You are on page 1of 15


Comfort is the state of mind

that expresses satisfaction
Universit IUAV di Venezia, Environmental Building Physics Introduction to sustainability

with the environment

Comfort depends on:

Integrated Studio 1 Master Degree in Architecture and Innovation

clothing Icl
activity, Met
Air temperature ta
Climate and Comfort: Air velocity va

Bioclimatic Chart Air humidity Ura

Mean radiant temperature, tmr

Fabio Peron
Universit IUAV - Venezia There is not a single condition of
comfort, but comfort conditions are
defined by the endless combinations
of the six variables.

Sensations are subjective Comfort: experimental analysis with group of testers

The feeling is subjective and the same environmental conditions

on different persons can lead to different sensations.
Comfort metrics: comfort indices Comfort: energy budget

Driven by the proportionality

Q = Q K + Q C + Q R + Q Sr + Q Lr + Q Ed + Q Es

between the thermal load of the

human body and the feeling of
cold and warm proven by man,
Qcond - conduction between body and
Fanger in 1970 proposed a new envelope surfaces;
comfort index, the PMV Qconv - convection between body and air;
(Predicted Mean Vote) QR - radiation between body and
envelope surfaces;;
Qsi sensible heat associated with
QLi - latent heat associated with
+3 very hot breathing;
+2 hot ED - sensible heat associated with
+1 slightly hot transpiration;
0 comfort
ES - latent heat associated with
-1 slightly cold PMV = f (Icl, M, ta, va,URa, tmr)
-2 cold transpiration
-3 very cold .

Comfort indices Comfort summary

Thnaks to experimental
analyses Fanger can connect Fanger DTU Lyngby (DK)
the comfort index, PMV, to the
environmental and Behavioural PMV = f (Icl, M, ta, va,URa, tmr)
Starting from the energy budget PPD = g (PMV)
equation for human body he
obtained the following:

PMV = [0.303 exp(0.036M) + 0.028]S

PMV = [0.303 exp(0.036 M) + 0.028][( M L)

0.305{5733 6.99(M L) pa } 0.42{(M L ) 58.15}
1.7 10 5 M(5867 pa ) 0.0014 M(34 ta )
{ }
3.9610 8 fv (tv + 273)4 (tmr + 273)4 fv hc (tv ta )
Human energy budget: metabolism Human energy budget: metabolism

An adult sleeping or is still lying in bed,

Activity MetabolicRates[M]
therefore produces, as basal Reclining 46W/m2 0.8Met
metabolism a power of 70-80 W. Seatedrelaxed 58W/m2 1.0Met
Clockandwatchrepairer 65W/m2 1.1Met
The metabolic power M assumes higher
values with activities: for a sitting man
Standingrelaxed 70W/m2 1.2Met
is around 100-110 W. Cardriving 80W/m2 1.4Met
Standing,lightactivity(shopping) 93W/m2 1.6Met
M is evaluated using a non S.I unit, the
Walkingonthelevel,2km/h 110W/m2 1.9Met
met equal to 58,2 W/m2.
Standing,mediumactivity(domesticwork) 116W/m2 2.0Met
This unit value corresponds to the Washingdishesstanding 145W/m2 2.5Met
metabolic power per unit body surface Walkingonthelevel,5km/h 200W/m2 3.4Met
area developed by a man in sedentary
Buildingindustry 275W/m2 4.7Met
Sportsrunningat15km/h 550W/m2 9.5Met

Human energy budget: clothing thermal resistance Human energy budget: clothing thermal resistance

0.5 Clo Clothingelement IcluClo Iclum2C/W

0,15 Clo
1.2 Clo
Underwear Pantyhose 0.02 0.003
Briefs 0.04 0.006
1.0 Clo
Pantslonglegs 0.10 0.016
Underwear, Bra 0.01 0.002
shirts Tshirt 0.09 0.014
Halfslip,nylon 0.14 0.022
Shirts Tubetop 0.06 0.009
Shortsleeves 0.09 0.029
Normal,longsleeves 0.25 0.039
Trousers Shorts 0.06 0.009
Normaltrousers 0.25 0.039
The thermal resistance of Overalls 0.28 0.043
Insulated Multicomponentfilling 1.03 0.160
clothing is evaluated with a unit
coveralls Fibrepelt 1.13 0.175
Not belonging to the SI:
Sweaters Thinsweater 0.20 0.031
The clo equal to 0,155 m2K/W Normalsweater 0.28 0.043
Thicksweater 0.35 0.054
Human energy budget: mean radiant temperature Human energy budget: mean radiant temperature

Is defined as the temperature of

the envelope, black and isothermal,
Tmr = 4 F T
of a hypothetical room which
ui i
would have the same exchange of
heat of the real room with the
person . Ti is the temperatura of surface i
and FUi is the view factor between
man and surface i.

