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The Consular, Passport and Visa (CPV) Division of the Ministry of External Affairs,
Government of India provides passport services through Central Passport
Organization (CPO) and its network of Passport Offices and Passport SevaKendras;
and consular, visa and passport services to overseas Indians/foreign nationals through
the Indian Missions and Posts abroad.

Indian passports are issued through a network of 37 Passport Offices, CPV Division
(only Diplomatic and Official passports) and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Administration. This network has been expanded by adding 77 Passport SevaKendras
as extended arms of Passport Offices. For Indians living abroad, passport and other
miscellaneous services are rendered by 180 Indian Missions/Posts. All Passport
Offices issue machine-readable passports as per the guidelines laid down by the
International Civil Aviation Organization.

The Central Passport Organization was created in 1959 as a subordinate office of the
Ministry of External Affairs and is headed by Joint Secretary and Chief Passport
Officer, who also acts as Appellate Authority under the Passports Act, 1967 and the
Head of Department under the Delegation of Financial Powers Rules 1978. Joint
Secretary (CPV) is responsible for consular and visa matters. The Division works
under the supervision of Special Secretary (Admin & CPV).

1. There was no practice of issuing Indian passports before the First World War.
During the War, the Government of India enacted Defence of India Act in
1914 and promulgated rules thereunder, which made it compulsory to possess
a passport for egress from and ingress into India. The Act expired six months
after the end of the War. It was, however, desired that the Government of
India should retain power to continue that system in whole or in part for the
purpose of bringing the Indian practice into line with that of other parts of the
erstwhile British Empire and of other countries.
2. The Government of India, therefore, enacted the Indian Passports Act, 1920
which substantially retained the earlier provisions. This Act was renamed "The
Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920".

3. Though 'Emigration' continued as a Central subject even after passing of
Government of India Act, 1935, the Central Government delegated to the State
Governments the power to issue passports on its behalf. Some of the State
Governments viz., Mumbai, C.P. & Berar, Delhi, United Provinces etc.,
opened regular passport offices for this purpose functioning under their Home
4. Subsequently, the issue of passports became a Central subject under the Indian
Constitution and was allotted to the Ministry of External Affairs. Till 1954,
this work was continued to be carried out by the respective State Governments
on behalf of this Ministry. It was in 1954 that the first five Regional Passport
Offices at Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai and Nagpur were set up. This
necessitated the setting up of a separate organization and the Central Passport
and Emigration Organization was created in 1959 as a Subordinate Office of
this Ministry. The Central Passport Organization (CPO) has sanctioned
strength of about 2,697 officers and staff members as on 01-04-2013.
5. Up to 1966, the issue of passports was regulated through administrative
instructions. The power to issue passports was exercised by the Government
by virtue of Article 73 read with List I, Item 19 of the Seventh Schedule of the
Constitution of India. However, as the Parliament was not in session, the
Government promulgated the Passports Ordinance, 1967 and after six months
replaced it with the present Passports Act, 1967,which came into force on June
24, 1967.This day is now celebrated as Passport Seva Divas.

Under the Passports Act, 1967, the Central Government has the powers to frame rules
thereunder. The first such Rules called the Passport Rules, 1967 were thus framed the
same year. Following various amendments in course of time, these were consolidated
and the Rules were last issued as the Passport Rules 1980 which have been further
modified partially


[Act No. 15 of 1967 dated 24th June, 1967]
An Act to provide for the issue of passports and travel documents, to regulate
thedeparture from India of citizens of India and for other persons and for
mattersincidental or ancillary thereto

(a) "departure", with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means
departure from India by water, land or air;
(b) "passport" means a passport issued or deemed to have been issued under this
(c) "passport authority" means an officer or authority empowered under rules made
under this Act to issue passports or travel documents and includes the Central
(d) "Prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act;
(e) "travel document" means a travel document issued or deemed to have been
issued under this Act.
Passport act covers:-
1. Passport or travel document for departure from India
2. Classes of passports and travel documents
3. Applications for passports, travel documents, etc., and orders thereon
4. Refusal of passports, travel documents. etc.
5. Duration of travel document
6.Extention of period of passport
7.Conditions and forms of passports and travel documents
8.Variation, impounding and revocation of passports and travel documents
10.Offences and penalties
11.Power to arrest
12.Power of search and seizure
13.Previous sanction of Central Government necessary
14.Protection of action taken in good faith
15. Passport and travel document to be property of Central Government
16. Passports and travel documents to be invalid for travel to certain countries
17. Issue of passports and travel documents to persons who are not citizens of lndia
18.Power to delegate
19.Power to exempt
20. Act to be in addition to certain enactments
21. Power to make rules
22. Change of short title of Act 34 of 1920

PskAndRpo Is Joint Venture Of Public And Private Service
Complex public sector projects always present risks due to the transformation
happening in the public sphere and multiple stakeholders trying to influence coverage
of the project. These risks are often magnified in emerging markets, as social
structures are more fluid and vested interests are more fragmented. Within this
context, Tata Consultancy Services (TCSs) flagship Indian e-governance
passport project for the Ministry of External Affairs is an example of a successful
publicprivate partnership (PPP) that delivered on all its milestones on time and on
77 passport centers rolled out
90 million records migrated from legacy systems
More than 13 million passports issued to date
40,000+ applicants handled every day
19,000+ calls daily
17 languages supported


Citizen to create user id and fill application form
Citizen to upload application form and generate arn
Citizen to book appointment after making payment online
There aedure 24 appiontment slots of 15 minutes duration during the day
Application with valid appointment to reach psk on scheduled date before 15
minutes of appointment time
Tokens are issued to applicants after a preliminary checks such as applicants
presence arn printout.

