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Foundations should be designed for both shear failure and allowable settlement. So the
allowable settlement of shallow foundations may control the allowable bearing capacity. The
allowable settlement itself may be controlled by local building codes.
For example; the maximum allowable settlement for mat foundation is 50 mm, and 25 mm for
isolated footing. These foundations should be designed for these limiting values of settlement
(by calculating the allowable bearing capacity from the allowable settlement). Thus, the
allowable bearing capacity is the smaller of the following two conditions:

qall = smallest of (to control shear failure)

qall, settlement (to control settlement)

The settlement of a foundation can be divided into two major categories:

a) Immediate or elastic settlement ():
Elastic or immediate settlement occurs during or immediately after the application of the load
(construction of structure) without change in the moisture content of the soil.
b) Consolidation Settlement ():
Consolidation settlement occur over time; such that pore water is extruded from the void spaces
of saturated clayey soil submerged in water.
Consolidation settlement comprises two phases: Primary and secondary.
Secondary settlement occurs over a very long period of years after completing the extrusion of
excess pore water. It is caused by the viscous resistance of the soil particles to adjustment under
The total settlement or final settlement of a foundation is the sum of the immediate settlement
and the consolidation settlement.
If deep excavation is required to reach foundation level, swelling of the soil will take place as
a result of removal of the pressure of the overburden. The magnitude of the swelling depends
on the depth of overburden removed and the time the foundations remain unloaded. In the case
of foundations on medium-dense and dense sands and gravels, the immediate and consolidation
settlements are relatively small. A high proportion of the total settlement is completed by the
time the full loading
comes on the foundations. Similarly, a high proportion of the settlement of foundations on loose
sands takes place as the load is applied.
Settlements on compressible clays are partly immediate and partly long-term movements. The
latter is likely to account for the greater proportion of the movement and may take place over a
very long period of years.
The differential, or relative settlement between one part of a structure and another is of greater
significance to the stability of the superstructure than the magnitude of the total settlement. The
latter is only significant in relation to neighbouring works.
If the whole of the foundation area of a structure settles to the same extend, there is no
detrimental effect on the

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superstructure. If, however, there is relative movement between various parts of the foundation,
stresses are set up in the structure. Serious cracking, and even collapse of the structure, may
occur if the differential movements are excessive.
Differential settlement between parts of a structure may occur as a result of the following:
1) Variations in strata. One part of a structure may be founded on a compressible soil and
the other part on an incompressible material. In areas of irregular bedrock surface, parts
of a structure may be founded on shallow rock and others on soil or compressible
weathered rock. Wind-laid or water-laid deposits of sands and gravels can vary widely
in density in a vertical and horizontal direction.
2) Variations in foundation loading. For example, in a building consisting of a high
central tower with low projecting wings, differential settlement between the tower and
wings would be expected unless special methods of foundation design were introduced
to prevent it. Similarly, a factory building might have a light superstructure surrounding
a very heavy item of machinery.
3) Large loaded areas on flexible foundations. The settlement of large flexible raft
foundations, when constructing directly on a compressible soil, takes a characteristic
bowl shape with the maximum settlement at the centre of the area and the minimum at
the corners. The maximum differential settlement is usually about one-half of the total
settlement. When the large loaded area is founded on a relatively incompressible stratum
(e.g. dense gravel) overlying compressible soil, settlement of the structure will occur
due to consolidation of the later layer, but it will NOT take the form of the bowl-shaped
depression. The effect of the dense layer, if thick enough, is to form a rigid raft which
will largely eliminate the differential settlement.
4) Differences in time of construction of adjacent parts of a structure. This problem
occurs when extensions to a structure are built many years after completion of the
original structure. Long-term consolidation settlements of the latter may be virtually
complete, but the new structure (if of the same foundation loading as the original) will
eventually settle an equal amount. Special previous in the form of vertical joints are
needed to prevent distortion and cracking between the old and new structures.
5) Variation in site conditions. One part of a building area may have been occupied by a
heavy structure which had been demolished; or on a sloping site it may be necessary to
remove a considerable thickness of overburden to form a level site. These variations
result in different stress conditions both before and after loading with consequent
differential settlement or swelling.

