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Volume 9


Brazos Valley Museum of Natural History


University of Maine

Graphics Editor


Associate Editor


With a special contribution by


Editorial Advisory Board

Yale University

Brazos Valley Museum of Natural History
and Texas A&M University

University of Florida


University of Pittsburgh
Copyright 2009 by the Cornell University Latin American Studies Program

ISSN 1055-08756

ANDEAN PAST is a peer-reviewed, numbered publication series dedicated to research in the

archaeology and ethnohistory of Western South America. Current research reports, obituaries, and
autobiographies are subject to editorial review only. Although Andean Past focuses on precolumbian
times, it includes articles on the colonial period that enhance understanding of indigenous cultures
before 1492. ANDEAN PAST encourages data-based submissions, contributions to the history of
Andean archaeology, papers grounded in environmental archaeology, fresh interpretations supported
by accompanying data, interim and field reports, and the publication of short documents. We
emphasize high quality grayscale photographs and black-and-white line illustrations.

The Cornell Latin American Studies Program is the publishing institution for ANDEAN PAST.
Copyright for Andean Past resides with Cornell LASP on behalf of the editors unless a specific
portion, for example, an illustration, is noted as copyrighted by another party. Authors may re-
publish their Andean Past articles, obituaries, or reports, in English or in translation, in print, or in
electronic format, provided that at least one year has elapsed since the original publication in Andean
Past as defined by the date on the Editors Preface, that prior publication in Andean Past is indicated
in the republication, that Cornell LASPs copyright is acknowledged, and that the editors of Andean
Past are notified of the republication. If a portion of an article is copyrighted by a third party, authors
must request specific written permission from that party to republish. This includes on-line postings
in electronic format.

Orders should be addressed to: Latin American Studies Program, 190 Uris Hall, Cornell University,
Ithaca, New York 14853, U.S.A.; telephone (607) 255-3345, fax (607) 255-8989, email:

Inquiries and manuscripts submitted for future volumes should be sent to:

Monica Barnes
377 Rector Place, Apartment 3C
New York, New York 10280

Telephone (212) 945-0535, cell phone (917) 992-5880, e-mail:

Cover: Workmen restore the Hunuco Pampa ushnu platform as directed by John Victor Murra and
Gordon Hadden (1966). Photograph courtesy of the Anthropology Division, American Museum of Natural
Volume 9


Editors Preface by Monica Barnes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v-xii



John Victor Murra (August 24, 1916 - October 16, 2006): An Interpretative Biography
by Monica Barnes with a Bibliography of Works by and about John Victor Murra
compiled by David Block and Monica Barnes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-63

John Victor Murra: A Mentor to Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65-85

Introduction by Heather Lechtman and Freda Yancy Wolf de Romero . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Anthropology Is My Village by Heather Lechtman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66-68

Mentors as Intellectual Parents by Freda Yancy Wolf de Romero . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69-72

An Extraordinary Teacher Who Taught All the Time by Patricia Netherly . . . . . 72-73

Kicking Off a New Perspective in Ethnohistory by Ana Mara Lorandi . . . . . . . . 73-75

The Ability to Bestow Confidence and Stimulate New Ideas by Victoria Castro . 75-77

The Green Patchwork Paper by Rolena Adorno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77-79

Do Anthropology the Way Poets Write Poetry by Inge Maria Harman . . . . . . . . 80-82

Eight Thousand Solutions to the Same Problem by Silvia Palomeque . . . . . . . . . 82-85

Kinsmen Resurrected: John Victor Murra and the History of Anthropology

by Frank Solomon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-102


Costanza Di Capua Di Capua (December 17, 1912 - May 5, 2008)

by Karen Olsen Bruhns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103-107

Reconstruction of the Burial Offering at Punkur

in the Nepea Valley of Perus North-Central Coast by Vctor Falcn Huayta . . . . . . 109-129
An Analysis of the Isabelita Rock Engraving and Its Archaeological Context,
Callejn de Huaylas, Peru by Vctor Manuel Ponte Rosalino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131-175

Strange Harvest: A Discussion of Sacrifice and Missing Body Parts

on the North Coast of Peru by Catherine M. Gaither, Jonathan Bethard,
Jonathan Kent, Vctor Vsquez Snchez, Teresa Rosales Tham, and Richard Busch . . . 177-194

A Design Analysis of Moche Fineline Sherds from the Archaeological Site of Galindo,
Moche Valley, Peru by Gregory D. Lockard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195-228

More than Meets the Eye: A Study of Two Nasca Motifs by Ana Nieves . . . . . . . . . . 229-247

Early Cotton Network Knotted in Colored Patterns by Grace Katterman . . . . . . . . . . 249-275

Climate, Agricultural Strategies, and Sustainability in the Precolumbian Andes

by Charles R. Ortloff and Michael E. Moseley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277-304

Experiences with the Institute of Andean Research 1941-42 and 1946 by Gordon R. Willey.
With an Introduction by Richard E. Daggett . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305-316


Archaeological Investigations at Antumpa (Jujuy): Contributions to the Characterization of

the Early Ceramic Period in the Humahuaca Region by Juan B. Leoni . . . . . . . . . . . . 317-322

San Pedro de Atacama by Carolina Agero, Mauricio Uribe, and Carlos Carrasco . . . . 323-328

Tarapac Region by Mauricio Uribe, Leonor Adn, Carolina Agero,

Cora Moragas, and Flora Viches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329-335

New Archaeological and Rock Art Projects in Bolivia by Matthias Strecker,

Freddy Taboada, and Claudia Rivera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336-339

Exchange at Chavn de Huntar: Insights from Shell Data

by Matthew P. Sayre and Natali Luisa Lpez Aldave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340-345

La Forteleza at Ollantaytambo by J. Lee Hollowell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346-351

Addresses of Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353-354

Advice to Contributors to Andean Past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355-357


Shortly before his death in 2002 I persuaded funding for the archaeological expeditions of the
Gordon R. Willey to write his reminiscences of 1940s.
doing field-work in Peru under the auspices of
the Institute for Andean Research, an umbrella Gordon Willey was quite conscientious
organization founded in 1936. Over the years about fulfilling my request, sending me his
the IAR has served to co-ordinate Latin Ameri- manuscript a few weeks before his final hospital-
can field research among major universities and ization. Because he sensed that time was short,
museums. In its early days it provided a North he asked me to write or commission an intro-
American institutional base for Perus Julio C. duction. Richard E. Daggett, who has been
Tello who, in turn, helped to build an interface reconstructing the history of the Institute of
between North American archaeologists and Andean Research in connection with his de-
Peruvian entities. The IAR collected and ad- tailed biography of Julio C. Tello, graciously
ministered funds from both federal and private accepted the invitation to put Willeys recollec-
sources. It has published or co-published a tions in context. For additional biographical
number of important volumes including Tellos information on Willey, see his obituary by
Paracas (1959, 1979), John Hyslops Incawasi, Michael E. Moseley in Andean Past 8 and the
the New Cuzco . . . (1985), and Nispa Ninchis, an references therein.
interview of John Victor Murra (2000).
One of our Andean Past foci is environmen-
I saw Willeys essay as a companion to the tal archaeology. Here we present Climate,
institutional histories we published in Andean Agricultural Strategies and Sustainability in the
Past 6 (2001), Richard E. Daggetts The North- Precolumbian Andes by Charles R. Ortloff
east Conference on Andean Archaeology and and Michael E. Moseley. This is a broad inter-
Ethnohistory: The First Eighteen Years and pretation of the interaction of changing climate
David L. Browmans The Origins and the First and precolumbian water management technol-
25 Years (1973-1997) of the Midwestern Con- ogy in the development and decline of Andean
ference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeol- cultures and states. The authors synthesize the
ogy and Ethnohistory. When Gordon Willey innovations and adjustments that often permit-
responded to my request by telephone he star- ted Andean societies to maintain agricultural
tled me by saying, We were all spies, you productivity in the face of widely varying water
know. I had heard rumors in Peru in the 1970s supplies from decade to decade and century to
but never expected a confession! This was the century. They argue that the very presence of
first of a short series of letters and phone calls large-scale, complex, and labor-intensive sys-
which I really value. Colleagues have assured me tems is direct evidence for cultural memory of
that Willey was joking. Indeed, the suggestion both extreme weather events and long-term
that archaeologists may have provided any sort climatic shifts, as well as a range of possible
of information to the United States government strategies for coping with them. They propose a
at any time is hotly contested, whatever the role vulnerability index to quantify the relative
of Nelson Rockefeller in obtaining federal stability or fragility of various agricultural tech-
nologies. They explain why coastal societies are

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009): v-xii.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - vi

more vulnerable to prolonged drought than of the recovery of one of the very first pieces of
highland societies, suggesting a mechanism such art to have been discovered by archaeolo-
underlying the long-term shifts of power from gists. In 1933 Julio C. Tello excavated at Pun-
the coastal valleys to the highlands, and back to kur, a major early religious site in the Nepea
the coast. Some of their observations on An- Valley on Perus north coast. Among the spec-
dean water regimes were presented in a prelimi- tacular finds were a large painted mud relief of
nary form in The Miraflores El Nio Disaster: a supernatural feline and a burial offering that
Convergent Catastrophes and Prehistoric Agrar- yielded, in addition to the remains of a woman,
ian Change in Southern Peru by Dennis R. some very fine ritual objects including an en-
Satterlee, Michael E. Moseley, David K. Keefer, graved stone mortar and pestle, and a huaylla-
and Jorge E. Tapia A., Andean Past 6 (2001). In quepa or trumpet made from an engraved Strom-
Andean Past 9 there is a much fuller exposition. bus shell. As the political tide turned against
Tello, the Punkur finds were lost. No conserva-
This brings to mind one of the advantages of tion was done at the site for many years, with
a stable editorship. From volume to volume, we the result that the feline relief and other archi-
can develop themes as research emerges. Adso tectural features were not preserved. The pre-
of Melk remarks in Umberto Ecos novel, The cious small finds also disappeared, although
Name of the Rose, Until then I had thought hope remained that they would someday be
each book spoke of the things, human or divine, located.
that lie outside books. Now I realized that not
infrequently books speak of books: it is as if they Falcn and his colleagues have made consid-
spoke among themselves. Certainly, the issues erable progress on the re-assembly of the Pun-
of Andean Past talk with one another. Volume 9 kur artifacts. They discovered the huayllaquepa
contains two independent but interrelated in a museum storehouse. The physical presence
articles on Formative iconography, An Analysis of an object which could be examined for the
of the Isabelita Rock Engraving and Its Archae- first time in decades, along with study of the
ological Context, Callejn de Huaylas, Peru by Tello archives, led to a plausible reconstruction
Vctor M. Ponte R. and Reconstruction of the of the burial offering sequence. This is impor-
Burial Offering at Punkur in the Nepea Valley tant because many authors, including Ponte in
of Perus North-Central Coast by Vctor this volume, incorporate the Punkur artifacts in
Falcn Huayta. their analyses.

