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PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

## Question- Four-legged sield type support units are used to

support strata in a longwall mining process. If
yielding strength of the support unit is
90 tonnes/leg and shield (contact) area of each
unit is 2.25 m2, determine the maximum depth of
overburden to achieve supporting with a safety
factor of 1.8 (Assume vertical pressure is a
function of depth as Pv=z where z is depth and
is unit weight of strata=2 g/cm3).

For four legged unit, capacity = 90 t/leg*4 legs = 360 tonnes
Support density = 360 / 2.25 = 160 t/m2
For safety factor, max.support density = 160 / 1.8 = 88.9 t/m2

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Question- A massive ore has a tonnage factor of 0.2 m3/t. The ore contains 20% Galena, 30%
Sphalerite and 50% Pyrite by weight. If the specific gravities of Galena and Sphalerite are 7.5 and 4.2
respectively, determine the specific gravity of Pyrite.

Unit weight of ore = 1/0.2 = 5 t/m3 Specific gravity of ore = 5
If % by weight (Assume 100 tonnes of ore)
20/7.5+30/4.2+50/X=100/5 X=50/(20-2.67-7.14)
X (SG of Pyrite) = 50/10.19 = 4.90

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Question- A materials volume increases 40% when it is loosened. If 1.3 m3 of loose material weights
2200 kg, determine;
a) Swell factor of the material
b) Loose unit weight, in gr/cm3
c) Bank unit weight, in gr/cm3

a. Swell Factor = 100/(100+%of swell) = 100/140 = 0.714 or
Swell Factor = (100+%of swell)/100 = 140/100 = 1.4
b. Loose unit weight = 2200 kg/1.3 m3 = 1692 kg/m3 = 1.692 t/m3 = 1.692 g/cm3
c. If SF<1 then Bank unit weight = Loose unit weight / SF = 1.692 g/cm3 / 0.714 = 2.37 g/cm3
If SF>1 then Bank unit weight = Loose unit weight * SF = 1.692 g/cm3 * 1.4 = 2.37 g/cm3

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Question- Bank specific weight of a material is 3.0 g/cm3. If 0.8 m3 of loose material weights 2000 kg,
determine swell factor and percent swell of the material.

Loose specific weight = (2000*1/0.8) = 2500 kg/m3 = 2.5 gr/cm3
Swell Factor (SF) = Bank Sp.W./Loose Sp.W. = 3.0/2.5 = 1.2 or 2.5/3.0=0.83
Swell percentage = 100*SF-100 = 100*1.2-100 = 20%

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Question- A horizontal adit with a 4 m2 face excavation area is driven as shown. A locomotive is run to
carry the broken material to the surface. If the followings are given, determine the amount of advance
per cut.
Intact (bank) rock density : 2.2 g/cm3
Car weight : 1000 kg.
Number of cars :4
Locomotive weight : 2500 kg.
Locomotive power : 20 HP
Loaded travel time : 10 min.
Friction coefficient on rail : 0.02
Motor efficiency : 80%

V=1500/10*60=2.5 m/s
N=(F.V) / (75.) F=20*75*0.8/2.5=480 kg.
F = ( i) [W g + n(W w+Wf)] 480=0.02[2500+4(1000+W f)]
Total material for four cars 4W f=(480*50-6500)=17500 kg
17500 kg/2200 kg/m3=7.95 m3
4 m2*L=7.95 m3 L (advance per cut) =7.95/4=1.99 m

## Question- A circular pillar is left in underground to

protect an area at the surface. The coal seam is
horizontally bedded at 250 m below surface. If diameter
of the pillar is 320 m and the angle of draw is 22o,
determine size of protected area in m2 (thickness of
seam is ignored).