Methods of avoiding or accommodating excessive differential settlement

Differential settlement need not be considered only in the case of structures founded on
relatively incompressible bedrock. In all other cases, an estimate must be made of the total and
differential settlements to decide whether the movements are likely to be tolerated by the design
of the structure, or whether they are sufficiently large as to require special measures to avoid or
accommodate them. It is unrealistic to design foundations to prevent all cracking due to
differential settlement. In most buildings with internal plaster finish, cracking can be seen in
walls and ceilings due to thermal and moisture movements in the structure; therefore, a certain

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degree of readily repairable cracking due to differential settlement should be accepted (see
Tables below).
In the case of simple structures on relatively uniform compressible soils, the risk of damage due
to settlement can be assessed with the guidance of empirical rules based on experience.
Studies carried out by Terzaghi and Peck, and Skempton and Macdonald show that for a
limiting angle of distortion () of 1 in 500, the limiting maximum differential settlement is
about 25 mm, the limiting total settlement is 40 mm for isolated foundations, and 40-65 mm for
raft foundations.
Studies have shown that buildings on sand rarely settle more than 50 mm and in the majority
of cases the settlement is of the order of 25 mm or less. These rules should not be applied to
sands containing silt or clay which greatly increases their compressibility.

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Foundations on sand
For foundations on clays, Skempton and Macdonald similarly prescribed a design limit for
maximum differential settlement of 40 mm, with design limits for total settlement of 65 mm for
isolated foundations and 65-100 mm for rafts.
If as a result of applying the above empirical rules, or of undertaking a settlement analysis of
the structure based on the assumption of complete flexibility in the foundations and
superstructures, it is shown that the total and differential settlements exceed the serviceability
limit state, then the engineer has the choice either of avoiding settlement or of accommodating
the movement by appropriate measures in the structural design. If the structures themselves
have insufficient rigidity to prevent excessive differential movement with ordinary spread
foundations, one or a combination of the following methods may be adopted in order to reduce
the total and differential settlements to a tolerable figure:
1) Provision a rigid raft foundation either with a thick slab or with deep beams in two
2) Provision of deep basements to reduce the net bearing pressure on the soil.
3) Transference of foundation loading to deeper and less compressible soil by means of
basements, piers and piles.
4) Provision of jacking pockets, or brackets, in columns to re-level the superstructure.
5) Provision of additional loading on lightly loaded areas in the form of kentledge or
As well as reducing maximum settlements due to relief of overburden pressure in excavating
for deep basements, method 2) is useful preventing excessive differential settlement between
parts of a structure having different foundation loads. Thus the deepest basement can be
provided under the heaviest part of the structure with shallower or no basements in the areas of
lighter loading. This approach is referred to as compensated foundation design.
An important point to note in connection with the excavation of deep basements in clay soils is
that swelling will occur to a greater or lesser degree on release of overburden pressure. This
causes additional settlement as the swelled ground reconsolidates during the application of the
structural load. The effects of such swelling are eliminated by the adoption of piled basements.
Vertical stress increase under the foundation
For the calculation of foundation settlement (both elastic and consolidation), it is required to
estimate the vertical stress increase in the soil mass due to the next load applied on the

Contact pressure distribution beneath foundations.

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The shape of the stress distribution beneath the loaded area depends on the rigidity of the
foundation structure and the nature of the soil. The variation of contact pressure beneath a
smooth rigid foundation on a clay (or a soil containing thick layers of soft clay) is shown in
Figure (a). A similar foundation on sand or gravel shows a very different contact pressure
distribution as shown in figure (b). The pressure distribution for intermediate soil types takes
the form displayed in figure (c). When the bearing pressures are increased to the point of shear
failure in the soil, the contact pressure is changed, tending to an increase in pressure over the
centre of the loaded area in each of the above cases.
A fully flexible foundation, such as the steel plate floor of an oil storage tank, assumes the
characteristic bowl shape as it deforms with the consolidation of the underlying soil. The
contact pressure distribution for a fully flexible foundation on a clay soil takes the form shown
in figure (d). In the calculation of consolidation settlement, we are concerned with the pressure
distribution for a contact pressure, which has a reasonable safety factor against shear failure of
the soil. Also it is impracticable to obtain complete rigidity in a normal foundation structure.
Consequently, the contact pressure distribution is intermediate between that of rigid and flexible
foundations, and for all practicable purposes it is regarded as satisfactory to assume a uniform
pressure distribution beneath the loaded area. The next step is to consider the vertical stress
distribution in depth beneath the loaded area. In next sections several loading cases will be
discussed, all based on the assumption that the loaded material is elastic, homogeneous, and
isotropic. None of his is strictly true for natural soils, but the assumptions are justifiable for
practical design.