The regularity and stability of the labour force plays an important role in the
prosperity and development of an industrial unit. The co-operation of workers is
essential for the good health of any organization become a major problem for the
management. The exist of workers or their absence from work disturbs production
schedule. Any make shift arrangement for absent workers will be a costly affair for
the enterprise. Statistical data have proved that the loss on account of absenteeism is
more than of industrial disputes or any other problem. Thus the problem of
absenteeism is more serious threat than any other industrial problem.

Absenteeism is not the problem of underdeveloped countries only but it is a universal

phenomenon. It varies from 7% to 30% but in extreme cases it goes upto even 40%.
The degree of absenteeism may differ from place to place, occupations and industries
as compared to other. Even in a particular industry, the degree of absenteeism may
vary in different departments.


Absenteeism means a condition where a worker keeps himself away from the work
without any notice. Absenteeism has been vigorously defined by different authorities:
1. According to Labour Bureau Simia Absenteeism is the total manshift lost
because of absence as a percentage as of the total number of manshift schedule to
2. According to Websters Dictionary Absenteeism is the practice or habit of
being an absence and an absenter is one who habitually stay away.

In other it signifies the absence of employees from work when he schedule to be at

work. It is un-authorised, un-emplained avoidable and evilful absence from week.
An employee is considered schedule to work when the employer has kept the work
ready for him and the worker is aware of it but still does of report for duty. An
employee may stay away from work if he has taken leave to which he is entitled or on
the ground of stickiness or some accident. Thus absence may be authorized or
unauthorized evilfull or caused by circumstances beyond ones control.

Seligman says that absenteeism is the time lost in industrial establishment by
avoidable or unavoidable absence of employees. Absence of a worker on account of
strike or lockout or lay off, that is involuntary absence, is not considered as absence
for the purpose of absenteeism.
It may be noted here that no uniform definition of absenteeism prevails. The labour
Investigation Committee has, therefore, suggested that a statistical agency whether
sponsored by the Govt. or a Private body should ensure that employee maintain
figures on the basis of precise and uniform definition.


Absenteeism is measured in the form of rate absenteeism. For calculating to
rate of absenteeism two factors are taken into consideration:
1. The number of persons scheduled to work.
2. The number of workers actually present.
Thus rate of absenteeism during a particular to the total of corresponding Mondays.
The rate can be calculated through an noted formula as under: -
Rate of Absenteeism = Mondays lost during a certain period x 100
Total Mondays during the period


The rate of absenteeism is lower on per day.
The absenteeism is high among workers of less than 25 years and above 40 years. The
reasons of absenteeism amongst youngsters is due careless attitude whereas old
people may not be able to continue with strenuous work.
The absenteeism is more in night shifts than in day shifts.
In India, absenteeism is highest in April-May and September-October months due to
harvesting and sowing seasons. Industrial workers temporarily shift to agriculture
work during these months.
In coal an mica mines industry the absenteeism rate is high because of rising and
ordeal nature of job.


Absenteeism is a serious problem of an industry. In order to achieve the
organizational objectives, it becomes necessary that the problem of absenteeism

should be minimized. In order to minimize this problem, it becomes necessary to
determine its causes following are the important causes:-

1. Unhealthy working conditions : If working conditions are not good then

workers frequently absent themselves from work, heat, moisture, noise, bad
lighting, dust, overcrowding affect workers health causing them to remain
absent for longer periods.
2. Mal adjustment at work place: Workers, sometimes, do not adjust to the
situation prevailing at work place. Workers coming from rural to urban areas
do not adjust at those places. The congestion, insanitation, fast life at urban
areas is not to the liking of village work. They frequently go back to village
after absenting from work.
3. Industrial fatigue: Fatigue is also an important cause of absenteeism. To earn
more wages, workers may do overtimes or may work at a higher speed. They
may not be able to face additional burden and fell ill leading to long
4. Personal Reasons: A worker may be absent due to personal reasons also.
These reasons may be illness, family problems, education, lack of interest in
the work etc.
5. Social and Religious Ceremonies: Social and religious ceremonies are a
major cause for absenteeism. These functions divert the attention for workers
and they spend too much times on there activities. Some studies have shown
that rate of absenteeism has been higher awing festival periods as compared to
other periods.
6. Lack of Satisfaction: If the worked are not satisfied with their job. They will
not be regular and punctual. Dissatisfaction reasons such as work below his
status and work above his status.
7. Alcoholism: The habit of alcoholism is very common among workers. They
want to forget their domestic worries by drinking alcohol. Drinking becomes
their habit and it hangover on the next day compels them to absent from work.
8. Economic Causes: Another important reason of absenteeism may be
economic. The workers may not satisfied with the remuneration they are
getting or they may not be satisfied with the opportunities of growth and

