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Class 8th Metal and Non Metal

METALS AND NON METALS 2.Non metals


Non metals may be solids, liquids or gases.
MATERIALS : METALS AND NON METALS Non metals which are solids are brittle (diamond
1) Occurrence of metals and non metals :- is the hardest).
Out of the 92 naturally occurring elements 70 are Non metals do not have lustre some have a dull
metals and about 22 are nonmetals. Some luster.
elements show properties of both metals and non Non metals have low melting points.
metals. They are called metalloids. Non metals are not malleable.
Only some metals like gold, silver, platinum etc Non metals are not ductile.
are found in the free state. Most metals are found Non metals are bad conductors of heat and
in the combined states as oxides, sulphides, electricity (except graphite).
carbonates, silicates etc. Non metals are not sonorous
Some non metals are found in the free state like
helium, neon, argon etc. and some are found in 4) Chemical properties of metals and non metals:-
free and combined states like sulphur, phosphorus a) Reaction with oxygen:-
etc. Metals react with oxygen to form metallic oxides.
2) Metallurgy :- These oxides are basic oxides because they react
Metallurgy:-is science of extraction of metals with water to form bases. Eg. Magnesium burns in
from their ores and their purification. air to form magnesium oxide. Magnesium reacts
Minerals:-are naturally occurring substances with water to form magnesium hydroxide.
containing one or more elements or their 2 Mg + O2 -> 2 MgO
compounds. MgO+ H2O -> Mg(OH)2
Ore:-is a mineral from which one or more metals Non metals react with oxygen to form non metallic
can be extracted profitably. oxides. These oxides are acidic oxides because
Metallurgical processes:-consists of three main they react with water to form acids.
steps. They are :-i) Concentration of the ore ii) Eg. Sulphur burns in air to form sulphur dioxide.
Reduction iii) Refining Sulphur dioxide reacts with water to form
Concentration of the ore:-is the removal of sulphurous acid.
impurities from the ore. S + O2 -> SO2
Reduction:-the process of obtaining the metal SO2+ H2O H2SO3
from its compound. b) Reaction with water:-
Refining:-is the process of purification of the Metals react with water to form metal hydroxides
impure metals to obtain the pure metal. and hydrogen.
3) Physical properties of metals and non metals:- Eg. Sodium reacts with water to form sodium
1.Metals hydroxide and hydrogen.
Metals are solids (except mercury). 2 Na + 2 H2O 2 Na OH + H2
Metals are hard (except sodium, potassium etc. Magnesium reacts with water to form magnesium
Metals have metallic lustre. hydroxide and hydrogen.
Metals have high melting points and boliling Mg + H2O Mg(OH)2+ H2
points. Non metals do not react with water.
Metals are malleable ( can be made into thin c) REACTION WITH ACIDS:-
sheets). Metals react with acids to form metallic salts and
Metals are ductile (can be made into thin wires). hydrogen.
Metals are good conductors of heat and Eg. Zinc reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to
electricity. form zinc chloride and hydrogen.
Metals are sonorus(produces sound). Zn + 2 HCl --------------- ZnCl2+ H2
Most non metals do not react with acids.

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Class 8th Metal and Non Metal

