowledge of the use of
technology so that it can create new representations for the content specific material or how the
material content can be visualized through the aid of technology. An example application of the
TCK is using computer simulations to show the movement of a combination of two waves.
Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) is the knowledge of how various technologies can
facilitate pedagogica lapproaches such as the use of asynchronous discussion forums in teaching
and to understand that the use of technology can change the way teachers teach. Technological
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is the knowledge needed by prospective physics
teachers to facilitate student learning on specific material content through pedagogy and
appropriate technology. The exposure indicates that the framework TPACK potentially provide a
new direction for teachers in integrating ICT in learning (Hewitt, 2008). TPACK has asystematic
patterntohelp prospectivephysics teachersarrangethe relationship between technology, pedagogy
and subject matter in designing instructional activities. The TPACK very flexible if combined with
innovative learning model

2. Method
This study is a descriptive research. The population of study was 100 prospective physics
teacher that enrolled in Development of Physics Education Program Course at Physics Department
Universitas Negeri Malang Indonesia, in 2015-2016.The preparation of lesson plans was done in
groups, each group of 3-4 students using simple harmonic vibration subject matter. In this case,
reseachers assess 10 lesson plans .
The instrument used a questionnaire for self assessment against TPACK components. The
instrument used is a modification of instruments that have been developed by Schmidt et al. (2009)
and Koh et al. (2011). In each component is developed a number of indicators. The number of
indicators for each component: the TK=14, the PK=8, the CK=7, the PCK=9, the TCK=5, the
TPK=7, and the TPACK=3.
Another instrument in the form of sheets of assessment lessonplans are developed and
modified based on APKG1. These instruments are used to assess a lesson plan that had been
developed by prospective physics teacher. Assessment instrument of lesson plans are grouped into
7 categories, namely: ability to formulate indicators, ability to organize subject material, ability to
choose ICT, ability to determine learning strategies, ability to design learning activities, ability to
determine learning sources, and completeness ofassessment instruments. Data were analyzed by
simple statistics.

3. Result and Discussion


Data from self assessment questionnaire each prospective physics teachers and average
score for each components of TPACK are shown in Table1-7. Items that have the highest and
lowest scores for the TKcomponents are presented in Table1.

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Table 1 Scores the TK of Prospective Physics Teachers


Statement Item Average Criteria
Scores
Highest Score The ability to use a word processing program 3,5 Very good
Lowest Score The ability to create their own learningweb 2,08 sufficient
2,9 good

The TK average of prospective physics teachers is good. The most ability of prospective physics
teachers is a word processing program. Prospective physics teachers do not experience difficulties
in using technology in learning. Technology is dynamic, continue to expand (Mishra and Koehler,
2006), and very rapid development of technology. Therefore, prospective physics teachers need to
always adapt and improve themselves, adhere and study the development of new technologies. This
type of technology that is still an obstacle for prospective physics teachers are creating their
ownweb. Other capabilities are dominated the prospective teacheris using a Moodle to
communicate.

Table 2 Scores the PK of Prospective Physics Teachers


NO Statement Item Average Criteria
Scores
Highest The Abilityto plangroup activitiesforstudents 3,2 good
Score
Lowest The abilityto develop instruments tovarioustypes 2,4 sufficient
Score ofassessment
2,9 good

The PK average of prospective physics teachers relatively is good. The PK is the knowledge of
how to plan learning, teaching methods, classroom management, and assessment plan. Prospective
physics teachers need to improve their ability to develop and arrange instruments of various types
of assessment rubrics. Prospective physics teacher perform self-assessments and the results show
that they have a good knowledge of pedagogy. In authentic assessment, prospective physics teacher
require assistance in preparing instruments and rubric.

Table 3. Scores the CK of Prospective Physics Teachers


NO Statement Item Average Criteria
Scores
Highest The ability to explain why matter physics is important to 2,8 good
Score learn
Lowest The ability to think as an expert on the physics of new 2,2 sufficient
Score content
2,5 good

The CK average of prospective physics teachers relatively is good. The CK is the knowledge of the
physics of material that will be taught to students. This knowledge must be mastered well by
prospective physics teachers. Prospective physics teachers also need to know where the essential
concepts thats hould be taught to students. Mastery of teaching materials is an absolute
requirement that must be owned by prospective physics teachers (Van Driel et al., 1998).

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Table 4. Scores the PCK of Prospective Physics Teachers


NO Statement Item Average Criteria
Scores
Highest The ability to design lesson plan 3 good
Score
Lowest The ability to 2,2 sufficient
Score identifyignoranceandmisconceptionsexperienced by
studentsona particularmatter
2,5 good

Prospective teachers need guidance in developing the capabilities of its PCK. PCK is a
unique way to teach certain material so that students easily understood. According to some
researchers, PCK will evolve through experience and expertise for teaching in the classroom (Van
Driel et al., 2001; Williams, 2012; Rozenszajn and Yarden, 2014). According to Magnusson,
Krajcik and Borko (Williams, 2012), the PCK consists of five components, namely, orientation of
content, knowledge of curriculum, knowledge of assessment, knowledge of students' understanding
of subject matter, knowledge of learning strategies. By understanding the level of the PCK,
prospective physics teachers can determine the direction learning is done to help students achieve
the goal(Rozenszajn and Yarden, 2014). For prospective physics teachers, exercises to develop the
PCK can be done by outlining the content material into Content Representation (CoRe) dan
Pedagogical and Professional-experience Repertoire (Pap-eR) that is a framework that is
complementary (Bertram and Loughran, 2012)

Table 5 Scores the TCK of Prospective Physics Teachers


NO Statement Item Average Criteria
Scores
Highest The abilityto implement learning process using the media 3,2 good
Score technologies such as multimedia, LCD projectors, computers
and others
Lowest The ability to facilitate students to use technology to build 2,9 good
Score different kinds of knowledge representation
3 good

The TCK is a blend of teaching materials with technology, how technology can represent and
visualize specific content so that the content becomes easily understood. Prospective physics
teacher havea good ability in the TCK. They can create a simulation or animation to show some
physical phenomena

Table 6 Scores the TPK of Prospective Physics Teachers


NO Statement Item Average Criteria
Scores
Highest The ability to adapt learning activities that use technologyin 2,7 good
Score teaching physics
Lowest The ability to select and use technology to communicate and 2,6 good
Score discuss beyond learning
2,7 good

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

The TPK is the knowledge of how various technology can be used in teaching and to understanding
that using technology may change the way teachers teach (Mishra &Koehler, 2006:1028). For
example, the use of blended learning, moodle, web and so on.

Table 7 Scores the TPACK of Prospective Physics Teachers


NO Statement Item Average Criteria
Scores
Highest The ability to select technology to visualize abstract physics of 2,9 good
Score matter in a particular way
Lowest The ability to use technology to monitor student activity 2,7 good
Score outside the hours of face-to-face on the model of project-based
learning
2,8 good

The TPACK is the knowledge to integrate technology into the learning material so that it becomes
an integral activity. TPACK is seen as a dynamic framework, because the development is so rapid
technological changes.The data indicated that prospective physics teachers have been able to apply
TPACK in teaching and learning of physics.
Results of the assessment of learning plan that developed in accordance with the
instrument shown inFigure 1. It appears that, organizing categories of material, the completeness of
assessment instruments, ability to determine the source of learning, ability to design the final
activity remains low.

4
3.3 3.4 3.4
3.5 3.2 3.1
3 2.7 2.7
2.5 2.3 2.2
2 1.8
1.5
1
0.5
0

Figure 1 Chart of Lesson Plan Components

The assessment results of lesson plan indicated that prospective teacher ability is still low.
Prospective teachers need guidance in developinga lesson plan. This can be done by giving course
material based on prior knowledge of content and pedagogical knowledge.The results of self-
assessment of TPACK components showed that prospective teachers ability still weak on the CK
and PCK components. This relates with content knowledge of physics. On knowledge of the
technology, its ability is very good so that knowledge becomesa very valuable potential.The results

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

showed that prospective physics teacher is difficult to determine the essential material for learning,
to arrange higher order thinking assessment, and to develop attitudes and skills assessment rubrics.
Based on Education Law No.14of 2005, professional teachers must have pedagogical,
personality, social and professional competences. Knowledge of teaching materials is a prerequisite
that must be mastered the knowledge of teachers although such authorization cannot guarantee
develop PCK (Van Drielet al., 1998, Shulman, 1986).

One of the teacher ability of professional competence is acquisition of concept, structure, and
scientific mindset that supported teaching subjects. Concept acquisition includes understanding of
characteristics and substance of teaching materials, teaching materials, and disciplines concerned. It
is useful to verify concept and substance of learning materials adjustment that will be taught.

4. Conclusion
The ability of prospective physics teachers in designing lesson plans has been good for some
components such as: formulating indicators, choosing a computer and internet-based media,
defining learning strategies and methods, and designing learning activities. Components of lesson
plans still need to be trained, include organizing subject materials, designing learning activity,
determining learning sources, compiling the completeness of assessment instruments and columns,
appropriateness assessment instruments with competence achievement indicator.While the ability
of prospective physics teachers toward the TPACK is good, such as the TCK, TPK and TPACK.
Several components that need to be improved for example: the TK, PK, CK and PCK. This study
recommend to develop a learning model that can improve the ability to organize subject matter and
continue to use the PCK in integrating ICT in learning and learning.

References
Abdul Majid.(2011). Perencanaan Pembelajaran Mengembangkan Standar Kompetensi
Guru.Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya
Bertram, A.,& Loughran, J. (2012). Science Teachers Views on CoRes and Pap-eRs as a
Framework for Articulating and developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Research in
Science Education . 42, p 1027-1047
Hewitt, J.(2008). Reviewing the handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge
(TPCK) for educators. Canadian Journal of Science. Mathematics, and Technology Education,
8(4), p 355-360

Koh, J.H.L et al. (2011). Modelling Primary School Preservice Teachers Technological
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for Meaningful Learning with Information and
Communication Technoliogy (ICT). Computers and Education, 57(1), p. 1184-1193.
Lee, Eunmi. (2008). Experienced Secondary Science Teachers Representation of Pedagogical
Content Knowledge. International Journal of Science Education, 30(10):1343-1363.
Loughran, J.J, et al (2006). Understanding and Developing Science Teachers Pedagogical
Content Knowledge. Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers.
Mishra, P. and Koehler, M.J. (2006) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge : A
Framework for Teacher Knowladge. Teachers College Record, 108(6):10171054..
Muhammad Yaumi.(2013). Prinsip-Prinsip Desain Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Kencana
National Research Council. (1996). Executive Summary of National Science Education Standards,
(Online), (http://executivesummary.pdf), diakses pada tanggal 15 Maret 2012.
Presiden RI. (2005). Undang Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang Guru dan
Dosen. Jakarta: Kementerian Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia RI.
Purwaningsih, Endang. (2010). Profil Pembelajaran Fisika SMP di Malang. Hasil penelitian, belum
dipublikasikan
Schmidt, et al (2009). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): The
Development and Validation of an Assessment Instrument for Preservice Teachers. Journal of
Research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123-129.

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY- 145


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Shulman, L.S. (1986). Paradigms and Research Programs in the Study of Teaching: A
Contemporary Perspective. In M.C. Wittrock (Ed), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd
edition). New York: Macmillan.
Silaban, S., (2011),Kajian Pelaksanaan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) Kimia SMA
Negeri di Sumatera Utara. www.digilib.unimed.ac.id.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OPE-12
Analyses of Students Answers toward PISA-like Test
with Indonesian Contexts in Physics Education of Faculty
Teacher Training and Education Sriwijaya University
Rahmi Susanti*, Riyanto, Ismet, Hartono, and Effendi Nawawi

Biology Education FKIP Sriwijaya University, Jln. Raya Palembang-Prabumulih Indralaya, km 32


Ogan Ilir-Indonesia, mamahabnur@yahoo.co.id

Abstract-The aim of research is to describe students answers toward PISA-like tests with Indonesian
contexts. The research involved 35 students that consisted of 11 groups. The total of PISA-like tests are five
essay items.. The result of research showed that: 1) 72.7% of studentss answers related to temperature and
dangerous elements in volcano dust toward crop plants; 2) 36% of students answers related to waves and
frequencies to solve question: effects of earthquake that caused differences of level distroys. 3) 27% of
students answers related to kinds of gases that produced in the volcano that reacted with rain water to solve
question: effects of earthquake toward acid rain; 4) 36% of students answers related to lack of diversity and
poluttion to solve question: effect of vegetation destroys caused of smoke; and 5) only 18% of students
answers related to abilities of CaCl2 solution to bond smoke to solve question: function of CaCl 2 to reduce
smoke. The research was concluded that 80% of test items were not answered well based on answer keys.