9. Absence or Inadequate welfare facilities: There may be inadequate facilities
for drinking water, sanitation, canteen, rest rooms, crches etc. Workers feel
inconvenience at work. They go back to their homes for having some rest.
10. Inadequate leave facilities: The workers do not get proper leave facilities for
attending to family work. Since they are entitled for limited number of leaves.
They do not go to work whenever they have to attend to family needs.
11. Age : Absenteeism is higher among teenagers and old person. Teachers are
casual in their work and old people exhausted after continuos work.
12. Additional source of Income: This is also another reasons of absenteeism.
Worked may absent from their job because they may have additional source of
income like agriculture.
13. Effect of Night Shifts: This is also another reason for absenteeism of the


Absenteeism is a serious problem of the industrial world of today. It affects
both the employees and the employers adversely. Important consequences of
absenteeism may be as follows:-

1. Absenteeism stop the entire process of production. It stops the machine and
hampers smooth flow of work.
2. The rate of production and the productivity remains low. The production
targets are upset.
3. As a result of loss production, the cost of production increases, it results in the
reduced margin of the profit of the industry.
4. As a result of selling price of the commodity is to do increased. If the
customer have to pay more for the commodity.
5. Frequent absenteeism of the workers decreases their working efficiency also.
It also reduces their interest in the work.
6. Due to absenteeism of regular workers, the industry has too depend upon
casual or sun-standard employees, it causes many problems in itself such as
breakdown of efficiency, low quality of production, wastages of raw material

7. Frequent absenteeism of workers effects the economy of the workers. It
reduces their incomes.
8. High rate of absenteeism is also a reason of absenteeism is also a reason of
indiscipline among the workers enterprise gets itself enable to meet the
demand of market in full and it causes delay in the supply of the valuable

Company (Low
Production Low

Workers Government
(Low Income) (Less Revenue)

Shareholders Raw Material

(Less Dividend) ABSENTEEISM Suppliers (Less

Society (Less Competitions

Verities of Goods (Unhealthy
& Services) Practices)

Consumer (High
Price Low

Absenteeism is a serious problem because it involves additional expenses. No
single measure can help in controlling this problem. There should be a combination of
measures to control this problem. Some of the measures are as follows: -
1. Provisional of healthful and hygenic working conditions:Bad working
conditions is the main cause of absenteeism. The worker should be provided
with proper and healthy working conditions. There should be a provision of
drinking water, canteen, rest places etc. So that workers do not fell tired at
work place.
2. Proper selection Procedure: Absenteeism may also result if there is no
proper recruitment and selection. When the workers are not well suited for the
jobs then they will try to absent themselves. These should be aptitude,
training, and intelligence test for finding out the suitability of persons for the
jobs they are being selected. When the jobs are suitable for the worker then he
will enjoy work on it and will not think of absenting himself.
3. Prevention of Accidents: There should be proper safety measures in the
factory. The workers should be educated for properly using machines and
precautions to be taken on the occurrences of some accident.
4. Provision of reasonable wages and allowances and job security for
workers: The wage rates should be fixed by taking into account the
requirement of workers. The wages should be sufficient to enable workers in
maintaining a reasonable standard of living. Therefore the management should
pay reasonable wages and allowances, taking into account the level of wages
prevailing in different units of the same industry in same area. The allowances
should include old age allowance, length of service allowance special job
allowance, housing allowance etc. So that worker may have and know security
of employment.
5. Proper grievance settlement:There should be a proper grievance settlement
machinery for the worked. Sometimes there is a feeling among workers that
their problems are not properly looked into and out frustration they start
absenting from duty. When there is a grievance setting machinery then the
causes of discontentment can be removed at the earliest.

6. Cordial Relations between supervisors and workers: The strained relations
between supervisors and workers may also prompt absenteeism. The
supervisors should have co-operative attitude towards workers. They should
motivate workers for improving their performance and should not indulge in
frequent criticism.
7. Maintaining Discipline: There should be well defined rules and regulations
for work. The employees should not be allowed to violate regulations. There
should be properly followed. If some workers are in the habit of coming late
or frequently absent from duty then strict action should be taken against then.
8. Liberal grant of leave: The strict attitude of management in granting leaves
and holidays may also bad to absenteeism. Then there is pressing needs for
leave and management is not responsive. Then workers may try to get E.S.I.
leaves or half pay, where they are entitled upto 56 days leave in a year. So
management should be liberal in granting leave when workers have genuine
Motivation of workers: The management should recognize the needs of
workers offer those adequate and cheap housing facilities, free or subsidized food, and
free medical aid and transportation facilities. Free education facilities for their
childrens and other monetary and non-monetary benefits.

Absenteeism is often seen as an indicator of poor performance . Even if it is the
smartest person in the office, absenteeism comes with a high cost to the
Human resource professionalist suggest that there are two kind of absenteeism :
Culpable absenteeism
Non culpable absenteeism
1.CULPABLE ABSENTEEISM: It is absenteeism when the employee
doesnt provide a legitimate reason for missing work.