The Theory of ElasticitySchleichers Method

Based on the theory of elasticity and Boussinesqs stress distribution, Schleicher (1926)
integrated the vertical stresses caused by a uniformly distributed surface load and obtained an
expression for the elastic settlement, s, of soil directly underneath a perfectly elastic bearing
slab as follows:

Where K = shape coefficient or influence value which depends upon the degree of stiffness of
the slab, shape of bearing area, mode of distribution of the total load and the position of the
point on the slab where the settlement is sought;
q = net pressure applied from the slab on to the soil;
A = area of the bearing slab;
E = modulus of elasticity of soil; and
= Poissons ratio for the soil.
It may be noted that settlements are not the same at all points under an elastic slab, while
settlements are the same under all points of a rigid slab. If, in the equation above,

is designated as a constant, C, Schleichers equation reduces to:

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The maximum settlement occurs at the centre of circular and rectangular bearing areas and the
minimum value occurs at the periphery of the circle or at corners of the rectangle. Schelichers
shape coefficients, K, are given in Table below:

If, in the Schleichers equation above, the tolerable settlement, s, the shape coefficient K, the
size A of the loading area and the soil properties included under C, are known, the bearing
capacity q can be calculated as,

The elastic settlement equation also permits deriving the following rule:

where s1 and s2 are settlements brought about by two bearing areas of similar shape but of
different sizes, A1 and A2 respectively, with equal contact pressures.
This rule, expressing a model law, is useful in calculating the settlement of a prototype
foundation, if the settlement attained by a model with the same contact pressure has been

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Standard Penetration Test

This test which is popularly used for cohesionless soils is described in site investigation.
The result, which is in the form of the number of blows required for causing a standard
penetration under specified standard conditions, can be used to evaluate immediate settle-
ment in a cohesionless soil (De Beer and Martens, 1957). This method has been developed for
use with the Dutch Cone Penetrometer but can be adapted for the standard penetration test.
The immediate settlement, Si, is given by:
0 + IJ
Si =
. log e
H0 K
where H = thickness of the layer getting compressed,
0 = effective overburden pressure at the centre of the layer before any excavation or
application of load,
= vertical stress increment at the centre of the layer,
and Cs = compressibility constant, given by:
Cs = 1.5
Cr being the static cone resistance (in kN/m2), and
0 being the effective overburden pressure at the point tested.
The value of Cr obtained from the Dutch Cone penetration test must be correlated to the
recorded number of blows, N, obtained from the standard penetration test. Its variation ap-
pears to be wide. According to Meigh and Nixon (1961), Cr ranged from 430 N (kN/m2) to 1930
N (kN/m2). However, Cr is more commonly taken as 400 N (kN/m2) as proposed by Meyerhof
Pressure kN/m
0 200 400 600 800 1000

Settlement mm




Relationship between pressure and settlement of a 305 mm square plate, for differ-
ent values of N, in cohesionless soils (After Thornburn, 1963)

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The use of charts: The actual number of blows, N, from the standard penetration test
has to be corrected, under certain circumstances to obtain N, the corrected value. Thornburn
(1963) has given a set of curves to obtain N from N. He also extended the graphical relation-
ship given by Terzaghi and Peck (1948) between the settlement of a 305 mm square plate
under a given pressure and the N-value of the soil immediately beneath it, as shown in Fig. above.
This can be used for determining the settlement, Sf, of a square foundation on a deep
layer of cohesionless soil by using Terzaghi and Pecks formula:
FG 2B IJ 2
Sf = Sp
H B + 0.3 K
where Sp = Settlement of a 305 mm-square plate, obtained from the chart and,
B = Width of foundation (metres)
The chart is applicable for deep layers only, that is, for layers of thickness not less than
4B below the foundation.
For rectangular foundations, a shape factor should presumably be used. It is as follows:
Shape factors for rectangular foundations in cohesionless soils (After
Terzaghi and Skempton)

L/B Shape factor Shape factor

(flexible) (rigid)

1 1.00 1.00
2 1.35 1.22
3 1.57 1.31
4 1.71 1.41
5 1.78 1.49

Note: Settlement of a rectangular foundation of width B = Settlement of square foundation of

size B shape factor.
Immediate Settlement in Cohesive Soils
If a saturated clay is loaded rapidly, excess hydrostatic pore pressures are induced; the soil
gets deformed with virtually no volume change and due to low permeability of the clay little
water is squeezed out of the voids. The vertical deformation due to the change in shape is the
immediate settlement.
The immediate settlement of a flexible foundation, according to Terzaghi (1943), is given
F1 I . I
Si = q . B GH E JK

where Si = immediate settlement at a corner of a rectangular flexible foundation of size L B,

B = Width of the foundation,
q = Uniform pressure on the foundation,
Es = Modulus of elasticity of the soil beneath the foundation,
= Poissons ratio of the soil, and
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It = Influence Value, which is dependent on L/B

For a perfectly flexible square footing, the immediate settlement under its centre is
twice that at its corners.
The values of It are tabulated below:
Influence values for settlement of a corner of a flexible
rectangular foundation of size L B (After Terzaghi, 1943)