Keywords: Analyses of students answers, PISA test, Indonesian context

1. Introduction
Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international study that
measures the ability of 15-year-old students in reading literacy, mathematics, and science. PISA is
a study that is held every three years, starting in 2000, then 2003, 2006, 2009, and the last in 2012.
Implementation of PISA is sponsored by the countries who are members of the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), including the one that is the country of
Indonesia. PISA is sponsored by OECD, an intergovernmental organization of 30 industrialized
countries based in Paris, France. PISA uses the term literacy in each subject to indicate a focus on
the application of knowledge and ability. For the 2003 assessment, scientific literacy is defined as
the ability to use scientific knowledge, to identify questions, and to draw conclusions based on the
evidence to understand and help make decisions about the nature and the changes made to it
through human activity (OECD, 2003).
Associated with this scientific literacy, educators, scientists, and policy makers agree that
the development of scientific literacy of students is an important goal in science education.
Scientific literacy has been defined in various ways, all of which emphasize the ability of students
utilize scientific knowledge in real-world situations (AAS, 1990). Furthermore, it is stated that
scientific literacy is one's own scientific knowledge and use that knowledge to identify questions,
acquire new knowledge, explain scientific phenomena, and draw conclusions based on the evidence
on issues relating to science (OECD, 2012).
For assessment purposes, PISA consists of four interrelated aspects: 1) aspect of context is
recognizing life situations involving science and technology; 2) aspect of contentis to understand
the nature of knowledge based on scientific knowledge includes knowledge about nature and
knowledge about science itself; 3) aspect of competence is demonstrated scientific competencies
that include identifying scientific issues, explaining phenomena, scientific, and use of scientific
evidence; and 4) aspect of attitude is showing an interest in science, support for scientific inquiry,
and motivation to act responsibly towards, for example, natural resources and the environment
(OECD, 2012).
The results of an international assessment conducted by OECD, the science competencies
Indonesia always below average. In 2000 Indonesia was ranked 38th out of 41 participating

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countries, with a score of 393. The results obtained PISA 2003, Indonesia ranks 38 th out of 40
countries with a score of 395. In 2006, Indonesia ranks 50th out of 57 countries participants with a
score of 393. In 2009 Indonesia was ranked 60th out of 65 participating countries with a score of
383 (OECD, 2010). PISA results last held in 2012, Indonesia ranked 64th out of 65 participating
countries with a score of 382 (OECD, 2004; OECD, 2007; OECD, 2010; OECD, 2014).
Achievement of Indonesia is still very alarming, especially in science literacy. The average
score was below the average score of OECD member countries (500). From 2003 to 2015 the
average score for a science tends to go down, which is very worrying is the implementation of the
2012 PISA science literacy for the state of Indonesia is at the lowest position compared to the
previous year, both on the acquisition of a score and ranking among OECD member states.
Based on the analysis of the results of PISA 2009, found that of the six (6) levels of ability
are formulated in the study PISA, almost all learners Indonesia was only able to master the lesson
to level three (3) only, while the other countries involved in this study much reach level 4 (four), 5
(five), and 6 (six). This is a challenge that must be faced in education in Indonesia, and became one
of the factors for the development of the curriculum in 2013 primarily related to the deepening and
expansion of the material (Kemendikbud, 2014).
Reflecting on the results obtained in the PISA Indonesia shows science literacy students
aged 15 years is still very low. Low ability of scientific literacy is influenced by many factors,
among others, students, curriculum, teaching models and methods used by teachers, learning
resources, teaching materials, infrastructure and learning facilities, and mastery of materials science
by teachers. Learners Indonesia generally less trained in solving problems with characteristics such
as PISA questions. That at least can be seen from the examples of learning outcomes assessment
instruments. In general, the study presents the results of the assessment instrument which is
substantially less associated with the context of the life faced by learners and less facilitating
learners in expressing the process of thinking and arguing. This is in contrast to the characteristics
of the questions that the substance PISA contextual, demanding reasoning, argumentation, and
creativity in the finish (Wardhani and Rumiati, 2011). So, that teachers can train learners in
thinking to solve problems and apply in life, then the teacher should be trained. It can be started
from the preparation of teacher candidates studying at college.
Physic Education Program Study is part of Department of Mathematics and Natural
Science Education. Courses in the group Science (Physics, Chemistry, and Biology) equipped with
basic knowledge in the field of science that is basic physics, basic chemistry, and general biology.
Basic chemistry course is a compulsory course for students on all three study program. Through
this basic chemistry course, students attend lectures using problem-based learning model. Students
were trained how to solve the problem through a discourse given in lectures. Lecture began with a
group discussion to solve the problem, then proceed with a class discussion (Zulkardi, et al., 2014).
Based on the above background, then in this paper presents how the results of the analysis of
student answers to questions PISA with the Indonesian context.

2. Method
The research is a descriptive study that revealed about the results of the analysis of student
answers to similar questions PISA. The study involved 35 students of physical education class of
the academic year 2014/2015 the University of Sriwijaya FKIP that administer basic chemistry
courses as a research subject. Data retrieval tool in the form of equivalent PISA matter with the
Indonesian context. Problem is accompanied by two discourses, which consists of five questions
description. The data obtained were analyzed, presented in table form, described and interpreted.

3. Result and Discussion


In this study, two discourses, the Ring of Fire and Forest Fire, were presented. Discourse
about the Ring of Fire consists of three questions, while the discourse Forest Fire consists of two
questions. Both the discourse presented closely related to the condition of the Indonesian state in
the region of islands in the Pacific ring of fire ring. Then in the second discourse was closely
related to the condition of Indonesia, especially with the South Sumatra area which has a lot of peat
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swamp regularly every year there is a fire, especially in 2015 a fire broke out very badly. The first
discourse about the Ring of Fire and the accompanying three questions presented in the column
below.

Discourse 1:
Ring of Fire
Indonesia is an archipelago located in the Pacific ring of fire ring. Therefore, there is
still volcanoes that are still active. One is the mountain Sinabung. Sinabung eruption
caused volcanic earthquake and damaging buildings, while the lava and volcanic ash
impact on plants and animals in the vicinity. A phenomenon that can be found from the
eruption of Mount Sinabung, among others yields declined or failed crops, animals,
and plants a lot of dead people around must wear masks. Many people around the
mountains is difficult to breathe because less oxygen availability, poisoning gases that
are emitted by the mountains and the rain water is acidic.

Problem 1.1: Try to explain the impact of volcanic ash on the plant, so it can reduce results
harvest? Results of student groups to answer questions about the 1.1 was analyzed, described and
grouped, and the results are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Distribution of answers student to problem 1.1


No Student Answer Percentage
1 Volcanic ash is hot, which can damage and even cause the plant to 55.54
die as a result of agricultural products declined.
2 Volcanic ash closes stomata of the leaves, so sunlight and CO2 45.45
can not enter into the leaves that causes the process of
photosynthesis is inhibited, resulting in decreased crop
production.
3 The acidity of volcanic ash can increase the pH of the soil, so the 27.27
plants can not grow properly, resulting in crop production will
decline.
4 Volcanic ash contains harmful substances such as sulfur, gold, 18.18
silver, phosphorus, copper and quartz. Therefore the existence of
these substances will disrupt the process of photosynthesis in
plants, so the plants can not grow normally and crop production is
not optimal. In addition, due to lack of O2 and gas poisoning from
volcanic causing plants become dead.

Based on the results presented in Table 1 above it can be seen that most of the group of
students responded that crop production decreased due to the death of plants due to the effect of
volcanic ash is hot. Plants exposed to the direct influence of volcanic earthquakes and fast process.
A total of 45.45% of student groups responded that the ashes of volcanic earthquakes affect the
photosynthesis process because the stomata of leaves covered by volcanic ash. Thus the supply of
CO2 for photosynthesis material obstructed and unobstructed sunlight also to reach chlorophyll, the
photosynthetic process consequently hampered or even become stalled. This would will result in
death of the plant. The rest of the student group answer was that ash from volcanic earthquakes
affect the soil where plants grow. Influence of volcanic earthquakes that ash lowers the pH of the
soil and make the soil becomes toxic to plant life. It could be resulted in plant death.

Problem 1.2: In the event of an earthquake, there are points that are severely affected by the quake.
The impact of such destruction occurs periodically observed, there are areas that are not too far
from the epicenter, but suffered great destruction. On the other hand, there are areas quite far from
the epicenter, but suffered severe damage. How can these be explained?

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The analysis of student answers in solving problem 1.2 are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Distribution of student answers to problem 1.2


No Student Answer Percent
age
1 This is caused by the earthquake occurred due to vibration. The 36.38
vibration wave form. So that the greatest energy that occurs during
earthquakes is peak of wave. We see in the picture most severely
affected by the earthquake are images A and C. Even though A
and C located far apart, but the damage is severe compared to B.
This is caused by the region B is not at the peak of vibration so it
does not ruin a great experience.

2 This occurs because the impact of the earthquake damage is 18.18


influenced by: 1) the depth of the earthquake, 2) the strength of the
earthquake, 3) long vibration (earthquake), 4) the structure of the
soil (soil conditions), and 5) the condition of the building

3 Areas bypassed by vibrations when the highest deviation of the 18.18


wave, has maximum energy, so that the level of damage also
reached a maximum. Conversely area traversed deviation 0 vibes
have or not have a deviation, the impact of the damage is lower
though situated close to the epicenter.

4 Only answered with image 9.10

Slab of land in areas that the earthquake is not in contact with the
area of the earthquake so it does not ruin a great experience. Slab
of land in remote areas with seismic regions in contact with the
earthquake that suffered severe damage.

5 Blank 18.18

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Based on the results of the analysis of the answers in Table 2, it could be seen that there is
a 36.36% answer to question problem 1.2 is associated with vibrations that form a wave. Severe
damage caused by the earthquake were in areas bypassed by vibrations when the highest deviation
from the waves. This was due to the region having the maximum energy, so that the level of
damage also reached a maximum. Conversely area traversed deviation 0 vibes have or not have a
deviation, the impact of the damage was lower though situated close to the epicenter. To clarify,
the student answered with pictures.
There were 18.18% students answered only with images, with no intention of drawing a
detailed explanation, however, could be understood from the drawing, the students wrote the
greatest impact on the area of the peak of the wave. This showed that the damage was most severe
in the area of the peak of the wave (max). Another group of students (18.18%) responded by
linking the event of damage to the factors, among others; depth of the earthquake, magnitude,
duration of vibrations, and whether or not touched by the earthquake plate.

Problem 1.3:In the volcanic earthquakes were accompanied by rain, rain water is usually acidic.
Explain why it can happen? Results of the analysis of the student group answers to the question to
problem 1.3 are presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Distribution of student answer to problem 1.3


No Student Answer Percentage
1 Because of the volcanic ash contains chemical composition (SO2, H2F, HCl, 45.45
CO2, HCl, Cu and Fe), which is acidic, if it reacts with rainwater can cause acid
rain
2 Because volcanic earthquakes generate a lot of gas, namely CO2, sulfur, and 27.27
other substances that then react with water molecules in the air so that the
formation of acidic rainwater
3 Blank 18.18
4 Because it contains volcanic ash layers that cause irritation to the lungs, face 9.10
and skin in both humans and animals. Easy acid leached layer so that rain water
can contaminate the water supply of water at the affected locations. Abu acid
can also damage the crop failure

Based on analysis of student answers showed that 45.45% of student groups stated that the
volcanic ash is acidic because they contain certain chemicals, if the ash reacts with rainwater, then
there was acid rain. A total of 27.27% of student groups to answer the acid rain occurs because the
gases emitted from volcanic earthquakes is acidic, and if this gas reacts with rainwater, acid rain is
formed. There was one group (9.10%) students who answer were not concerned with questions.
The answer is more toward a result of acid rain on the environment. The rest, there were two
groups of students (18.18%) did not answer the question. Based on the results of the analysis of the
answers the student group could be obtained that only 27.27% of students answered correctly that
acid rain was formed due to gas produced from volcanic earthquakes reacts with rainwater.

Discourse 2:
Forest Fire
Climate change impact on human life and plants on earth, for example due to the effects of
prolonged drought caused fires such as fire peat swamp and Ogan Ilir people's plantation in
South Sumatra. A phenomenon found many students are wearing masks, damage marsh
vegetation, smoke causes the eyes become painful, even limiting visibility

Problem 2.1: Describe the impact of the destruction of marsh vegetation on the earth?
Distribution of the results of the analysis of student answer to question 2.1 is presented in Table 4.

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Table 4. Distribution of students answer to problem 2.1


No Student Answer Percentage
1 Blank 54.5
2 Damage to populations of plants and animals in the swamp, loss 27.3
of flora and fauna, and pollution
3 Damage to the swamp vegetation due to burning leads to reduced 18.2
germ plasm, weaken plants against pests and diseases

Based on the analysis presented in Table 4 it can be seen that the majority (54.5%) students did not
answer the question. A total of 27.3% of the students answered the impact of damage to the marsh
on earth is the destruction of the population (plants and animals) and pollution.

Problem 2.2: The haze very rapidly lately often causes disruption of aircraft landing at Sultan
Mahmud Badarudin Palembang. Ministry of Research and Technology tried to cope with CaCl2
liquid spray into the air, and the results are very significant decrease smog. How is the role of
CaCl2 fluid to the reduction of the smog?

Results of the analysis of student answer to problem 2.2 is presented in Table 5

Table 5. Distribution of student answer to problem 2.2


No Student Answer Percentage
1 Blank 36,36
2 CaCl2 solution trigger the formation of clouds and rain as CaCl2 36,36
solution can bind to CO2 and water vapor (H2O) contained in
smoke.
3 Smoke was charged particles, CaCl2 solution was also charged, so 18,18
will bind, to form a heavier charged particles, because of the
influence of Earth's gravity, the particles will fall, and the smoke is
reduced.
4 CaCl2 solution serves as a smoke absorber 09,09

on the results presented in Table 5, it can be seen that as many as 36.36% of the students did not
answer questions. A total of 36.36% of the students replied that CaCl 2 solution binds to CO2 and
H2O (g) contained in the smoke. Smoke concept has not been understood by the students, so they
declared that water vapor contained in the fumes. Only 18.18% were students who answered
according to the desired response pattern, ie CaCl2 solution that would bind to charged particles of
smoke, forming charged particles that are larger and because of the influence of Earth's gravity,
these particles fall to the earth's surface.

4. Conclusion
Based on the research that has been done can be concluded that the equivalent of five
questions PISA completed by the student, a row of question number one to number five percentage
amount that the correct answer is 54.54%, 36.36%, 27.27%, 27.27% and 18.18%. The average
percentage of answers that could not be answered correctly and in accordance with the key to the
answer is as much as 67.28%.