Some non metals like sulphur reacts with


concentrated nitric acid to form sulphur dioxide, Aluminium :-is used for making utensils, wires,
nitrogen dioxide and water. furniture, parts of aircrafts, vehicles, machines, for
S + 4 HNO3 SO2+ 4 NO2+2 H2O packing food and medicines etc.
d) Metals replace metals:- Copper :-is used for making wires, vessels, electric
A more reactive metal replaces a less reactive gadgets etc.
metal from its salt solution. Gold :-is used for making jewelry, coins medals etc
Eg. Magnesium replaces copper from copper Silver :-is used for making jewelry. Coins, medals
sulphate solution to form magnesium sulphate and etc.
copper. Platinum :-is used for making jewelry, electric
Mg + CuSO4---------------- MgSO4+ Cu gadgets, plugs in vehicles etc.
Zinc replaces copper from copper sulphate Sodium :-compounds are used as common salt,
solution to for zinc sulphate and copper. chemicals etc.
Zn + CuSO4------------------ ZnSO4 + Cu Calcium :-compounds are used for making cement,
Iron replaces copper from copper sulphate glass etc.
solution to form iron sulphate and copper 8) Uses of non metals:-
Fe + CuSO4---------- FeSO4+ Cu Sulphur:-is used for making sulphuric acid, salts of
Based on the reactivity of metals, they can be metals etc.
arranged in the decreasing order of their activity. Oxygen:-is used for respiration by living things,
5) Activity series of metals :- burning of fuels etc.
The arranging of metals in the decreasing order of Nitrogen:-is used for making ammonia which is
their reactivity is called activity series of metals. used for making fertilizers.
In decreasing order Hydrogen:-is used for making ammonia which is
Potassium used for making fertilizers, as fuel in rockets, for
Sodium welding etc.
Magnesium Chlorine:-is used to kill germs in water.
Aluminum Iodine:-is used as tincture iodine which is an
Zinc antiseptic
Iron 10) Corrosion:-
Lead The surface of some metals gets corroded when
Copper exposed to moist air for a long time. This is called
Silver corrosion.
Gold Prevention of corrosion of metals:-
6) Noble metals :- The corrosion of metals can be prevented by:-
Metals like gold, silver, platinum etc. retain their i) Applying oil or grease.
lustre because they do not react with air, water or ii) Applying paint
acids. So they are called noble metals. iii) Galvanisation ( coating of metals with non
Gold dissolves in aqua regia. Aqua regia is a corrosive metals like zinc)
mixture of concentrated nitric acid and iv) Electroplating ( coating of metals with non
concentrated hydrochloric acid in the ratio 1:3. corrosive metals like chromium tin by passing
Pure is 24 carat gold. It is very soft and cannot be electricity)
used for making ornaments. So it is mixed with v) Alloying ( Eg. When iron is alloyed with
some silver or copper to make it hard. chromium and nickel, it forms stainless steel which
7) Uses of metals :- is resistant to corrosion)
Iron :-is used for making pins, nails, nuts, bolts,
tools, machines, construction of buildings, bridges
etc.

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Class 8th Metal and Non Metal

MCQ 9. All materials shown property of malleability


1. Of these, the most ductile metal is __________. expect
a) Al a. Iron
b) Au b. Graphite
c) Cu c. Aluminium
d) Ag d. Silver
2. Which oxide of a metal gets reduced only by 10. Which one of the following is a good conductor
coke and not by H2 gas or CO gas? of electricity?
a) Fe2O3 a. Iron
b) PbO b. Plastic
c) ZnO c. Wood
d) CuO d. Glass
3. Which of the following metals is extracted only 11. The property of metal by which it can be drawn
by electrolysis? into wires is called
a) Zn a. Conductivity
b) Al b. malleability
c) Fe c. Ductility
d) Cu d. Decorating
4. The metal reacting readily with cold water is 12. The metals that produce ringing sounds, are
___________. said to be-
a) Au a. malleable
b) Ag b. sonorous
c) Na c. Lustrous
d) Mg d. hard
5.Which of the following metals does not displace 13. Which metal is found in liquid state t room
H2 gas from dilute HCl or dilute H2SO4? temperature?
a) Mg a. Fe
b) Cu b. Zn
c) Zn c. Hg
d) Al d. Al
6. The property of metals by which they can be 14. The solution of ash of magnesium ribbon is-
beaten in to thin sheets is called- a. Acidic
a) malleability b. Basic
b) Ductility c. Neutral
c) conduction d. All of these
d) Expansion 15. What is the product when sulphur reacts with
7. Which one of the following is metal? oxygen?
a. C a. Sulphuric acid
b. N b. Sulphur trioxide
c. Na c. Sulphurous acid
d. O d. Sulphur dioxide
8. Which one of the following is non metal? 16. Which one of the following metal reacts
a. Zn vigorously with oxygen and water?
b. Al a. Sodium
c. Fe b. Potassium
d. N c. Calcium
d. Magnesium

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Class 8th Metal and Non Metal

17. Which metal is present in Calcium Hydroxide?


a. C 4. All materials shown property of malleability
b. O expect
c. Ca a. Iron
d. H b. Graphite
18. Which non-metal catches fire if the exposed to c. Aluminium
air d. Silver
a. Sodium Ans . 4. (b)
b. Phosphorous 5. Which one of the following is a good conductor
c. Calcium of electricity?
d. Uranium a. Iron
19. What is the chemical formula of copper b. Plastic
sulphate? c. Wood
a. CuSO4 d. Glass
b. CuCO3 Ans . 5. (a)
c. CuCl2 6. The property of metal by which it can be drawn
d. CuO into wires is called
a. Conductivity
20. Which gas are produced when metal react with b. malleability
acids c. Ductility
a) Oxygen d. Decorating Ans . 6. (c)
b) Nitrogen 7. The metals that produce ringing sounds, are
c) Hydrogen said to be-
d) Carbon dioxide a. malleable
Ans :- 1.b 2.c 3.a 4.c 5.b 6.a 7.c 8.d 9.d 10.a 11.c b. sonorous
12.b 13.c 14.b 15.d 16.a 17.c 18.d 19.b 20.c c. Lustrous
MCQ TYPE 2 d. hard
Ans . 7. (b)
1. The property of metals by which they can be 8. Which metal is found in liquid state t room
beaten in to thin sheets is called- temperature?
a) malleability a. Fe
b) Ductility b. Zn
c) conduction c. Hg
d) Expansion d. Al
Ans . 1. (a) Ans . 8. (c)
2. Which one of the following is metal? 9. The solution of ash of magnesium ribbon is-
a. C a. Acidic
b. N b. Basic
c. Na c. Neutral
d. O d. All of these Ans . 9. (b)
Ans . 2. (c) 10. What is the product when sulphur reacts with
3. Which one of the following is non metal? oxygen?
a. Zn a. Sulphuric acid
b. Al b. Sulphur trioxide
c. Fe c. Sulphurous acid
d. N d. Sulphur dioxide
Ans . 3. (d) Ans . 10. (d)