The Isabelita Rock is an important petro- Attentive long-time readers of Andean Past
glyph. Formative objects in general, and rock art will see that Falcns paper sets up a dialogue
in particular, are often presented without con- not only with Pontes, but with papers by Rich-
text. Fortunately, Ponte, who conducted ar- ard E. Daggett and by Henning Bischof in earlier
chaeological investigations from 1997 to 1999 volumes of our journal. In Andean Past 8 (2007),
near Perus La Pierina gold mine, is able to Daggett wrote of Tellos so-called Lost Years,
present this important work as it is embedded in the early 1930s when Tello, in spite of his fame
the archaeology of its region, and by so doing, and accomplishments, or perhaps because of
adds to the corpus of early Andean art. them, was removed as Director of the Museo de
Arqueologa Peruana. Although the early 1930s
While Vctor Ponte introduces a recently were as difficult for Tello as they were for much
discovered work of Formative art to the of the rest of the world, Tello did not give up.
archaeological community, Vctor Falcn writes He continued to be a very active field worker,
vii - Barnes: Editors Preface

and Punkur was only one of his many projects In a variety of prehispanic and colonial
during that time. Daggett revealed the political funerary contexts it is not unusual to find
conditions that beset Tello. human heads and other body parts interred with
a principal burial. Of course for every severed
Daggett began his serial biography of Julio C. foot or hand found in such a burial, there must
Tello with our very first volume. In Andean Past be, or have been, a body missing those compo-
1 (1987) Daggett wrote of Reconstructing the nents. In Strange Harvest: A Discussion of
Evidence for Cerro Blanco and Punkur. Sacrifice and Missing Body Parts on the North
Daggetts description of the shell trumpet is Coast of Peru Catherine Gaither, Jonathan
necessarily vague, given that it had never been Bethard, Jonathan Kent, Vctor Vsquez
properly published before its apparent disappear- Snchez, Teresa Rosales Tham, and Richard
ance; however, Daggett did describe the murals Busch discuss such a body, a male adolescent or
and sculpture in some detail. child found at the Santa Rita B site in Perus
Chao Valley. This individual is missing many
Likewise, in his important article, Toward parts, but what was left of him was articulated at
the Definition of Pre- and Early Chavn Art the time of burial. The authors suggest that he
Styles in Peru, published in Andean Past 4 was a sacrificial victim whose body parts were
(1994), Bischof could not incorporate the harvested at or around the time of death for use
iconography of the Punkur shell trumpet into elsewhere.
his analysis because of its unpublished and
missing status. Finally, more than twenty years Body parts, specifically eyes, are also con-
after Andean Past first discussed the Punkur sidered in Ana Nieves paper, More than
finds, we have a full description of the Strombus Meets the Eye: A Study of Signs in Nasca Art.
ritual instrument and its archaeological context. Nieves points out that when an intact vessel is
Breakthroughs like that make our years of viewed, a wrap-around depiction can be seen
editing very satisfying. only partially at any one moment and from any
one position. To see the whole figure the pot
The Andean coast is one of the very few must be rotated. From certain points of view
regions of the world where textile art can sur- motifs which are almost lost in the complexity of
vive for centuries, even millennia. Weaving, roll-out drawings became more obvious, and,
embroidery, and continuous looping techniques therefore, seemingly more important. One of
are all well developed there. In this volume these is the eye-navel. In her paper Nieves
Grace Katterman, some of whose work on explores this motifs connections to plant
important, unique, and contextualized pre- growth, fertility, and death.
columbian textiles has already appeared in our
series, presents some extraordinary fish-nets in Gregory D. Lockard also deals with the
Early Cotton Network Knotted in Colored problem of complex motifs seen only in frag-
Patterns . These were found in a cache near ments. In A Design Analysis of Moche Fineline
the dry mouth of the Ica River. They are so Sherds from the Archaeological Site of Galindo,
large that conservation had to be done in a Moche Valley, Peru Lockard tackles a problem
swimming pool! Katterman illustrates them, important to field archaeologists, but less appre-
explains how they were made and used, dis- ciated by museum scholars; most of the ceramics
cusses their iconography, and draws our atten- recovered from good archaeological contexts
tion to parallels in museum collections. come to us in the form of individual sherds. In
the case of Moche fineline ceramics we know
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - viii

that the designs carried by these sherds were doing archaeological field-work during part of
once components of larger scenes. How can one the Second World War and then performed
make a solid analysis on the basis of fragments? intelligence services for the United States Army
Lockard presents a model for doing so. stateside while the conflict continued. After
1963, he devoted himself almost exclusively to
This issue contains memorials to the lives Andean anthropological topics. He became one
and work of two Andeanists who died in the of the most famous, respected, and influential
fullness of years. The first is a special section scholars in his field.
devoted to John Victor Murra, professor emeri-
tus at Cornell University (the publisher of Here we concentrate on John Murra as a
Andean Past). The second is an obituary of Cos- teacher, writer, and public intellectual. For my
tanza Di Capua by Karen Olsen Bruhns. In short biography of Murra I conducted archival
many ways the experiences of Murra and Di research at Vassar College, where he taught
Capua ran in parallel. Both were born European from 1950 to 1951, and, with three year-long
Jews whose lives were seriously disrupted by the leaves of absence, from 1954 to 1963. I also
anti-Semitism and violence of the mid-twenti- studied Murras papers deposited in the Smith-
eth century. Both used immigration as a means sonian Anthropological Archives and did fur-
of coping with their problems. ther archival research at New York Universitys
Tamiment Library, and at the American Mu-
In 1938 dictator Benito Mussolini stripped seum of Natural History. In writing this biogra-
Italian Jews of their civil rights. Costanzas phy I drew not only on the extensive documen-
cousin, Alberto Di Capua had settled in Ecua- tation by and about John Murra, but upon
dor and, in 1940, she married him by proxy and discussions with his colleagues, as well as my
joined him in Quito. Although she had to adjust own impressions and knowledge of two of the
to an environment very different from her institutions which provided him a base. I believe
beloved Rome, Doa Costanza became an I am the only Andeanist still alive who knew
exemplary wife and mother, citizen of her new John Murra personally and also holds degrees
country, and a well respected scholar. She was from both Vassar and Cornell. Writing a short
not part of John Murras circle, but she fulfilled biography of John Murra was a fascinating
many of his ideals including independent, cre- project, not in the least because, from the late
ative scholarship and the founding of institu- 1930s until the early twenty-first century, he
tions so that work could continue. She had a was in touch with a large number of both fa-
role in the establishment of the Museo del mous and emerging anthropologists, from A. R.
Banco Central del Ecuador, of the Quito Phil- Radcliffe-Brown and Ruth Benedict, to my
harmonic Orchestra, and of Quitos first Jewish fellow editor Daniel H. Sandweiss, who inher-
house of worship. ited Murras bibliographical notes on Soviet
ethnography. As is usual with historical re-
John Murra came to the United States as a search, human memory and documentation are
youth, in part to avoid further incarceration in not always a perfect fit. In trying to resolve
Romania because of his Communist political contradictions, I gave precedence to documents,
activities. He volunteered to fight for the Loyal- especially official documents, produced at the
ists in the Spanish Civil War. Disqualified by his time events occurred.
war wounds from service in the U.S. military,
and perhaps through the personal intervention Although I knew John Murra personally, I
of Nelson Rockefeller, Murra was in Ecuador did not know him well. However, there are
ix - Barnes: Editors Preface

others who did. In particular, many women mons request, we subjected his article to strict
remember him as an excellent mentor. Heather peer review, as well as two levels of editorial
Lechtman, who was one of John Murras stu- review.
dents at Vassar College in the 1950s, and Freda
Yancy Wolf de Romero, who met Murra in In working on the John Murra section I
1963 at the American Ethnological Association realized just how many intellectual kinsmen and
meeting at Cornell University, invited some of ancestors we anthropologists have. A little field
their friends and colleagues to share testimony testing with Andeanist scholars at various stages
about Murras role in their lives. In addition to of their careers revealed that no one could
contributions by Lechtman and by Wolf, we identify more than a fraction of the individuals
have short essays by Patricia Netherly, by Ana mentioned in the John Murra section and in
Mara Lorandi, by Victoria Castro, by Rolena Daggetts introduction to Willeys reminis-
Adorno, by Inge Maria Harman, and by Silvia cences. So that these pieces would make sense,
Palomeque. Their portraits are varied, yet con- we wrote a series of biographical footnotes. In all
sistently depict a man utterly without gender we have almost 150 such notes. Although these
prejudice, who encouraged women to be their cover only a few overlapping circles within
true selves. For many of these women, Murra anthropology and her sister sciences, they reveal
was their most important teacher. Castro em- a dazzling intellectual complexity. I have a
phasizes Murras power to instill confidence in renewed respect for those who specialize in the
others. This is an ability Murra knew he had. history of anthropology.
On October 8, 1963 he wrote in his diary,
Since Albacete [headquarters of the Interna- As a graduate student under the influence of
tional Brigades in the Spanish Civil War] I have Murra, Salomon undertook a Cornell sponsored
had this skill of provoking confidence from field trip to Ecuador. Among the scholars he
various groups. met there was Costanza di Capua. Murra em-
phasized the role of dedicated amateurs in
In addition to being an original scholar, building national anthropologies and acknowl-
Murra was a perspicacious critic. This is re- edged the conflicts that developed between cre-
flected in his numerous book and film reviews, dentialed professionals and those who were self-
but also in his teaching. While often being trained. Costanza was a model aficionada, be-
supremely influential, teaching is an activity ginning with her studies of the baroque art and
that can be quite ephemeral. Lechtman et al. architecture of Quito, and continuing with her
provide us with a vivid picture of Murras inter- major study of figurines, Valdivia Figurines and
actions with students. Complementing their Puberty Rituals: An Hypothesis, published in
essays, Frank Salomon, John V. Murra Profes- Andean Past 4 (1994), and with her examina-
sor of Anthropology at the University of Wis- tions of trophy heads, precolumbian seals or
consin, Madison, gives us a sense of Murras stamps, ancient Ecuadorian ceramic iconogra-
lectures in an essay entitled, Kinsmen Resur- phy, and the symbolism associated with the
rected: John Victor Murra and the History of Virgin Mary.
Anthropology. Salomon reconstructs Murras
views from notes taken during courses offered at One of the unique features of Andean Past
Cornell in the early 1970s. This is a topic upon obituaries is that we try, in so far as possible, to
which Murra never published directly, which is publish a complete bibliography of works by and
a pity because it is clear that he had both insight about the deceased, unless such a list of publica-
and strong opinions on the subject. At Salo- tions has already appeared. We go beyond what
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) -x