2.NON CULPABLE ABSENTEEISM: It is absenteeism when the employee

does provide a legitimate reason for missing work

Organizations handle unscheduled absences in a number of ways. In some cases
employees are simply not replaced, resulting in lost productivity. In other cases,
organizations maintain excess staff, utilize overtime, or substitute with agency
workers. In any case, unscheduled absences are very disruptive to the business and
result in increased indirect costs of absenteeism. Provided below are examples of how
excess absenteeism may be manifested as costs: Lost productivity: The organization
runs too lean and production or service requirements are not met: The employer was
using a five-day schedule, but demand was such that employees were asked to come
in on the weekend on a regular basis. The employees disliked working so many
consecutive days with no time off, which led to very high absence rates. The
shortages of employees resulted in demand not being met, and customers were

High-cost replacement workers: The organization has to replace missing workers

with other employees or contractors, and pay overtime or higher rates. Overtime
levels are some higher in facilities with high absenteeism than in facilities with low
absenteeism: The organization had high levels of absenteeism, coupled with a
collective bargaining agreement that provided bonus pay on top of federal
requirements. This caused payroll costs to be almost higher than necessary if
absenteeism and overtime were better managed.

Excess staffing: Headcount is higher than necessary in order to cover unplanned

absences: The employer routinely increased headcount by 13% on weekends to cope
with extra absenteeism on a Saturday and Sunday.

How Can You Reduce the Costs of Absenteeism?
To achieve significant reductions in the excess costs associated with absence, the
manager must reduce the rate of absenteeism, and the subsequent effect that
absenteeism has on the business. The first step is accurately and efficiently tracking
absenteeism rates and patterns on a regular basis. The majority of organizations do not
have an automated means to track every instance of absence in one system and
therefore lack the visibility necessary to address this business problem. Once the
magnitude, patterns, and root causes of the problem are known, the manager can
consider what steps need to be taken. These may include using sophisticated rules
engines and process automation to consistently enforce absence policies, ensuring
compliance with union, state, and federal rules, improving absence management
technology, and increasing employee satisfaction with the workplace.


Time is a important constraint and There may be a chance for sample error
The observation and conclusion which are presented in the report is based on data
collected only the sample employees of 10 private textile industries and cannot be
generalized to other areas.
The respondents may tend to disclose information unwillingly.


Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. As we know
that higher the percentage of absenteeism more it is harmful for the organization and
there is need for immediate action to reduce the percentage of absenteeism. Because
in an organization human kings are the main factor of production. And in PAOI if the
workers are absent from duty, it hinders the smooth running of the organization and
also effects the reputation of an organization. So, in PAOI need to take steps in order
to solve the problems. A situation aroused during my training that the supervisor was
absent and all worker were not working properly and on other day when three
experienced worker were absent some worker were not working properly on reason
that the experienced worker are absent today and only they know how to tackle such

problem. But such situations not only harmed the reputation of PAOI but also the
customer who require their vehicle urgent.
So, the PAOI should hire some more professionals so that such situation is not faced
by them again and a strict action should be taken against such workers who take
casual leave without any just reason.


Absenteeism a problem that create hindrance in the work of organisation. It creates a

gap in the work.It is a serious problem in the industry.In order to achieve the
organisational goals the problem of absenteeism should be minimised.
After conducting study on Absenteeism in PAOI, following are the literature
Garrison &Muchinsky (1985) measured by employing the frequency definition.
This measure was selected because of its popularity in published research and its
psychometric efficacy in comparison to other operational definitions of absenteeism
especially in terms of reliability and normal distribution. Absenteeism was therefore
defined in terms of the total number of periods an employee was absent in a given
year, regardless of the length of each absence. The absenteeism measure has a range
of 0 (no absence) to 75 (upper limit); the observed mean was 8 with a standard
deviation of 7. All absenteeism data were collected for the year 1979. The zero-order
correlation between absenteeism and qualitative performance was -017.
Sharma (1987) proposed that the hot cats' ' absenteeism relates to active avoidance
whereas the cool dogs'' absenteeism relates to passive avoidance. Such explanation
considers simultaneously the presence ofa competitive hard-driving trait along with an
internal locus of control (' hot cat') which leads, when confronted with job context
stress, to a double threat: the threat of losing control and the threat of inhibition of
action thereby leading to a sort of aggressive getaway. By contrast, a " cool dog' is
characterized by the simultaneous absence of competitiveness and a relatively highly
external locus of control, which leads, when confronted with job context stress, to
some sort of helpless passive flight strategy.
Arsenault & Dolan (1999)said that in contrast with the personality level of
aggregation, the occupational categories reveal that only technicians and blue-collar
employees show a significant decrease in absenteeism when confronted with job
content stress. This could perhaps be explained by some beneficial effects of
increased intrinsic rewards in occupational roles that would appear to lack them.
However, this would not apply to executives and nurses. In terms of job context
stress, the impact on qualitative performance is distributed homogeneously across
occupations (parallel slopes). This is not true for absence behaviour, which is