CD = ADxtan 22o = 250xtan 22o = 101 m = EF
AB = DE = 320 - 2x110 = 118 m (diameter of protected area at the surface, circular)
Area of protected shape = r2 = (118/2)2 = 10935 m2

## Question- A sump located in underground is used to

pump mine water via an inclined drift. For givens,
determine the pipe diameter to run the system. (Neglect
fitting losses).
Pipe diameter : ? cm.
Water speed in pipe : 1.8 m/s
Gravity : 9.81 m/s2
Efficiency : 80%
Friction factor of pipe : 0.02
Water flow rate : 1.2 l/s
Pump power : 3 HP
N=(Q.H.) / (75.) H=(3*75*0.8)/(0.0012*1000)=150 m
H=H+Hs (fitting loss is neglected) 150=(hy-hs)+ Hs Hs = 150 (456-320) = 14 m
L = [(hy-ht)/sin] + he= [(456-324)/sin30] + 8= 272 m
Friction loss, Hs=[(.V2.L)/(2.g.D)]= [(0.02*1.62*272)/(2*9.81*D)]= 14 m
D = [(0.02*1.22*272)/(2*9.81*14)] = 17.62/274.68 = 0.064 m = 6.4 cm

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Question- A vertical ore seam with an uniform thickness of 12
meter is mined. If the figure and parameters are given,
determine the stripping cost in TL/m3. Consider that 180 m
is the critical depth to mine by surface mining method.

## Open pit mining cost : 16 TL/t

Underground mining cost : 35 TL/t
Critical depth : 180 m
Density of coal : 1.3 g/cm3

Critical Stripping Ratio = (Underground cost-Open Pit Cost) / Stripping Cost
According to costs, SR will be m3/t (= (TL/t)/(TL/m3). That means m3 waste/tonnage of coal
To determine the coal and waste amount, we assume any length in the 3rd direction. Ex. 1 m.
Coal volume = 180*12*1 = 2160 m3
Coal weight = 2160 m3*1,3 t/m3 = 2808 tonnes
Waste volume = 180*180*tan32o*1 = 20245 m3
SR = 20245 m3/2808 t = 7.21 m3/t
7.21 m3/t = (35-16 TL/t) / Stripping Cost
Stripping Cost = (19 TL/t) / 7.21 m3/t = 2.64 TL/m3

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Question- A car hoisting system is running on an inclined drift as shown in the figure. Determine
required motor power (HP) to run the system.
Waste weight in car : 2000 kg.
Car empty weight : 750 kg.
Slope : 30o
Traction coefficient : 10 kg/t
Friction on rollers : 0.2
Hoisting speed : 1 m/s
Motor efficiency : 80%
Rope weight : 0.45 kg/m

Static weight, W = W b + Wt = 2000+750 = 2750 kg
W x = W.sin = 2750*sin 30 = 1375 kg
W y = W.cos = 2750*cos 30 = 2382 kg = 2.38 t
Traction force, Fs = T.W y = 10*2.38 = 23.8 kg
Forces due to traction and material, F = W x+Fs = 1375+23.8 = 1398.8 kg
Froces due to rope weight and friction on rollers;
Fr = q.S.sin + q.S.cos. = 0.45*120*sin 30+0.45*120*cos 30*0.2 = 27+9.4 = 36.4 kg
Total force, F = F+Fr = 1398.8+36.4 = 1435.2 kg
Motor power, N=(F.V) / (75.) = (1435.2*1)/(75*0.8) = 23.9 HP or 23.9*0.75 = 18 kW

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Question- Rectangular pillars, 4 mx6 m in dimensions, are left to support and the rest is mined. If the
extraction percentage (ratio) is 80%, determine the ifluence area of a singular pillar.

the influence area of a pillar is equal to whole area as well
e (extraction ratio) = excavated area / whole area = (whole area-pillar area) / whole area
then, 0.8=(x-(4*6)) / x x = 24/(1-0.8) = 120 m2

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Question- A sump will be located in underground to pump mine water via an inclined drift. For givens,
determine the elevation at discharge point (hy). (Ignore fitting losses).