References
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) .(1990). Science for All
Americans,New York: Oxford University Press.
The Ministry of Education and Culture (Kemendikbud). (2014). The teacher training
materials:curriculum 2013 Academic Year 2014/2015. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and
Culture.

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OECD. (2003). Programme for International Student assessment and Non-OECD Countries.
Paris:OECD.
Wardhani, Sri, and Rumiati. (2011). Learning Outcomes Assessment Tools Math Junior (Learn
of PISA and TIMSS). Yogyakarta: Centre for Development and Empowermentof Teachers
and Personnel Mathematics.
Zulkardi, Putri, RII., Hartono, Susanti, R., Riyanto, Siahaan, SM., Nawawi E., and Ismet. (2014).
Designing a Learning Environment on Mathematics and Science Education Based on
PISA for Indonesian Student-Teacher. Research Report. Indralaya: FKIP Sriwijaya
University.
Web sites:
Web 1: OECD, 2004 PISA 2003: Science Competencies for Tomorrow World Executive
Summary.http // www.oecd.org consulted October 14, 2015.
Web 2: OECD, 2007 PISA 2006: Science Competencies for Tomorrow World Executive
Summary.http // www.oecd.org consulted October 14th, 2015.
Web 3: OECD, 2010. PISA 2009 Results Executive Summary. http // www.oecd.org consulted
October 14 2015.
Web 4: OECD, PISA 2014 2012 Result in Focus: What 15-Year-Old Know and What They can
DO with that they know. http // www.oecd.org consulted October 14th, 2015

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Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OPE-13
The Developmentof Virtual Laboratory to Improve
Students Understanding on Optic Concepts
Gunawan*, Ahmad Harjono, and Hairunnisyah Sahidu

Department of Physics Education, University of Mataram


gunawan@unram.ac.id

Abstract-We have developed a virtual laboratory for teaching optics concepts. The development of a
virtual laboratory is intended as an alternative to the limitations of the tools of laboratory. The purpose of
this study is to examine the effectiveness of a virtual laboratory model on students understanding for optics
concepts. This is an experimental research with subjects are students who were enrolled in optics course.
Two groups of students, those who used traditional instruction models and those who used a virtual
laboratory model, were compared in terms of their understanding. Data were analyzed by using mean-
difference test and normalized gain scores. Results show that the students of experimental group perfomed
better than the control group. The results indicated that the using virtual laboratory can be increases
students understanding on optics concepts.

Keywords: virtual laboratory, students understanding, optics concept

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OPE-13
The Developmentof Virtual Laboratory to Improve
Students Understanding on Optic Concepts
Gunawan*, Ahmad Harjono, and Hairunnisyah Sahidu

Department of Physics Education, University of Mataram


gunawan@unram.ac.id

Abstract-We have developed a virtual laboratory for teaching optics concepts. The development of a
virtual laboratory is intended as an alternative to the limitations of the tools of laboratory. The purpose of
this study is to examine the effectiveness of a virtual laboratory model on students understanding for optics
concepts. This is an experimental research with subjects are students who were enrolled in optics course.
Two groups of students, those who used traditional instruction models and those who used a virtual
laboratory model, were compared in terms of their understanding. Data were analyzed by using mean-
difference test and normalized gain scores. Results show that the students of experimental group perfomed
better than the control group. The results indicated that the using virtual laboratory can be increases
students understanding on optics concepts.

Keywords: virtual laboratory, students understanding, optics concept

ISBN 9786021570425 PHY- 155


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OPE-14
Teaching Solid State Physics Course by Using X-Ray
Diffraction Data
Ardhuha Jannatin

Departement of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Education, FKIP University of Mataram,


Indonesia, iinbin@yahoo.com

Abstract- X-Ray diffraction data has been introduced to undergraduate students undertaking Solid
State Physics course, in an attempt to train the students how to analyze materials and foster their
knowledge in X-ray diffraction theory and its application in determining lattice crystal constant,
crystal types and material classes. Integration of real X -ray diffraction data into lecture was an initial
breakthrough to introduce material science and technology to undergraduate Physics student to
narrowing down the gap between theory and its contemporary application. Data showed that students
responded positively to the use of X-ray diffraction data, and subsequently expected that the tool is
integrated in the Solid State course. It is concluded that this approach can inc rease student
knowledge, skills in data processing as well as their understanding in crystal structure.

Keywords: X Ray diffraction data, solid state physics course, crystal structure.

1. Introduction
Nanoscience is a discipline that concerns on materials of nanoscale (particle size of 1-100
nm or 10-9 meter). Nanoscience and technology are cross sectional disciplines that rely on the
development on physics, chemistry, material science, mathematics, electronics, computation,
architechture, etc. The hallmark of nanoscience is that once material is synthesized at nano scale,
its properties may dramatically changes. Among these properties are electrical property, mechanics,
optics or manetics (Butt, 2014). In order to understand the property of materials of those size,
student need to have sufficient knowledge in crystal structure, energy level, chemical bond,
temperature and pressure effects, etc. Those knowledge are among materials in solid state course.
Traditional lecture of solid state uses classical lecture accomplished with student
assignments in the form of mini project of students presentation. In this setting, a comprehensive
understanding in solid state is hardly sufficient among students, especially due to the fact that the
abstract, microscopic, theoretically and mathematically nature of this course (Wiyono, 2011). The
use of computer or ICT may provide a solution to deal with this matter. Study by Wiyono and
Setiawan (2012) revealed an adaptive-interactive multimedia tools could help the students to better
understand introductory topics in solid state physics. It further allowed the students to learn by
themselves. Furthermore, Sriyati reported that the use of blended e-learning could increase student
outcome (Sriyati, 2012). However, not all topics in solid state physics can be taught by these
strategies.
The standard competency expected from solid state physics is that the students have
sufficient insight and knowledge in solid state physics, and additionally able to apply concepts
from the lecture to understand its application in technology. Among difficulty encountered by
students is in the characterization of nanomaterials topic. Even though this topic is included in the
curriculum, its emphasizing is lost in solid state course and void from lecture objective (Sharma et
al, 2010). To deal with this matter, a new approach that is able to motivate students to cope with
current development in research and technology is required.
A practical work might be a solution for students in this setting. Through practical work,
students have an opportunity to experience and to prove basic concept by experimentating. This
approach does not mean the students perform wet lab. Instead, students are dealing with secondary

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experiment data. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) data can be used as a solution to the limited access to
real data gathering. It offers real data that can be analyzed by students to

Difraksi sinar X merupakan sebuah teknik non-destruktif yang dipergunakan secara luas
untuk mengkarakterisasi struktur dari suatu bahan (material). Struktur kristal dari material yang
akan diuji dapat diperoleh dengan menggunakan teknik pengukuran ini. Selain itu, informasi
mengenai perubahan fase, tekstur, tegangan dan ukuran butiran dari kristal dapat ditentukan pula.
Informasi-informasi tersebut dapat diperoleh dengan membaca pola difraksi sinar X dari material
tersebut. Pola difraksi ini dihasilkan dari interferensi konstruktif (saling menguatkan) dari
hamburan gelombang yang berasal dari titik-titik kisi (Barrow, 1988).
XRD is a non-destructive analysis currently popular in characterizing the structure of
materials, which leads to unraveling the crystal structure of samples. Additionally, phase transition,
texture, stress, and grain size of crystal may be deduced from XRD data. Technically, those
information are generated from X-ray diffraction pattern resulted from constructive interferences of
scattered wave hitting the lattices.
Along with XRD data, data recorded by difractometer show the angle of the diffraction.
Among samples commonly analyzed by XRD are solid (bulk), thin film or powder. X-ray
diffractometer can be used to analyze crystal structure by combining lattice constant data, distance
of crystal planes and crystal types. A more advance analysis is identification of samples
components (anonym, 2007). Output of XRD analyses are spectra that show the dependency of
intensity of deflected beam to the resulted angles. This paper describes physics students response
to the use real XRD data in solid state physics, i.e. whether students feel the use of XRD data is
helpful to their understanding of solid state characterization.

2. Method
Subjects of this study were physics student undertaking solid state physics in odd semester
in academic years of 2013-2014 in the Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural
Sciences, University of Mataram. Students responses to the use of XRD data were collected by
closed questionnaires. There were ten questions that were answered by Likert scale from 1 to 4 (1
shows most unpreferrable and 4 shows highly preferable). In addition to that, students answered
eight open questions reflecting the importance of the solid state course, their experience in
analyzing X-ray data, their ability to understand the XRD data, their ability to determine crystal
types, difficulties encountered, and students opinion on whether this medium is suitable to be
integrated in the learning process, the advantages of this approach, and finally students suggestions
for the improvement of this approach in solid state course.

3. Results
In general, students responded positively to the use of XRD data in solid state course. All
students said that instructor has introduced the data clearly to very clearly. 90% students have the
opinion that the students worksheet can be understood very easily (scored 4) to easily (scored 3).
Ony 10% students said that the instruction is difficult to understand. Regarding the systematic, 60%
students said that the instruction is arranged very systematically, while the rest said systematically.
Regarding the data processing, not all students thought that the data were easily processed.
On the other hand, 60% students said that instructor assistant was very helpful, whereas 30% and
10% said that the instructor moderately helpful and less helpful, respectively.
Additionally, the majority of student (90%) enjoyed instructor guidance in crystal type
determination, of whom, 40% found the explanation very enjoyable and 50% found it enjoyable,
whereas only 10% students did not enjoy the explanation. The same figures were revealed for
student opinion for the determination of crystal type BCC or FCC.
Questionnaire also showed that introduction of XRD data in the solid state course
motivated the students to further learn solid state, as well as inspired them to chose solid state for

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their future project (50%, 40% and 10% students scored 4, 3, and 2 to both questions,
concomitantly).
When asked whether this data is suitable to be integrated in solid state course, all students
responded positively (scored 4 or 3, evenly). Table 1 resumes the students response to all
questions.

Table 1. Students response


No. aspect average
1. Lecture introduced XRD data clearly. 3,5
2. Instruction within students worksheet can be understood easily. 3,4
3. Student worksheet is systematically arranged. 3,6
4. XRD data can be easily processed. 3,0
5. Instructor helps the student to analyze the data. 3,5
6. Student enjoy the instructors explanation for crystal type determination. 3,3
7. The use of real XRD data assist the student to understand crystal type 3,3
BCC and FCC.
8. Students are motivated to learn more on solid state physics. 3,4
9. Students are interested to do further research related to solid state. 3,4
10. Whether students agree with the integration of XRD within solid state 3,5
physics course.

In addition to questionnaires, students were demanded to answer open questions. The


following are students response to eight questions (without editing):

1. How important solid state course for you?


a) Important
b) Fairly important.
c) Very important, since solid state course physics give thorough knowledge about material.
d) Very important, since we can understand physics more detail.
e) Very important, since this course opens our insight and knowledge about material physics.
f) Very important, in order to understand material at both macro and micro level, and solid
state continue to develop as an interesting discipline.

2. Have you used XRD data previously?


a) Never.
b) Have not.
c) Have not, but it was discussed (how to deal with XRD data) in an extra hours in solid state
course.
d) Yes, from a journal that a student had to present.

3. Can you read XRD data?


a) Probably.
b) Yes, I can.
c) Yes, since instructor clearly explained it by using students worksheet.
d) Yes, after explanation on how to prodess XRD data we can read XXRD data.
e) Thanks God, now I can.

4. After learning how to analyze material by using XRD data, can you determine lattice
constant and crystal types?
a) Yes.

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b) Probably.
c) Not realy sure how to determine crystal types.
d) Yes, I can determine both.
e) Yes, lattice constant and crystal types can be determined after processing analyzing XRD
data.
f) Yes, off course.

5. When you process XRD data, do you find difficulties? Write it down if you find any.
a) Yes, in the processing of XRD data by MS Excel to determine nearly equal constant
values.
b) Difficulty in the determination of crystal types.
c) Yes, difficult to determine crystal types.
d) No problem.
e) Not really difficult, only in: 1) dealing with spreadsheet excel (need to be more familiar
with it): and 2) more accurate to dissect nearly the same values.
f) Not really difficult, just more experience with excel and more accurate do differentiate
nearly equal values.
g) Yes, a bit problem in data processing, since there were too much data.
h) No, XRD data processing just need determination, other ways wrong values are coming.
i) A bit difficulty at the beginning, especially with excel thing to dissect nearly equal values.

6. Do you agree with the integration of XRD data in solid state course?
a) Yes, very helpful in understanding crystal structure.
b) Yes, it can be integrated, real experiment is preferable.
c) Agree.
d) Nice.
e) Yes, very good, since real XRD data helps in observing material properties.
f) Yes, it will be good, since I can understand why I am learning solid state physics and
determining crystal types.
g) Agree, since this lecture will be very helpful to know more about other materials that may
be subjected to diffraction experiment.
h) Yes, I think its important to understand XRD itself in more detail.

7. Does the use of real XRD data helpful for you to learn crystal structure topics in solid
state physics? Give your reasons.
a) Yes.
b) Not really clear, perhaps directly do the experiment.
c) Yes, by learning XRD we can understand crystal structure more clearly.
d) Yes, we know it application.
e) The use of XRD can help in providing insight of crystal structure by XRD data.
f) Yes, by doing so we know its application.
g) Yes, by using real XRD data I know how to analyze crystal structure of BCC or FCC.
h) For sure, by using XRD data we dan reveal crystal structure of a material, and further study
variety of materials.
i) Yes, by using real XRD data, student understand how to determine material characteristic,
including FCC or BCC structure.
j) Yes,..once we can describe the material, we topics become more significant.
k) For me, solid state physics became more effective, efficient and significant.
l) Sure, the use of XRD help us to strengthen our basic knowledge and discover by ourselves
how to determine crystal structure.