Note that the Tmr varies with the

location of the person in the room

Standards on comfort ISO EN 7730-2005 Design criteria

Ergonomics of the thermal environment
Analytical determination and
interpretation of thermal comfort using PMV-PPD and operative temperature design criteria (ISO 7730-2004).
calculation of the PMV and PPD indices
and local thermal comfort effects.
, )
EN 15251-2008 Class Comfortrequirements Temperaturerange
Indoor environmental parameters for
assessment of energy performance of
buildings, addressing indoor air quality, PPD PMV Winter(1.0clo/1.2met) Summer(0.5clo/1.2met)
thermal environment, lighting and
acoustics. [%] [/] [C] [C]

ASHRAE 55-2013
Thermal environment conditions for A <6 0.2<PMV<+0.2 2123 23.525.5
human occupancy

CR 1752
Ventilation of buildings-Design criteria for the indoor environment B <10 0.5<PMV<+0.5 2024 23.026.0
TC156WG12 (European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive)
Criteria for the indoor environmental quality
C <15 0.7<PMV<+0.7 1925 22.027.0
TC205WG5 Building Environmental Design - Thermal Environment

Climate and comfort: Olgyay chart Climate and comfort: Olgyay chart
This famous
illustration is taken
from Design with
Climate, by Victor You can actually identify
Olgyay, published in two areas of comfort, a
summer and a winter one
(upper and lower), relating
This is the finite to an scantily dressed (Clo =
point of expected 0.8), in sedentary activity
comfort for
(Met 1) and in the shade (no
100% mechanical
heating and solar radiation) .

Green area is the The part below the comfort

comfort area: we zone describes conditions
can use different undercooling, the above
conditions overheating.

Climate and comfort: Olgyay chart Olgyay Chart

Point A
Air temperature:
75 F 23,9 C

Air Relative Humidity: 50%

A condition:
Winter COMFORT (limit)

No intervention:
It falls into the comfort zone
Olgyay Chart Olgyay Chart
Punto B Punto C
Temperatura a bulbo secco Temperatura a bulbo secco
aria: 75 F 23,9 C aria: 50 F 10 C

Umidit relativa: 70% Umidit relativa: 56%

B condizione: non COMFORT condizione: non COMFORT

accorgimento necessario:
Moto aria: 120 fpm 0,61 m/s accorgimento necessario:
radiazione: 250 Btu/(h ft2)
C 788 W/m2

Olgyay Chart Olgyay Chart

Punto D Punto E
Temperatura a bulbo secco Temperatura a bulbo secco
aria: 87 F 30,6 C aria: 95 F 35 C

Umidit relativa: 30% Umidit relativa: 20%

D E condizione: non COMFORT
condizione: non COMFORT
accorgimenti necessari:
accorgimenti necessari: vento: 700 fpm 1,52 m/s
vento: 300 fpm 1,52 m/s in pi vapore dacqua:
oppure 8 grains/pound 1,14 g/kgas
vapore dacqua: Oppure vapore dacqua:
8 grains/pound 1,14 g/kgas 22 grains/pound 3,14 g/kgas
Olgyay Chart
Olgyay Chart

Some modifications to the

In the chart some others
original Olgyay chart:
lines related to specific
Substitution of sun
radiation (typical of
colpo di sole
external environment)
colpo di calore
with mean radiant
congelamento delle dita
temperature Tmr (typical
limite di congelamento
of internal environment).
limite di sopravvivenza
limite per certe attivit
Added different clothing
limiti per vestiario
resistence levels
condizioni di troppo secco
reaching comfort
condizioni di troppo

Climate and comfort: Olgyay chart Olgyay chart: considerations

The Olgyay Bioclimatic Chart is usefull for buildings design when air
In the diagram, you can temperature inside the building is next to the outside: it happens in the
report the climatic
summer at mid and low latitudes for humid climates , and is especially true
conditions of the site
as more buildings are light and naturally ventilated by opening doors and
considered, highlighting
the " climate criticities" in
windows .
relation to the comfort .
In Olgyay chart it does not consider the presence of the building

Venice climate is humid The plot is not very effective for massive buildings in hot, dry climates:
with cold winter. here the indoor air temperature is always very different from the outside,
Warm periods with high
humidity (scirocco wind, without any HVAC System.
summer sultriness).
In these cases the signs of Olgyay lead to overestimation of the
interventions to ensure comfortable conditions .
Givoni chart Givoni chart
To get around the problem that can arise from the direct use of external climatic data in
the chart, Baruc Givoni in 1969 proposed a new bioclimatic chart Building Bio-Climatic
Chart based on ASHRAE humid air diagram and integrating the building factor..