## Pipe diameter : 5 cm.

Water speed in pipe : 1.6 m/s
Gravity : 9.81 m/s2
Efficiency : 80%
Friction factor of pipe : 0.02
Water flow rate : 1.2 l/s
Pump power : 4 HP

N=(Q.H.) / (75.) H=(4*75*0.8)/(0.0012*1000)=200 m
Friction loss, Hs=[(.V2.L)/(2.g.D)]= [(0.02*1.62*L)/(2*9.81*0.05)]=0.0522L
Pipe length, L = [(hy-ht)/sin] + he= [(hy-324)/sin30] + 8 = 2hy-648+8 = 2hy-640
H=h+Hs (fitting loss is ignored) 200 = (hy-hs)+0.0522L
200=(hy-320)+0.0522(2hy-640)= hy+0.1044hy-33.41-320
1.1044hy=200+353.41 hy=553.41/1.1044=501.1 m

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Question- A mine drift with a cross-sectional face area of 12 m2 is driven upwards with an inclination
(grade) of 0.3%. The broken material is hauled by a locomotive. For information given below, determine
the amount of advance per round. Assume cars are full with their capacities.

## Unit weight of Intact (bank) rock; 2 g/cm3

Car empty weight; 800 kg.
Locomotive weight; 2500 kg.
Friction coefficient on rail; 0.01
Number of cars; 6
Locomotive motor power; 30 HP
Motor efficiency; 80%

30 HP = (F*6 m/s) / (75*0.8) F=300 kg
300 kg= (0.01-0.003) [2500+6(800+x)] 6x = (300/0,007)-2500-4800 then
6x = 35557 kg (Total amount of material hauled after per advance in drift)
Volume = 35557/2000 = 17.78 m3 (volume of hauled material)

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Question- A horizontal (flat) coal seam with a constant thickness of 4 m is situated 200 m below
surface. A pillar of coal in square shape (top view) is left to protect the shaft and the surface area
around the shaft. The amount of coal left in pillar is 360000 m3. Angle of draw is 20o. Determine the size
of the area protected at the surface. (Use analytical solution).

Pillar area = 360000/4 = 90000 m2 Pillar size (square) = (90000)1/2 = 300 m.
o
Size at surface = 300-2*200*tan20 = 154.4 m (side of square arae protected at the surface)
Protected area = 154.4*154.4 = 23843 m2

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Question- A horizontal mine drift with a cross-sectional face area of 10 m2 is driven and the broken
material is hauled by a locomotive. For information given below, determine the maximum amount of
material (in kg or tonnes) can be carried by each of the cars.
Unit weight of Intact (bank) rock; 2 g/cm3
Car empty weight; 700 kg.
Locomotive weight; 2500 kg.
Friction coefficient on rail; 0.01
Number of cars; 6
Locomotive motor power; 10 HP
Motor efficiency; 80%

10 HP = (F*3 m/s) / (75*0.8) F=(10*75*0.8)/3 = 200 kg
200 kg= (0.01) [2500+6 (700+x)] 6x = (200/0.01)-2500-4200 then
6x = 13300 kg (Total amount of material carried at once)
Capacity of per car = 13300/6 = 2216 kg

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Question- A sump will be located in underground to pump mine water via an inclined drift. For given
parameters, determine the pump power. (Ignore fitting losses).

## Pipe diameter : 5 cm.

Water speed in pipe : 1.2 m/s
Gravitational acc. : 9.81 m/s2
Efficiency : 75%
Friction factor of pipe : 0.02
Water flow rate : 3.4 l/s

h = [(hy-hs) = 480-320 = 160 m L = (hy-ht)/sin28o+8 = 156/sin28o+8 = 340 m
If we ignore fitting losses,
H = h + [(.V2.L)/(2.g.D)] = 160 + 0.02*1.22*340/2*9.81*0.05 = 160+9.98 m = 170 m
Pump Power, N=(Q.H.) / (75.) = 170*3.4*10-3*1000/(75*0.75) = 10.3 HP

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Question- 760 kg of a loose material occupies a volume of 0.8 m3. Determine bank unit weight of this
material if its swell percentage is 40 percent by volume.

Loose unit weight = 760/0.8 = 950 kg
Swell factor = 1.4 = Bank U.W./Loose U.W. then
Bank Unit Weight = 950*1.4 = 1330 kg/m3 = 1.33 g/cm3

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Question- In a room-and-pillar mininng, rectangular pillars of 4 mx6 m in dimensions are left to support
and the rest of the seam is mined. If the influence area of a single pillar is 96 m2 determine extraction
percentage (ratio).