8. What should be noted and added in solid state physics course in order to keep the student
up-dated with current progress in science and technology?

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a) Yes.
b) I think real experiment is needed, not only taken for granted data.
c) The advantage of our discussion and its application.
d) A clearer explanation.
e) More examples and application, so that it is more effective, efficient and significant.
f) The advantage of characterized materials should be emphasized so that student are
becoming more interested in solid statel
g) More application in daily life.
h) More explanation of soid state application in daily life.
i) Additional topics would be nice, such as nanotechnology, superconductor or
semiconductor, and XRD.
j) Proofs of every single theories.

4. Discussion
The use of real XRD data in solid state course can help student to understand how the data
are manually processed in determining lattice constant, crystal types and identifying materials
being investigated. These are shown by students response when this medium is integrated in solid
state lecture.
During the data processing, student found some difficulties. One notable obstacle was that
student did not really familiar with spreadsheet excel, especially when it is used for
mathematics/physics operations, such as converting values to sin (in excel, angle is not
represented in degree (o), instead it is represented in radians). Many students were too early to
round the value of 2, so that the obtained sin/2 values were various among students.
Difficulty in judging nearly equal values in each sin/n columns was also encountered. It
demanded an accurate judgment and evaluation of values within the spreadsheet table (example
shown in Figure 1). Once the students wrongly determined the value, error in determining Miller
indices (hkl) was also encountered in further analysis.

Figure 1. An example of data processed by a student for the value of sin 2/ (h2 + k2 + l2). Values revealed are
nearly equal and critical analysis is demanded to judge each values.

The ability of student to determine lattice constant was fallen into good category.
Meanwhile, in the determination of crystal type, students encountered difficulty in applying
extinction rules. It is shown by incomplete Miller indices (hkl) table prepared by the students
(Figure 2).

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Figure 2. An example of table prepared by student in applying extinction rules, to determined crystal type
from XRD data.

In determining the material being analyzed, student can easily do it by matching the value
of lattice constant to crystal type from periodic table provided within the students worksheet.
Never theles, for further study, it is demanded that the periodic table to be bigger and clearer
The use of real XRD data as learning medium will give more impact when it application is
in line with topic in solid state course taken at the same time. Student might hve difficulty in
processing XRD data if they have not learn extinction rules in solid state course.
From open questionnaires, students responded positively if this medium is integrated
within solid state physics course. Students hope that this secondary data can be useful to strengthen
their knowledge, so that topics in solid state physics are not confined at theoretical level, but also
have closer relation with actual development in science and technology.
Apart from that, student this activity is further developing to real experiment and research
project in lab. The student aspiration is in line with learning concept developed by Schmidt and co-
workers from Bremen University regarding some opportunities in learning process of solid state
physic through research project (Schmidt et al, 2014). The use of multi purposes X-ray
diffractometer could also be introduce to the students to facilitate them to learn concepts in crystal
determination and to do virtual experiment (Cherner et al, 2014).
Science and technology in the area of solid state is currently fast developing, either from it
characterization methods or from it (synthesis) technology (material science, material technology
and material engineering). The necessitates the introduction of novel science and technology
development such as nanoscience and nanotechnology to the students. Not only introduction to new
progress in science and technology, but skills, experiences and problem solving capacities are also
important for the students (Govindasamy, 2002). Hence, a deeper evaluation to curriculum (syllabi)
and learning objectives are also necessary in order to prepare the students of today to be future
problem solver.

5. Conclusion
The use of real XRD data in solid state physics was positively responded by the students.
This medium can be used as an alternative to foster students knowledge and skills in data
processing, as well as deepening students concept in the determination of crystal type, lattice
constant and material determination. This approach ensured the students to have better experience
and confidence in solid state physics course.

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References
Anonimus, 2007. Lab. Manual, M408: X-ray Diffraction, Faculty of Engineering, University of
Kiel.
Barrow, 1988. Physical Chemistry, 5th Edition, Singapore, McGraw-Hill.
Butt H. J., 2010. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Physics and Chemistry, Research
Perspectives of the Max Planck Society,
(http://www.mpg.de/19278/Nanoscience_nanotechnology, diakses online tanggal 11
April 2014).
Cherner Y., Kukla M., Bunina O., dan Hobbs L., 2014. Virtual X-Ray Laboratory for Teaching
Crystallography and Other Courses. Acta Cryst. (2014). A70, C1272,
(http://journals.iucr.org/a/issues/2014/a1/00/a52572/a52572.pdf, diakses online
tanggal 25 Januari 2015).
Govindasamy T., 2002. Successful Implementation Of E-Learning Pedagogical Considerations.
The Internet And Higher Education, 4, 2002.
(http://www.qou.edu/arabic/researchProgram/eLearningResearchs/successfulImpleme
ntation.pdf, diakses online tanggal 25 Januari 2015).
Mustar A. R, 2011. Kajian Standar Nanoteknologi, Yogyakarta, Prosiding PPI Standardisasi 2011,
(http://www.bsn.go.id/files/348256357/PPIS%202011%20Yogya/kajian%20standar%
20nano.pdf/diakses tanggal 2 Maret 2012).
Schmidt T., Sebald K., dan Gutowski J., 2014. Learning Through Reserch Elective Course In
Solid State Physics, (http://www.tittf.uni-bremen.de/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2014/09/handout_natural_sciences.pdf, diakses online tanggal 20
Januari 2015).
Sharma S., Sastri O., dan Ahluwalia P. K., 2010. Design Of Instructional Objectives Of
Undergraduate Solid State Physics Course: A First Step To Physics Education
Research. AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 1263 (1). DOI: 10.1063/1.3479861,
(diakses online tanggal 25 Januari 2015).
Sriyanti I, 2012. Penerapan Model Blended e-learning pada Matakuliah Pendahuluan Fisika Zat
Padat di Program Studi Pendidikan Fisika FKIP Universitas Sriwijaya,
(http://seminar.uny.ac.id/semnasmipa/sites/seminar.uny.ac.id.semnasmipa/files/paper/
Pend.%20Fisika/Ida%20Sriyanti,%20S.Pd.,%20M.Si-
Makalah%20UNY%202012%20revisi.docx., diakses online tanggal 10 April 2014).
Wiyono K, 2011. Pengembangan Model Multimedia Interaktif Adaptif Pendahuluan Fisika Zat
Padat (MIA-PIZA), (http:/ketangw.weebly.com/uploads/3/9/0/5/3905201/
pengembangan_mia-piza.pdf, diakses tanggal 12 Desember 2011).
Wiyono K. dan Setiawan A., 2012. Karakteristik Multimedia Interaktif Adaptif Pendahuluan Fisika
Zat Padat (MIA-PIZA), Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains Re-Orientasi
Pembelajaran Sains yang diselenggarakan oleh Program Studi Pendidikan Sains PPS
UNESA, 14 Januari 2012 (ISBN: 978-979-028-534-7) Hal 28-38,
(http://ketangw.weebly.com/uploads/3/9/0/5/3905201/makalah_pps_unesa.pdf,
diakses online tanggal 10 April 2014).

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OPE-16
Development of Diagnostic and Remedial Program-Based
Interactive Multimediato ReduceStudents
Misconceptions on Geometric Optics
Yahya,Fahmi1)*, Diantoro,Markus2), Kusairi, Sentot3)

1)*
JurusanPendidikanFisika, FKIP, UniversitasSamawa,fyahyaadam@gmail.com.
2)
JurusanFisika, FMIPA, UniversitasNegeri Malang, markus.diantoro.fmipa@um.ac.id
3)
JurusanFisika, FMIPA, UniversitasNegeri Malang, sentot.kusairi.fmipa@um.ac.id

Abstract- The effort for identifying and overcoming misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers on
geometric optics should be done continuously. Various kinds of misconceptions diagnostic tests were
commonly applied by the lectures still in the form of written tests. The weakness of those kinds of tests are
the time needed to check the results that quite long so that students cannot know the test results directly.
Remedial that commonly applied were still classical and unable to accommodate the differences on students
misconceptions. This research aims to develop diagnostic and remedial program-based interactive
multimedia in geometric optics called D&R geometric optics. The study also describes the feasibility of the
D&R geometric optics program and also to test the effectiveness of the D&R geometric optics program in
identifying and overcoming students misconceptions on geometric optics. The research design which was
conducted was a research and development adapted from Borg and Gall design. The subjects of this study are
experts and students. Based on the assessment by the expert validators on three aspects, namely diagnostic
questions, media display, and remedial material, it can be concluded that the D&R geometric optics program
meets the feasible category. Further, students assessment in the main field testing, the D&R geometric optics
program also categorized as a feasible product to use in learning. Based on product effectiveness assessment,
it was found that there is a decrease in the number of misconceptions in both experimental and control
classes. In addition, the calculation by using the Mann-Whitney test showed that there were significant
differences in mastery of concepts in both classes, with the experimental class was better than the control
class.

Keywords: Diagnostic, Remedial, Interactive Multimedia, Misconception, Geometric Optics.

1. Introduction
Geometric optics is one of physics material which concept is difficult to master by students.
Several researches have reported that lots of students were still maintaining a low level of concept
understanding and alternative concepts that are irrelevant with the scientific concept of geometric
optics (Galili&Hazan, 2000; Chen, et al, 2002; Chu, et al., 2009; Kaewkhong, et.al. 2010; Aydin, et
al. 2012; Outtara&Boudaone, 2012; Hafizah, et al. 2014). Even learning in a formal context cannot
help students to understand concepts accurately, or refine their alternative concepts to be congruent
with scientific concepts that are acceptable among the geometric optics experts
(Andersson&Krrqvist, 1983; Goldberg & McDermott, 1986; Goldberg & McDermott, 1987;
Fetherstonhaugh&Treagust, 1992; Galili, 1996; Langley, et al. 1997).
Before being involved in a formal learning, students bring certain concepts that they have
developed through interaction with events related to geometric optics. With that experience, they
develop an intuition and alternative concepts framework about the events on their mind, which are
not always correct. Any concept that is irrelevant with scientific concepts is called misconception
(Hammer, 1996). Students with misconceptions will think that their answers are correct and they are
so sure about it, even if the answers are actually wrong. Misconceptions that are repeated and
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maintained consistently will affect the students learning effectiveness (Hammer, 1996;
Wahyuningsih, 2013). Besides, misconceptions can prevent students form understanding and
developing concepts in their mind (Kaltaki&Didi, 2007; Arslan, et al. 2012; Aydin, et al. 2012).
Misconception among students are not only caused by their experience in interacting with
geometric optics-related events, but also by books or even their teachers mistakes. Misconceptions
caused by books take forms of undetailed explanation, unclear use of language, or incorrect
description of events related to geometric optics (Grel & Eryilmaz, 2013). Mistakes by the teachers
can be in a form of the teachers inability in delivering materials, lack of material mastery,
inappropriate teaching methods, or attitude in interacting with their students (Suparno, 2005). Pre-
service teachers of physics are thus expected to master the geometric concepts well and able to
deliver the materials properly. Misconceptions held by physics teacher on geometric optics can lead
to their students misconceptions later, and it should be avoided (Aydin, et al., 2012).
In order to know whether a pre-service physics teacher holds a misconception or not,
identification is required. Identifying students knowledge and difficulty through a series of tests,
observations, or projects is called diagnostic (Oyekan, 2013). Diagnostic focuses on three main
questions, which students are having difficulties? From the whole materials, which sub materials are
understood and which sub materials they find difficult? And what makes it difficult for them on that
sub material? (Sukardi, 2011: 228). The data collected through diagnostic can be a basis of needs
analysis, and a good source for teachers in revising their methods and teaching content.
Researchers on education have developed several methods for misconception diagnostics. The
methods are interview, concept mapping, and various forms of tests (Tsai & Chou, 2002). Interview
enables researchers to seek information about a respondents understanding wholly and deeply, but it
takes time and a large number of population is needed for a good generalization (Chen, et al., 2002).
Multiple choice test can be applied to a large number of students and is easier to be analyzed, but it
cannot reach more deeply into students idea. The answer could be correct, but the reasons are
incorrect (Rollnick&Mahoona, 1999). In solving this problem, students are expected to give their
reasons for the answer they chose. Thus, two-tiers or three-tiers multiple choice tests are developed.
In two-tiers test, the first tier presents multiple choice items, and the second tier presents choices of
reasons for the answers on the first tier (Tsai & Chou, 2002).
Several researches using two-tiers test have found that this kind of test performs well in
diagnosing misconceptions (Rollnick&Mahoona, 1999; Chen, et al, 2002; Chandrasegaran, 2007;
Chu, et al., 2009; Tysz, 2009; Adodo, 2013). However, the two-tiers test cannot determine
whether students are holding misconceptions or lacking of knowledge. Distinguishing those two
things is really important, because a remedial for students with misconceptions is more difficult than
for those who are lack of knowledge (Peman&Erylmaz, 2010). Thus, third tier is needed to see how
certain the students with their answers on tier one and two, that it can be seen whether the mistakes
made by the students are due to misconceptions or lack of knowledge.
The next step after diagnosing misconceptions is giving remedial. Remedial is a clinical
learning in which students whose difficulties are given certain topics to achieve the required target
(Lien, et al., 2007). The remedial can be conducted in several ways like varying the material
delivery, materials simplification, or providing more detailed materials that can help students in
solving problems related to the topics being learned (Ogunleye, 2009).
Based on the observations and interviews with some lecturers in FKIP (Faculty of Teachers
Training and Education) of Mataram University, it was found that diagnostic and remedial were still
conducted in a conventional way. Diagnostic tests were given in a form of paper-based test, in which
the test was presented on a piece of paper and the students should give their answer on the given
paper. This method of diagnostics is time consuming, it takes time for the lecturer to check the
students answers. The students cannot get the result immediately, that they do not know their lacks
in understanding the concepts of geometric optics. Remedial given by the lecturer was still classical,
through a repetition of discussion of the materials considered to be difficult by the students in class,
without considering various levels of knowledge or ability owned by the students. There were even
some lecturers who did not give any remedial at all, due to the limited room, time, and energy.