a reader would find with a casual Google or ings on the Early Ceramic Period in the Huma-
JSTOR search and I challenge you, Reader, to huaca region of northwestern Argentina. Lee
put us to the test. When a scholar dies after a Hollowell discusses portals at the Fortaleza/
long career the list can extend to five or six Templo del Sol of Ollantaytambo in Perus
double-column 10-point pages, as it does with Urubamba Valley and suggests that the Templo
Edwin Ferdon and Richard Schaedel in Andean del Sol is an ushnu. He further postulates that
Past 8, and with Frdric-Andr Engel in An- the original Ollantaytambo ushnu occupied a
dean Past 7. position at or near the location of the present
church. Matthew P. Sayre and Luisa Lpez
This issue of Andean Past contains an even Aldave write about the ways in which data
longer bibliography of the works of John Murra derived from shells shed light on patterns of
compiled by David Block and myself with the exchange at Chavn de Huntar, a topic related
help of colleagues acknowledged in a note to Falcns observations on the Punkur finds.
included with that bibliography. Murras bibliog- Matthias Strecker, Freddy Taboada, and
raphy presented particular challenges. Not only Claudia Rivera report on two rock art projects
did he publish frequently in first-tier North and sponsored by SIARB, the Bolivian Rock Art
Latin American academic journals, he wrote for Research Society. One is the Vallegrande Pro-
a general audience in periodicals including The ject in the Department of Santa Cruz that
Nation and Limas El Comercio. Murra kept his studies and protects the Paja Colorado Cave
major work in print by republishing it in a vari- with its complex rock art. The other is the
ety of venues, sometimes in translation, and Betanzos Project in the Department of Potos
sometimes with updates and revisions. Col- where study of the mural art of small caves and
leagues have told us about expected posthu- rock shelters is integrated into archaeological
mous publications. In his early years Murra survey.
frequently commented on African, Puerto
Rican, and French Caribbean cultures, politics, As I have worked on the past few issues of
and letters. We hope that our bibliography Andean Past, it has become apparent to me that
reflects the full span of his intellect. Although not all scholars have mastered the difficult work
we worked on it until the moment of going to of preparing manuscripts for publication. We
press we are certain it is not complete. If you sometimes receive submissions which have real
know of anything we have missed, please let us merit in terms of underlying research, data
know. reported, and analysis, but have flaws that
would seem fatal to many editors. Among the
In this issue we have another installment of most common are inaccurate citations, poor
Current Research Reports, a feature we began illustrations, convoluted prose, apparent in-
with Andean Past 6 (2000/2001). These short consistencies, and sometimes even bad spelling
pieces allow researchers to communicate their and grammar. For a long time we have served as
latest findings and conclusions unrestricted by a writers workshop via e-mail. We consult
peer review. This volume includes reports on intensively with willing authors, helping them
the area around San Pedro de Atacama, north- turn imperfect submissions into fine published
ern Chile by Carolina Agero, Mauricio Uribe, papers. I think this is one of our most important
and Carlos Carrasco, as well as one on Chiles contributions to Andean studies. We have the
Tarapac Region by Mauricio Uribe, Leonor continuing opportunity to help researchers
Adn, Carolina Agero, Cora Moragas, and improve their articles. People whose work first
Flora Viches. Juan B. Leoni presents his find-
xi - Barnes: Editors Preface

appears in Andean Past often go on to build a Thus, accurate color reproduction is a daunting
solid list of articles. process in museum fine art publication and
would be almost impossible with the material
Except for our Current Research section, available to Andean Past. By using greyscale
obituaries, and personal recollections such as renditions we signal that color has been ab-
Gordon Willeys and Dick Daggetts contribu- stracted, and the reader is less likely to be led
tion to this volume, all Andean Past articles are astray by the subtle, or not-so-subtle, deviations
subject to strict peer review, as well as two levels from the color of the original subject that are
of editorial review. For many reasons I strongly almost inevitably an element of color photo-
prefer signed reviews. Thus I am especially graphs. In our layout we separate, for the most
grateful to reviewers Robert Ascher, Galen part, black and white text from grayscale. This
Brokaw, David Fleming, Alice Kehoe, and allows for better scanning of the print versions
Kevin Vaughn for allowing us to reveal their of our articles.1
names, facilitating communication with the
authors of submissions. We also appreciate the The editors personally undertake all aspects
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ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - xii

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For example, the costs of maintaining JSTOR press, our tenth volume is in progress. I can
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because we encourage sharing our articles with

Brazos Valley Museum of Natural History

BIBLIOGRAPHY BY DAVID BLOCK (University of Texas, Austin)


John Victor Murra at the 1958 Vassar College graduation. Graduate is Margaret Johnson-Gaddis;
photograph by John Lane Studio, Poughkeepsie, New York, courtesy of Vassar College.

INTRODUCTION many of the problems presented by his perilous

times. These included Communism,
John Murras life spanned the short McCarthyism, Fascism, war, anti-Semitism, and
twentieth century. He was born during the First immigration. He faced and overcame them with
World War and died more than five years after the tools of armed struggle, psychoanalysis, and
the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York anthropological research, emerging as one of the
and Washington. He personally encountered most influential Andeanists to date. His major

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009): 1-63.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) -2

contributions to our understanding of how Murra discouraged scholars from studying

prehispanic cultures, especially the Inca, the Spanish Colonial Period per se. To Murra,
functioned economically, politically, socially, Spains Golden Age was a time of catastrophe
and ecologically are set out in his doctoral for the indigenous peoples of the Americas. He
dissertation (Murra 1956a), and in a long, oft- felt that intellectual effort in New World ethno-
republished and re-worked series of short history should be concentrated on those early
articles, book chapters, and published com- documents by eyewitnesses that could elucidate
ments, usually in venues where peer review was prehispanic times. Following the leads of his
not a constraint.1 He also made available a good Peruvian friends, the novelist, poet, and
deal of the documentation supporting his anthropologist Jos Mara Arguedas3 and the
interpretations (Guaman Poma 1980; Murra historian Mara Rostworowski,4 Murra recog-
[editor] 1991; Ortiz de Ziga 1967, 1972). His nized the importance of visitas, colonial reports
archaeological work is significant (Murra 1942, of official inspection tours. Several were
1955f, 1962, 1966a; Murra and Morris 1976; published or republished under his general
Thompson and Murra 1966). Indeed, his first direction (Murra [editor] 1964, 1991, Ortiz de
scholarly publication (Collier and Murra 1943), Zuiga 1967, 1972). From the minute details
based in part on his M.A. thesis (Murra 1942), available in visitas (some make house-by-house
remains essential to an understanding of Ecua- inventories, while others contain information on
dorian prehistory, and was last republished in regional shrine systems or economic production)
2007. The results of his Hunuco Project, Murra could discern large patterns in Incaic and
officially called A Study of Provincial Inca early colonial organization.
Life, although incompletely reported, never-
theless are a major component of Inca studies.
However, his greatest contribution is probably
the insight that documents, the raw material of
historical reconstructions, could be viewed from dorsed by Murra. Although Murra did not share Zuidemas
an anthropological perspective and integrated emphasis on religion, ritual, and symbolism, he respected
into research incorporating archaeological evi- Zuidemas scholarship and supported him with positive
dence. Given that anthropology itself in the grant recommendations.
mid-twentieth century was rather a-historical, 3
Jos Mara Arguedas Altamirano (1911-1969) is one of
with emphasis on a timeless ethnographic
Perus most famous writers in both Spanish and Quechua.
present, this was a stunning breakthrough.2 His fiction often explores the clashes between ethnic
groups in early twentieth century Peru. Arguedas was
director of Perus Casa de Cultura during part of the time
C.f. Lechtman and Wolf, n.d.; Murra 1958a, 1958b, John Murra directed field-work at Hunuco. Arguedas
1960a, 1961b, 1962, 1964a, 1964b, 1966b, 1972a, 1974a, died as a result of his second suicide attempt.
1974c, 1975a, 1976a, 1978b, 1978c, 1982a, 1982b, 1985a,
1985b, 1985c, 1985d, 1986a, 1987a, 1999, 2002a. For 4
Mara Rostworowski Tovar de Diez Canseco (b. 1915)
work by and about John Murra not incorporated into the spent her childhood in Peru, Poland, France, England, and
text of this obituary see the bibliography that is part of this Belgium. In 1935 she returned to Peru, living on her
special section on the life and work of John Victor Murra. fathers hacienda in Hunuco. She took courses taught by
historian Ral Porras Barrenechea at the Universidad
In stating this, I do not wish to diminish the importance Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. She has concentrated on
of other scholars who simultaneously and independently the social, economic, and religious dimensions of the
arrived at similar conclusions. In this respect, as in many prehispanic societies of the Peruvian coast. She is a
others, the works of John H. Rowe and R. Tom Zuidema founder of the Instituto de Estudios Peruanos and the
are particularly noteworthy. Rowes close and sustained author of several books of collected essays and numerous
study of colonial records was an approach strongly en- articles.
3- Barnes: John V. Murra

He was one of the first to appreciate that the pelago. Thus, high altitude grasslands could
Mestizo Peruvian chronicler and artist Guaman produce meat and animal fibers. At slightly
Poma de Ayala was not a deranged malcontent, lower altitudes just below the upper limit for
but rather a key reporter and insightful analyst plant cultivation tubers such as potatoes, oca,
(Murra 1956a:7). Working with Rolena Adorno and ulluco were grown. Other crops, including
(see Adornos contribution, this volume, pp. 77- quinoa, maize, beans, chilli peppers, lupines,
79) and native Quechua speaker Jorge (George) cotton, coca, and fruit were planted at still lower
Urioste,5 Murra produced what has become the altitudes. Establishments in the tropical forests
standard transcription of Guaman Pomas Nueva on the eastern slopes of the Andes yielded
crnica y buen gobierno (Guaman Poma de Ayala wood, feathers, and other forest products while
1980 [c.1616]). His contributions to Andean fish, seafood, and aquatic plants were obtained
ethnohistory are immense.6 from lakes and the ocean, and salt and guano
were collected where they occurred. Different
Murras best known explanatory framework forms of land tenure and exchange are possible
is his theory of vertical complementarity under such conditions, but Murra postulated
which posits that Andean societies provided for that ethnic groups and polities controlled or
themselves by managing disparate ecological shared at least some non-contiguous territory in
niches. The steepness of the Andean terrain each important zone. Murra also made
insures that ecological conditions often vary significant contributions to our understanding of
greatly over relatively short distances. Because the role of craft production and state-sponsored
no single ecozone can produce all that is settlement practices under the Incas (Murra
necessary for subsistence, Andean ethnic groups 1958b, 1978c, 1982b).
and states, according to Murra, maintained
control of various zones, frequently not in the POLITICS, BUT NOT AS USUAL
form of contiguous territory, but rather as strings
of islands in an imagined vertical archi- John Victor Murra was born Isak Lipschitz
in Odessa, Ukraine, then part of imperial Russia.
Murras father was raised in a Jewish orphanage
Jorge L. Urioste was born in Bolivia and is a native after his own father had died. Murras mother
Quechua speaker. He is a Professor Emeritus of was a visually impaired teenager when she
Anthropology at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. He
married. Although both his parents were
has collaborated with a number of people associated with
Cornell University, most notably linguist Donald Sol Romanian Jews, Murra did not have a
(1922-2008), anthropologist Frank Salomon (note 48), particularly religious upbringing. Murras father
literature specialist Rolena Adorno and John Victor was anti-clerical due to his experiences in the
Murra. Among his important publications are The orphanage. Nevertheless, Murra celebrated his
Huarochir Manuscript: A Testament of Ancient and Colonial
Andean Religions (with Frank Salomon; 1991) and the
Bar Mitzvah as a boy and in his later years he
various Murra/Adorno/Urioste editions of Guaman Pomas expressed a belief in God and Gods
Nueva crnica . . . intervention in his life.
Murra 1946, 1948, 1956a, 1958a, 1958b, 1960a, 1961a, Murra spent the greater part of his
1961b, 1962, 1964a, 1964b, 1966b, 1967a, 1967b, 1967c, childhood in Bucharest, Romania. During
1967d, 1968a, 1968b, 1970a, 1970b, 1970c, 1972a, 1972b,
1974a, 1974b, 1974c, 1975a, 1976a, 1976c, 1978a, 1978b,
Murras early years Ukraine was a violent place
1978c, 1978d, 1979a, 1979c, 1980a, 1981a, 1982b, 1981b, as the First World War morphed there into the
1982b, 1982c, 1983b, 1984a, 1984b, 1985a, 1985b, 1985c, Ukranian War of Independence which blazed
1985a, 1986a, 1986b, 1987a, 1987b, 1987c, 1988a, 1988b, from 1917 until 1921. Although his father was
1989a, 1991a, 1991b, 1992, 1998, 1999, 2002a, 2002b.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) -4