L/B 1 2 3 4 5

Influence value It 0.56 0.76 0.88 0.96 1.00

As in the case of computation of the vertical stress beneath any point either inside or
outside a loaded area (chapter 10), the principle of superposition may be used for computing
settlement by using equation 11.4; the appropriate summation of the product of B and It for
F1 I . 2
the areas into which the total area is divided will be multiplied by q GH E JKs

An earth embankment may be taken as flexible and the above formula may be used to
determine the immediate settlement of soil below such a construction.
Foundations are commonly more rigid than flexible and tend to cause a uniform settle-
ment which is nearly the same as the mean value of settlement under a flexible foundation.
The mean value of the settlement, Si, for a rectangular foundation on the surface of a semi-
elastic medium is given by:
(1 2 )
Si = q . B . Is
where B = width of the rectangular foundation of size L B,
q = uniform intensity of pressure,
Es = modulus of elasticity of the soil beneath the foundation,
= Poissons ratio of the soil, and
Is = influence factor which depends upon L/B.
Skempton (1951) gives the following values of Is :
Influence factors for mean value of settlement of a rectangular
foundation on a semi-elastic medium (After Skempton, 1951)

L/B Circle 1 2 5 10

Influence factor Is 0.73 0.82 1.00 1.22 1.26

F 1 I (I ) may be determined by conducting three or more plate load tests

The factor GH E JKs

and fitting a straight line plot for Si versus q . B; the slope of the plot equals this factor.

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Immediate Settlement of a Thin Clay Layer

The coefficients of Tables above apply only to foundations on deep soil layers. A draw-back of
the method is that it can be applied only to a layer immediately below a foundation and
extending to a great depth.
For cases when the thickness of the layer is less than 4B, Steinbrenner (1934) prepared
coefficients. His procedure was to determine the immediate settlement at the top of the layer
(assuming infinite depth) and to calculate the settlement at the bottom of the layer (again
assuming infinite depth below it). The difference between these two values is the actual settle-
ment of the layer.
The immediate settlement at the corners of a rectangular foundation on an infinite
layer is given by:
F1 I . I2
Si = q . B GH E JKs

The values of the influence coefficients Is (assuming = 0.5) are given in Fig. below
Influence coefficient Is
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8


L/B = 1 10


(c) Values of Is for different values of H/B

G.S. G.S.

Df Df

H H1

(a) Layer immediately below (b) Layer at a certain depth

foundation below foundation

Immediate settlement of a thin clay layer (After Steinbrenner, 1934)

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The principle of superposition may be used for determining the settlement underneath
any point of the loaded area by dividing the area into rectangles such that the point forms the
corner of each. The method can be extended to determine the immediate settlement of a clay
layer which is located at some depth below the foundation as in Fig. (b); the settlement of
a layer extending from below the foundation of thickness H2 (using Es2 ), is determined first;
from this value of imaginary settlement of the layer H1 (again using Es2 ) is subtracted. Since
this settlement is for a perfectly flexible foundation usually the value at the centre is deter-
mined and is reduced by a rigidity factor (0.8 usually) to obtain a mean value for the settle-
Effect of depth: According to Fox (1948), the calculated settlements are more than the
actual ones for deep foundations (Df > B), and a reduction factor may be applied. If Df = B, the
reduction factor is about 0.75; it is taken as 0.50 for very deep foundations. However, most
foundations are shallow. Further, in the case of foundations located at large depth, the com-
puted settlements are, in general, small and the reduction factor is customarily not applied.
Determination of Es: Determination of Es, the modulus of elasticity of soil, is not simple
because of the wide variety of factors influencing it. It is usually obtained from a consolidated
undrained triaxial test on a representative soil sample, which is consolidated under a cell
pressure approximating to the effective overburden pressure at the level from which the soil
sample was extracted. The plot of deviator stress wersus axial strain is never a straight line.
Hence, the value must be determined at the expected value of the deviator stress when the
load is applied on the foundation. If the thickness of the layer is large, it may be divided into a
number of thinner layers, and the value of Es determined for each.

Consolidation Settlement or Primary Compression

The phenomenon of consolidation occurs in clays because the initial excess pore water
pressures cannot be dissipated immediately owing to the low permeability. The theory of
one-dimensional consolidation, advanced by Terzaghi, can be applied to determine the total
compression or settlement of a clay layer as well as the time-rate of dissipation of excess
pore pressures and hence the time-rate of settlement. The settlement computed by this
procedure is known as that due to primary compression since the process of consolidation as
being the dissipation of excess pore pressures alone is considered.
Total settlement: The total consolidation settlement, Sc, may be obtained from one of the
following equations:
H . Cc F I
Sc =
(1 + e0 ) GH
log 10
0 +
0 JK
Sc = m . . H
Sc = .H
(1 + e0 )
These equations and the notation have already been dealt with in chapter seven. The
vertical pressure increment at the middle of the layer has to be obtained by using the
theory of stress distribution in soil.