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Diagnostic test can be given through the use of computer. Beside the presentation that is more
interesting, computer-based diagnostic tests have some advantages compared to paper-based tests in
terms of data collection and analysis (Clariana& Wallace, 2002). Diagnostic tests with computer can
diagnose students individually and give the result immediately (Saidah, 2012). Besides, it can help
lecturers in giving the result immediately and accurately even if the test involves a large number of
students (Demirchi 2006).
One way to give remedial to students is by using computer in a form of interactive multimedia.
In interactive multimedia, the contents are in forms of text, audio, video, graphic, animation, and
interaction that make learning becomes more interesting. Some processes that are difficult to be done
manually can be simulated in interactive multimedia. An abstract concept can be visualized
concretely so that it is easier to be understood (Chang, et al., 2008; Chen, et al., 2011; Chen, et al.,
2013). Tao (2004) reported that the collaborative physics learning supported by computer
multimedia could improve students understanding of geometric optics especially on the sub topic of
shadow forming through lens. It also helped the students memorization of the concepts to retain
longer. Other researches (Zachria& Anderson, 2003; Gunawan, 2008; Chen, et al., 2013) also
showed that the use of interactive multimedia in learning could improve students concepts-
understanding and refine students misconceptions on other physics materials.
Based on the explanation above, this research is aimed at developing an interactive multimedia-
based diagnostic and remedial program to help lecturers in identifying and solving misconceptions
among students on geometric optics. The program combines both diagnostic and remedial into a
single computer program in a form of interactive multimedia which is expected to be helpful in
solving the problem of room, time, and energy faced by the lecturers. In addition, the diagnostic and
remedial which are presented in an interactive multimedia program is expected to be able to improve
students interest and motivation in diagnosing their own ability and learn independently to acquire
the concept of geometric optics accurately.

2. Research Method
The research design which was conducted was a research and development adapted from Borg
and Gall design. The procedures performed include collecting information, planning the product,
developing preliminary product, preliminary field testing, main product revision, main field testing,
operational product revision, and operational field testing. The subjects of this study were experts
and pre-service physics teachers. In the preliminary field testing, data were collected from two expert
validators using questionnaire. While in the main field testing, data were collected from ten pre-
service physics teachers as users using a questionnaire also. The questionnaire results were analyzed
using the technique of calculating the mean-score.
In operational field testing, the product was tested experimentally in pre-service physics
teachers using pretest-posttest control group design.Operational field testing involved the students of
Physics Education at FKIP Mataram University who were taking Optic course and had just been
taught about geometric optics. The total was 59 students and then divided into two classes.
Experiment class consisted of 30 students and control class consisted of 29 students. The experiment
class was treated with the D&R geometric optics program, whereas the control class was treated with
the conventional diagnostic and remedial. Both classes got two misconception diagnostic tests
(pretest and posttest). The answers from pretest and posttest were divided into four categories based
on the categories of three-tier multiple choice on Table 1. Each category of answer was analyzed by
using mean-score calculation, and then converted into percentage.

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Table 1. Categories of Answer on Three-Tiers Multiple Choice


Tier One Tier Two Tier Three Category
Correct Correct Certain Understand the concept
Correct Incorrect Certain Misconception
Incorrect Correct Certain Misconception
Incorrect Incorrect Certain Misconception
Correct Correct Uncertain Guessing, lack of confidence
Correct Incorrect Uncertain Not knowing the concept
Incorrect Correct Uncertain Not knowing the concept
Incorrect Incorrect Uncertain Not knowing the concept
(Arslan et al., 2012).

3. Results and Discussion


The product development was begun with a preliminary study that includes literature review
and field study. Literature review was conducted by studying some literatures related to geometric
optics. The study on previous researches revealed several forms of misconceptions on geometric
optics. These misconceptions were confirmed by giving essay tests and informal interviews to
physics students. The answers from the students were then analyzed that it was found that the
conceptions found among the students are the same with those in the previous researches that had
been studied before.
We also studied about the types of misconception diagnostic test such as interview, concept
mapping, essay test, multiple choice, and two- and three-tiers multiple choice. We analyzed the
advantages and disadvantages of each type. From the intensive study, we decided to employ three-
tiers multiple choice test, considering its possibility to distinguish students with a good
understanding of concept, students with misconceptions, and students who do not know the concepts.
Besides studying the types of diagnostic test, we also studied literatures related to principles of
remedial that teachers should give after conducting diagnostic.
Field study was conducted through observation and interview with a physics lecturers who were
teaching at Mataram University. Observation was conducted to see the type of diagnostic used by the
lecturer in investigating students ability. The interview was conducted to reveal difficulties faced by
the lecturer in conducting diagnostic and giving remedial to the students. The result of this field
study showed that the types of diagnostic test employed by the lecturer were essay test, multiple
choice, and interview. Those tests were not specifically designed to investigate students
misconceptions, but to merely check students learning progress and understanding of concept.
Whereas remedial of materials considered to be difficult by the students was given in class by
repeating the discussion on the materials. Unfortunately, remedial was rarely given due to the
problem of room availability, time, and energy.
Literature review on interactive multimedia was conducted by studying several books and
previous researches. It was found that interactive multimedia had some advantages that are
considered to be a good solution for the aforementioned problem. The principles of diagnostic and
remedial can be merged into interactive multimedia. Interactive multimedia enables students to learn
independently without the lecturer presence, that the problems of room availability, time, and energy
can be solved.
Based on the preliminary study, the development of interactive multimedia-based program for
diagnostic and remedial on geometric optics is of great importance. The product specifications are
(1) interactive multimedia-based program for diagnostic and remedial on geometric optics is
combination into a single multimedia program using Adobe Flash that enables users to open it with a
computer (PC or laptop), (2) interactive multimedia-based program for diagnostic and remedial
consists of three main sections, namely geometric optics diagnostic test, diagnostics result, and
remedial, (3) The result of the diagnostic can be saved and used as a report to the lecturer, and (4) the
items in the diagnostic test are presented in forms of text, graphic, and animation. Meanwhile, the

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remedial section is presented in forms of animation, simulation, or videos which are featured with
narration.
In product planning, we created a storyboard. The storyboard helped us to get an illustration of
the product that was going to be developed. Then, we decided the types of misconception that were
going to be measured, and then developed diagnostic questions related to geometric optics. There
were 26 items of misconception diagnostic developed in the form of three-tiers multiple choice test.
Some diagnostic items were taken from previous researches on geometric optics, and some others
were developed by ourselves.
The interactive multimedia-based program for diagnostic and remedial on geometric optics
(further called as D&R Geometric Optics in this article) consisted of four main frames. The first
frame was Main Menu, consisting of overview of the program and several menu buttons. The second
frame was Diagnostic Questions, consisting of misconception diagnostic tests on geometric optics.
The third frame was the Diagnostic Result, consisting of feedbacks of the students answers on the
diagnostic test. This result can be saved and used as a report to the lecturer. The fourth frame was
Remedial, consisting of the explanation of material related to the items answered incorrectly by the
students, whether due to misconception or not knowing the concept.
In preliminary field testing, data were collected from two expert lecturers as validators. The
product was validated on three aspects, namely diagnostic test, media interface, and remedial
material. Based on the validation result on the aspect of geometric optic items, the mean score given
by the experts on each indicator ranged between 3.81 3.92. Thus, it could be concluded that the
geometric-optics diagnostic items were valid on the entire indicators. Scoring indicators employed
in the geometric-optics diagnostic items included: 1) The items being assessed are conceptually
correct, 2) The items are able to measure the type of misconception, 3) Graphics and information are
displayed clearly, 4) The given choices can perform well as distractors, 5) The wording does not lead
to a correct answer, and 6) The wording does not lead to ambiguity or misunderstanding.
Then, the expert validation on the aspect of D&R GeometricOptics interface, the mean score
given on each indicator ranged between 3.85 3.96. Thus, it could be concluded that the D&R
Geometric Optics could be categorized as valid on the entire indicators. Scoring indicators employed
in validating the media interface included: 1) The graphics chosen are interesting, 2) The graphics
chosen are appropriate, 3) The colors chosen are interesting, 4) The colors chosen are appropriate, 5)
The texts are appropriate, 6) The text colors are appropriate, 7) The use of language is appropriate, 8)
The program is easy to use and operate, and 9) The background sound is interesting.
Lastly, based on the validation on the aspect of remedial material of Geometric Optics D&R
Program, the mean score given by the experts on each indicator ranged between 3.85 3.92. Thus, it
could be concluded that the remedial materials were valid on the entire indicators. Scoring indicators
employed in validating remedial materials included: 1) Remedial materials given are conceptually
correct, 2) Remedial material uses the appropriate Indonesian language, 3) The use of
graphic/animation/simulation is appropriate, 4) The presentation of remedial materials is clear, 5)
The presentation of remedial materials is communicative, 6) The remedial materials are congruent
with the items being discussed, and 7) The remedial materials can help students in understanding
concepts on geometric optics.

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Figure 1.Example of Diagnostic-Item Frame Interface

Figure 2. Diagnostic Result Interface

After revising the product based on the experts comments and suggestions, the next step was
conducting themain field testing that involved ten students as users. The mean score given by the
students in respond to the D&R Geometric Optics ranged between 3.504.00. Thus, it could be
concluded that the interactive multimedia-based program for diagnostic and remedial on geometric
optics could be tested further in operational trial. The user students involved in the trial stated that
they could understand the instruction on how to use D&R Geometric Optic program clearly, they

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were also able to use and run the program based on the instruction given, and they could get the
diagnostic result immediately after finishing the test and also get the remedial materials that suited
their needs.
In operational field testing, the data were collected from the pretest and posttest result of
experiment and control class. The comparison between the pretests of both classes can be seen on
Figure 3.

70
58.08 Experiment
60
50.77 Control
Percentage (%)

50
40
27.42
30 19.12
18.42 19.88
20
2.69
10 3.46
0
U M G N
Categories of Answer

Figure 3. Diagram of Comparison between Pretests of Experiment and Control Class.

Information.
U : Understand the concept G : Guessing (no certainty)
M : Misconception N : Not knowing the concept

From the comparison diagram on Figure 3, it can be seen that the average percentage of students
who understand the concepts was still low in both classes, just 19.12% in the experiment class and
18.42 in the control class. Meanwhile, the average result of pretests that belonged to misconception
was still high in both classes, it was above 50%. The percentage of students pretest answers that
belonged to guessing (no certainty) was similar in both classes, 2.69% in the experiment class and
3.46% in the control class. Whereas in terms of the category of not knowing the concept, the
experiment class was 7.54% higher than the control class.
The comparison between the mean of posttest of both classes can be seen on Figure 4.

80 77.80
67.90
70 Experiment

60 Control
Percentage (%)

50
40
30
18.42
20 16.81
4.51 9.00
10 1.15 4.23
0
U M G N
Categories of Answer

Figure 4. Diagram of Comparison between Posttests of Experiment Class and Control Class

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Information.
U : Understand the concept G : Guessing (no certainty)
M : Misconception N : Not knowing the concept

From the diagram above, it can be seen that the experiment class had an average percentage of
concept understanding around 77.8%, increased 58.68% from the pretest. The increase in the
experimental was higher than that occurred in the control class which was only 49.48% from the
pretest became 67.9%. The percentage of both classes was similar in terms of misconception,
16.81% in the experiment class and 18.42% in the control class. In terms of guessing (no certainty),
the percentage of the experiment class was still lower than that of the control class, 1.15% and 4.51%
respectively. In terms of not knowing the concepts, the experiment class had an average percentage
4.23%, which was lower than the control class of which percentage 9.00%.
Homogeneity and normality test were conducted towards the posttest data that it was found that
the requirement to conduct a discrimination test with t-test was not fulfilled. Thus, in processing the
discrimination test for the experiment and control class, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was
employed. The result can be seen on Table 2.

Table 2. Result of Mann-Whitney Test


Mann-Whitney
Categories of Answer Significance Conclusion
U Score
Understand the concept 304,5 0,047 Different
Misconception 402,5 0,620 Not different
Guessing (No certainty) 254,0 0,002 Different
Not knowing the concept 315,5 0,056 Not different

From the Mann-Whitney test result, it can be concluded that there was a significant difference
between experiment and control class in categories of understanding concept and guessing (no
certainty). It was shown by the significance scores on those categories which were below 0.05. On
the other hand, in the categories of misconception and not knowing the concept, it was concluded
that there was no difference between the two classes, because the significance scores were above
0.05.
The findings on this product trial supported some previous researches which stated that students
who just learned even in a formal context could hold misconception on geometric optics (Goldberg
& McDermott, 1986; Goldberg & McDermott, 1987; Andersson&Krrqvist, 1983;
Fetherstonhaugh&Treagust, 1992; Galili, 1996; Langley, et al., 1997). It was reflected in the
misconception percentage on the pretest. Most students were able to memorize formulas related to
geometric optics without understanding the very meaning. They experienced events related to
geometric events everyday but could not explain the concepts underlying those phenomena.
The result of this research and development proved that the use of three-tiers misconception-
diagnostic test was successful in identifying misconceptions among students. This type of diagnostic
test was also successful in distinguishing which of the students who had understood the concepts,
who were just guessing, and who did not know the concepts at all. The use of interactive multimedia
in remedial was also proved to be effective in improving students concept understanding and
lessening misconceptions on geometric optics. With the use of animation, simulation, and videos in
the interactive multimedia-based program for diagnostic and remedial, abstract concepts in geometric
optics could be presented clearly. This advantage could help the students to understand geometric
concepts accurately.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

In the experiment class, there were several factors that make misconceptions, no certainty, or
not knowing concepts at all could still be found on posttest. First, the students may neverused the
D&R Geometric Optics program at home. In turn, the students never got any remedial. Some
students admitted that they did not use the program at home due to many reasons. Second, it was
possible that the contents in the D&R Geometric Optics program were not detailed enough. Third, it
was also possible that the material presentation technique was irrelevant with the students learning
styles, that this program could not do much for them. More frequent practicum activities in a real
laboratory was really needed to help the students to understand the geometric optics accurately.

