394 views

Uploaded by shashank.ae8151

Symposium on Applied Aerodynamics and Design of Aerospace Vehicle (SAROD 2009) December 10-12, 2009, Bangalore, India
Conceptual Design and Analysis of Airframe for Fixed Wing MAV
Shashank Mishra* G. Ramesh+, Sajeer Ahmed+ (shashank.ae@gmail.com), (ramnal@yahoo.com, ahmed@nal.res.in) National Aerospace Laboratories (CSIR), Bangalore, India
ABSTRACT
This paper presents the design and development of an airframe for a fixed wing Micro Air Vehicle that has a maximum linear dimension restricted to

- 6 IJAEST Volume No 3 Issue No 2 Effect of Maximum Thickness Location of an Aerofoil on Aerodynamic Characteristics 122 133
- AERO-STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE AND ITS MISSION ADAPTIVE WING
- Design of a Solar-Powered Low Altitude Unmanned Aerial
- IRJET-Structural and Modal Analysis of Subsonic Aircraft Wing using Ansys Workbench
- The Calculation of Aerodynamic Loading on Surfaces of Any Shape
- EASA mod 11 questions
- AIAA
- 2D numerical modelling of the unsteady flow in the achard turbines mounted in hydropower farms
- Avian Wings
- Vortex Panel Method NACA
- Summary of Reports, Gust Alleviation Factors
- 50718770
- CEASIOM-tier1tier1plusModules
- CFX Intro 12.0 WS2 Airfoil
- Hydrodynamics Lab Report_Ayush Sharma and Mahila Faruz
- A hybrid metaheuristic-based approach for the aerodynamic optimization of small hybrid WT rotors.pdf
- t10084 Davis Gurney
- Aerodynamic considerations of blended wing body aircraft (transonico M=0.85)
- EGA324-C1-Surname-StudentID-000000(17-18)
- Heavy-Duty-Gas-Turbine-Upgrade-for-Aerodynamic-Performance-Improvement_New.pdf

You are on page 1of 8

Shashank Mishra* G. Ramesh+, Sajeer Ahmed+

(shashank.ae@gmail.com), (ramnal@yahoo.com, ahmed@nal.res.in)

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the design and development of an airframe for a fixed wing Micro Air Vehicle that has a maximum

linear dimension restricted to 300 mm. The preliminary estimate of the weight is based on the commercially available

components including the autopilot and payload. Based on the wing loading and power loading data, a flying wing

configuration has been chosen as the most optimum solution for the airframe. Numerical codes X-Foil and XFLR5

available as a freeware were used to analyze and optimize the airfoil and planform in terms of static stability and

aerodynamic efficiency. The Eppler 61 was chosen as seed airfoil for optimization as it provided the highest aerodynamic

efficiency in low Reynolds number flow regime. However, the higher pitching moment values and its oscillatory nature

necessitated the modification of the airfoil geometry to obtain a better longitudinal stability. The new airfoil thus

designed (SM-4308) using the seed airfoil is found to provide a better stability at a marginal loss of aerodynamic

efficiency. The planform optimization carried out using the numerical codes and the cropped delta planform with the

above airfoil showed to provide the optimum aerodynamic coefficients. Eigen mode analysis carried out for lateral and

directional stability using Athena Vortice Lattice method (AVL) showed the stability in Dutch roll and Spiral mode. The

prototype MAV with the designed wing flown in fully autonomous mode is found to perform well against high wind gusts

(up to 13m/s) and has a typical endurance of 20 minutes. The Designed MAV is named as Golden Hawk.

Key words: MAV, Low Reynolds Number, VLM and 3-D Panels, Longitudinal stability, Lateral-Directional stability.

INTRODUCTION

NOMENCLATURE Interest in Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) systems

Cd = Sectional drag coefficient (2D-Airfoil) arises from both military application and scientific

Cl = Sectional lift coefficient (2D- Airfoil) intrigue [1]. As relatively an emerging field it provides

CD = Drag coefficient (3D-Wing) great opportunities and challenges in many disciplines

CL = Lift coefficient (3D- wing) of aeronautical engineering. The small size and weight

Cdmin = Minimum drag Coefficient and the relatively high atmospheric gusts under which

CLmax = Maximum lift coefficient the vehicle need to fly in fully autonomous mode make

CLmin = Minimum lift Coefficient the development of MAVs a technological challenge.