one of eight children, Murra was not close to tro et al. 2000:17). Nevertheless, he passed his
family members. Exceptions were his only baccalaureate exams in 1933.7
sibling, his sister, physicist Beatrice [Ata] Lip-
schitz Iosifescu, who later translated and Murra must also have suffered from the
compiled Murras dissertation and other works, virulent prejudice against Jews which was
creating a volume in Romanian published in common in Romania during the 1920s and 30s.
1987 (see Murra 1956a), and his fathers The Ministry of the Interior organized and
younger brother, who played a key role in financed university anti-Semitic groups like the
Murras life. Although Murra often expressed Legion of Michael the Archangel which became
negative feelings towards his mother, they the fascist Iron Guard. In December 1927, when
remained in contact until her death in August Murra was eleven years old, the Legion carried
1980. out a pogrom that destroyed thirteen synagogues
and their Torahs. Jews were beaten and
As a teenager, Murras passions were soccer, humiliated and throughout the 1930s the
books, and politics (Castro et al. 2000:22-23). situation of the Romanian Jews became in-
His father insisted that he study modern creasingly desperate as Nazi influence grew.
languages at the Lyce Georghe Lazer in
Bucharest and with private tutors. Before the To extricate him from a difficult situation,
age of eighteen, in addition to Romanian and Murras father sent him to Chicago in December
Russian, Murra had mastered French, English, 1934, to live with his youngest paternal uncle, a
and German. Later, while a soldier in the professional double bass player (ibid). Although
Spanish Civil War, he acquired fluency in Murras initial residence in Chicago was one of
Spanish. There is no evidence that Murra the accidents of his life, the academic
studied ancient languages such as Latin or connections he forged there influenced him
Greek, but he apparently knew enough Hebrew during his entire career. In Chicago Murra
to read from the Torah at his Bar Mitzvah. He perfected his English and enrolled as an
later expressed regret that he was unable to undergraduate at the University of Chicago,
acquire proficiency in Quechua. Murras father with advanced standing, and he began to study
also required him to apprentice in Romanian social sciences. In 1936 he obtained his A.B. in
and Yugoslavian paper factories. This gave Sociology and married Virginia Miller, a fellow
Murra some familiarity with the Croatian student-militant.
language, and arguably his first anthropological
experiences as he interacted with workers who Murras teachers at Chicago included such
were members of various ethnic groups (Murra famous figures as A.R. Radcliffe-Brown,8 Fred
in Rowe 1984:635).

Not a sufficiently talented athlete to play 7

A European baccalaureate is a formal educational
sports professionally, Murra remained involved qualification generally more advanced and specialized
with soccer by publishing reports on matches in than an American high school diploma, but less advanced
Dimineata, a Romanian newspaper. By age 16 his than an American bachelors degree. It is intended as
preparation for university studies.
involvement with Communism and the Social
Democratic movement, although legal, had cost 8
Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955) was a
him jail time and expulsion from his lyce (Cas- prominent English social anthropologist who contributed
greatly to an understanding of small, non-Western
societies. He studied at Cambridge University, conducted
extensive field-work in the Andaman Islands and Western
5- Barnes: John V. Murra

Eggan,9 Harry Hoijer10 (ibid: 28), R. Redfield,11 and Fay-Cooper Cole 12 (Redfield and Cole
1947). Cole became one of Murras strongest
advocates. For his part, Murra always expressed
Australia, and then taught at the University of Chicago respect for Cole (Murra in Rowe 1984:636), in
from 1931 to 1937. Two of his best-known books, The particular crediting Cole with introducing him
Andaman Islanders (1922), and The Social Organization of to ethnohistory through the Jesuit Relations,
Australian Tribes (1931) are based on his field-work. In annual accounts sent to the General, or head of
books such as A Natural Science of Society (1957), and in
numerous articles, he set out his views of so-called primi-
the Jesuits, about mission conditions in the
tive societies as phenomena. Mississippi drainage and in other parts of the
Frederick Russell Eggan (1906-1991) received a Ph.B
(1927) and Masters Degree (1928) in psychology from the
University of Chicago. He then became an anthropology the University of Chicago in 1920 and a J.D. from its law
student of A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (note 8) and Fay-Cooper school in 1921. After work as an ambulance driver in
Cole (Note 12) at Chicago, receiving a Ph.D. in 1933. World War I, a brief stint in law practice, and a trip to
Eggan first taught at the University of Chicago in 1935, Mexico in 1923, he began his anthropological career as a
became the Harold H. Swift Distinguished Professor there student of Fay-Cooper Coles at the University of Chicago.
in 1962, and retired from Chicago in 1974. He was a In 1927 he was hired as an instructor in anthropology by
member of the National Academy of Sciences and a the University of Chicago and, in 1928, he received his
President of the American Anthropological Association. doctorate in anthropology and was appointed an assistant
In his work he combined the principles of British socio- professor, the start of a successful career as a teacher and
cultural anthropology with the historical approach of administrator. His published studies of Mexican communi-
Franz Boas and applied them to the study of American ties include Tepotzln, (1930), Chan Kom (with Alfonso
Indian tribes, especially the Hopi, and to the Tinguian, a Villa-Rojas, 1934), and The Folk Culture of Yucatan
group in the Philippine highlands also studied by Fay- (1941). His major books also include The Primitive World
Cooper Cole. He developed an approach called con- and its Transformations (1953), The Little Community
trolled comparison. Among his works are The Kinship (1955), and Peasant Society and Culture (1956), among
System and Social Organization of the Western Pueblos others. For an obituary see Robert Redfield, 1897-1958
(1933), Lewis Henry Morgan and the Future of the American by Fay-Cooper Cole and Fred Eggan, published in Ameri-
Indian (1965), and The American Indian . . . (1966). For an can Anthropologist (1959).
interview see Ernest L. Schuskys Fred Eggan: Anthropol- 12
ogist Full Circle published in The American Ethnologist Fay-Cooper Cole (1881-1961) was an expert on the
(1969). Several obituaries of Eggan have been published, peoples and cultures of Malaysia and the Philippines, and
including one by one by Alfonso Narvaez (The New York one of the developers of twentieth century American
Times, May 9, 1991), one by Nathalie F. S. Woodbury archaeology. Cole graduated from Northwestern Univer-
(Anthropology News, September 1991), and another by sity in 1903. He obtained a doctorate from Columbia
University in 1914. This was based on work among the
Aram A. Yengoyan (Asian Studies, 1991).
Tinguian that he did under the auspices of the Field
Museum. He is the author of The Wild Tribes of the Davao
Harry Hoijer (1904-1976) was an anthropological District, Mindanao (1913), based on field-work performed
linguist who studied American Indian languages including with his wife in 1910-12, and of Traditions of the Tinguian
Athabaskan and the now-extinct Tonkawa isolate. He (1915) among whom he and his wife did field-work in
taught at the University of Chicago as a temporary 1907-1908, as well as The Peoples of Malaysia (1945). The
instructor from 1931 until 1940. He was the co-author, Coles last ethnographic expedition was to Indonesia in
with Ralph Beals, of An Introduction to Anthropology 1922-23. In 1924 Cole was appointed an assistant profes-
(1953) and the author of articles in journals including sor in the University of Chicagos Department of Sociol-
American Anthropologist, Language, and International ogy and Anthropology where he had a long and distin-
Journal of American Linguistics, among others. For bio- guished career. During the 1930s he conducted an
graphical information on Hoijer see Harry Hoijer, 1904- archaeological survey of Illinois in which Murra partici-
1976 by Ralph L. Beals, published in American Anthropol- pated. He published Kincaid, a Prehistoric Illinois Metropolis
ogist (1977). (1951), and Rediscovering Illinois . . . (with Thorne Duel,
1937). For an obituary see Fay-Cooper Cole by Fred
Robert Redfield (1897-1958) received his A.B. from Eggan, published in American Anthropologist (1963).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) -6

world where the order worked. Murra also that he took his adult name and had his first
appreciated the Illinois field school that Cole adult experiences. Isak Lipschitz acquired the
operated for many years because it helped to permanent nom de guerre John Victor Murra.
build Americanist vocations (Frank Salomon, John (or Johnny as he was known when he was
personal communication, 9 November 2008). young) was chosen for its qualities as a
straightforward American name, Victor in
In Chicago Murra re-established contacts anticipation of a successful struggle, and Murra
with Communist youth groups and demon- because it is close to the Romanian word for
strated against war and racial segregation mulberry. That was Johnnys nickname when he
(Anon. 1947b; Redfield and Cole 1947). In was a boy, because of his large, dark eyes. At the
November 1936 he was recruited to fight time it was common for immigrants and
Fascism in the Spanish Civil War. His passage travelers in the United States to adopt such
to France was paid with Communist funds and strong and plain masculine names. For example,
his military identification document was issued the famous French photographer, Henri Cartier-
on 14 April 1937 (Lechtman, this volume, p. Bresson, often called himself Hank Carter when
66). In contrast to many Second World War in the U.S.
veterans of both sides who had experienced
heavy combat and were reluctant to mention Initially Murra arranged food and lodging in
their participation, for the rest of his life Murra southern France for international volunteers
proudly listed his service as an infantry corporal, seeking to infiltrate Spain. Soon he was trans-
in the 58th Battalion, 15th Brigade of the Spanish lating for American, British, and Canadian
Republican Army on his curriculum vitae as part commissars and for Slavic officers and soldiers.
of his employment history. Nevertheless, Then he was in active combat. He was seriously
privately he admitted that he considered his wounded and paralyzed for a time. The resulting
time in Spain to have been unsuccessful. On 15 limp stayed with him for the rest of his life. He
October 1963 Murra wrote in his diary, Think spent most of the first half of 1939 in notorious
of conversation with Tabb and Iraqui (sic) at French internment camps near Perpignan, but
Genoa when I refused to volunteer a second eventually managed to return to Chicago,
time. I told them that as far as my personal goals assisted by his teachers there, arriving back in
were concerned, Spain had been a failure. I the United States on June 3, 1939 (Anon.
suppose what I meant by that was that I had not 1947a). It was during his time translating that
become heroic, masculine, a man different from Murra became disillusioned with Communism,
what my mother wanted. Nevertheless, Murra having had direct experience of the secret
was able to cope with military life, make useful meetings, true policies, and extreme cruelty of
contributions, face battle, and win affection and its leaders. In this he was far ahead of his times
respect, as Murras friend, fellow combatant, because the Soviet Union itself did not fully
and journalist Harry Fisher (1911-2003) makes acknowledge its own history until the 1980s.
clear in Comrades (1998). Although Murra did not set down specifics in
his published works, Harry Fisher was more
Murra summarized his experiences by forthcoming in Comrades. In any event, by the
stating, Yo soy graduado de la guerra civil espa- end of the Spanish Civil War, John Murras
ola, no de la Universidad de Chicago (Castro political problems had worsened.
et al. 2000:29).13 It was during the Civil War