4. Conclusions and Suggestions


From the result and discussion above, the interactive multimedia-based diagnostic and remedial
program on geometric optics has fulfilled the criteria to be categorized as valid. Besides, the product
of this development was also proved to be able to diagnose misconceptions and improve students
concept-understanding or lessen their misconceptions on geometric optics.
This research was conducted based on practicality in the development and application in
classroom. Thus, the misconceptions studied in this research were just limited to misconceptions that
were thought to be mostly held by the students based on previous researches. For further
development, misconceptions to be studied can be broadened by involving all types of conceptions
on geometric optics, not just limited to the misconceptions frequently held by students on previous
researches.
One of the weakness of this interactive multimedia-based program for diagnostic and remedial
on geometric optics is that it was not connected to lecturers scoring database that the lecturer should
do the scoring manually. Due to the weakness, any further development is expected to develop such
program in a form of web which is featured with a database system. By doing so, lecturers do not
need to do a manual scoring anymore. Besides, by creating such product in a form of web, it will be
easier for lecturer to monitor students learning.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

SECTION III: MATHEMATICS


OM-01
Parabolic Function as Comparative Means to Markov
Model in Predicting Dry and Wet Spells in Southern
Lombok
Mahrup*, I Gusti Made Kusnarta, Cuk Sukorahardjo, and Padusung

Research Group in Soil Physics at Dept. of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, in the State
University of Mataram, Lombok, puslisda@gmail.com

Abstract-Dry and wet spells are essential parameters of precipitation for rainfed and dry land agriculture.
The parameters are commonly predicted by using first order Markov Chain model. This model prescribes
homo-geneity of sample variant. However, this condition would not be fulfilled by rainfall data from an
erratic climate region of southern Lombok. Therefore, a parabolic function could be appropriate means.
Descriptive research was conducted in 2014 by collecting daily rainfall data from 13 rainfall stations
representing rainfall pattern of the region. The research objective was to compare result of Markov model and
parabolic function in determining duration of dry and wet spells in the area of climate types D and E at
southern Lombok. The representative rainfall stations were assigned as purposive sampling to represent the
southern part of Lombok area. Both the probability-based Markov model and parabolic function were used
to calculated dry and wet spells, using daily rainfall data of rainy season; November to April which had
been 16 years period. The results show that temporal variation of dry and wet spells were parabolic in nature;
the dry spell pattern was longer in the early growing season (November) and at the end of the season (April),
and it was relatively short in the mid season. Parabola for wet spell was upside down or concave downward;
short in early season, and reached a peak in mid season before decreasing at late season. Markov model
predicted dry spell below actual data for the early and late season, and it predicted over actual data for mid
season. In addition, wet spell was predicted lower than actual data.

Keywords:dry spell, wet spell, parabolic function and Markov chain model

I. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background
Complexity of natural phenomena occured in troposphere, such as incidence of rain
(precipitation) can be simplified through mathematics, physics and statistics (Sharma, et al., 1998)
with assumption that probability of events is considered as random (Vicente-Serrano, et al., 2003).
Common nature of tropical weather empirically consists of two phases, namely a period of rainy
days (wet spells) and dry spells, which both take place in turns for one season. Wet spells of 2-4
days commonly occur in areas of high rainfall, while in an area of low rainfall is exponential;
reach a peak on a single day. Dry spells show opposite behavior, in which dry spell in dry areas is
3-4 days, whereas in wet climate region, dry spell could be one day (Ratan, et al., 2003).
Dry spell is a period where dry weather (no rain) takes place within a certain time (a few
days) in corresponding with a threshold limit of rainfall (Mathugama, et al., 2011; Ratan, et al. ,
2014) which is different for every place and type of plant (Mathugama, et al., 2011; Mathlouthi, et
al., 2012; Bouagila et al., 2013). Fischer, et al., (2013), suggests that the threshold can be adjusted
to replenish average water loss through evapotranspiration process. Indonesia using a threshold
value of less than 0.5 mm per day, as it does not rain (BMKG, 2014). Forest crops and plantations
have a threshold of 1.5 mm, whereas agricultural crops have a threshold of 1.0 mm (Mathugama, et
al., 2011).
Shifting of rainfall patterns in Lombok has been reported by As Syakur, et al., (2011) that
in three decades. Climate zones of type C3 (Oldeman) around mountain Rinjani increased 6 times;
changing from its original type of C2 or B. In dry part of southern Lombok, there was formerly of

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

type D3 turned to D4 and from D4 shifted to E4 with 0 - 2 wet months per year; shift towards
increasingly dry. The changes have been certainly accompanied by variability in rainfall, i.e.
seasonal and annual variation. Both of this climate variability have been widely studied, but
attentionis still less on variability of dry spells and wet spells. Supposedly, these two aspects are
very essential for rainfed anddry land agriculture. Dry spell serves as an important indicator of
drought status of a region (Nasri, et al., 2011; She, et al., 2013), which is an important parameter
for irrigation planning, decision-making related to climate (Lall, et al., 1996), and assessment of
water requirement for agriculture scenario, analysis of soil moisture condition (Mathugama, et
al., 2011).It is also responsible to agronomic risk (Revindran, 2014), e.g. crop failures or failure of
production due to dry spells during a period of growth of intolerance drought crops, especially in
rainfed agriculture, and dry land farming system (Fischer, et al., 2013). Therefore, dry spell can
cause economically, socially and environmentally direct impact in dry climates region that has high
frequency of dry spells with long duration (Hachigonta, et al., 2006)
Many facts show that agricultural production in some areas do not only depend on the total
rainfall in a season, but the pattern of rain events (Mangaraj, et al., 2013). Good yield of crops
isachieved in moderate rain intensity with evenly distribute over time, rather than heavy rain
followed by periods of long dry spell (Hachigonata, et al., 2006). Phenomena of dry spells becomes
more important in line with the issue of global climate change, as well as El Nino and La Nina. It is
because of itscorrelation with variations in duration and frequency of dry spells (Lall, et al., 1996;
Barron, et al., 2004). Frequency of dry spells was higher in El Nino conditions than La Nina
(Mangaraj, et al., 2013).
Various stochastic models have been developed to analyze data of rainfall, in order to study
characteristics of dry and wet splells. One of them is Markov Chain Model (Mathugama, et al.,
2011; Mangaraj, et al., 2013) which is described in the geometry matrix of 2 x 2, which is
commonly called transition probability matrix or first order Markov chain of two states (Detzel,
et al., 2013). The basic principle of this model is to test whether dry and wet spells has a
conditional nature, or purely random (Mathugama, et al., 2011). However, Markov model has
disadvantage in predicting the nature of too long and too short dry spells. The Markov model
predicts lower rainfall pause too long, and predict a longer pause short rainy. Therefore,an
analytical tool that is able to overcome these weaknesses is necessary (Mathugama, et al., 2011).
The same thing was found by Mahrup (2015) in his study of dryspell in Lombok, where the
characteristic of dry spell fulfilled a parabolic function. The parabolic function is close in nature to
a quadratic function. Geometry of parabola consists of a locus for all the points whichare always
have equal distance to a center of the parabola (focus). The focus is at certain distance from a fixed
linecalled directrix (Protter and Morrey, 1971). Implementation of parabolic functions is expected
to correct the weaknesses of the Markov chain modelin analyzing the nature of the dry and wet
spells in climate regions of type D and E in south Lombok.

1.2. Research purposes


Research aims to study application of parabolic function in analyzing dry and wet spells in
climate regions of type D and E in south Lombok.

1.3. Benefits Research


Research output is academically useful as an alternative means of analyzing the nature of
dry and wet spells in regions of climate type D and E in south Lombok, and it would be practically
useful as a basis tool for local climate forecasting, as well as establishment of planting date in
climate regions of type D3, D4 and E in the southern part of Lombok island.

II. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2.1. Research Methods


Research was carried out by Descriptive method, using climate data from 13 stations
assigned by purposive sampling in the southern part of Lombok. Criteria for the representative

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

were: (i) climatologically, they lay in the area of climate type D or E, (ii) they are geographically
located in the southern mountains of Rinjani, (iii) they are located within a relatively similar
climate zone, (iv) they are topographically located at an altitude of 300 m asl., and (v) monthly
rainfall data available in a time span of 30 years (1983/1984 - 2012/2013) and daily rainfall data of
16 years (1997-1998 -2012 / 2013) or 10 years. Rainfall data sources were: Bureau of
Meteorology and Climatology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) West Nusa Tenggara
Province, Department of Agriculture, Department of Public Works, Hydrology Office , and the
Center for Watershed Management of West Nusa Tenggara, Crop Protection Institute for Food
and Horticulture, private companies, such as PT. ELI Lombok.
The thirteenth stations consisted of three stations representing zone of southern part of
West Lombok season, namely: Sekotong, Gerung and Kediri stations. Four stations zone
represented the southern part of Central Lombok, namely: Puyung, Penujak, Kawo, and Munjur.
Three seasons represented the southern part of East Lombok, namely: Sikur, Jerowaru and Ijobalit.

2.2 Data Analysis


Analysis of rainfall data was done in two categories, namely analysisof wetseason data
(November - April) for 30 years and daily rainfall data over a period of 16 years or 10 years, to
describe the nature of the dry and wet spells.

2.2.1. Dry Spell Analysis


Dry and wet spells were analyzed according to the procedure model of Markov Chain
(Markov Chain Model) (Mathugama, et al., 2011; Mangaraj, et al., 2013), for November April are
as follows:

p00 + P01 = 1 and p10 + p11 = 1 ................................................... [1]

Where: p00, (today and the previous day without rain; P01 (rain today, the previous day without
rain); p10 (today without rain, and before rain, and p11 (today and the day before rain). These
parameters represented probability of transition for the continuity of a condition or precondition of
an event (Detzel, et al., 2011).
Days of growingseason were counted from November 1st of on going year to April of
following year. Each individual day was given a code to follow Markov rule as: H00, H01, H10
and H11. The frequency of each code was counted, and if frequency for each of the above code was
given notation as: a, b, c and d, where a + b = n0, and c + e = n1, then the transition probabilities,
P01 and p11 can be calculated (Mangaraj, et al., 2013) as follows:

P01 = b / (a + b) = b / n0 ............................................................................................. [2]

p11 = d / (c + d) = d / n1 ............................................................................................. [3]

Probability of day without rain (p0) and the probability of rainy days (p1) is calculated using the
formula:

p0 = (a + c) / (n0 + n1) ................................................................................................ [4]

p1 = (b + d) / (n0 + n1) ............................................................................................... [5]

Estimation variance could be calculated (Mangaraj, et al., 2013) using formula:

Variant for P01 = P01 (1-P01) / n0 = (p01p00) / n0 .................................................... [6]

Variant for p11 = p11 (1-p11) / n1 = (p11p10) /n1....................................................... [7]

Prediction for dry spell, (Sn) = 1 / P01, while the duration wet spell (Dh) = 1 / p10

2.3. Geometry Analysis of Parabola

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Geometry of parabola is shown in Figure 2 (Paul and Shaevel, 1989):

Figure 2. Geometry of Parabola (Left) and the Parabolic or Quadratic Functions


(Right)
L is a fixed line called the directrix; F is the center point of the parabola (focus), V is the vertex
point or base point parabola. Point P, Q, R, and S (Figure 2, left) are the points that lie along the
curved parabolic suitably qualified definitions or provisions, and p is the distance from the focus to
the directrix line. Thus applies:
IAPI = I PF I, I BQ I = I QF I, I CR I = I RF I, and I DS I = I SF I

If the distance from the focus, F (0, p) to a point on the parabola, P (x, y) is d1 and the distance
from the point P to the directrix line is d2, then d1 = d2. Thus it can be derived by applying the
formula parabolic function of distance between two points (Paul and Shaevel, 1989) as follows:
d1 = d2
(x - 0) 2 + (y - p) 2 = (x - x) 2 + (y - (p)) 2

(x - 0) 2 + (y - p) 2 = (x - x) 2 + (y + p) 2

Multiply both sides of the equations

x2 + (y - p)2 = (y + p) 2

x2 + y2 - 2yp + p2 = v2 + 2yp + p2

x2 - 2yp = 2yp

x2 = 2yp + 2yp

x2 = 4yp

Thus: x2 = 4yp.............................................. . [8]

where p> 0

y = x2 / 4p; y is a dry spell or wet spell duration and x is

Julian day in the growing season; November-April.