The development of MAV is a highly multi

Cm = Pitching moment coefficient disciplinary and a highly technology driven activity. In

Cmo = Zero Angle Pitching moment coefficient the area of airframe design the aerodynamics plays an

CmC = pitching moment about the quarter-chord important role. Due to the limited size and low flying

4 velocity, it operates at significantly lower Reynolds

CLα = Lift-Curve slope number ranging between 50,000 – 200,000 based on

L/D = Lift-to-Drag Ratio the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) and cruise

CG = Center of Gravity velocity. Wings of such low aspect ratios exhibit

unique aerodynamic properties such as high stall-

t/c = Thickness to Chord Ratio

angles of attack and nonlinear lift versus angle of

α = Angle Of Attack attack curves. Due to low Reynolds number, complex

*

flow phenomena such as laminar separation bubbles,

Project Engineer. laminar to turbulent transition and bubble bursting may

+

Scientist, Experimental Aerodynamics arise. The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing and

Division other components in turn affect the static, dynamic and

© Shashank Mishra, G. Ramesh, Sajeer Ahmed aero elastic stability of the entire vehicle. The highly

SAROD 2009 three-dimensional low Reynolds number flows and

Published in 2009 by Macmillan India Ltd. lack of experimental database to understand the flow

around the wing body requires fundamental research of

the phenomena.

1

2 Shashank Mishra, G. Ramesh, Sajeer Ahmed

aero prediction codes such as XFOIL [2] and AVL [3]

for the design and development of airfoil, wing, and

airframes for the low Reynolds number flow regimes

as the codes are being constantly improved. The

behavior of the flow around the wing body can be

predicted using aero-prediction code based on 3-D

Panel method called XFLR5 [2]. It is an open source

code modified by many developers and is an excellent

tool for the preliminary aerodynamic analysis of the

airframe with the selected airfoil. It uses two different

methods namely: Vortex Lattice method and 3D Panel

method which gives reasonably good results in the

Low Reynolds number regime.AVL [3] is also an open

source vortex lattice code to analyze the Longitudinal

and Lateral-directional stability characteristics of the Figure 1 Schematic Outline of Design Methodology

airframe in the preliminary design stages. The above

free wares have been used in the design and analysis of Aerodynamic Force models

the airframe to meet the mission performance of a

Fixed Wing Micro Air Vehicle. The wing, vertical tails, control surfaces and the

The aim of the present work is to develop propeller are the main subsystems that are subjected to

MAVs of 300 mm span with about 30 minutes the aerodynamic forces in any symmetrical or

endurance and to operate in a fully autonomous mode. asymmetrical flight condition. The efficiency of the

This work addresses the development of model is defined by the aerodynamic forces acting on

aerodynamically efficient and stable airframe that meet the wing which will be mainly affected by the propeller

the mission requirement. The prototype is populated slipstream in any flight condition. The effect of

with the commercially available off the shelf propeller slipstream is an ongoing research topic as it

components (COTS) including the autopilot and flown has a significant influence on the wing drag and lift,

in Radio Control (R/C) and autonomous mode. Future which is out of scope of this paper. The aerodynamic

work involves wind tunnel validation of aero force model consists of efficient airfoil and planform

predictions and detailed structural analysis to get the with weight estimation of the commercially off the

natural frequency, strength and weight optimization. shelf components used in the models to find the

The fabrication of the final flight model will be with aerodynamic forces acting on the wing. Numerical

high strength, light weight material. methods, such as 3-D panel method and vortex lattice

methods are used to investigate the various

AIRFRAME DESIGN aerodynamic forces acting on the wing.