I am a graduate of the Spanish Civil War, not of the University of Chicago (translation by the author).
7- Barnes: John V. Murra

Back in Chicago, Murra resumed his studies Historical Society). Sponsorship was a serious
as a scholarship student,14 doing course work commitment because it involved a guarantee of
from 1939 to 1941. In addition to translating financial support should the immigrant become
the Jesuit Relations, Murra worked as a waiter, indigent. After being twice denied it, Murra was
a house painter, and a washer of archaeological eventually granted American citizenship in 1950
ceramics to supplement his scholarships and (Anon. 1947b, 1947c, 1948b, 1948c, 1948d,
keep body and soul together. In the summer of 1948e, 1949a, 1949b, 1950a, 1950b) although
1940 he had his first archaeological experience, the issuance of a passport was delayed until
at Coles Illinois field school. One of his 1956 or 1958,15 preventing Murra from traveling
contemporaries was Richard S. [Scotty] to countries where that document was required.
MacNeish, who later became famous for his Murras case achieved national importance,
studies of the transition to agriculture in the having been brought to the attention of
New World, leading archaeological projects in President Harry S. Trumans Committee of Civil
Mexicos Tamaulipas State and in the Tehuacn Rights, established in 1946 to strengthen and
Valley of Puebla state as well as in Perus Aya- protect the civil rights of the American people.
cucho Department. Murra often cited It was recommendations of this committee that
MacNeishs work as offering support for his own led to the racial desegregation of the United
ideas. States armed forces. Murras case was studied by
the Committee because it was one of the first in
Meanwhile, Romania had adopted a fascist which prior attachment to Communism was
constitution on February 12, 1938, making it considered as a possible disqualification for
impossible for Murra, a recent anti-fascist citizenship.
fighter, to return there. In addition, during the
course of the Second World War, tens of
thousands of Romanian Jews were massacred,
although most survived. Murras mother and
sister were among that majority. Romania did
not become a Communist country until 1947
and, in any case, Murra was no longer an
advocate of that form of government. His sister, Sources on the date of issue of Murras first passport
however, joined the Communist party. vary. Heather Lechtman has a clear memory of Murras
jubilation when he received notification of his passport
while she was still a student at Vassar (Lechtman,
Normally it would have been easy for Murra, personal communication, 12 November 2008). Lechtman
as the spouse of an American, to have claimed graduated in 1956. In the interview Murra gave to John
United States citizenship. However, Murras Rowe Murra states that he received his first passport in
Communist connections stood in his way even 1956 (Murra in Rowe 1984:639). However, in Nispa
Ninchis (Castro et al. 2000:52-53) and in an interview
with the official sponsorship of Fay-Cooper given to Waldo Ansaldi and Fernando Caldern G. first
Cole. Cole, in addition to being a well-known published in 1989 and republished in 2000, Murra states
Chicago educator, was a member of a powerful that he received his first United States passport in 1958.
New York family (Cooper family file, Brooklyn A 1956 letter in the NAA from one of Murras attorneys
advises Murra that he could expect a passport shortly. I
have not been able to locate Murras first United States
passport. The fact that he apparently did not travel to
Letter from Fay-Cooper Cole to Duran Ballen, areas where a passport was required until 1958, coupled
Ecua2dorian Consul to the United States, August 8, 1941, with Murras oft-expressed eagerness to return to South
National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institu- America, makes me think that Murras first United States
tion, John Victor Murra Papers, hereinafter Murra, NAA. passport was issued in 1958.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) -8

ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE ANTI-FASCIST sponsored by the Institute of Andean Research

STRUGGLE - JOHN MURRAS WAR WORK (I.A.R.) At the time Nelson Rockefeller19 had
arranged for the I.A.R. to receive its funding
Ecuador from the United States Department of States
Council of National Defense, Division of
Although Murras injuries precluded his Commercial and Cultural Relations.20 The work
enlistment in the United States military forces,16 in Ecuador was part of a co-ordinated series of
he put his anthropological education to good use major sub-projects that were also staged in
in war work. From August 28, 1941 through mid- Mexico, El Salvador, Cuba, Colombia,
February 1942,17 he was in Ecuador, participating Venezuela, Peru, and Chile. These were
in survey and excavations officially directed by considered part of the national defense,21 the
Fay-Cooper Cole with Donald Collier18 of the idea being both to put intelligent, if often
Field Museum serving as the Assistant Director inexperienced, observers into parts of Latin
in the field (Collier and Murra 1943:11). It is America suspected to be of interest to the Nazis,
unclear if Cole ever visited Ecuador in and to improve United States-Latin American
connection with this project. Murra held the relations. The Ecuador portion was designated
formal title of Supervisor. The work was Project 9BEcuador1941-42. Because
Murras United States citizenship application
was pending22 and he did not have a passport as
Letter from John V. Murra to Frances Jay, July 9, 1941,
in the archives of the Institute of Andean Research,
Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural
History (hereinafter I.A.R., A.M.N.H.). It is possible that 19
Nelson Rockefeller personally facilitated Murras draft Nelson Aldridge Rockefeller (1908-1979) was a
exemption (letter from Donald Collier to John Victor president of the Museum of Modern Art (1939-1958), the
Murra, June 5, 1941, Murra, NAA). forty-ninth governor of New York State (1959-1973), and
the forty-fifth vice president of the United States (1974-
Anon. 1947a; Letter from Donald Collier to George C. 1977). He was also a businessman and philanthropist.
Rockefeller promoted economic development and liberal-
Vaillant, February 5, 1942, I.A.R., A.M.N.H.
ization, as well as North American culture, in Latin
18 America, while holding important national appointed
Donald Collier (1911-1995) received his Ph.D. from the offices. He was Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs
University of Chicago (1954). Anthropological interests (1940-1944), Chairman of the Inter-American Develop-
were shared by Collier family members. Donalds father was ment Commission (1940-1947), and Assistant Secretary
United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs. His brother, of State for Latin American Affairs (1944-45). Rockefeller
John Collier, Jr. (1913-1992) was a noted photographer and believed that by promoting United States culture he could
visual anthropologist. In the 1950s John Collier was a counter perceived Fascist and Communist influences in
member of the Cornell University Department of Anthro- the region. In the 1950s, under President Eisenhower, he
pology. The Colliers brother-in-law, Ren DHarnoncourt supervised secret C.I.A. operations.
directed the Museum of Modern Art (1949-1967).
DHarnoncourt was an expert on Mexican art and ancient 20
Letter from George C. Vaillant to Donald Collier,
Peruvian textiles. Donalds wife, Malcolm Carr Collier,
February 14, 1941, I.A.R., A.M.N.H.; Collier and Murra
published on the Navajo. Don Colliers early archaeological
and ethnological work was in the western United States.
From 1936 he studied land use in the Andes and in 1937 21
worked with Julio C. Tello in the Casma Valley. His Ph.D. Letter from Donald Collier to John Victor Murra, June
dissertation was produced as part of his participation in the 5, 1941, NAA; Letter from C.C. Miller, Registrar, Univer-
Vir Valley Project. As a curator at the Field Museum sity of Chicago to Selective Service Board Number 9, June
Collier organized many important exhibitions. A short 16, 1941, Murra, NAA.
obituary of Collier by Donald Thompson along with a
bibliography of Colliers works appears in the 1996 volume Letter from Fay-Cooper Cole to Wendell C. Bennett,
of American Antiquity. April 30, 1941, I.A.R, A.M.N.H.
9- Barnes: John V. Murra

normally required for admission to Ecuador,23 he excavations, and seriation of artifacts. The
was issued a permit signed by Marshall E. design of the projects assumed that the pre-
Dimock, Special Assistant to the Attorney hispanic cultures of the Americas were not
General in Charge, Immigration and isolates, but rather, interconnected, much as
Nationalization Service, United States Depart- Nelson Rockefeller saw the American republics.
ment of Justice, which provided permission for
Murra to leave the United States and return It is stunning to contemplate the scope of
within a year without loss of residence credit the work that very small, and relatively
under exemptions provided by Section 307 of the inexperienced, teams set out to accomplish over
Nationality Act of 1940.24 In effect, Murra was vast territories in brief spans of time, especially
not to be penalized for leaving the United States by comparison with European-sponsored pro-
to undertake work tied to the United States war jects at important sites such as at Pompeii
effort. (Italy), Uruk (Iraq), Knossos (Crete), and
Mucking (England) where large groups of
Collier hoped to determine the relationship specialists, workmen, and students established
of early archaeological material to the Inca themselves for decades. At the start of their
Horizon in the southernmost part of Ecuador and Ecuador project, Murra had never been in any
the cultural connections, if any, to what is now Latin American country. Donald Collier
northern Peru (Collier and Murra 1943: 15). described his own knowledge of Ecuador to be
However, by the time he and Murra arrived in too slight to be able to give Murra any useful
Ecuador, Peruvian armed forces had invaded that suggestions for preparation26 and Collier needed
country, and Colliers first area of interest had a translator to function.
fallen under military occupation. Collier and
Murra adjusted their research plan to conduct September 1941, Murras first full month in
reconnaissance in the southern part of Ecuador, was spent in orientation, including
Chimborazo Province, and in the provinces of establishing contacts with local colleagues,
Caar, Azuay, and Loja in order to find stratified obtaining permissions, and acquiring equipment
sites. This fit in well with the whole series of and supplies. In October he and Collier spent
I.A.R. projects whose main goal was to create ten days (Collier and Murra 1943:16) or, per-
linked cultural sequences for prehispanic North haps, as much as two weeks at the Hacienda
and South America as a whole.25 Radiocarbon Zula in Chimborazo Province where they
dating had not yet been developed, so the conducted test excavations on the four hundred
sequences were to be established through co- square mile paramo ranch.27 That month they
ordinated longitudinal surveys, stratified also photographed private archaeological col-
lections in the town of Riobamba. They spent
Information provided by the Consulate General of
Ecuador, New York, 1941, Murra, NAA. 26
As to whom to make contacts with in Ecuador, what
transportation and other conditions will be there, etc. I
Letter from John Victor Murra to United States Immi- have no knowledgebut you can expect to do some
gration Commission, July 10, 1941, Murra, NAA; letter traveling on mule back; letter from Donald Collier to
from Marshall E. Dimock to Fay-Cooper Cole, July 16, John Victor Murra, May 27, 1941, Murra, NAA. A
1941, Murra NAA; Letter from Fay-Cooper Cole to George photograph of Murra on muleback on the Ecuadorian
C. Vaillant, July 18, 1941, I.A.R., A.M.N.H. paramo later became iconic.