To test whether the results of parabolic or quadratic function, were close to observation data or
predictions Markov, then X2-test (Chi-square) goodness of fit was carried out (Walpole, 1974;
Walpole, 1990) with the formula:

2 = (oi - ei)/ei ................................................................... . [9]

Where oi: data of observation; ei: result from model (expectation). Hypothesis testing was done by
comparing the value of calculated- 2 with 2-table at 95% confidence level ( 5%) with the
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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

degrees of freedom, = (r-1) (c-1); r = 2, where r is the number of pair data to be compared (i.e.
observation data and model results), while c was number of months of observation during growing
season, i.e. 6 months. So c = 6.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Comparison of Parabola, Markov Model and Observed Dry Spells

3.1.1. Dry Spells in West Lombok

Parabolic function was constructed by converting rainy season period into Julian days. First
Julian day commenced from November 1st and ended on April 30th. Hence, one period of rainy
season was 1 to 180 in Julian days. Figure 1a shows comparison of data dry spells between
parabolic function, Markov and actual or observed data in West Lombok. Figure 1b describes
geometry of parabolic function for dry spells in West Lombok. It can be seen from Figure 1b that
parabola had focus at F (111.3, 5.5) vertex at V(111.3 , 2.7). Practical meaning of these parameters
is that the shortest dry spell in West Lombok likely occurred on about the day 111thor in third
decade of February with dry spell of 2.75 days. Figure 1a shows that parabolic function predicted
dry spells which were relatively close to observed data. Exception for early season, predicted dry
spell was slightly higher than actual data.

Figure 1a. Dry Spells in West Lombok in Accordance to Figure 1b. Geometry of Parabolic Function
Parabolic Function, Markov Mo-del and Observed Data for Dry Spells in West Lombok

Markov is probabilistic-based model. It can be seen from Figure 1a that dry spells were
predicted lower than actual data. Predicted dry spells for two consecutive month in early season,
e.g. day 30th (November) and day60th (December) and late season, day 180th (April) were far below
actual data. In other words, there was 50% of dry spells under estimated by Markov Model. On the
other hand, there was 10% of dry spells over estimated by parabolic model. It can be stated that
over all actual data lied in between parabolic and Markov prediction.

3.1.2. Dry Spells in Central Lombok

Dry spells in Central Lombok showed similar pattern than that in West Lombok. Geometry
of parabola for dry spells in Central Lombok (Figure 2b) had focus, F at (100.4, 5.4) and Vertex, V
at (100.4, 2.70). These figures practically mean that the shortest dry spell of 2.70 days occurred on
the day 100thor in second decade of February. It came a bit earlier than thatof west Lombok. Data
of dry spells predicted by a parabolic model were always close to actual data (Figure 2a). However,
Markov model seems to fit for dry spells in mid rainy season, e.g. day 90th and 120th. Deviation of
Markovs dry spells was high for early season (day 30th and 60th) as well as in late season (day
180th). This means that Markov model was not eligible for predicting early season and late season
dry spells in Central Lombok. On the other hand, it seems that parabolic function fitted to predict
dry spells of rainy season in Central Lombok (Figure 2a)

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Figure 2a. Dry Spells in Central Lombok in Accordance to Figure 2b. Geometry of Parabolic Function for
Parabolic Function, Markov Model and Observed Data Dry Spells in Central Lombok

3.1.3. Dry Spells in East Lombok


Dry spells in East Lombok seems to naturally behave similar to characteristic of dry spells
in West and Central Lombok. Geometry of parabola for dry spells in East Lombok (Figure 3b) had
focus, F at (103.5, 7.4) and Vertex, V at (103.5, 3.7). Interpretation of these figures is that the
shortest dry spell in East Lombok was 3.7 days which likely occurred on the day 103th or in the
second decade of February Duration of dry spells in East Lombok was one day longer than that in
West and Central Lombok. As consequently, climate of East region is drier than climate of West
and Central Lombok.

Figure 3a. Dry Spells in East Lombok in Accordance to Figure 3b. Geometry of Parabolic Function for
Parabolic Function, Markov Model and Observed Data Dry Spells in East Lombok

Data of dry spells predicted by a parabolic model (Figure 3a) were nearly fitted to actual
data (Figure 3a). However, Markov model mostly under estimates dry spells in rainy season of
East Lombok. Deviation of Markovs dry spells was relatively high for rainy season. Therefore,
Markov model was not eligible for predicting dry spells for rainfall data of East Lombok.
However, parabolic function could be considered as a good model to predict dry spells of rainy
season in East Lombok.

3.2. Comparison of Quadratic, Markov Model and Observed Wet Spells


Wet spells pattern in most of data collected from representative rainfall stations in Lombok
did not match with geometry of parabola. Therefore, the data could not be analyzed by parabolic
function. Instead of parabolic function, wet spells were analyzed by means of a quadratic function.
Outputs of quadratic function for wet spells in West, Central and East Lombok were respectively
presented on Figures 4b, 5b and 6b.

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Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

3.2.1. Wet Spells in East Lombok


Duration of wet spells in West Lombok reached a peak of 2.8days on the day 86 th or third
decade of January (Figure 4b). It was the longest predicted wet spell during rainy season in West
Lombok. Quadratic model (Figure 4b) confirmed that 71%(R2= 0.708) variation in wet spells was
due to temporal variation, and 29% because of other factors. Quadratic model fitted most of actual
dry spells recorded in West Lombok. However, Markov model was under estimate for early season
wet spells (Figure 4a).

Figure 4a. Wet Spells in West Lombok in Accordance Figure 4b. Geometry of Quadratic Function for
to Quadratic Function, Markov Model and Observed Wet Spells in West Lombok
Data

3.2.2. Wet Spells in Central Lombok

Figure 5a. Wet Spells in Central Lombok in Figure 5b. Geometry of Quadratic Function for
Accordance to Quadratic Function, Markov Model Wet Spells in Central Lombok
and Observed Data

3.2.3. Wet Spells in East Lombok


East Lombok was a region of having long dry spells, but relatively short wet spell.
Maximumduration of wet spell in East Lombok was approximately 2.35 days. It took placeon the
day 101th or second decade of February (Figure 5b). It was the longest predicted wet spell during
rainy season in East Lombok. It approximately occurred at a quite the same time as it was in
Central Lombok. Quadratic model (Figure 6b) confirmed that 94%(R2= 0.891) of variation in wet
spells was due to temporal variation (time dependence), and 6% because of other factors.
Quadratic model had precisely fitted of all actual dry spells recorded in East Lombok. In this case,
Markov model slightly under estimated for wet spells, but still within an acceptable limit for wet
spells of rainy season in East Lombok (Figure 6a). Hence, both Quadratic and Markov model could
be considered as proper models for predicting wet spells of rainy season in East Lombok.

ISBN 9786021570425 MATH-7


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Figure 6a. Wet Spells in East Lombok in Figure 6b. Geometry of Quadratic Function for
Accordance to Quadratic Function, Markov Model Wet Spells in West Lombok
and Observed Data

3.3. Test of Model Goodness fit

3.3.1. Test of Goodness Fit for Dry Spells


Test of model was carried out by using 2 (Chi- square test ) or goodness of fit test at
95% confidence level. Actual data (ACT) of dry spells and results of model, either parabolic
function (PBLA) or Markov model (MKV) are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Test of Model Goodness Fit for Dry Spells in South Lombok
WEST CENTRAL EAST
LOMBOK LOMBOK LOMBOK
Months PBLA ACT MKV PBLA ACT MKV PBLA ACT MKV
NOV 8.8 5.9 4.0 7.3 6.0 2.7 7.4 8.6 3.5
DEC 5.1 5.1 2.3 4.2 4.0 2.2 5.0 4.2 2.4
JAN 3.2 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.4 3.8 4.5 2.8
FEB 2.8 2.4 2.3 3.1 3.5 2.9 3.9 4.4 2.9
MAR 4.1 3.5 2.9 5.0 3.7 2.6 5.2 4.8 3.0
APR 7.0 5.8 3.6 8.5 7.4 3.4 7.7 8.7 5.1
Cal-2 -0.9 2.61 -0.5 3.92 0.4 4.62
0.95 1.145
2

Note: PBLA: Parabolic Function, ACT: Actual data (observed data), MKV :
Markov model, Degree of freedom = 5, Cal-2 : Calculated chi-square 2

As it is seen in Table 1 that onset and end of rainy season (November and April) were
characterized by relative long dry spells. Actual dry spells on the onset season were 5.9 days in
West Lombok, 6 days in Central Lombok, and 8.6 day in East Lombok, while dry spells at the
end of season were 5.8 days (West Lombok), 7.4 days (Central Lombok), and 8.7 days (East
Lombok). Practical mean of these data is that rainy season would be possibly terminated if a period
of day without rain in April had reached those figures in successive days. In addition, mid seasons
(December to March) average actual dry spells in West, Central and East Lombok were 3.5 days,
3.5 days and 4.5 days respectively.
Results of goodness of fit test for parabola model and Markov show that 2 of parabolic
functions for data dry spells were -0.9 (West Lombok), -0.5 (Central Lombok) and 0.4 (East
Lombok), where those calculated 2 less than 1.145 ( value for 2 table 5%, degree of freedom,
=5). This implies that parabolic function was fit to predict dry spells in South Lombok. So, results
of the model prediction (parabola) for dry spells on onset season were 8.8 days (West Lombok), 7.3
days (Central Lombok), and 7.4 days (East Lombok). Parabola prediction for mid season
(December to March) average dry spells were 3.8 days in West and Central Lombok, and 4.5 days

ISBN 9786021570425 MATH-8


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

in East Lombok. Prediction for late season (April) dry Spells were 7.0 days (West Lombok),
8.5days (Central Lombok) and 7.7 days ( East Lombok). Markov model was under estimate of the
actual dry spells in South Lombok. Test of goodness fit for Markov model showedthat calculated 2
(Table 1) was higher than 2 table, 5%. Hence, Markov model was unfit for predicting dry spells
in South Lombok.

3.3.1. Test goodness of fit model for Wet Spells


Actual data (ACT) of wet spells and results of model, either quadratic function (QDR)
or Markov model (MKV) are presented in Table 2. It can be seen from Table 2 that onset and end
of rainy season (November and April) were characterized by relative short wet spells. Actual wet
spells on the onset season were 2.3 days in West Lombok, 1.9 days in Central Lombok, and 1.5
day in East Lombok, while wet spells at the end of season (April) were 2.1 days (West Lombok),
1.8 days (Central Lombok), and 1.6 days (East Lombok). Practical mean of these data is that rainy
season would be possibly terminated if a period of successive rainy day in April had shorter and
shorter. In addition, average wet spells in mid seasons (December to March) were 2.5 days in West
Lombok and 2.3 days in Central and East Lombok.

Table 2. Test of Model Fitness for Wet Spells in South Lombok

WEST CENTRAL EAST


LOMBOK LOMBOK LOMBOK
Month QDR ACT MKV QDR ACT MKV QDR ACT MKV
NOP 2.4 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.8
DES 2.6 2.8 2.0 2.3 2.2 1.4 2.1 2.2 1.8
JAN 2.7 2.8 2.5 2.4 2.6 1.5 2.3 2.4 2.1
PEB 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4 1.4 2.3 2.2 2.2
MAR 2.5 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.7 2.0 2.1 2.1
APR 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.6 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.5
Cal-2 -0.2 0.87 0.1 2.93 0.2 0.33
0.95
2
1.145
Note: QDR: Quadratic function, ACT: Actual data (observed data), MKV :
Markov model, Degree of freedom = 5, Cal-2 : Calculated chi-
square (2)

Results of goodness of fit test for Quadratic model and Markov shows that 2 of
Quadratic functions for data wet spells were -0.2 (West Lombok), 0.1 (Central Lombok) and 0.2
(East Lombok), where those calculated 2 were less than 1.145 ( value for 2 table 5%, degree
of freedom, =5). This suggests that quadratic function was fit to predict dry wetspells in South
Lombok. Results of the model prediction (quadratic function) forwet spells on onset season were
2.4 days (West Lombok), 1.9 days (Central Lombok), and 1.6 days (East Lombok). Quadratic
prediction of wet spells in mid season (December to March) on average was 2.6 days in West
Lombok, 2.3 days in Central Lombok and 2.2 days in East Lombok. Prediction for late season
(April) wet spells 2.1 days (West Lombok), 1.6 days (Central Lombok) and 1.4 days (East
Lombok).
Markov model wasfit for estimating wet spells in West and East Lombok. It is due tothe
fact that the value of calculated 2 was less than the value of 2 table at 5%. However, Markov
model was unfit for estimating wet spells in Central Lombok because the value of calculated 2
was higher than the value of 2 table at 5%. Markovs prediction for wet spells on onset season
was 1.9 days in West Lombok and 1.8 day in East Lombok,while for central Lombok was 1.5 days
which was under estimate. Markovs prediction for late season wet spells were 1.9 days in West

ISBN 9786021570425 MATH-9


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Lombok, and 1.5 days in East Lombok,while there was 1.3 days (under estimate) in Central
Lombok.

IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

4.1. Conclusion
Dry and wet spells in South Lombok were randomly time dependency; therefore they
varied over time during rainy season. Dry spell pattern were concave parabola in nature, while wet
spells was convex parabola. Therefore, the parabolic function was the best model to estimate dry
spells in South Lombok; meanwhile wet spell was well predicted by using a quadratic model.
Markov first order model under estimates dry and wet spells in South Lombok. Observed data for
dry spells mostlylied inbetween resultof parabolic function (upper value) and Markov model (lower
value). In addition, wet spells were well predicted by both quadratic function and Markov first
order model, but there was unfit using parabolic function.

4.2. Recommendation
Results of study in relation to dry spell prediction model in south Lombok had been
coincided with expectation or hypothesis. Parabolic function was the best fit to observed data of
dry spells in dry region of climate type D3, D4 and E. Markov first order model was only
recommend for estimating wet spells, but not for dry spells in an erratic region of Shout Lombok.
Furthermore, a quadratic model was acceptable for estimating wet spells instead of Markov model
and parabolic function.