The schematic outline of the methodology of Selection of airfoil for the MAV is the crucial

the design process for the fixed wing micro air vehicle task as the flying wing design has to provide inherent

is shown in Figure 1. stability as there is no conventional tail that balances

the moment. The factors for the selection of airfoil

The methodology has three levels; basic level include high aerodynamic efficiency, increased Clmax,

consists of aerodynamic force models and profile low Cdmin, higher stall angle, negative and near zero

selection, the second level consists of design constant pitching moment etc [4 and 5]. The airfoil

optimization and third level consists of flight testing of should have minimum thickness and moderate camber.

the prototype. The tests can be used as a feedback Various low Reynolds number airfoils such as Eppler

module for the design optimization. 61, MH45, NACA 4415, S4083, Eppler184 and the

Aerodynamic Force Models

Weight Airfoil Planform Control Surface S5020 airfoil were analyzed and aerodynamic

Estimation Selection Selection Sizing characteristics has been obtained through the XFLR5.

Analysis was carried out under the viscid mode at

Reynolds number of 160000 corresponds to cruise

velocity of 11m/s for an AOA ranging from -5o to 3o

and aerodynamic characteristics are plotted in Figure 2.

Design Optimization

Stability Analysis Wind Tunnel Testing Structural /CFD

Test Environments

Endurance Testing Prototype / Autonomous Flight Testing

Symposium on Applied Aerodynamics and Design of Aerospace Vehicle (SAROD 2009)

December 10-12, 2009, Bangalore, India

1.6

As seen from the above plots though the Eppler 61

airfoil provides a high L/D the undesirable oscillation

1.2 in the pitching moment and higher negative value

necessitates the modification and tweaking of this

0.8 airfoil to achieve better performance. Eppler 61 is

Eppler 184

Eppler 61 modified (leading edge radius, the camber, thickness

0.4 NACA 4415

Selig 4083

Selig 5020

ratio and its position) using inverse design method in

0

MH 45 XFLR5 to obtain the new airfoil named SM-4308 is

-4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32

Angle of Attack

shown in Figure 3. The airfoil has nearly 0.04c

-0.4 (0.0369c) camber at 0.28c (0.30c) with maximum

thickness of 0.0784c (0.08c), so we name the airfoil as

(a) Coefficient of Lift Vs angle of Attack SM-4308.

0.05

Angle of Attack

-8 -4 00 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32

Figure 3 Modified Airfoil for better stability

Cm

-0.1

Eppler 184

Eppler 61

-0.2 NACA 4415

Selig 4083 that improved CmC . The new modified airfoil SM-

Selig 5020 4

-0.25 MH 45

4308 has been found to significantly improve the stall

(b) Pitching Moment Coefficient Vs Angle of angle and longitudinal stability compared to the seed

Attack airfoil as shown in Figure 4. The aerodynamic

characteristics of the analyzed airfoils can be seen in

1.5

Table 1.

1.6

1

Cl

1.4

Eppler 184 1.2

0.5 Eppler 61

NACA 4415 1

Selig 4083

Selig 5020 0.8

MH 45

0 0.6

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Cd 0.4 Eppler 61

SM-4308

0.2

-0.5

0

-4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32

(c) Drag Polar Curve -0.2 Angle of Attack

-0.4

Eppler 184

80 Eppler 61

NACA 4415 (a) Coefficient of Lift Vs angle of Attack

Selig 4083

Cl/Cd

60 Selig 5020

MH 45

40 Angle of Attack

0 10 20 30

0

20

-0.05

-4 00 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32

Angle of Attack -0.1

Cm

-20

Eppler 61

-0.15 SM-4308

(d) Lift-to-Drag Ratio Vs Angle of Attack

-0.2

Figure 2 Aerodynamic Data of Different

Low Reynolds Number Airfoils

(b) Pitching Moment Coefficient Vs Angle of

Attack

Table1

4 Shashank Mishra, G. Ramesh, Sajeer Ahmed

Airfoil Camber (%) t/c (%) Cd0 Cm,c/4 (Cl/Cd )max Clmax

Eppler 61 6.69 5.67 0.02381 -0.1897 87 1.5

S4083 3.45 8.00 0.00912 -0.0896 67.22 1.221

Eppler 184 1.20 8.32 0.01102 -0.0093 36.79 0.849

S5020 2.62 8.40 0.0114 -0.007 59.67 1.19

NACA 4415 4.01 14.99 0.0134 -0.107 63.69 1.401

MH45 1.71 9.84 0.0.1102 -0.0093 53.48 1.114

SM-4308 3.69 7.84 0.02432 -0.0078 56.67 1.26

80

Table2

60

Geometric Properties of Designed MAV wing

Cl/Cd

Eppler 61

SM- 4308

40

Span 300mm

20 Area 0.06m2

Aspect Ratio(AR) 1.5

00

-4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 Mean Aerodynamic 201.67mm