significantly increased by job context stress for executives and blue-collar workers
only. It is tempting to account for this structural effect by hypothesizing active
avoidance for executives and passive avoidance for blue-collar workers. This is
especially striking in the light of findings reported elsewhere, which find a systematic
relationship between the types of personality and the occupational distributions in the
hospitals studied
Sharma(2000) concluded that the report a significant tendency for executives to be '
hot cat' personality types and for blue-collar workers to be 'cool dog' types, it is for
this reason that similar explanations are withheld in supporting the 'stress-occupation-
absencebehaviour' link. The findings may bear practical implications for the
development of remedial intervention strategies aimed at reducing absence behaviour
and increasing qualitative performance. It appears that an indiscriminate application
of job enrichment programmes, such as advocated by many students of organizations,
would yield limited results to those occupations in which rewards ofthis nature
already exist; whereas enriching the job content rewards for technicians and blue-
collar workers may prove to be more effective in reducing absenteeism. By contrast,
an improvement of job context factors may be beneficial to increase percentage.
Coughlan (2001) observed that one of the most effective ways to combat
absenteeism, however, is to maintain a happyworking environment where people
actually enjoy coming to work. Have a workplace that people love to come to work
in and they feel they are doing something meaningful,
Wendlingrecommends.Although not always preventable, absenteeism is something
that can be mitigated to ascertain degree, and absence management programs can
definitely help. Fostering a caringworking environment where workers are supported
during any illness or disability can only work in the favor of the company and
ensures that work isnt something for employees to be sick.
Pettle (2004), observed that absence affects more than just the person who is absent.
The absent employees themselves and their dependants may have a reduced income as
a result of absence, besides incurring possible additional medical expenses.
Employers are affected by direct costs such as sick pay, overtime and staff
replacement costs, plus the indirect costs associated with the effects of absence on, for
example, production and quality, management time and the potential loss of
customers. The co-workers of an absent employee may have to work under increased
pressure, in order to meet deadlines. Many organizations appear to accept a certain

level of absence i.e. where a proportion of their employees are away on any particular
John (2008) found that over half of the respondents did not consider they had a
problem with absence. However, more than four out of ten companies in the survey
considered their absence levels to be a cause for concern. As only a portion of absence
days are subject to organization control it is important to determine what portion of
employee absence is avoidable. Employees can feel they have been treated unfairly
when they perceive other absent employees as getting away with it. Absence can
also be a symptom of a more serious underlying problem, such as bullying and/or
harassment, communication breakdown, stress, etc., which could, if not investigated,
lead to significant costs to the organization, as well as causing long-term damage to
the employee.
Thomas (2012)showed that personal problems were cited as a cause of absence in a
significant number of companies, for both males and females. Nowadays, apart from
sickness, employees can be absent from work for any one of a number of reasons,
either under statutory leave entitlement (such as annual leave, maternity or adoptive
leave, parental leave), or under arrangements agreed at an individual company level
(such as compassionate or bereavement leave, study and/or exam leave, marriage
leave, training, etc.)
A.Mikalachkiet(2014) proposed that many employees feel obliged to come to work
while ill, and transmit communicable diseases to their co-workers. This leads to even
greater absenteeism and reduced productivity among other workers who try to work
while ill. Work forces often excuse absenteeism caused by medical reasons if the
worker supplies a doctor's note or other form of documentation.

Earlier researchers conduct research upon absenteeism but no research as carried out
regarding various factors which are considered for Absenteeism. So in order to fill
these gaps present research is conducted to know about the various factors of
Absenteeism. As we know that higher the percentage of absenteeism more it is
harmful for the organization and there is need for immediate action to reduce the
percentage of absenteeism. Because in an organization human kings are the main
factor of production. If they are absent from duty, it hinders the smooth running of the
organization and also effects the reputation of an organization.As more and more
people was getting absent due to uncertain reasons in PAOI so this need of study
conducted. Absenteeism makes rest of the employees also distracts from their work
which directly effects organisation and reduces overall productivity of company.


The scope of the study was limited to PAOI, Jalandhar, Punjab.


The objectives of the project are:
1. To analyse the main causes of absenteeism in PAOI.
2. To examine the effects of the unauthorized absenteeism by the employees in the
3. To examine the current disciplinary actions taken by the HR dept. for reducing
4. To understand the attitude of employees towards these disciplinary action.

Thus, the above objectives have been observed and analyzed in a detailed manner in
this project report.So an attempt was made to go into root causes of the subject by
using the various techniques of Research Methodology.

