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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072




[1] Student, [2] Assistant Professor in Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Government Women Engineering College, Ajmer-305002, Rajasthan, India

Abstract - This paper presents a metaheuristic Harmony increases saving form the loss reduction trough
Search Algorithm for optimal location of capacitor in radial proper instalment. Optimally placement of
distribution system, for improving the voltage profile and to capacitors in power system is determined by
trim down of power losses. HS algorithm is a music based
optimization algorithm inspired by music extemporisation
many techniques such as: numerical
process. The present work is followed by to determine the programming, analytical method, artificial
best locations and proper sizes of capacitors with different intelligence, heuristic techniques, etc.
load levels using a Harmony Search algorithm. Execution of Meta heuristic optimization algorithm eliminates
the HS Algorithm for its multifunction potentiality is one of some previously mentioned difficulties, it means
the dignified characteristics for optimal capacitor
placement in distribution system. To assert the effectiveness
to find out improved solution by trial and error
of the proposed algorithm, it is tested on IEEE 69-bus radial to lesser extent computational time and quickly
distribution networks. replace the classical method in solving practical
optimization problem.
Key-Words: Harmony Search Algorithm, bus voltage Several Meta heuristic algorithms have been
control, Power System, Capacitor Placement, optimization proposed during last few decades, these algos
techniques, load levels. are Particle Swarm Optimization, Genetic
Algorithm, Tabu Search, Ant colony, Bee colony,
1. INTRODUCTION Harmony Search Algorithm. The HS algorithm is
Distribution system sustained from two starring the recently developed optimization algorithm in
problems, poor voltage regulation and high 2001 by Geem et al. [3]. HS algorithm is music
power losses. Losses are defined as the based optimization technique inspired by music
difference between energy input in the system improvisation process. Among these methods in
and the energy utilized by the end users. Its fact solving the optimal placement of capacitor are
that electrical energy generated is not equal to solved by heuristic based techniques. Grainger
the energy used by the consumers. Due to and Lee [4] were expressed the place and
distribution network some percentage of energy capacity of capacitor as continues variable based
is lost. on non linear programming. Duran et al. [5]
The major amount of losses is in primary and consider the size of capacitor as a discrete
secondary distribution network, therefore the variable and employed dynamic programming,
distribution system must be planned properly to whereas, Maxwell [6] suggests several benefits
ensure within limits. of capacitor placement include: (1.) Reduced I2X
To reduce the power losses and to increase the losses and energy losses. (2.) Reduced regulation
voltage profile shunt static capacitors over a cost. (3.) Reduced kVA input to feeder. (4.)
great extent are used in distribution system to Reduced I2R losses.
increase the system capacity [1]. Thus [2], the K. Prakash et al. [7] have been applied PSO for
placement of capacitor at appropriate location optimal placement of capacitor in radial
and of proper size is becoming important to distribution system. But in this case problem was

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1047
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

categorised as nonlinear integer optimization

with both potential capacitor size and location (1)
discrete. [8] GA are used to minimize simplifying =
assumptions for optimal location of capacitor in
unbalanced multi-convertor distribution system. (2)
This paper pressie Harmony Search Algorithm =
for optimal size and place for capacitor in radial
distribution system. HS algorithm has several
advantages in which it can handle both continues
and discrete variables and it does not require
initial value setting for decision variable. R.
Sirjani [9] uses Harmony Search Algorithm
successfully to arranged capacitor optimally in =
radial distribution systems.
In this paper HS algorithm [10] has been
proposed to solve the network reconfiguration
problem in the presence of capacitor. This HS
algorithm is well tried on 69-bus radial
The power loss in the line connecting k and k+1
distribution system.
may be computed as