25 27
Letter from George C. Vaillant to Paul Martin, March Letter from Donald Collier to George C. Vaillant,
14, 1941, I.A.R. A.M.N.H. October 22, 1941, I.A.R., A.M.N.H.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 10

November doing archaeological surveys of Caar, Americans was important. He never lost sight of
Azuay, and Loja Provinces, recording about that goal.
twenty sites. They visited Alaus and
photographed private collections in Cuenca. Murra received his masters degree from the
During December they excavated at three sites University of Chicago in 1942 (Anon. 1942).
near Caar including Cerro Narro (ibid.: 16-17). During the last year of his masters program he
In January 1942 Murra went to Quito for analysis held the University Fellowship awarded to the
and write-up. Over forty thousand artifacts, highest-ranking member of the graduate student
mostly potsherds, were shipped to the Field body.30
Museum.28 Some of these were apparently shared
with other museums. Although this schedule did Fear and Courage under Fire
not allow for detailed archaeological research, it
did give Collier and Murra a good strategic During the latter part of 1942 and a portion
overview of an important portion of the of 1943 Murra continued his war work, this time
Ecuadorian highlands. Other Americans, for under John Dollard31 of Yales Human Relations
example Edwin Nelson Ferdon, were conducting Institute who was himself employed by the
archaeological operations in other parts of the United States Department of War. Murras task
country (Lubensky, Andean Past 8). was to help interview and administer
questionnaires to men who had fought with the
In the field Collier and Murra were assisted Abraham Lincoln Brigade in the Spanish Civil
by Anbal Buitrn Chvez,29 then a 27-year-old War. The goal was to understand how men
Quito school teacher who received grants from overcame their fear and developed courage in
the U. S. Department of State and the Institute combat. A short, stand-alone report of the
of International Education to come to the United results, Fear in Battle, was published by the
States for further training in anthropology during United States Armys Infantry Journal in 1944.
the 1942-43 academic year. Buitrn also worked Nevertheless, the purportedly leftist slant of the
with Don Colliers brother, John Collier, Jr. to questionnaires was later cited against Murra in
produce The Awakening Valley (1949), a his citizenship hearings (Anon. 1947b). In any
photographic essay about Otavalo. Buitrn went case, the contacts which Murra maintained and
on to a career in international development. forged across the country during this research
Although Murra was disappointed that Buitrn made him pivotal to the corporate identity of
did not persist with anthropology, Murra became American Spanish Civil War veterans.
convinced from his field-work in Ecuador that
the education in anthropology of young Latin

28 Letter from Fay-Cooper Cole to the Honorable S.E.
Letter from Donald Collier to John Victor Murra,
Duran Ballen, Consul General of Ecuador, August 8,
February 18, 1942, Murra, NAA; Letter from John Victor 1941. Murra, NAA; press release, Vassar College Office of
Murra to the Honorable Boaz Long, American Minister, Public Relations, December 1959, John Victor Murra
Quito, April 2, 1942, Murra, NAA; Collier and Murra Faculty File, The Catherine Pelton Durrell 25 Archives
1943:17. and Special Collections Library, Vassar College (hereafter
the John Victor Murra File, Vassar College).
An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Southern
Ecuadorian HighlandsMemorandum on the Institute of John Dollard (1900-1980), who received his Ph.D.
Andean Research Expedition in Ecuador, August 1941- from the University of Chicago (1931), was a psychologist
January 1942. Quito, January 9, 1942, Donald Collier and and social scientist best known for his studies of race
John V. Murra, Murra, NAA; Collier and Murra 1943:11. relations, especially in the American South.
11 - Barnes: John V. Murra

Siamese Folk Tales and Cultural Values Murra recognized that cunning and the ability
to deceive others were valued in Siamese
During the summer of 1943, Murra worked culture, at least as it manifested itself in stories.
for the United States Department of War Therefore, captives, he advised, could not be
Information under the supervision of Ruth shamed and broken down by calling them
Benedict.32 Murra admired Benedict, whom he traitors. That would seem a form of praise.
considered a true anthropologist, as opposed to
Benedicts friend and putative lover, Margaret Teaching at the University of Chicago
Mead,33 whom Murra characterized as a Sunday
supplement anthropologist. 34 However, In the fall of 1943 Murra became an
Benedicts death in 1948 precluded a long instructor in Anthropology at the University of
association. Chicago to fill in for Fred Eggan, who was
serving as Chief of Research for the Philippine
Murra interviewed Siamese (as they were Government in exile and was instructing United
then called) immigrants in the United States, States Service personnel about the cultures of
collecting folk tales. The goal was to discern East Asia. Murra continued to teach in Chicago
belief systems because understanding of these was until 1946. From 1946 to 1947, he was a Fellow
deemed desirable in case the United States of the Social Sciences Research Council. In his
acquired responsibility for Siamese territory. Chicago teaching Murra maintained the legacy
of A.R. Radcliffe-Brown by promoting what
Murra perceived as a new anthropological
Ruth Benedict (1887-1948), a student of Franz Boas, paradigm developed in the 1920s and 30s by
received her Ph.D. in 1923 and joined the Columbia faculty British and Commonwealth socio-cultural
with which she was associated until her death. One of her anthropologists led by Raymond Firth,35 Broni-
most famous students there was Margaret Mead (note 33).
Benedict was part of the Culture-Personality school of
anthropology, a movement heavily influenced by psycho- 35
Sir Raymond Firth (1901-2002) was a New Zealand-
analysis. She is the author of Patterns of Culture (1934), a
born ethnologist who made distinctions between the ideal
very important book of that school. In it, adapting a model
rules of behavior within societies (social structure) and
taken from Friedrich Nietzsche, she argues that various
actual behavior (social organization) and became an
cultures emphasize particular personality traits. She
expert in the societies of the Pacific. He pioneered
presented her most important wartime research as The
economic anthropology. His first degree was in economics
Chrysanthemum and the Sword (1946), an exploration of
from Auckland University College (1921) where he also
traditional Japanese culture.
earned an M.A. (1922) and a Diploma in Social Science
(1923). His 1927 Ph.D. dissertation from the London
Margaret Mead (1901-1978) was one of the most School of Economics is entitled Primitive Economics of the
famous anthropologists of all time. She produced a stream New Zealand Maori. Among his other famous works are
of books and articles for both academic and popular audi- We the Tikopia (1936) based on field-work he did in the
ences beginning with interpretative accounts of her Solomon Islands in the late 1920s. Firth continued work
Polynesian field-work and continuing with observations on with the Tikopia and published at least ten books based
American popular culture. She is credited with broadening on his observations of their culture. Firth became a
sexual mores and elucidating the interplay of culture and lecturer at the L.S.E. in 1933, was appointed Reader there
personality. She held a variety of teaching posts, and from in 1935, and succeeded Bronislaw Malinowski as Professor
1946 to 1969 was Curator of Ethnology at the American of Social Anthropology in 1944, remaining there in that
Museum of Natural History. Several book length position until 1968. After retirement from the L.S.E. he
biographies of Mead, and of Mead and Benedict together, took up a number of distinguished visiting professorships,
are available. including one at Cornell University in 1970 and another
at the University of Chicago in 1970-71. An obituary by
Letter from Laura Rand Orthwein to John Victor Murra, Judith Huntsman appears in the American Anthropologist
Murra, NAA (n.d., c. 1960). (2003). His wife, Rosemary Firth, was also a distinguished
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 12

slaw Malinowski36 and Radcliffe-Brown. This Puerto Rico. From 1948 to 1949, working under
paradigm emphasized field-work in living the auspices of Julian Stewards37 Peoples of
cultures, especially those of Africa and Polynesia. Puerto Rico Project (1947-1950), Murra did
It also advocated the study of state level ethnographic field-work in six communities on
societies, not just small, isolated groups (Murra in the island (Salomon 2007:793). In the summers
Caldern 2000:254; see also Ansaldi and Murra supervised field-work students from Yale
Caldern 1989). and other United States mainland universities,
working in Jamaica, and in Martinique in 1956
THE CARIBBEAN and 1957 under the auspices of The Research
and Training Program for the Study of Man in
Once the regular, tenured faculty completed the Tropics.38 During the 1950s, drawing upon
their wartime assignments, Murra was out of a this experience, Murra frequently published
job and his life entered a new phase. He was not (Murra 1951a, 1955b, 1955d, 1955e, 1957a,
able to settle down for almost a decade. With his 1957b, 1959a) and spoke (Gillespie 1950;
citizenship and passport issues unresolved, he was Wakefield 1959) on Caribbean issues.
limited in his travels until 1958 when his first
passport was issued. He worked as an instructor DOCTORAL DISSERTATION
at the University of Wisconsin in the summer of
1946. From 1947 to 1950 he taught at the Murra was, by this time, dedicated to
University of Puerto Rico, Ro Piedras, first as an anthropology. He knew that to continue in that
Assistant Professor and Field Director of field in a full professional capacity he would
Community Studies, and then as an Associate have to obtain a doctorate. Ecuador intrigued
Professor and Field Director. Murra supervised Murra, as did the struggles of peasant
studies of several communities with support from communities and issues of land tenure. Murra
the Rockefeller Foundation and the University of was aware that the Indians of Otavalo had freed
themselves from serfdom by somehow acquiring
the means to purchase the lands they worked.
social anthropologist.

36 37
Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski (1884-1942), born Julian H. Steward (1902-1972) held a B.Sc. in Zoology
Polish, became one of the most important anthropologists from Cornell University (1925). He obtained his doctorate
of the early twentieth century during his British-based from the University of California, Berkeley (1929). In
career. He held a doctorate in mathematics and physical addition to editing the influential Handbook of South
sciences from Jagiellonian University. He went on to study American Indians (1946-1959), Steward conducted field-
anthropology at Leipzig University and at the London work in the American West and exerted considerable
School of Economics. He emphasized extensive field-work, power as an administrator in both government and
conducted, in his case, in what is now Papua New Guinea, academe. He helped to develop the concept of cultural
and among the Trobriand Islanders of the South Pacific. A ecology. He held a variety of prestigious teaching
pioneer of the participant-observer method which requires positions. In his latter career he became interested in
the anthropologist to take an active role in the society he issues of modernization. His biography, Scenes from the
is studying, Malinowski contributed to our understanding High Desert: Julian Stewards Life and Theory was published
of non-Western economic systems such as the famous kula in 2003 by Virginia Kerns.
shell exchange ring. Among his works are The Sexual Life of
Savages (1929), Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922), The Research Institute for the Study of Man (R.I.S.M.)
Coral Gardens and their Magic (1935), Magic, Science, and was founded by Vera D. Rubin in 1955. Rubin and her
Religion . . . (1948), A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term colleagues brought the methodologies of the social
(1961), and The Dynamics of Culture Change: An Inquiry sciences to the study of rapidly changing societies. The
into Race Relations in Africa (1967). There are many book records of the R.I.S.M. are now in New York Universitys
length analyses of Malinowskis life and work. Bobst Library.
13 - Barnes: John V. Murra