Angle of Attack

chord (MAC)

Root Chord 240mm

Tip Chord 140mm

(c) Lift to Drag Ratio Vs Angle of Attack Sweep Angle 20o

C.G Location 45mm from LE*

Figure 4 Comparison of SM4308 airfoil Aerodynamic Centre 60mm from LE

with Eppler 61 Airfoil Winglet/Fin area 0.01m2

Height of winglets 60mm

Planform Selection is added to counter the moment caused by propulsion

system. NACA0006 airfoil is used in fin/tail because of

The main design consideration for the MAV symmetry and thickness of the airfoil. The geometric

is the weight and dimension i.e. the chord and span of properties are tabulated in Table 2

the wing. The calculations were performed for different

aspect ratio, velocity, lifts coefficient, etc., and

optimized result was chosen as the design requirement

specification of the MAV. Increasing the aspect ratio

could lead to a very low wing area permitting the MAV

to carry only less weight, so the aspect ratio was varied

between 1 and 1.5. The various planform like

Zimmerman, Inverse Zimmerman, Modified 3-Circle, *LE = Leading Edge of the Wing

Delta Planforms were analyzed to choose optimally

best planform for the Golden Hawk (GH). The cropped 1.2 Modeling and Meshing of wing in XFLR5

delta planform was selected due to high aerodynamic

efficiency and moderate stall [6]. Single vertical fin/tail

Symposium on Applied Aerodynamics and Design of Aerospace Vehicle (SAROD 2009)

December 10-12, 2009, Bangalore, India

with the help of 3-D panel method. In 3-D panel

method wing is defined by a set of panels and each

panels is defined by its length, root and tip chord,

leading edge offset at root and tip, mesh for VLM/3-D

Panels analysis. The 1000 numbers of VLM Panels and

2000 numbers of 3D Panels can be modeled in XFLR5.

The spanwise length of a Panel should be at least equal

to the minimum length of the VLM elements on other

panels which can be seen in the Figure 5 Figure 6 Mesh disposition on the MAV

characteristics of the Golden Hawk has been obtained

through the XFLR5. The computation is done with the

help of 3-D panel method. The 3-D panel method is

more accurate for low Reynolds number and it takes

into an account of wing thickness for analysis. 3D

Control points in 3-D Panels Panel Method is to model the perturbation generated by

the wing by a sum of vortex distributed over the wing's

Horseshoe Vortex

top and bottom surfaces. The strength of the vortex is

Figure 5 VLM AND 3-D Panels Arrangement calculated to meet the appropriate boundary conditions

which can be Neumann or Dirichlet type. In Neumann

for Wing type of boundary condition, velocity's component

The Golden Hawk MAV is modeled in normal to the surface must be zero. In the Dirichlet

XFLR5 with the help of 3-D panel method which case the velocity's potential on the panel's inside

include VLM mesh also. The airframe has been surface is zero, so that the total potential inside the

modeled by giving the hypothetical sections in X and body is equal to the free stream velocity's potential.