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Time-rate of settlement: Time-rate of settlement is dependent, in addition to other fac-

tors, upon the drainage conditions of the clay layer. If the clay layer is sandwiched between
sand layers, pore water could be drained from the top as well as from the bottom and it is said
to be a case of double drainage. If drainage is possible only from either the top or the bottom, it
is said to be a case of single drainage. In the former case, the settlement proceeds much more
rapidly than in the latter.
The calculations are based upon the equation:
C t
Again, the use of this equation and the notation have been given previously.
A large wheel load passing on a roadway resting on a clay layer will cause immediate
settlement, which is, theoretically speaking, completely recoverable after the load has passed.
If the load is applied for a long time, consolidation occurs. Judgement may be necessary in
deciding what portion of the superimposed load carried by a structure will be sustained long
enough to cause consolidation.
In the case of foundation of finite dimensions, such as a footing resting on a thick bed of
clay, lateral strains will occur and the consolidation is no longer one dimensional. Lateral
strain effects in the field may induce non-uniform pore pressures and may become one of the
sources of differential settlements of a foundation.

Secondary Settlement or Secondary Compression

Settlement due to secondary compression is believed to occur during and mostly after the
completion of primary consolidation or complete dissipation of excess pore pressure. A few
theories have been advanced to explain this phenomenon, known as secondary consolidation,
and have already been given at the end of chapter seven. In the case of organic soils and
micaceous soils, the secondary compression is comparable to the primary compression; in the
case of all other soils, secondary settlement is considered insignificant. Further discussion of
the concept of secondary settlement, being of an advanced nature, is outside the scope of the
present work.

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Shoring, Scaffolding and Underpinning

Shoring and scaffolding are the most frequent temporary structures in building construction.
Underpinning is the installation of temporary or permanent support to an existing foundation to
provide either additional depth or an increase in bearing capacity.
In multi-storey work, the shoring which supports freshly placed concrete is necessarily
supported by lower floors which may not yet have attained their full strength, and which may
not have been designed to carry loads as great as those imposed during construction.
Construction loads may exceed design loads by an appreciable amount.
Therefore, shoring must be provided for enough floors to develop the needed capacity to
support the imposed loads without excessive stress or deflection. Whether permanent shores or
reshores are used at the several required lower floor levels depends on job plans for reused of
materials as well as the rate of strength gain in the structure.
There are several types of adjustable individual shores. The simplest of these, is based on
claming device which permits the overlapping of two 24 members.

Figure 1 - Using a clamping device, shores are made by joining two pieces of dimension lumber
which also facilitates length adjustment
A portable jacking tool is used to make vertical adjustments. Metal shore jack fittings are
available to fit over the end of 44 or 66 wood shore, thus transforming the piece of lumber
into an adjustable shore, as shown in Figure 2. These devices are capable of varying the shore
height as much as 12 inches.

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Figure 2 - Metal fittings are placed at the end of square lumber, making them adjustable shores.
A number of patented shoring systems have been developed with adjustable legs which
eliminate cutting, close fitting, and wedging. Figure 3 shows schematic diagram of one such

Figure 3 - Shoring system with adjustable legs

Scaffold-Type Shoring
Tubular steel form scaffolding was first designed to support loads imposed by the workers
getting to the work area. Since the system of jacks in the tubular steel scaffolding makes it easy
to adjust and level elevations, it is often used as a support for formwork. Since it is a modular
assembly, it makes it an attractive option for rapid utilization for formwork support. A
schematic diagram of a tubular steel scaffolding or shoring tower is shown in Figure 4.

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Figure 4 - A shoring tower is made by assembling end frames with diagonal braces
Scaffolding has been used for many centuries to provide access areas for building and
decorating structures taller than people who work on them.
The word scaffolding refers to any raised platform or ramp used for ingress and egress for
pedestrian movement and/or the passage of building materials. Since the mid-1920s the concept
of using steel pipes fastened together with metal-form or cast clamps (couplers) instead of poles
and ropes was introduced.
Aluminum alloy pipes and couplers were developed for their lighter weight and speedier
construction. Aluminum alloy is only two-thirds as strong as steel, but it is only one-third to
one-half its weight. Because of the higher initial cost, aluminum is restricted mostly to building
maintenance scaffolds and suspended platforms.
General Design Considerations
It is a common practice to use a minimum factor of safety of four in the design of all
scaffoldings, meaning that scaffolds and their components can support four times the maximum
design load without experiencing failure. For this reason, the design load is multiplied by a
factor of 4, before and determining limiting strength and yield stress of the metal used in the
engineering design of scaffolds and their components.