The main and most important object of this study is to find out the reasons and factors
responsible for the absenteeism of the employees in PAOI, Jalandhar; I have collected
the data from personnel department for this purpose. I studied the functioning of the
personnel department. I had distributed a well-structured and designed questionnaire
and also took interviews of many workers and tried to find out the reasons of this
4.1 Research
Research is a procedure of logical and systematic application of the fundamentals of
science to the general and overall questions of a study and scientific technique, which
provide precise tools, specific procedures, and technical rather philosophical means
for getting and ordering the data prior to their logical analysis and manipulation
different type of research designs is available depending upon the nature of research
project, availability of manpower and circumstances.
4.2 Research Design
Research Design is an arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in
a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy on
procedure. The research problem having been formulated in clear-cut term helps the
researcher to prepare a research design. The preparation of such a design facilitates in
conducting it in an efficient manner as possible.
4.2.1 Descriptive Research:
Present research is descriptive research because in this research it has been described
the reason of absenteeism in the company and various factors considered for the same.
4.3 Sampling Design
The following factors have to decide within the scope of sample design:
i) Sample Frame-Sample frame refers from where the questionnaires are to be
filled. Our sample frame consists of employees of the company.
ii) Sample Size: A sample of minimum respondents was selected from various
divisions of company. An effort has been made to select respondents evenly.
The survey was carried out on 100 respondents.
iii) Sample Unit: It indicates who is to be surveyed. The researcher must define
the target population that will be sampled. In this project sampling unit is the
employees working in PAOI .

iv) Sampling Technique: For the purpose of research convenient sampling is
used. Technical associates working in different divisions of company have
been approached to get the questionnaire filled.
4.4 Data Collection
There are two types of data sources:
(i) Secondary data:

It includes information which had already been collected by someone else and which
had already been passed through the statistical process. In this case one is not
confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection of
original data. Secondary data either is published data or unpublished data. Secondary
data was collected through internet and by using companys manuals.

ii) Primary data:

It includes information collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be
original in character. It is the backbone of any study. It was obtained from
respondents that are executives of each department with the help of widely used and
well-known method of survey, through a well-structured questionnaire.


1. Shortage of Time:Inspite of the good effort by me to utilize the limited period of
study shortage of time provided to be limitation.
2. Language Problem:Because of different languages of the employees it was
difficult to communicate with them properly.
3. Complexity of concept:Absenteeism is a complex concept and it is difficult to
find out the reasons for such a thing by asking the workers.
4. Busy schedule of workers: It made difficult to take interviews of the workers.
5. Hesitation: Some workers felt hesitated to disclose the reasons of their being
6. Biasness: As all the results and conclusions have been drown on the basis of
information collected from a large number of people thus incidence of people bias
may have crept in.

1. What is the Age group of employees?
Table 5.1: Age group in relation to absenteeism
Age Group No. of respondents Percentage of
Less than 30 65 65%
30-40 15 15%
Above 40 20 20%
Total 100 100%

Figure 5.2: Age group in relation to absenteeism

Age Group



50% 65%

40% Age


10% 15% 20%

Under 30 31-40 Above 40

Analysis and Interpretation

The study reveals that 65% of absenteeism is found in the respondents whose age is
less than 30 years, 15% in 30-40 age group and 20% in the respondents who are
above 40. Thus, absenteeism is more between the young people because of their
irresponsibility towards duty as compared to the mature group of above 40 years.

2.For how many years you are working with PAOI?
Table 5.2 Length of service in Relation to Absenteeism
Length of Service No. of respondents Percentage of
1-5 years 60 60%
5-10 years 10 10%
10 and above 30 30%
Total 100 100%
Figure 5.3 Length of service in Relation to Absenteeism

Length of service



% of


less than 5 yrs 6-10 yrs less than 10

Analysis and Interpretation

In PAOI 60% absenteeism is found between the respondents who are having length of
service 1-5 years, 10% in 5-10 group and 30% in 10 and above 10 age group.
Employees feel more comfortable after giving so many years of service.

3. Marital Status of employee:
Table 5.3 Marital Status in Relation to Absenteeism
Marital Status Percentage of Absenteeism
Married 70%
Unmarried 30%
Total 100%

Figure 5.4 Marital Status in Relation to Absenteeism

Maritial status

50% %age of
40% absenteeism

Married Unmarried

Analysis and Interpretation

The study reveals that 70% absenteeism is found in married people and only 30% in
unmarried respondents.

4. Rural and Urban Respondents:
Table 5.4 Rural and Urban People in Relation to the % of Absenteeism
Residency Percentage of Absenteeism
Rural 70%
Urban 30%
Total 100%

Figure 5.5 Rural and Urban People in Relation to the % of Absenteeism

Rural or Urban




40% % of


Rural Urban

Analysis and Interpretation

The study reveals that 70% of the absenteeism is found in rural residents as compared
to urban residents because of the harvesting business in fields.

5. Satisfaction with the Income scale:
Table 5.5Satisfaction with the Income scale
Statements No. of Respondents Percentage of
Yes 80 80
No 20 20
Total 100 100

Figure 5.6:Satisfaction with the Income scale

Satisfaction Level




Analysis and Interpretation

It was analyzed that 80% of the employees of were satisfied with the existing
Income scale& rest 20% of them were not satisfied with the existing Scale.

6. How many days you are absenteeism in a month?

Table 5.6:Absenteeism in month

Time of absence Percentage

Nil 0
Once 20%
Twice 20%
More than twice 60%
Total 100%

Figure 5.7Absenteeism in Relation to the % of Absenteeism

Absent in a Month



40% % of

10% 20% 20%

Nil Once Twice More

Analysis and Interpretation

The study reveals that 20% employees are absent once,other 20% twice in month
And 60% more than twice.