Y direction respectively. The spacing between the The 3-D Panel analysis carried out at 11m/s as

hypothetical sections is filled by 3-D panels and VLM a typical cruise condition of the vehicle for an angle of

panels as shown in Figure 6. The spacing between the attack ranging from -5 to 50 degrees. The static

panels can be defined either linearly or using a longitudinal stability is much important to freeze the

sinusoidal function. The cosine function is generally airfoils and planform. The curve shows the cropped

used to resolve the flow accurately at all the desirable delta planform with seed airfoil E61 having the highest

points by increasing the density of mesh at the root, tip, negative pitching moment and constant about the C.G

leading and trailing edge. As panel distribution is but this is not much desirable to control the MAV. The

consistent with the wing geometry so the density of the pitching moment for the planform with SM-4308

mesh can be increased at the geometrical breakdown shows the desirable result which gives the controllable

points and at the root and tip of the wings. The wing is flight of Golden Hawk. Golden Hawk shows the high

"meshed" into a number of panels distributed over the lift-to-drag ratio close to 10 at an optimal angle of

span and the chord of the planform, and a vortex is attack of 8o can be seen in Figure 7. The aerodynamic

associated to each panel. The MAV wing is meshed characteristics of the golden hawk are tabulated in

with VLM panels as well as 3-D panels with the help Table 4.

of XFLR5. The mesh disposition on the designed

MAV can be seen in Figure 6. The details of the VLM 1.2

Coefficient oflift (CL)

Table 3

0.8

Distribution of VLM Panels and 3-D panels over

the MAV Wing

0.4

GH_SM-4308 Airfoil

Wing 976 1968 -10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50

Vertical fin/tail 66 y 144

Hypothetical

Angle of Atttack

x Section 1

panels are distributed

in cosine function to

resolve the flow

accurately in X and Y

direction.

Hypothetical

Section2

6 Shashank Mishra, G. Ramesh, Sajeer Ahmed

rate of climb calculated

0.05

Angle of attack using empirical

-4

0

0 4 8 12 16 20 24 formulae based on the take-off velocity, thrust

available, power required at the take off and all-up

-0.05

weight of the vehicle.

-0.1

Cm

GH_ SM-4308 Airfoil

-0.2

Flow field and pressure distribution over the

-0.25 MAV wing is numerically visualized using XFLR5

(b) that uses 3-D panel method. The range of the angle of

Pitching Moment Coefficient Vs Angle of attack was varied from -5 to 30 degree. The surface

Attack pressure distribution, streamlines and tip vortices are

obtained. It was found that the results are in general

10 GH_Eppler 61 agreement with our earlier observations. The

GH_ SM-4308 Airfoil

8 streamlines and surface pressure distribution showed

attached flow for a large range of angle of attack and

CL/CD

6

the tip vortices influence is also low for the angle of

4 attacks up to 10 degree. The streamline distribution

2

over the wing creates the weak trailing edge vortices

which create less drag over the operating range of

00 10 20 30 40 50 angle of attack which is shown in the Figure 8.

Angle of attack

-2

1.5

Coefficient Of Lift (CL)

0.5

GH_SM-4308 Airfoil

GH_Eppler 61 Airfoil

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Coefficient of Drag (CD)

-0.5

(a) Pressure Distribution at α = 50

(d) Drag polar Curve

performance of cropped delta planform

Table 4

Aerodynamic Characteristics of Designed MAV

Wing

CLmax 1.34

CDmin 0.133

Cmo -0.007

(b) Vorticity distribution at α = 50

Stall angle 30o

(CL/CD)max 9.075

CLα 0.006 / deg

3/2

(CL /CD)max 7.40

Cruise Angle 8o

Rate of climb 2.5 m/s

Angle of climb 15o

Symposium on Applied Aerodynamics and Design of Aerospace Vehicle (SAROD 2009)

December 10-12, 2009, Bangalore, India

A prototype of the Golden Hawk (Figure 10)

was made using the light weight foam and the control

surfaces are made of balsa wood. The structural weight

of the airframe is about 65 grams. A 25 watt brushless

DC motor along with APC 7 x 5, 2 bladed propellers

was used in tractor mode. A Li-Po battery (1350mAh,

(c) Streamline distribution at α = 50

11.1 V, 3 cells) is placed ahead of the wing to have a

good static margin. Two servos fixed on the top surface

Figure 8 Flow Visualization with the help

were used for the deflecting the elevons. The all up

of XFLR5

weight of the MAV is found to be 245 grams. The

MAV was flown in R/C mode and is found to be

2.5. Dynamic Stability Analysis using AVL controllable and stable. The subsequent flight in

Dynamic stability analysis is performed autonomous mode using commercial autopilot

to analyze the controllability and maneuverability of exhibited the stability and endurance of the MAV. The

the micro air vehicle. The longitudinal and lateral initial tests provided endurance of just over 20 minutes

modes are analyzed with the help of Athena Vortice and in a gust wind as high as 13m/s.