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Design Loads
According to OSHA and ANSI criteria and many years of experience with these systems,
design load ratings for scaffold platforms are as follows:
Light-Duty Loading. 25 lb/ft2 maximum working load for support of people and
tools (no equipment or material storage on the platform).
Medium-Duty Loading. 50 lb/ft2 maximum working load for people and material
often described as applying to bricklayers and plasters work.
Heavy-Duty Loading. 75 lb/ft2 maximum working load for people and stored material
often described as applying to stone masonry work.

These ratings assume uniform load distribution. With the exception of the weight of stored
materials, scaffold loads most often consist of personnel, both stationary and transitory. It is
important to remember that the OSHA and ANSI load-rating system is intended for guidance
of field personnel in the construction and use of non-specifically engineered scaffolding

Tube and Coupler Scaffolds

Tube and coupler scaffolds are assembled from three basic structural elements:
The uprights, or posts, which rise from ground or other solid support.
The bearer, which supports the work platforms and / or provide transverse horizontal
connections between the posts;
The runners, which attach to the posts directly below the bearers and provide
longitudinal connections along the length of the scaffold.
These three elements are usually connected with standard or fixed couplers which provide a
90 connection in two places and are shown in Figures 5a and 5b. Figure 8c shows the tube and
coupler scaffold used on a job site.

Figure 5a - The basic assembly of tube and coupler scaffolds

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Figure 5b - The basic components of tube and coupler scaffolds

Figure 5c - Tube and coupler scaffolds used in the construction

Diagonal bracing is used to stiffen the structure as necessary, most important in the longitudinal
direction. Bracing is generally connected to the posts with adjustable or swivel couplers
which have the facility of adjusting a full 360. Diagonal bracing should always be attached to
the posts as closely as practical to the node points formed by the runner-bearer connections.
Another important structural element is the building tie which connects the scaffold to the wall
or structure and is needed to provide rigidity and anchorage of the scaffold in the transverse
direction. Scaffolds need to be laterally supported; otherwise, they are unstable because of their
height-to-width ratio and have low strength to resist wind and other lateral forces.

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Methods of stabilizing against a building

a) Wall tie and anchorage
b) Window reveal tube
c) Reveal between pilasters

Tube and Coupler Scaffolds: APPLICATION

Tube and coupler scaffolds can be assembled in many different ways because of the flexibility
of their assembly dimensions in the horizontal and vertical planes. Tube and coupler scaffolds
are more adaptable since they are not restricted by frame width in the transverse direction or by
brace length in the longitudinal direction or by frame height in the vertical direction (unlike
sectional frame scaffolds which is going to be discussed later in this lesson).
Therefore, for cases of irregular dimensions and contours, such as churches or old auditoriums,
tube and coupler scaffolds become the preferred option since it makes access to the work place
Tube and Coupler Scaffolds: BASIC CONFIGURATIONS
The basic configurations are as follows:
1) Double Pole. Double Pole or Independent Pole Scaffold is a scaffold supported from
the base by a double row of uprights, independent of support from the walls and
constructed of uprights, ledgers, horizontal platform bearers, and diagonal bracing.
2) Single Pole. Single Pole Scaffold is a platform resting on putlogs (putlog is a scaffold
member upon which the platform rests) or crossbeams, the outside ends of which are
supported on ledgers secured to a single row of posts or uprights and the inner ends of
which are supported on or in a wall.
3) Tower Scaffolds. These consist of one or few bays in either horizontal plane,
constructed to required height for access to ceilings or for specialized load support
requirements not conveniently achievable with sectional frames. They may be mounted
on casters and become mobile scaffolds or rolling towers. An application of tower
scaffolds is to provide stair access to unusual structures such as cooling towers.

Sectional Scaffolding
Sectional scaffolding is available in many frame configurations. Most frames are available in
the widths of 2, 3, and 5 feet. Some special purpose frames are available in 4 and 6 feet widths
(6-ft frames are used in sidewalk canopies). Standard frame heights are 3, 4, 5, 6, and 6.5 feet
high for sidewalk canopies. The frames are also available in heights of 7.5, 8, and 10 feet.