There were other instances of indigenous beyond William H. Prescotts 1847 History of the
communities liberating themselves in similar Conquest of Peru? It is clear that in his own
ways. Murra wished to return to Ecuador, base work, Murra did progress beyond that classic.
himself in Otavalo, and use the Otavaleo
experience as his principal example, making Readers of The Economic Organization of the
shorter stays in other Andean communities to Inca State have noted that Murras analytic
study comparable cases. However, Murra was framework seems to owe something to that of
concerned about growing older without a Karl Polanyis40 studies of non-market
doctorate in hand and his passport problems economies (c.f. Van Buren in American
dragged on. Anthropologist 98[2] 1996; Wachtel 1973) who
was at Columbia University when Murra was
Murra had become interested in the Inca in writing his dissertation. Polanyi, Conrad M.
1939-40 when he took a course from Harry Arensberg, and Henry W. Pearson had not yet
Hoijer on Andean civilizations (Murra 1956a:ii). published Trade and Market in the Early Empires
As a graduate student he had presented term (1957) but they, and their students, were laying
papers on Inca social structure and economics. the groundwork for that book in a seminar that
He, therefore, decided to do a library dissertation Polanyi and Arensberg41 taught in the early-to-
on Tawantinsuyu,39 the Inca polity, working in mid 1950s. In the acknowledgments section of
the New York Public Library and incorporating his dissertation Murra states that he attended
only published evidence. Although Murra seems half a dozen meetings of this seminar in 1953-
to have resented this restriction, his 1956
University of Chicago doctoral dissertation, The
Economic Organization of the Inca State was 40
Karl Polanyi (1886-1964) was an economic journalist
immediately recognized as one of the most and theorist, a democratic socialist, and the founder of
important works of synthesis ever written on Substantialism, a school of thought which emphasizes the
Tawantinsuyu. Murra read and interpreted the imbeddedness of economics in the rest of culture. He
obtained a doctor of laws degree from the University of
chronicles of the early colonial Andes with a
Budapest (1908) and was called to the Budapest bar in
fresh perspective. Essentially he reconstructed 1912. Polanyi also studied at the University of Kolosvar in
the Inca economy, elucidating many features Romania. After World War I he was forced to flee from
including modes of production, land tenure, Hungary for political reasons. He worked as a newspaper
labor arrangements, and the extraordinary value man in Vienna from 1924 to 1937. The development of
Austrian Fascism forced him to flee once more, first to
of cloth. In particular, he was able to determine
London, then to North America. He taught at
that the Incas had a redistributive economy, Bennington College (1940-1943) and Columbia
reallocating the production of some segments of University (1947-1953), remaining at Columbia as a
society for the benefit of others. In evaluating a researcher after his formal retirement. His 1944 book, The
depiction of the Inca by another scholar, Murra Great Transformation, an exploration of the emergence of
modern capitalist economies brought him worldwide fame.
sometimes asked the question, Does it go In 1957 he published Trade and Market in Early Empires.
Conrad Maynadier Arensberg (1910-1997) studied
The earliest known recorded use of a term similar to complex societies from an anthropological perspective and
Tawantinsuyu, Taguansuyu, was made in 1577 in a was well-known for his research in Ireland and in New
memorial presented to the Viceroy don Francisco de England. He was educated at Harvard College, obtaining
Toledo. In this context it designated the social and physical both an A.B. (1931) and a Ph.D from that institution
divisions of Cusco, which were projected outwards to (1934). Arensberg taught at M.I.T., Brooklyn College,
encompass territory within 55 kilometers of that city. This Barnard College, and Columbia University. An obituary
document was published by Waldimar Espinoza Soriano in of Arensberg by Lambros Comitas was published in the
the Bulletin de lInstitut Franais dtudes Andines (1977). American Anthropologist (2000).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 14

54 and notes that he found Polanyis studies of Andean cultures. Murra remained a materialist
redistributive systems stimulating (Murra 1956a: and a leftist, although he was no longer a
iv). However, in Nispa Ninchis, a long interview Marxist. The value of studies of non-market
of Murra conducted in 1993 and published in economies was confirmed in 2009 with the
2000, Murra explicitly denies the influence of award of the Nobel Peace Prize to Elinor
Polanyi, except for supplying the term Ostrom for her work on the cooperative
redistribution, and provides an alternate management of shared resources such as
chronology, saying that he heard talks by Polanyi fisheries(see Science 16 October 2009, p. 374).
when he, Murra, was working at the U.N., that is
in 1951, (Castro et al. 2000:93; Murra 1951b, FRIENDS AND FAMILY
1951c, 1951d, 195e, 1951f, 1951g) and that he
attended two of Polanyis seminars after he had In 1940 Murra and Virginia Miller
finished his dissertation, that is, after 1955 or divorced.43 In February 1946 he married
1956 (ibid.; see also Murra 1981b). Polanyi, Elizabeth Ann Tommy Sawyer. That marriage
Arensberg, and Pearson, for their part, in the ended formally in a Mexican divorce in 1958. In
Preface to Trade and Market in the Early Empires 1959 Murra met and formed a romantic
acknowledge Murra as among those who have association with one of his freshman Vassar
contributed ideas and ideals; moral, intellectual, students, the strikingly beautiful debutante
and technical assistance(p. xi). Murra was Laura Rand Orthwein.44 Laura, wishing to free
probably also influenced by Helen Coderes42 herself of a patronymic, adopted part of Murras
now-classic book on the Kwakwakawakw nom de guerre, legally becoming Laura Murra
(Kwakuitl) potlatch, Fighting with Property (1950) from 1963. By the late 1960s she had assumed
in which she noted that the potlatch had the name Laura X. As Laura X she became a
distributing and redistributing functions not well-known feminist writer, editor, and human
however properly called trade (p. 20). rights and anti-Vietnam War activist. In 1968
Nevertheless, the detailed synthesis in Murras she founded the Womens History Research
dissertation of many early sources on the Inca is Center in her Berkeley, California home. The
certainly his own, and his inferences about Inca Center developed an outstanding collection of
economic practices follow logically from that feminist ephemera. She is now once again
synthesis. For many years Murra continued to known as Laura Rand Orthwein and is a major
develop the ideas presented in his dissertation philanthropist in her native St. Louis. In his
and they form the cores of his early articles on diaries Murra referred to Laura as Lilac.
Sometimes he called her his third wife. In his
latter years Murras trusted friend was Judith
Helen Codere (b.1917) earned a B.A. from the Willis, whom he met when she was a secretary
University of Minnesota (1939), and a Ph.D. from at Cornell.
Columbia University (1950). She taught at Columbia and
at the University of Minnesota, joining the Vassar faculty
in 1946. In 1954, on leave from Vassar, she was a visiting
Professor at the University of British Columbia. In 1958 she
was promoted to the rank of Professor. After leaving Vassar 43
she became a dean at Brandeis and is now Professor Letter from Elizabeth Ann Tommy Sawyer Murra to
Emeritus there. Her geographical areas of interest include Henry Heineman, July 30, 1948, Murra NAA.
the Northwest Coast of North America, Iceland, and
Africa, especially Rwanda. She is the author of Fighting with Laura Rand Orthwein, personal communication, 4
Property: A Study of Kwakiutl Potlatching and Warfare 1792- January, 2009; see also letters from Orthwein to Murra
1930 (1950) and Biography of an African Society: Rwanda and from Murra to Orthwein, and photographs of Orth-
1900-1960 . . . (1973). wein, Murra NAA.
15 - Barnes: John V. Murra

Although Murra never formed a nuclear Peruvian anthropologist, poet, and novelist Jos
family of procreation, he filled this gap with many Mara Arguedas, as well as anthropologists and
close and life-long friendships with people historians including Carlos Sempat
including former students who became col- Assadourian,49 Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrn,50 Ruth
leagues, such as Rolena Adorno, Jorge Hidalgo,45 Benedict, Wendell Bennett,51 Thrse Bouysse-
Heather Lechtman (see Lechtmans essay, this
volume, pp. 66-68), Ann Peters,46 Roger Ras-
nake47 and his wife Inge Harman (see Harmans George Urioste, 1991), Los Yumbos, Niguas, y Tsatchila o
Colorados durante la colonia espaola: Etnohistoria del
essay, this volume, pp. 80-82), Frank Salomon Noroccidente de Pichincha (1997), and The Cord Keepers:
(see Salomons essay, this volume, pp. 87-102),48 Khipu and Cultural Life in a Peruvian Village (2004). With
Stewart Schwartz he is the editor of the Cambridge History
of the Native Peoples of the Americas: South America (Prehis-
45 tory and Conquest) (1999).
Jorge Hidalgo Lehued (b. 1942) is a Chilean historian
with an anthropological and international perspective. He 49
Carlos Sempat Assadourian was an Argentinian
holds a doctorate from the University of London and is
Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Humanites of the economic historian who taught in Mexico for many years.
Universidad de Chile (Santiago). His works emphasize the Among his works are El Trfico de esclavos en Crdova
role of indigenous communities, especially of the desertic argentina, 1588-1610 . . . (1965), De la conquista a la
north, in his reconstructions of Chilean colonial history. A independencia (with Guillermo Beato and Jos C. Chiara-
close colleague of John Murra, Hidalgo is the author of monte, 1972), El sistema de la economa colonial: Mercado
Historia andina en Chile (2004), a collection of essays, and interno, regiones y espacio econmico (1982), and Transi-
an editor of Nispa ninchis/decimos diciendo: Conversaciones ciones hasta el sistema colonial andino (1994).
con John Murra (with Victoria Castro and Carlos Aldunate, 50
2000). Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrn (1908-1996) held various
positions in Mexico during the mid-20th century, includ-
46 ing the Mexican sub-secretariate of education, the
Ann Hudson Peters (b. 1955) holds a bachelors degree
in fine arts from Yale University (1979). While studying in directorship of the Instituto Indigenista Interamericano,
Lima on a traveling fellowship she attended a lecture by and the editorship of Amrica Indgena. Under American
John Murra and, inspired by that experience, went to Anthropological Association auspices and with support
Cornell University to obtain her M.A. (1983) and Ph.D. from the Wenner Gren and Ford Foundations, he and
(1997). Her dissertation is entitled Paracas, Topar, and John Murra organized two international conferences on
Early Nasca: Ethnicity and Society on the South Central the relationships between research and anthropological
Andean Coast. She has conducted field research in Perus training in the Americas. The 1967 conference was held
Pisco Valley and in Northern Chile and archival work with in Austria at Burg Wartenstein, the Wenner-Gren
the materials left by Julio C. Tello. She is the author of Foundation European Conference Center from 1958 to
important articles on ancient Andean textiles. 1980, and the 1968 one was held in Mexico (John Victor
Murra c.v. Murra, NAA). Aguirre Beltrn contributed
Roger Neil Rasnake (b. 1951) received his doctorate in greatly to our understanding of the development of
anthropology from Cornell University (1982). He has done anthropology in Mexico. He is the author of numerous
field-work and ethnohistorical research pertinent to the works including Formas de gobierno indgena (1953),
Yura, a Quechua-speaking ethnic group of Bolivia. He is Aguirre Beltrn: Obra polmica (1976), Antropologa medica
the author of Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority (1986, 1994), and Crtica antropolgica (1990).
and Power Among an Andean People (1988) which empha-
sizes the expression of authority through the fiesta system. Wendell [Wendy] C. Bennett (1905-1953) held Ph.B.
He is an expert in cross-cultural and international educa- (1927), M.A. (1929) and Ph.D. (1930) degrees from the
tion. University of Chicago. His dissertation is a comparative
study of Polynesian religious structures. In the early 1930s
Frank Salomon (b. 1946) is the John V. Murra Professor Bennett worked with Robert M. Zingg among Tarahumara
of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Indians of northern Mexico. From this project he formu-
Among his notable publications are Native Lords of Quito in lated an understanding that archaeology and ethnology
the Age of the Incas (1986), The Huarochir Manuscript: A should be done in tandem when possible. In 1931 he
Testament of Ancient and Colonial Andean Religion (with joined the American Museum of Natural History as
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 16