Lattice (AVL) method [3]. The longitudinal modes are

studied using the general equation of motion around

the cruise condition with the help of Athena Vortices

Lattice method. The dynamic modes are computed for

30cm Golden Hawk MAV with mass of 245grams. The

Eigen mode analysis is done on different combinations

of wing with vertical tail and winglets. The golden

hawk with vertical tail shows an impressive result in

Lateral-Directional mode. The Eigen mode analysis

shows that the Dutch roll and spiral are stable

throughout the operating range. The Dutch roll mode

has a slow oscillation. The damping factors depend on Figure 10 Prototype used for R/C and Autonomous

the fins area. The short period mode and roll mode are flight

dampened very fast. They are comparatively less 4. Conclusions and Future work

sensitive to operating CL of 0.5 it can be seen in Table

5. Roll mode is too far in left plane which roll mode is An airframe with a flying wing configuration

highly stable for the Golden Hawk. The Phugoid mode was designed and developed for the micro air vehicle.

is slow damped mode. The damping factor is increased A new airfoil designed using inverse method from a

if the CD/CL ratio is increased but this ratio is imposed numerical code using the Eppler 61 as the seed airfoil.

by the endurance optimization, here is also an The modified airfoil is found to provide inherent

influence of the propulsion system. The detailed longitudinal stability thereby reducing the load on

analysis is given in reference [6]. The various modes of control surfaces. The modified airfoil with cropped

lateral-directional stability for the wing with single delta planform analyzed using AVL code is found to

vertical tail are tabulated in Table 5. give a good stability against Dutch roll and Spiral

mode. The numerical flow visualization carried out

Table 5 Stability Modes of Wing with Vertical Tail using XFLR5 exhibited that the influence of tip

vortices to be moderate in the operational range of the

Eigen Value Damping Frequency flight of MAV. A prototype of the MAV was made and

(rad/s) flown in both R/C and autonomous mode and is found

Short

-7.61±12.5i 0.521 14.6 to perform well both in terms of endurance and

period

stability under high cross winds. Further improvements

Phugoid -0.212±1.05i 0.197 1.07

Roll -24.4 1 24.4 are expected with the detailed wind tunnel validation

Spiral -0.351±13.1i 0.0267 13.1 studies and optimized component placement. It is

Dutch roll -0.0128 1 0.0128 proposed to include the effect of fuselage and propeller

in the future studies planned.

References

8 Shashank Mishra, G. Ramesh, Sajeer Ahmed

Black Widow Micro Air Vehicle”, AIAA paper

2001-127.

[2] XFLR5 –http://xflr5.sourceforge.net/xflr5.htm.

[3] AVL - http://web.mit.edu/drela/Public/web/avl/

[4] Abdulrahim, M., Cocquyt, J. B., “Development of

Vehicles”, 53rd Southeastern Regional Student

Conference 4–5April 2002, Alabama.

[5]Mueller T.J., “Fixed and Flapping Wing

Aerodynamics for Micro Air Vehicle,

Applications”, AIAA, Virginia, 2001.