In power system Electrical power loss is an

important issue. Assorted ideas have been
proposed for reduction of losses. By using
Newton Raphson load flow analysis the location Power loss equation:
and size of capacitor in distribution system is to (5)
be determined to compute the power losses. To
identifying the size and location of capacitor
meta-heuristic algorithm i.e. HS Algorithm is 3. HARMONY SEARCH ALGORITHM
Power flow equations of distributed The Harmony Search algorithm is simple in
system are computed as [11]. concept, easy in execution, and few in
Objective function parameters. It has been very successful for a
Minimization = panoramic variety of optimisation job, exhibit
various advantages with respect to traditional
= Real power flowing out of bus r.
optimisation techniques. HS algorithm was lately
= Reactive power flowing out of bus r. developed in an analogy with harmony
= Real power flowing out of bus r after improvisation process in which music players
reconfiguration. improves the pitch to get the better harmony.
= Reactive power flowing out of bus k after The steps for HS algorithm are:
reconfiguration. Step i. Initialize the problem and
= Real power flowing out of bus r+1. parameters.
Step ii. Initialize the harmony memory.
= Reactive power flowing out of bus r+1.
Step iii. Improvise the new harmony.
Total power loss of the feeder Step iv. Update harmony memory.
= Voltage at bus r. Step v. Check the termination standards.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1048
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

These steps are described in next five sub Stochastic selection: When Harmony
sections: Search determines the value, xi for the
new harmony, x = ( ); it
a. Initialize the problem and parameters: arbitrarily picks some value from the total
Optimization problem are specified as value range with a probability of (1-
follows: HMCR). Random selection is used for just
Minimize F(x); subject to ; preceding memory initialization.
i = 1,2,3,4,......,N (6)
Memory consideration: It is used to
Whereas, F(x) is an objective function, and x is choose the value for a identified element
the set of each design variable (xi), and Xi is the of the new vector from the nominative
set of the possible scope of values for each and HM range.
every design variable {Lxi <Xi <Uxi} and N is the with
number of design variables. Here, the HSA probability HMCR (8)
parameters are also specified are: the number of
with probability (1-HMCR) (9)
solution vectors in the harmony memory or
harmony memory size (HMS); (HMCR) harmony
memory considering rate; pitch adjusting rate Pitch adjustment: It is used to adjust the
(PAR); (N) number of decision variables; number values of the New Harmony vector
of improvisations (NI) and the termination obtained (between PARmin and
criterion. PARmax). (bw:- band width alter between
a higher value and a lower value from
b. Initialize the harmony memory: first iteration to the last and ultimate
The HM Matrix filled with randomly iteration)
generated solution vector. Solution vectors (10)
are sorted by values of a objective function. Find the fitness values related to the New
Harmony generated and pitch adjusted

d. Update harmony memory:

Newly generated harmony vector (x') is
estimated in terms of the target function value. If
the targeted function value for the new harmony
vector is better than the targeted function value
H.M.s =
for the inferior harmony in the harmony
memory, then the bran-new harmony is inclosed
. . . . . in the HM, and the existing inferior harmony is
excluded from the HM.

e. Check the termination standards:

(7) If the termination standards are satisfied,
c. Improvise the new harmony: computation is terminated. Otherwise, Steps iii
New Harmony vector, x, is generated based on a and iv are repeated.
three rules, namely: random selection, harmony
memory consideration rate (HMCR) and pitch 4. RESULTS
adjustment rate (PAR). These rules are
delineated as follows: The HS algorithm for solving the problem of
placement of capacitor in 69-bus distribution

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1049
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

system. The HSA is then compared with Genetic 0.3200 MVAr, therefore minimum power loss is
Algorithm. In the network sectionalize switches 0.2425 MW; hence, power loss reduction is about
are numbered from 1 to 68 and tie-switches are 31.57% after placing the capacitor of proper size
69 to 73. Line and load data are taken from [12]. and at optimal location.
The HSA parameters are HM size = 50, PAR = 0.7, 1
Voltage profile improvement

HMCR = 0.95, Max. Iter = 800, used in simulation

of network. As a result reactive power is 0.99

compensated by optimal capacitor placement, 0.98

power factor of the system meliorate. Therefore,
both the energy losses & power losses get trims.

voltage (pu)

Following data is incur from load flow

programme on MATLAB are carried on a
computer with Intel core i-3, 2.50 GHz, and 2.0 0.95

GB RAM. without capacitor

0.94 with capacitor (HSA)

Table-1: Simulation Result of 69-Bus 0.93

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Bus Number

Method Without HSA Chart - 1: Voltage Profile Improvement.