The most common material used in the fabrication of steel frames is 1 5/8-in. OD tubing with
a wall thickness between 0.086 and 0.105 in. The most common grade of steel used for this
purpose is AISI designation A1050, a high-carbon alloy having a minimum yield stress of
50,000 psi with a corresponding ultimate stress of over 75,000 psi. The higher carbon steel is
generally preferred because its lower ductility and greater rigidity make it more resistant to
damaging and bending of the members and because it has greater strength.
Underpinning is the installation of temporary or permanent support to an existing foundation to
provide either additional depth or an increase in bearing capacity. There are several existing

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conditions which may lead to the need for underpinning. They are:
Construction of a new project with a deeper foundation adjacent to an existing building
Settlement of an existing structure
Change in use of a structure
Addition of a basement below an existing structure
Settlement of existing structures in many cases is caused by lowering of the water table due to
tidal fluctuations, wells for a water district, etc. This lowering of the water table can cause the
tops of timber piles to decay over time and will require remedial underpinning. With certain
soil profiles, rising of the water table can effect a decrease in bearing capacity of the soil causing
settlement and require underpinning. Construction of structures on unsuitable bearing material
or over compressible layer (peat, organic silts, or poorly compacted backfill) may cause

Determining the need for underpinning

Underpinning is the direct support of an existing building foundation. It provides the
opportunity to preload (i.e., jacking) to limit settlement and improve poor foundations. When a
structure starts showing signs of settlement or distress, it is of utmost importance to precisely
monitor the settlement or movement by a professional on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis,
depending on the severity of the movements. Plotting these readings will indicate if the
movements are decreasing or increasing, and by analyzing the results, a decision can be made
whether or not underpinning (or other measures) are required to safeguard the structure.

Prior to the start of excavation for a new structure, it is advisable to have a professional examine
all structures in close proximity to the construction site, to determine whether or not
underpinning is necessary.

Underpinning Methods
Temporary support with Maintenance Jacking
Light structures (for example, wood-frame garages) that fall within the influence line of the
adjacent excavation and which do not warrant the expense of an underpinning installation may
me supported on timber or concrete mats.
If settlement occurs, the structure will be kept at the same level by means of mechanical or
hydraulic jacks. At completion of the work in the adjacent lot, the jacks are replaced with short
steel columns, and the void is filled with concrete.
Step 1: Shore existing construction, excavate approach pit, and expose existing timber piles.
Remove top portion of the piles and cut piles at new cut-off elevation.
Step 2: Install steel plates, drypack, and wedging strut. Transfer load into pile by means of steel
Step 3: Placement of concrete encasement, backfill approach pit.

Underpinning Methods - Bracket Pile Underpinning

When both the existing and future structures belong to the same owner, the use of bracket piles
is very economical (most municipal building codes do not allow a building to be supported on
the foundation that is located on someone elses property). The steel bracket piles are driven or
placed adjacent to the future structure in pre-augured holes which are then backfilled with a

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lean sand-cement mix. The load is transferred from the structure into the pile through a steel
bracket welded to the side of the pile. A combination of steel plates, wedges, and drypack is
installed to ensure a tight fit between the structure and the bracket.
This type of underpinning can be utilized for structures up to two stories high, depending on
the weight of the building and the quality of the bearing material at subgrade or the new
structure. The spacing of the piles depends on the load distribution in the existing structure. The
maximum spacing should not exceed 8 feet.

Ground Water Dewatering

Many civil engineering or smaller projects involve excavations below groundwater level.
Dewatering is a term to describe the removal of groundwater from within a soil material and
is carried out to ensure excavations are undertaken in dry and stable conditions. The risk of not
controlling groundwater can have catastrophic effects by groundwater ingress and instability,
or excessive groundwater pore pressures resulting in heave or quick conditions.

Construction Dewatering is a common term used to describe the temporary lowering of

groundwater level within an aquifer or depressurising a sub-artesian or artesian head.

Permanent Dewatering covers the installation of continuing groundwater control system.

Ground conditions and objectives dictate dewatering requirements and appropriate method can
be determined by pumping testings. The dewatering mechanism can encompass gravity
drainage such as deepwells using submersible borehole pumps or applying a vacuum to a soil
material using ejectors or vacuum wellpoint systems.

A deep well typically consists of a borehole fitted with a slotted liner and an electric submersible
pump. As water is pumped from a deep well, a hydraulic gradient is formed and water flows
into the well forming a cone of depression around the well in which there is little or no water
remaining in the pore spaces of the surrounding soil.