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Class 8th Metal and Non Metal

11. When sulphur dioxide is dissolve in water then- 19. What is the chemical formula of copper
a. Sulphur is formed sulphate?
b. Sulphur trioxide is formed a. CuSO4
c. Sulphuric acid is formed b. CuCO3
d. Sulphurous acid is formed. c. CuCl2
Ans . 11. (c) d. CuO Ans . 19. (b)
12. What is the chemical formula of sulphurous 20. Which gas are produced when metal react with
acid- acids
a. H2SO4 a. Oxygen
b. SO2 b. Nitrogen
c. SO3 c. Hydrogen
d. H2SO3 Ans . 12. (d) d. Carbon dioxide Ans . 20 (c)
13. The sulphuric acid turns blue litmus paper into- 21. Which one of the following does not react with
a. Red acids?
b. Green a. Cu
c. Yellow b. Ni
d. Dark blue Ans . 13. (a) c. Cr
14. Oxides of non metals are _______ in nature d. O Ans . 21. (d)
a) Basic 22. Which one of the following gas burns with the
b) Acidic pop sound?
c) Neutral a. Oxygen
d) All of these b. Hydrogen
Ans . 14. (b) c. Chlorine
15. Sodium metal is stored in- d. Hydrogen sulphide Ans . 22. (b)
a. Water 23. Which of the following can be beaten in to
b. Alcohol thin sheets?
c. Kerosene a. Zinc
d. Ether Ans . 15. (c) b. Phosphorus
16. Which one of the following metal reacts c. Sulphur
vigorously with oxygen and water? d. Oxygen Ans . 23. (a)
a. Sodium 24. Which of the following statements are correct?
b. Potassium a. All metals are ductile
c. Calcium b. All non metals are ductile
d. Magnesium Ans . 16. (a) c. Generally metals are ductile
17. Which metal is present in Calcium Hydroxide? d. some metals are ductile
a. C Ans . 24. (c)
b. O 25. What happens when dilute sulphuric acid is
c. Ca poured on a copper plate?
d. H Ans . 17. (c) a. Copper sulphate formed
18. Which non-metal catches fire if the exposed to b. Zinc sulphate formed
air c. Copper chloride formed
a. Sodium d. Zinc sulphate formed.
b. Phosphorous Ans . 25. (a)
c. Calcium
d. Uranium Ans . 18. (b)

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Class 8th Metal and Non Metal

26. On burning metals react with oxygen to


produce- 34. Which one of the following is the good
a. Metal hydroxide conducter of electricity?
b. Metal chloride a. Iron rod
c. Metal oxide b. Sulphur
d. Metal sulphate c. Coal piece
Ans . 26. (c) d. Wood
27. Which gas produced by piece of burning Ans . 34. (a)
charcoal? 35. Which material show shiny appearance?
a. CO2 a. Coal
b. CO b. Sulphur
c. H2S c. Aluminium
d. O2 Ans . 27. (b) d. Carbon
28. Which non metal is essential for our life and Ans . 35. (c)
inhale during breathing? 36. Which material is hard in nature?
a. H a. Iron
b. O b. Coal
c. C c. Oxygen
d. N Ans . 28. (b) d. Wood
29. Non metals used in- Ans . 36. (a)
a. Aeroplanes 37. Gold is used in-
b. making machinery a. Thermometers
c. Water boilers b. Fuel
d. Fertilisers Ans . 29. (d) c. Jewellery
30. Which one of the following is applied on d. Machinery
wounds as an antiseptic? Ans . 37. (c)
a. Metals 38. Which one of the following metal is used
b. Non metals thermometers?
c. Metalloids a. Copper
d. All of these Ans . 30. (b) b. Mercury
31. Which metal is found in plants? c. Aluminium
a. Fe d. Iron
b. Cr Ans . 38. (b)
c. Mg 39. Which one of the following cant be drawn
d. CO Ans . 31. (c) into wires?
32. Copper sulphate (CuSO4) possesses a. Fe
a. Red colour b. Al
b. Blue colour c. Cu
c. Green colour d. Coal
d. Yellow colour Ans . 32. (b) Ans . 39. (d)
33. Which one of the following are very reactive 40. Which substance is present in fuel?
non metals a. Copper
a. Sodium b. Iron
b. Potassium c. Gold
c. Carbon d. Carbon
d. Phosphorous Ans . 33. (d) Ans . 40. (d)