7. Are you satisfied with the number of casual leaves to you?

Table 5.7: Number of casual leaves

Statements No. of Respondents Percentage of

Yes 40 40
No 60 60
Total 100 100

Figure 5.8 Nunber of casual leaves

no of respondents


yes no

Analysis and Interpretation

The study reveals that 40% employees satisfied with number of casual leaves but 60%
are not satisfied.

8. What is the Size of your family?

Table 5.8 Family in Relation to Absenteeism

Size of Family Percentage of Absenteeism
Extra Large Family 50%
Joint Family 30%
Small Family 20%
Total 100%
Figure 5.9Family in Relation to Absenteeism

size of family

50% 30% 20%
40% size of family

extra large joint family small
family family

Analysis and Interpretation

The study reveals that in PAOI respondents belong to Extra large family having 50%
of absenteeism, Joint family 30% of absenteeism and 20% belong to small family.

9. What disciplinary actions taken by HR department for reducing
Table 5.9 Disciplinary actions

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage of

Problem counselling 25 25%
Oral waring 60 60%
Formal written waring 5 5%
Suspension 10 10%
Total 100 100%

Figure 5.10 Disciplinary actions

Disciplinery actions



50% 60%

30% 25% y actions



Problem Oral waring 5%
Formal 10%
counselling written

Analysis and Interpretation

The study reveals that 25% employees says there problem solving, 60% oral
warning,10% says suspension and 5% says formal written warning.

10.Your views regarding disciplinary actions taken by HR dept for absenteeism?
Table 5.10 views regarding disciplinary actions

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage of

Good 20 60%
Fair 60 14%
Excellent 15 26%
Dont know 5 5%
Total 100 100%

Figure5.11 views regarding disciplinary actions

views regarding disciplinary actions

40% views regarding
30% disciplinary actions
20% 15%
good fair excellent don't know

Analysis and Interpretation

The study reveals that 60% employee says its fair about disciplinary actions,
20% says good,15% says excellent and 5% says dont know.

11.Are you satisfied with your companies working conditions?
Table 5.11views regarding companies working conditions

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage of

Well satisfied 20 20%
Fair 30 30%
good 10 10%
not satisfied 40 40`%
Total 100 100%

Figure 5.12views regarding companies working conditions

company working conditions

45% 40%
25% 20% company working
20% conditions
15% 10%
Well satisfied fair good not satisfied

Analysis and Interpretation

The study reveals that 10% of respondents are absent because of dissatisfied working
conditions. But remaining 90% are satisfied with the working conditions in PAOI.

12. Do you think unauthorised Absenteeism by the employees slow down the
companys productivity?
Table 5.12 unauthorised Absenteeism by the employees

Statements No. of Respondents Percentage of

Yes 60 60
No 40 40
Total 100 100

figure5.13 unauthorised Absenteeism by the employees

Absenteesim by employees
0 0

60% no

Analysis and Interpretation

The study reveals that 60% employees says unauthorised Absenteeism slow down
companys productivity and 40% says no.

13. Causes of absenteeism

Table 5.13 Causes of absenteeism

Causes No. of Respondents Percentage
Work Overload 40 40%
Low Pay Package 30 30%
Job Insecurity 10 10%
Negative Attitude of 20 20%
Total 100 100%

Figure 5.14 Causes of absenteeism

Cause of absenteesim
45% 40%
25% 20% cause of
20% absenteesim
15% 10%
Work Overload Low Pay Job Insecurity Negative
Package Attitude of Boss

Analysis and Interpretation

From the above table graph it is quite clear that according to 40% of the
respondents the main cause of absenteeism is due to work overload, 30% low
pay package, 10% job security and the remaining 20% of the respondents
according to them the cause of absenteeism is due to negative attitude of boss.

During the period of research on Absenteeism in PAOI. The following emerged: -
Age is an important factor in the life of every person because efficiency of any
person is totally dependent on his age and the study reveals that more
absenteeism i.e. large number is found in the respondents whose age is less
than 30 years it is all because of their irresponsibility towards their duty.
It is generally said that the larger the length of service the more will be the
experience and involvement in the work. And also in PAOI half numbers
absenteeism is found between the respondents who are having length of
service between 1-5 years.
The working conditions in PAOI only few numbers respondents/workers are
dis-satisfied with the working conditions of PAOI.
As the salary of an employee increases, the percentage of absenteeism
decreases. Because money is the foremost requirement of every person. The
study reveals that large numbers satisfied and few are not.
The study reveals that large numbers absenteeism is found in married people
because of more responsibilities as compared to an unmarried person.
In PAOI, the respondents that are belong to extra large family having more
%age of absenteeism i.e. almost half as compared to joint and small families.
In PAOI, The study reveals that few numbers employees are absent once,other
few twice in month And large more than twice.
The rural residents are absent from their work in the season of harvesting. The
study reveals that large numbers people are absent from their jobs in the
season of harvesting in fields.
The Companys strict attitude in granting leave and holidays even when the
needs for them is genuine also lead to higher %age of absenteeism. But in
PAOI, only many respondents are dissatisfied with the leave rules of the
The study reveals that some employees says there problem solving, many
respondents oral warning, few says suspension and some says formal written
The study reveals that large numbers employees says unauthorised
Absenteeism slow down companys productivity and some says no.