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Al Asheikh, A.A., and Tarawaneh Q.Y., 2013. An analysis of dry spells pattern intensity and
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Hidup Universitas Udayana. Jurnal Pijar. MIPA, Vol. III No. 1, Maret 2008. p: 17-22.
As-Syakur, A.R., I.W. Nuarsa, dan I.N. Sunarta, 2011. Pemutahiran Peta Agroklimat Klasifikasi
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Masalah Lingkungan di Indonesia. p: 79-87.
Barron, J., 2004. Dry spell mitigation to abgrid semi-arid rainfed agriculture. Doctoral Thesis
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Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika (BMG), 1994. Rainfall Type in Indonesia. BMG. Jakarta Badan
Pusat Statistik, 2009. Luas Lahan Kering di Indonesia; BPS.
BMKG- NTB, 2014. Analisis Curah Hujan Bulan Januari 2014 dan Prakiraan Curah Hujan bulan
Maret, April dan Mei 2014 di Nusa Tenggara Barat. Stasiun Klimatologi Kediri NTB. 26p.
Detzel, D.H.M., and M.R.M. Mine, 2011. Generation of daily synthetic precipitation
series: Analysis and application in La Plata River Basin. The Open Hidrology Journal, 2011, Vol.
5. p:69-77.
Fischer, B.M.C., M.L. Mul, and H.G. Savenije, 2013. Determining spatial variability of
dryspells:Markov-based method, applied to Markanya catchment, Tanzania.
Hydol.Earth Syst. Sci. 17. p:2161-2170.

ISBN 9786021570425 MATH-10


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

Hachigonta, S., and C.J.C. Reason, 2006. Interannual variability in dry and wet spell characteristics
over Zambia. Climate Research, Vol. 32. p: 49 62.
Hoel, P.G., 1967. Elementari Statistics: Wiley series in Probability and MathematicalStatistic. John
Wiley and Son Inc. USA.
Idris, M.H., Mahrup, M. Sidik dan Aldi, 2013. Model of Small Scale Agroforesty for Adapting to
Climate Change. Final Report on Climate Change Adaptation Project. Collaboration
Between Universitas Mataram and CSIRO-Australia.
IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Group I, II,III to
the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [ core
writing team, Pachauri, R.K. and Reisinger, A. (eds)] IPCC. Geneva. Switzerland. 104 p
Lall, U., B. Rajagopalan, and D.G. Tarboto, 1996. A nonparametric wet/dry spell model
forsampling daily precipitation. Water Resources Research, Vol. 32, No. 9.
p:2803 2823Mangaraj, A.K., I.N. Sahoo, and M.k. Sukla, 2013. A Markov chain
analysis of daily rainfall Occurance at Eastern Orissa of India. Journal of
Reliability and Statistical Study. Vol. 6, Issue 1 (2013). p:77-86.
Mathugama, S.C. and T.S.G. Peiris, Critical evaluation of dry spell Research. International
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Mathlouthi, M., and F. Lebdi, 2012. Characterization of the events of dry spell in a BasinNorthern
Tunisia. http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/3.0. Diunduh tanggal 15 Juni 20014.
Paul, R.S. and M.L. Shaevel, 1989. Essential of Technical Mathematics with Calculus. Second
Edition. Prentice Hall Inc. New Jersey. 1165p.
Pedrick C, Devlin M, and Timmermann T. 2012. Strategies for Combating Climate Change in
Drylands Agriculture. Synthesis of dialogues and evidence presented at the
InternationalConference on Food Security in Dry Lands, Doha, Qatar, November, 2012.
27pRatan, R., and V. Venugopal. Wet and dry spell characteristic of global tropical
rainfall. Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. Indian Institute of Science.
Bangalore.
Rajagopalan, B., U. Lall, D.G. Tarboton, 1993. Simulation of daily precipitation
fromnonparametric Renewal Model. Work Paper. Utah Water Research Laboratory. Utah
State University. Logan. USA.
Ravindran, C.D., 2014. Use of rainfall analysis in the planning and management of
rainfedcotton.Technical Bulletin No. 15. Central Institute for Cotton esearch.
Nagpur.Reij C. 1988. Water Harvesting for plantproduction in Sub-Saharan
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Serrano, S.M.V., and B. Portugues, 2003. Estimating extrim dry spell risk in the Middle
Ebrovalley (Northeastern Spain): Comparative analysis of partial duration series
with general Pareto distribution and annual maxima series with a Gumbel
distribution. International Journal of Climatology. Vol. 23, p:1103-1118.
She, D. and J. Xia, 2013. The spatial and temporal analysis of dry spells in the Yellow River
Basin , China. Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assess. Vol. 7. p:29-42.
Walpole, R.W., 1974. Introduction to Statistics. 2nd Ed. Macmillan Publishing Company. New
York. 340p.

ISBN 9786021570425 MATH-11


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OM-02
Economic Re-evaluation of PSY-A, PSY-B and PSY C
Wells on PSY Field JOB Pertamina-Medco E&P Tomori
Sulawesi Based on Joint Operating Body Contract
Prayang Sunny Yulia*, Pauhesti Rusdi, and Puri Wijayanti

Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Trisakti University, Jl. Kyai Tapa No. 1, Jakarta 11440,
Indonesiaprayang@trisakti.ac.id

Abstract-JOB Pertamina-Medco E & P Tomori Sulawesi is located in the province of CentralSulawesi. It


has two blocks namely Senoro and Toili. There are oil fields, namely PSY Field located in block Toili.
Basically, before doing a series of exploration and exploitation there must be some planning for the
execution. After the field work has been done, the actual production can be determined and compared to the
result before the work being donewhich is still a planning production. Therefore, efforts are necessary to re-
evaluate the economics of PSY Field. The results are in accordance with the actual results of the planning
which can be better, or even worse. Economic re-evaluation is using a contract system based on the company
itself, which is JOB or Joint Operating Body. The parties that involved in the production sharing contracts are
Pertamina, contractor and government. The parameters used are the CAPEX, OPEX, oil prices, oil
production and economic limits. As well as a feasibility indicator are POT, NPV and ROR. After calculation,
the results obtained for plan data as follow, Pertamina takes US$ 30,116,000; contractor takes US$
27,681,000; government takes US$ 31,381,000; POT for 2 years; NPV @DF 20% for US$ 619,930 and ROR
for 35.56%. As for the actual data obtained the following results, Pertamina takes US$ 27,365,000; contractor
takes US$ 25,431,000; government takes US$ 28,636,000; POT for 2.7 years; NPV @DF 20% for 279.547
and ROR for 23.67%. In the result, both demonstrate the feasibility of the project based on the indicator,
although the value of planning is still greater than the actual. It is heavily influenced by the price increases,
the rate of production, and the activities carried out on the well workmanship.

Keywords: JOB, PSY, Medco, Tomori, Pertamina, price

ISBN 9786021570425 MATH-12


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OM-03
Automatic ARIMAModeling Using R-GUI Version of
Seasonal and Forecast Package in RcmdrPlugin.SPSS
Dedi Rosadi1*, Deasy Arisanty2, and Anny Kartikasari3

1Department of Mathematics, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia


2Department of Geography, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Indonesia
3Department of Computer Science, Gadjah Mada University,
Indonesiadedirosadi@gadjahmada.edu

Abstract-In some application of time series modeling, it is necessary to obtain various types of data
automatically and obtain the real-time forecast of the data, for instance, to do a real-time processing radar or
satellite data. In this paper, we review some automatic algorithms for modeling the ARIMA models. We
present two methods in particular, one method based on R - forecast package discussed in (1) and the others
which is more advanced method based on R seasonal package, an easy-to-use interface to X-13-ARIMA-
SEATS, the seasonal adjustment software by the US Census Bureau, which is discussed in [4]. These
approachs are available in our R-GUI package RcmdrPlugin.Econometrics (2) is now already integrated in
our new and more comprehensive R-GUI package RcmdrPlugin.SPSS (3). We provide aplication of the
method and the tool using real data.

Keywords:ARIMA, Automatic modeling, R-GUI, X-13

ISBN 9786021570425 MATH-13


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OM-04
On Statistically Convergent Sequence Spaces generated
by Orlicz Function

Nur Khusnussaadah* and Supama

1
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah
Mada, nur-khusnus@ugm.ac.id

Abstract-In this paper, the relations between ordinary convergent sequences and statistically convergent
sequences will be studied further. Furthermore, the basic propertiesofstatistically convergent on sequence
spacesgenerated byOrliczfunction are described,particularlythe properties oflinearityandcompleteness
ofspace. It is provedthatthose sequencespacesare paranormcomplete space.

Keywords:statistically convergent sequences, Orlicz function

ISBN 9786021570425 MATH-14


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

OM-05
Nonparametric Estimations of Non-Markov Multistate
Models
Rianti Siswi Utami* and Danardono

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences


Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
riantisiswi.u@ugm.ac.id

Abstract-Markov assumption is often used in multistate modeling, but for several applications this
assumption is less appropriate. This paper will discuss about non-Markov multistate model, concerned in
estimating the gap time distributions using nonparametric methods. Two methods, namely Inverse Probability
of Censoring Weighted (IPCW) and Weighted Kaplan-Meier (WKM), will be compared through simulation
study.

Keywords: nonparametric, non-Markov, multistate model

1. Introduction
A multistate model is a model for stochastic process which occupies one of a set of discrete
states at any time. The complexity of a multistate model greatly depends on the number of states
dened and the transitions allowed among these states. The simplest form of multistate model is the
two-state model, or mortality model, for survival analysis (with only two states, Alive and
Dead, and a single transition). Another simple model is progressive model, where transitions
allowed are only to higher states (Meira-Machado, 2011). Figure 1 and Figure 2 below are the
examples of progressive model with 3 states.

State 1 State 2 State 3

Figure 1. Three state progressive model

1. Healthy 2. Diseased

3. Dead

Figure 2. Progressive illness-death model

Markov assumption, for which past and future state are independent given its present, is
usually applied in the inference of multistate models. However, this assumption may fail in some
applications, leading to inconsistent estimators. In such cases, alternative (non-Markov) estimators
are required (Meira-Machado, 2011).
Several non-Markov methods have been proposed. Most of them used gap time as the variable
of interest. Gap time is the duration between two successive states or events (Lin et al., 1999). In

ISBN 9786021570425 MATH-15


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

1998, Wang dan Wells proposed an estimator for bivariate survival function for gap times (T1, T2)
under three state non-Markov progressive model by estimating the cumulative hazard function of T2
conditional on T1>t1. This estimator is consistent and asymtotically normal, but the variance of the
estimator was not explained. Lin et al. (1999) introduced another estimator through joint
distribution of gap time. In this paper, the variance of the estimator was described but it did not
guarantee a nonnegative weighting of the data. In 2008, de Ua-lvarez and Meira-Machado
proposed an estimator using Kaplan-Meier. They used distribution of total time (total gap time) as
weight of bivariate data.
In this paper, two nonparametric methods in estimating non-Markov models will be explained.
The first method is Inverse Probability of Censoring Weighted (IPCW) from Lin et al. (1999). The
second method is Weighted Kaplan-Meier (WKM) from de Ua-lvarez and Meira-Machado
(2008). Both of them are based on progressive model in Figure 1. The performance of these
methods will be compared through simulation study.

2. Inverse Probability of Censoring Weighted (IPCW) Method


Suppose that an individual may experience K successive event at time Y1 Y2 YK . Gap
times are defined by
T1 : Y1 , T2 : Y2 Y1 , , and TK YK YK 1 .
Several assumptions are made, they are observation time is right censored at time C which is
independen with Y1 , Y2 ,, YK , and for k 2,, K the gap time Tk is right censored at time
C Yk 1 which is automatically correlated with Tk unless Tk is independent of Yk-1. To ease the
explanation, this paper will discuss a model for K = 2. For estimating the joint distribution of the
gap times, nonparametric method will be used.
Let there are n independent subjects in the study, where Y1i , Y2i , Ci i 1, 2,, n is n
independent replication of Y1 , Y2 , C . The observable data consist of

Y1i , Y2i , 1i , 2i , i 1, 2,, n


where

Yki min Yki , Ci ,

ki I Yki Ci , k 1, 2; i 1, 2,, n , and

I is an indicator function, that is

1 Yki Ci
ki .
0 Yki Ci
The joint distribution of T1 and T2 is defined by

F t1 , t2 P T1 t1 , T2 t2 (1)

which is assumed continuous. Let

H t1 , t2 P T1 t1 , T2 t2 (2)

then,

ISBN 9786021570425 MATH-16


Proceedings International Conference on Mathematics, Sciences and Education, University of Mataram 2015
Lombok Island, Indonesia, November 4-5, 2015

F t1 , t2 P T1 t1 , T2 0 P T1 t1 , T2 t2
(3)
H t1 , 0 H t1 , t2 .

From equation (3), it is known that estimator of F can be obtained if estimator of H is already
obtained.
When there are censored data, information for ith individual are Y1i min Y1i , Ci and
Y2i min Y2i , Ci min T1i T2i , Ci . Let indicator function is defined by

I Y1i t1 , Y2i Y1i t2 . Since Y2i Y1i 0 inplies that Y1i T1i , then

I Y1i t1 , Y2i Y1i t2 I T1i t1 , T2i t2 , Ci T1i t2 . (4)

Thus,


E I Y1i t1 , Y2i Y1i t2 T1i , T2i I T1i t1 , T2i t2 G T1i t2 (5)

where G is a survival function of censor variable, G t P C t . Equation (5) can be written in


the following equation,

I Y1i t1 , Y2i Y1i t2