Switch 69, 70, 71, 72, 11, 13, 20, 58, The voltage profile curves of four load conditions
opened 73 61 are shown, respectively. The configuration of
Power losses 0.3539 0.2425 voltage profiles at all load levels are nearly the
(MW) same except insignificant change in voltage
Loss ----- 0.1114 magnitude. Voltage uprises by the help of
reduction optimal capacitor placement. Results are
% loss ----- 31.57% obtained for 69 bus radial distribution system,
reduction are better after placing capacitors.
Location of ----- 11,
capacitor 61, 0.16
Variations in Power Losses

(bus 65 without capacitor

number) 0.14 with capacitor (HSA)

Size of ----- 0.3606, 0.12

capacitor 0.8801,
(MVAr) 0.3200 0.1

% voltage ----- 2.32% 0.08

improvement 0.06


Table 1: shows the losses and % voltage profile

improvement after and before optimal 0.02
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Load Level
placement of capacitor using Harmony Search
Algorithm. When the optimal capacitor is not Chart - 1: Variations in Power Losses
placed in radial distribution system the losses
are 0.3539MW. Here, the result is obtained after Graphical view of power losses by using HAS
10 runs and each run completed in 288.61 with respect to variable load level. Without
seconds, get the capacitor location at bus placing capacitors losses are enormously high,
number 11, 61, 65 of value 0.3606, 0.8801, and by placing capacitor optimally at versatile
load level losses get reduced. Thus,
2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1050
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

emplacement and size of capacitor is an [7] K. Prakash and M. Sydulu, Particle swarm
significant aspect to trim down the power losses optimization based capacitor placement on
of the system. radial distribution systems, IEEE Power
Engineering Society General Meeting, pp. 1-5,
5. CONCLUSION [8] G. Carpinelli, D. Proto, C. Noce, A. Russo, P.
Varilone, Optimal allocation of capacitor in
An approach integrate the practise of HSA has unbalanced multi-convertor distribution
been shown in this paper to ascertain the systems: A comparison of some fast
optimal emplacement and size of capacitors to techniques based on genetic algorithm,
place in a distribution system at impulsive load Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 80,
level. To trim down the power losses results has No.6, pp. 642-650, December 2009.
been obtained in IEEE 69 bus distribution [9] R. Sirjani, A. Mohamed, H. Shareef, Optimal
system by using HS Algorithm which brings capacitor placement in a radial distribution
down the power losses approximately 31.57% at system using Harmony Search Algorithm,
variant load levels. The need of the study is to Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol.10, No.23, pp.
reduce the power losses and heighten the 2996-3006, September 2010.
efficiency of the radial distribution system. [10] Z. W. Geem, Novel derivative of harmony
search algorithm for discrete design
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2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1051
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Neha Goyal, has

obtain degree in
Bachelor of
Technology. In
Electrical and
Engineering from
Rajasthan Technical
University, Kota in 2011. She pursuing her
M.Tech In power system From Govt. Women
Engg. College, Ajmer. Her area of research is
Distribution system and Power Loss

Pushpendra Singh,
has obtain degree
in Bachelor of
Engg. In
Electrical from
University, Jaipur
in 2005.He
completed his
M.Tech In power
system From MNIT Jaipur in 2011.His area
of research is Distribution system. Presently
working as Asst. Professor in GWEC, Ajmer,

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1052