The study shows few of the respondents the main cause of absenteeism
is due to work overload, some low pay package, some are job security
and the remaining low numbers of the respondents according to them the
cause of absenteeism is due to negative attitude of boss

PAOI is a well defined company, with internationally designed standards. The
company carrys out its activities in order to satisfy the customers needs.
Organisation is complete in all aspects but there are few discrepancies in it. So in
order to make improvement in the unit, the company must regularly revise its
systems, processes and procedures.
PAOI concentrates towards the marketing activities. Marketing department is the
backbone of the PAOI but due to the factor of absenteeism its operations are effected
badly. So, it must concentrate on the reasons for absenteeism in the unit and must take
corrective and timely actions to avoid it in future.
The management must first have a positive attitude towards absenteeism. Even though
it possible to eliminate absenteeism completely. The provision of various facilities to
reduce absenteeism bound to involve substantial financial commitment for the
management. The major causes for absenteeism in the organization are the activities
and policies of the organization. So absenteeism invisible but proves fatal for the
industry. So reduction in absenteeism will helpful in improving the productivity
In the end, human beings are one of the bigger resources of any manufacturing unit,
so they must give proper attention to it.As they are the major contributors in the
The strict attitude of management in granting leaves and holidays may also bad to
absenteeism. The management should recognise the needs of workers offer them
adequate and cheap housing facilities, free or subsidised food, free medical aid and
transportational facilities.

Lot of improvement is required in every sphere of life and there is no exception to an
industrial organisation which I have found during my visit and having close contact
with the workers. I have found that a well organised organisation and is using
all effective measures to deal with absenteeism. However, I would like to recommend
the following measures.
The working conditions of the company are not satisfactory. It causes bad
effect on the health of the employees due to which they remain absent from
the work. It is suggested that management should take steps to provide neat
and clean working conditions. So that it do not cause any bad effect on the
health of the employees
The management should know about the needs of the workers and provide
them adequate and cheap housing facilities, free or subsided, free medical aids
and free transport facilities to reduce the rate of absenteeism.
Safety at work should be maintained and accident can be prevented if the
management tries to reduce such personal factors like negligence,
overconfidence, carelessness for cleanliness, vanity etc and such material
factors as unguarded machinery and explosive defective equipment and hand
The companys strict attitude in granting leave and holidays, even when the
need for them is genuine. They should be allowed to go on half day leave; it is
effective way of dealing.
The employee should be inducted in such a way that their critical attitude
towards new work and new place is reduced as early as possible to avoid
absenteeism from work
Rest rooms are needed for the workers. There were no separate rest rooms for
the workers in the factory. The management should provide separate rooms for
the workers working in the factory.
Worker has to work long hours in factory. It is suggested that their long
overstays should be avoided. Because long overstays cause bad effects on the
health of employees. The workers should himself also work for 8 to 10 hours.
So that they can remain fit and fine.

First aid facilities are needed in each department of the company. It is
generally seen that for all types of problems only one type of medicine is
given. Each type of problem should be given different medicines. It is
suggested that the first aid box should contain sufficient medicines.
Sickness is the main cause of absenteeism. In order to reduce absenteeism,
periodical medical checkup should be done for the workers. The organisation
should appoint a personal doctor for this purpose.

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Coughlan.A(2002), Times and Casual flow, Journal of Management,vol24, no3, pp23-
Garrison,J&Muchinsky,A.(1979),Attitudinal and biographical predictors of
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Khurana,G. (1990), Employee compensation on organization commitment, Journal of
business and social science,vol 2,no8,pp 235-342
Knoll,T.(2009),Measuring Absence and Labour Turnover, A practical guide to
recording and control. Johnnesburg: Lexicon Publishers.
Mikalachkiet,A.(2009), Relations Industrials/Industrial Realations, Journal of
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Name :
Age :
Income :
Department :
Education :

Q1. For how many years you are working with PAOI?

10 years 15 years

20 years Above 20 years

Q2. Are you married?
Yes no
Q3. Do you come from rural area or urban area?

Rural Urban

Q4. Are you satisfied with your Income scale?

Yes No

Q5. How often you remain absent in a month?

Nil once
Twice >twice

Q6. Are you satisfied with the number of casual leaves to you?

Yes No

Q7. What is the size of the family?
Extra large small family
Joint family

Q8. What disciplinary actions taken by HR department for reducing

Problem counselling Oralwaring
Formal written waring Suspension

Q9. Your views regarding disciplinary actions taken by HR dept for

Excellent fair
Good dont knw
Q10. Are you satisfied with your companies working conditions?

Well satisfied good

Fair not satisfied
Q11. Do you think unauthorised Absenteeism by the employees slow down the
companys productivity?
Yes No

Q12. What are the other causes of absenteeism?

Work load Low pay package
Job security Negative attitude of boss

Q13. Suggestions (ifany)