[6]Shashank Mishra, G. Ramesh “Design and

Development of Airframe for Fixed Wing

Micro Air Vehicle- GOLDEN HAWK”, NAL PD

- 6 IJAEST Volume No 3 Issue No 2 Effect of Maximum Thickness Location of an Aerofoil on Aerodynamic Characteristics 122 133Uploaded byiserp
- AERO-STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE AND ITS MISSION ADAPTIVE WINGUploaded bylynnmaeu
- Design of a Solar-Powered Low Altitude Unmanned AerialUploaded byCarlos E. Sánchez
- IRJET-Structural and Modal Analysis of Subsonic Aircraft Wing using Ansys WorkbenchUploaded byIRJET Journal
- The Calculation of Aerodynamic Loading on Surfaces of Any ShapeUploaded bydevast_w
- EASA mod 11 questionsUploaded byariesguy_86
- AIAAUploaded bySuriyakumar Sundaram
- 2D numerical modelling of the unsteady flow in the achard turbines mounted in hydropower farmsUploaded byPrabal Negi
- Avian WingsUploaded byImran Sajid Shahid
- Vortex Panel Method NACAUploaded byVivaswan Sinha
- Summary of Reports, Gust Alleviation FactorsUploaded bycataice
- 50718770Uploaded byFabio Splendor
- CEASIOM-tier1tier1plusModulesUploaded byedmundac
- CFX Intro 12.0 WS2 AirfoilUploaded byashoku2
- Hydrodynamics Lab Report_Ayush Sharma and Mahila FaruzUploaded byAyush Sharma
- A hybrid metaheuristic-based approach for the aerodynamic optimization of small hybrid WT rotors.pdfUploaded byBrian Loza
- t10084 Davis GurneyUploaded byJonathan
- Aerodynamic considerations of blended wing body aircraft (transonico M=0.85)Uploaded bybadofwas
- EGA324-C1-Surname-StudentID-000000(17-18)Uploaded byijaz afzal
- Heavy-Duty-Gas-Turbine-Upgrade-for-Aerodynamic-Performance-Improvement_New.pdfUploaded byDiego Cajal
- RapportSTING_CLémentNguyen.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 1fguovn
- Abdul Azhim Abdul RahimUploaded byzack
- PV2010_4577Uploaded byyenyeskumar4405
- IPCSandia.pdfUploaded bycelestra
- FR3321Uploaded byDhanraj Rajaraman
- vladimir_horak_v2no4_full.pdfUploaded byAlice Bot
- Final SRPC Research PaperUploaded bysaad
- Us 5474257Uploaded by155
- 2012DBF_UniversityofColorado_H2BuffalOUploaded byAmine Guettat
- 06Uploaded byGiannis Giorgos

- Furnace and Rferactory CalculationsUploaded byfsijest
- KP-43T85T-53SV85T-61SV85T.pdfUploaded byJosé M. Do Prado
- Lecture 1.1Uploaded byNa Ru To
- pymooseUploaded bysubhacom
- Seismic Analysis of a Three Span Deck Girder Bridge, Zasiah TafheemUploaded bykmabd
- The Sprawl.pdfUploaded byWafflePoets
- Chronic Rhinosinusitis NewUploaded byDewanggaWahyuPraja
- Bima Green energiUploaded bymystmyst1
- Summary of Ted FailonUploaded byReynaldo V Tanglao Jr.
- Electronic Transmission Control-1Uploaded byaliosarus
- Glucose lab reportUploaded byKing Everest
- TBE Master-Y3_R-2154-101H_R0 (Storage Tank)_20091022Uploaded bymeshahan
- Vibration Analysis of Defected Ball Bearing UsingUploaded bysunil481
- Electricity Information 2018 OverviewUploaded byUsman Mari
- AppendicitisUploaded byFebriyana Saleh
- Petronas Swec External (Products) as of 20072016Uploaded bySyed Fadzil Syed Mohamed
- IKEA Brochure Bath EnUploaded bydivxns
- 201512913475958393Uploaded bymvamsip
- Engine Technology International – September 2014Uploaded byGuilherme Pfeilsticker
- Airport VocabularyUploaded byIoana Tralala
- The Last Days Of NightUploaded bywamu885
- An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group [Texto Complementar]Uploaded byMaria Nóbrega
- SR 025.pdfUploaded byjunhe898
- ITT PROJECT LAXMI.docUploaded byVinay Arora
- Phantom R.C.CUploaded byStrider Kage
- The Simmering.pdfUploaded byeng13
- Vascular DiseaseUploaded byNini Azniati
- ecpr is it worth it elso 2012Uploaded byapi-302708069
- Cardiac DrugsUploaded bynoelkiddo
- Herbs for the HeartUploaded byStefanie LevinaWolf