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Class 8th Metal and Non Metal

41. Zinc replaces copper from-


a. Zinc sulphate 49. Heat conduction is the property of
b. Copper sulphate a. Non-metal
c. sulphuric acid b. Metal
d. Copper oxide Ans . 41. (b) c. Metalloids
42. Metallic oxides are- d. All of these
a. Acidic is nature Ans . 49. (b)
b. Neutral 50. Moist air is the combination of-
c. Basic in nature a. H2O+CO2+O2
d. Either acidic or basic Ans . 42. (c) b. H2O+ CO+O2
43. Aluminium foil used for wrapping- c. H2O+CO2+H2
a. Food d. H2O+O2+H2
b. Clothes Ans . 50. (a)
c. Plastic
d. Wires Ans . 43. (a) Fill in the blanks
44. Which one of the following is used for 1. ---------- is liquid metal. (mercury)
decorating sweets? 2. ------ , -------------- and ----------- are soft metal
a. Aluminium foil (Lithium, Potassium, Sodium)
b. Copper foil 3. ------------ and ------------ are have low melting
c. Silver foil points. They melt in the palm of the hand.
d. All of these Ans . 44. (c) (Gallium and Ceasium)
45. Which one of the following enhances the 4. Metals can be beaten into thin sheets so they
growth of plants? are called ----------------. (malleable)
a. Industrial gadgets 5. ---------- is only liquid Non metals
b. Fertilisers (Bromine)
c. Automobiles 6. -------------- is the hardest natural substance
d. Water boilers Ans . 45. (b) (diamond)
46. Which one of the following is in crackers? 7. Non metals are bad conductors of electricity
a. metals except ------------- . (graphite)
b. Semi metals 8. Metals react with oxygen to form ---------- oxides
c. Non-metal (Basic)
d. All of these Ans . 46. (c) 9. Some metal oxides show acidic and basic
47. Hydrogen gas produce when metal react with- properties. They are called ---------. Eg :- Aluminum
a. Acid oxide, Zinc oxide etc. (amphoteric oxides)
b. Base 10. Al2O3 + 6HCl ---------- + 3H2O
c. Salt (AlCl3)
d. Both acid & base Ans . 47. (b) 11. Al2O3 + NaOH -------- + H2O
48. Which of the following cant be beaten into (NaAlO2)
sheets? 12. -------------- and ---------does not react with
a. Zinc oxygen even at high temperature.
b. Iron ( Silver, gold)
c. Aluminium 13. Metals like potassium and sodium react
d. Sulphur Ans . 48. (d) vigorously with oxygen and catch fire if kept in
open. Hence they are stored in ------------ to
prevent burning.
(kerosene)

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Class 8th Metal and Non Metal

14. Magnesium reacts only with ---------- water to


form magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen.
( hot)
15. Metals like aluminium, iron and zinc react only
with ---- to form the metal oxides and hydrogen.
(steam)
16. -------- gas is not evolved when metals react
with nitric acid (HNO3) because it is a strong
oxidising agent
(Hydrogen)
17. A more reactive metal displaces a -------
reactive metal from its salt solution
(less)
18. The arranging of metals in the decreasing order
of their reactivity is called -----------series of
metals.
( reactivity)
19. Metals lose electrons and become positive
ions. So they are called ------elements
(electropositive)
20. Non metals ----- electrons and become
negative ions. So they are called electro negative
elements
(gain)
21. ----------are compounds formed by the transfer
of electrons from a metal to a non metal(Ionic
compounds)
22. If one of the metals in an alloy is mercury, it is
called an -------
( amalgam)
23. ---------is the damage caused to metals due to
the reaction of metals with oxygen, moisture,
carbon dioxide etc.
(Corrosion)
24. Some elements show properties of both metals
and non metals. They are called -----
(metalloids)
25. -------------is a mixture of concentrated nitric
acid and concentrated hydrochloric acid in the
ratio 1:3.
( Aqua regia)