Givoni chart Givoni vs Olgyay Charts

Differences between Givoni and Olgyay Charts:

Givoni consideres the presence of the building

In Givoni winter comfort zone is much larger than the summer(assuming heavier
clothing and more intense activity)
Are traced areas where the conditions of external temperature and humidity can
ensure indoor comfort using Passive Systems. They consider four main systems:

a) ventilation
b) high mass
c) radiation collection
d) evaporative cooling

the comfort zone boundaries are determined by the internal temperatures

provided by the building without plant and bioclimatically designed.
Brown Chart Brown Chart

Brown, De Kay 2001 Brown, De Kay 2001

Brown Chart Brown Chart

Madison (Wisconsin):
Charleston (South Carolina):
Natural ventilation can be sufficient for cooling needs Natural ventilation can be sufficient for cooling needs
Sun radiation isnt sufficient for the heating needs (very cold climate). Sun radiation can be sufficient for the heating needs
Brown, De Kay 2001 Brown, De Kay 2001
Innovation and comfort: the adaptation Innovation and comfort: the adaptation
The context and the thermal history of each subject can change
Lapproccio adattivo al comfort si basa sul principio di addattativit:
the expectations and climatic preferences. It is the so called
adaptation which is the process of gradual decrease of the
Se avviene un cambiamento che produce discomfort, le persone
reactions of each subject to the microclimate stimuli
reagiscono in modo da ristabilire il loro stato di comfort
behavioral adaptation (clothing, posture, activity)
It is the overall changes that a person puts into action, consciously Questi cambiamenti si hanno su periodi di tempo variabili e possono
or unconsciously, in order to change the parameters that regulate essere cambiamenti effettuati sulla persona o sullambiente.
the heat balance of the body. It can be personal, technological and istantanei: mettersi o togliersi indumenti in risposta o anticipando
cultural. cambiamenti di condizioni
nel giorno: risposta a cambiamenti di ambienti durante il giorno
physiological adaptation giorno per giorno: risposta a cambiamenti meteorologici
prolonged exposure to a certain type of environment or climate, lungo periodo: risposta ai cambiamenti stagionali guidata dal
reduces thermal stress. This adaptation can be genetic or contesto culturale
acclimatization. The physiological adaptation has a negligible
influence on the perception of comfort in moderate environments. Il comfort visto come il risultato di uninterazione tra edificio e
occupanti in un certo contesto climatico e culturale.
psychological adjustment (expectations),
previous experiences and expectations change the perception of Le condizioni di comfort cambiano con i cambiamenti di vestiario e con
sensory stimuli and the reaction to them. altri fattori in funzione della stagione e del clima. Lo studio di questo
sistema di retroazione naturale ha dato dei risultati riproducibili.

Adaptation Adaptation

Proportion of subjects comfortable

Comfort is achieved 1
by the occupants 0.9
adapting to the 0.8
building 0.7 Little discomfort
Occupant Building 0.4
Or by the occupants
12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38
adapting the building
to suit them Mean indoor temperature oC

Comfort level with various indoor temperature. Investigation in offices in Pakistan

All this in a specific social, economic and cultural context
Nicol, Raja, Allauddin & Jamy (1999) Energy and Buildings 30
Adaptation Adaptation

Comfort temperature



10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Mean temperature experienced

Comfort and mean external temperature in Pakistan

Nicol, Raja, Allauddin & Jamy (1999) Energy and Buildings 30

Adaptation Adaptive comfort and Fanger model

50 F 59 F 68 F 77 F 86 F 95 F
indoor operative temperature ( C )




26 78.8

24 75.2

22 71.6
90% acceptability limits
20 68.0

18 80% acceptability limits 64.4

16 60.8

5 10 15 20 25 30 35
mean monthly outdoor air temperature ( C)

ASRAE 55-2004
Adaptation Adaptation
According to a 2009 study developed in the European offices, the comfort
temperature, Tc, varies as a function of the mobile mean of external temperature,
Trm, following the relashion:

Tc = 0,33 Trm + 18,8

Also in Europe is considered the adaptation: CEN EN15251-2007

Adaptation Natural ventilation and comfort

The standards indicate a constant temperature inside the buildings to obtain 34

AC buildings, line B Free-running buildings, line A
comfort. Research in different parts of the world have put in evidence how

Neutral or comfort temperature oC

the temperature that is perceived comfortable varies with season and
climate A
This means that comfort can be achived with less energy in a building 22
where the internal temperature follows the outside temperature 20
This means that in a well designed building we can obtain comfort conditions 16 Tn = To
also without HVAC systems 14
-24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34
It was developed an algorithm for the prediction of the comfort temperature o
Monthly mean outdoor temperature C
as a function of the outside temperature Using this algorithm to control the
set point of the air conditioning you can save 25% of energy.
Humphrey in1978 from field studies. Each point represents a research campaign.
In free-running building expectations are less stringent.
Natural ventilation and comfort Innovazione e comfort personalizzato

Brager and De Dear 2006: non ci sono errori ma un adattamento psicologico legato
allesperienza personale e alle aspettative
Fabio Peron Argenta, 10 settembre 2016
Sistemi di ventilazione e controllo personalizzato

Innovazione e comfort personalizzato Innovazione e comfort personalizzato

Sistemi di ventilazione e controllo personalizzato Sistemi di ventilazione e controllo personalizzato

Innovazione e comfort Bioclimatic Chart and comfort model


Poltrona riscaldata o raffreddata;

Bioclimatic Chart and design evaluations Bioclimatic Chart and design evaluations
Climatic needs Climatic needs