Deep wells work best in soils with specific permeability profiles with the amount of drawdown
that a well can achieve is limited only by the size of the pump. Deep Wells are typically drilled
using cable percussive or rotary drilling methods, terminating typically in a 300mm or 250mm

Wellpointing or vacuum wellpoints are a very versatile and economic method of groundwater
control and have an advantage of being installed relatively quickly and at close centres are very
effective in fine grained or stratified soils. Well points consist of small diameter tubes with a
filter intake at the bottom, they are typically installed around the perimeter of an excavation or
parallel to a pipeline by jetting or auguring techniques. Vacuum and flow is generated by a
dewatering pump, which in turn limits drawdown to ~5-6m depth. For greater depths a second
stage wellpointing system can be installed at a lower level. Project Dewatering can offer
stainless steel self-jetting wellpoints as well as conventional disposable wellpoints.

Ejectors or Eductors are very effect in soils of low to medium permeability where the pumping
water level is too deep for wellpoints but yields too small to allow the use of a electric
submersible borehole pump. Ejectors are commonly used up to depths of 50m, can run at times

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of zero water entry into the well and if sealed can generate a vacuum in the well to increase

Basement Dewatering
Basement dewatering and waterproofing refers to techniques used to remove and prevent water
from entering the basement of a house or other commercial building. Effective below ground
waterproofing will include both drainage and sealers.
Waterproofing is needed anytime a structure is built at ground level or below ground.
Waterproofing and drainage considerations are especially needed in cases where ground water
is likely to build up in the soil and raise the water table. This higher water table causes
hydrostatic pressure to be exerted underneath basement floors and against basement walls.
Hydrostatic pressure forces water in through cracks in foundation walls, through openings
caused by expansion and contraction of the footing-foundation wall joint and up through floor
cracks. Hydrostatic pressure can cause major structural damage to foundation walls and is likely
to contribute to mould, decay and other moisture-related problems.

The three measures developed to prevent this problem differ greatly in ideology and design.
The first is interior wall and floor sealing, with the other two methods being interior water
drainage and exterior drainage combined with waterproofing coatings.
Interior Sealants
Interior sealers will not provide permanent protection from water infiltration where hydrostatic
pressure is present. Interior sealers are good for preventing high atmospheric humidity inside
the basement, from absorbing into the porous masonry and to prevent spalling. Spalling is a
condition where constant high humidity or moisture break down masonry surfaces causing
deterioration and shedding of the concrete surfaces.
Interior water drainage
Although interior water drainage is not technically waterproofing, it is a widely accepted
technique in mitigating basement water and is generally referred to as a basement dewatering
solution. They function by draining underground water from alongside the foundation footers
and underneath the basement floor. They then channel it with a French drain, PVC pipe, or
through a patented product to a sump pump system, which will then pump the water from the
basement. Foundation sump pumps are best installed by a professional dewatering contractor
to ensure maximum effectiveness and project reliability.
In a simplified model, the following would occur:
1) Water enters the home via the basement wall/floor joint, through cracks in the
foundation walls and/or holes created by faulty or decaying masonry/brick.
2) A perimeter trench drain such as a French drain collects the water before it enters into
the basement.
3) Wall vapour barriers/retarders and drip mouldings are used and incorporated into the
subslab perimeter drain to collect water coming from wall cracks and other foundation
wall defects, such as pipe protrusions.
4) The drain directs the water to a sump pump.
5) The sump pump directs the water out of the house.

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Interior basement waterproofing systems should be prepared to work in the case of a power
outage, the failure of a sump pump, and in the face of overwhelming torrential rain. A proper
sump pump, backup sump and/or battery backup sump pump should be installed in a large sump
pit with an airtight lid for safety and to keep humidity from seeping through to the basement
environment, where it can promote mold growth. This airtight practice will also reduce the
possibility of dangerous radon gases for entering the living space. Despite widespread sump
pump failures, top-of-the-line sump pump systems are more reliable than ever.
Exterior Waterproofing
Exterior waterproofing prevents water from entering foundation walls therefore preventing the
wicking and moulding of building materials. Waterproofing a structure from the exterior is the
only method the IBC (International Building Code) recognises as adequate to prevent structural
damage caused by water intrusion. Prior to the 1980's much of the original exterior
waterproofing was actually damp-proofing using a degradable asphalt-based covering. Today,
however, Polymer products will completely waterproof an exterior foundation wall. This
material has a half-life in the thousands of years which makes it ideal for a long term exterior
waterproofing solution. Asphalt and tar based compounds are affected by soil pH. and break
down after 10-20 years, thus making that type of waterproofing ineffective over time.
Polymer-based compounds
Over the past ten years, polymer-based waterproofing products have been developed. Polymer
based products last for the lifetime of the building, and are not affected by soil pH. Polymer
based waterproofing also has the advantage of a low enough viscosity that it can be sprayed
directly onto a wall.

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