Cassagne52, Jess Contreras Hernndes,53 ric de Hadden,56 Olivia Harris,57 John Hyslop (Murra
Dampierre,54 Pierre Duviols,55 Gordon D. 1994a), Agustn Llagostera,58 Jos Matos Mar,59

Assistant Curator of Ethnology and continued a program of

research in Andean archaeology established by his prede- Hautes tudes. In 1993-94 he was a scholar at The Getty
cessor, Ronald L. Olsen. Bennett made many major field Center. He takes an interdisciplinary approach to his
trips to the Andes during the 1930s and .40s, excavating at research, combining anthropology and history in the
Tiwanaku and Chiripa, in Bolivia, and in the Vir and study of Andean religious culture. His books include
Lambeyeque Valleys, and at the sites of Chavn and Wari Dioses y hombres de Huarochir (with Jos Mara Arguedas,
in Peru. He also excavated in Venezuela, Colombia, and 1966), La lutte contre les religions autochthones du Prou
Ecuador. In 1938, after holding a post at the Bishop colonial: Lextirpation de lidoltrie entre 1535 et 1660
Museum in Hawaii, he became an Associate Professor at (1971), and Procesos y Visitas de Idolatras: Cajatambo, siglo
the University of Wisconsin and in 1940 moved to Yale. A XVII (2003).
short obituary of Bennett by Irving Rouse appears in
American Antiquity (1954). Another by Alfred Kidder II, Gordon D. Hadden (b. 1932) was a curator at what is
and a poem dedicated to Bennett by Eugene Davidson were now the Science Museum of Minnesota. After working at
published in the American Anthropologist (1954). Hanuco with John Murra and assisting in the reconstruc-
tion there, in 1967 Hadden participated in the reconstruc-
52 tion of the Ecuadorian Inca site of Ingapirca.
Thrse Bouysse-Cassagne is a historian and a Director
of Research at the Sorbonne and a member of the Institut
Franais d tudes Andines. She has contributed to our Olivia Harris (1943-2009) studied anthropology at the
understanding of the indigenous and Mestizo cultures of London School of Economics. At the time of her death
Lake Titicaca, especially in terms of religious syncretism. she was a Professor at that institution. Previously she
She is the author of La identidad Aymara: Aproximacin taught at the University of Londons Goldsmith College
histrica, siglos XV-XVI (1987), Lluvias y cenizas: Dos where she co-founded the Anthropology Department. Her
pachacuti en la historia (1999) and has edited Saberes y main research area was highland Bolivia. She explored
memorias en los Andes (1997) in memory of Thierry Saignes issues of gender, households, kinship, feminist theory, law,
(see note 66). She is also, with Tristan Platt and Olivia economic anthropology, symbolism and ritual, as well as
Harris, an author of QaraqaraCharka: Mallku, inka y rey the nature of historical time and change. She was the
en la Provincia de Charcas, siglos XV-XVII; Historia author of To Make the Earth Bear Fruit: Essays on Fertility,
antropolgica de una confederacin aymara (2006). Work, and Gender in Highland Bolivia (2000). See note 52
for another of her major published works.
Jess Contreras Hernndes (b. 1946) is a Spanish
historian. He is the author of Subsistencia, ritual y poder en Augustn Llagostera Martnez obtained an under-
los Andes (1985), Identidad tnica y movimientos indios: La graduate degree in biology from the Universidad de Chile
cara india, la cruz de 92 (1988), Los retos de la inmigracin: (1967), studied archaeology at the Universidad Nacional
Racismo y pluriculturalidad (1994), and La gestin comunal de San Antonio Abad del Cusco (1973), and obtained his
recursos: Economa y poder en los sociedades locales de Espaa doctorate in anthropology from the Centro de Investi-
y de Amrica Latina (with Marie-Nolle Chamoux, 1996), gaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologa, Mexico
among other works. (1984). He is now retired from the Instituto de Investi-
gacin Arqueolgico and the museum in San Pedro de
54 Atacama. He is a specialist in the early cultures of Chile.
ric de Dampierre (1928-1998) was one of the most
important French sociologists of the generation after the His published works include his doctoral dissertation
Second World War and the founder of the Maison Ren- Formaciones pescadoras prehispnicas en la costa del Desierto
Ginouvs de lArchologie et Ethnologie, part of the de Atacama (1984).
Universit de Paris and supported by the Centre Nacional
de Recherche Scientifique. He conducted field research in Jos Matos Mar (b. 1921) was born in Coracora, Aya-
Central Africa. He was deeply influenced by the two years cucho. He studied at the cole Practique des Hautes
he spent at the University of Chicago as a member of the tudes de la Universit de Paris and the Universidad
Committee on Social Thought. Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Lima) where he obtained
a doctorate in anthropology (1958). He was Chairman of
Pierre Duviols is a Professor at the Universit de the San Marcos Anthropology Department from 1950 to
Provence and Director of Studies at the cole Practique des 1969 and Director of the Instituto de Estudios Peruanos
17 - Barnes: John V. Murra

Craig Morris (Lynch and Barnes, Andean Past 8), Ruggero Romano,65 Thierry Saignes,66 Ana-
Sidney Mintz,60 Antoinette Molini,61 Pierre Mara Soldi,67 and Enriqueta Vila Vilar68. Also
Morlon,62 Franklin Pease,63 Tristan Platt,64

Historical Review (2000). Pease published general histories

from 1964 to 1984, as well as the Director of the Instituto of Peru and editions of important chroniclers.
Indigenista Interamericano in Mexico City from 1989 to
1995. He was one of Peruvian President Alan Garcias Tristan Platt (b. 1944), the director of the Centre for
advisors during his first term (1985-1989) and has held a Amerindian Studies and a Reader at the University of St.
number of important posts in his adopted Mexico. Matos Andrews, Fife, Scotland, is an interdisciplinarian who has
Mar has published more than twenty books including Per done extensive ethnographic, enthnohistorical, and socio-
problema (1969), Desborde popular y crisis de estado (1984), linguistic work in Andean countries, especially Bolivia. He
Poblacin y grupos tnicos de Amrica (1994). has lived with the Macha Ayllu in northern Potos and has
published on peasants and markets, economic space, state
60 and society, mining, shamanism, and methods of child-
Sidney Wilfred Mintz (b. 1922), a student of Julian
Steward and Ruth Benedict at Columbia, is an American birth, among other broad and varied topics. See note 52
anthropologist known both for field-work in the Caribbean for one of his major recent works.
and for historical research on the global commercial roots
of agro-industrial rural society. He taught at Yale (1951-74) Ruggero Romano (1923-2002) was, for many years,
and then helped found the Anthropology Department at Director of Studies at the cole dtudes des Sciences
Johns Hopkins. He is the author of Caribbean Transforma- Sociales and was a member of the Annales school of
tions (1974), An Anthropological Approach to the Afro- history which elucidates the social and economic life of
American Past (with Richard Price, 1976), and Sweetness the past through statistics and everyday documents. He
and Power: the Place of Sugar in Modern History (1985), studied the European and Latin American economies
among many other works. from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. Among his
published works is Conjonctures opposes: La ?Crise du
61 XVIIe sicle en Europe et en Amerique ibrique (1992).
Antoinette Molini (b. 1946) is Research Director at
the Maison Ren-Ginouvs de lArchologie et Ethnologie.
She specializes in the study of traditional Andean societies. Thierry Saignes was a French historian who
She has conducted field-work in the Cusco region, in the concentrated on the Andes. Among his works are Los
Chancay Valley, and at Ambana in Bolivia. Currently she Andes orientales: Historia de un olvido (1985).
works in Andalucia where she applies Freudian psychology
to the analysis of culture. Among her published works are AnaMara Soldi (1919-2009) studied chemistry at the
La valle sacre des Andes (1982), Mmoire de la tradition Universit di Genoa. A long time resident at the Ocucaje
(with Aurore Becquelin, 1993), Le corps de Dieu en ftes vineyard in the Ica Valley, Peru, she developed a deep
(1996), and Les no-Indiens: Une religion du IIIe millnaire knowledge of the archaeology of Perus South Coast. She
(with Jacques Galinier, 2006). published Chacras excavadas en el desierto (1979) on the
prehistoric system of sunken field agriculture and edited
Pierre Morlon (b. 1948) is an agronomist at the Institut Tecnologa en el mundo andino (with Heather Lechtman,
Nacional de la Recherche Agronomique, France who has 1981). Soldi was a steadfast colleague of Lechtman, Craig
conducted research in Senegal, Peru, and France. His Morris, Murra, and Mara Rostworowski, and, for more
varied interests include solar energy, the archaeology of than fifty years, of many other scholars of the Andean
households, and adult literacy in indigenous languages. He region.
is the editor of Comprendre lagriculture paysanne dans les
andes centrales (1992) and the author of La troublante 68
Enriqueta Vila Vilar obtained a doctorate from the
histoire de la jachre: Pratiques des cultivateurs, concepts de Universidad de Sevilla (1972). She is a research professor
lettrs et enjeux sociaux, with F. Sigaut, 2008). of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas at
the Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, Seville. She
Franklin Pease Garca Yrigoyen (1939-1999) was a has concentrated on colonial Spanish America. Among
Peruvian historian born into a privileged background. He her works are a series of publications of letters from the
was educated at the Universidad Pontificia Catlica del cabildos of Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama and Aspectos
Per in history and law. An obituary of Franklin Pease by sociales en Amrica colonial: De extranjeros, contrabando, y
Noble David Cook appears in the Hispanic American esclavos (2001).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 18

among Murras close friends were his fellow terms of Murras life and thought, but also for
Spanish Civil War veterans Harry Fischer and those of the many well-known anthropologists
anthropologists ngel Palerm,69 and Elman R. who were in communication with Murra over a
Service.70 Murra preserved numerous letters to span of some seventy years.
and from these scholars and others. The bulk are
in the Smithsonian Institutions National VASSAR COLLEGE YEARS
Anthropological Archives, while others are in
the Anthropology Division of the American Murra left Puerto Rico and worked as a
Museum of Natural History, and in private lecturer at Brooklyn College during the 1949-50
hands. These letters are important not only in academic year. In 1950 Murra was hired as a
lecturer in anthropology by Vassar College, then
an academically and socially exclusive insti-
ngel Palerm (1917-1980) arrived in Mexico in 1939. tution emphasizing the liberal arts education of
There he studied, and worked as a field assistant for undergraduate women. Murra was to fill in for
archaeologist and I.A.R. member Isabel Truesdale Kelly Dorothy Lee who was on leave.71 In the
and became her co-author. He worked for the Pan-Ameri- Department of Economics, Sociology, and
can Union/Organization of American States in Washing-
ton, D.C. in their publications program. After leaving the Anthropology he first taught general courses
O.A.S. he spent a year in Peru. He returned to Mexico that had already been established. Murras
where he became a professor at the Escuela Nacional de intellectual interests made him a good fit in a
Antropologa e Historia and the Universidad Ibero- department dominated by economics. Likewise,
americana where he founded the Anthropology Depart-
time spent during the early 1950s in close
ment. He founded the Centro de Investigaciones Su-
periores at Mexicos Instituto Nacional de Antropologa y contact with an economics faculty probably
Historia (now the Centro de Investigacin de Estudios Su- helped to shape the orientation of Murras
periores de Antropologa Social), as well as the Anthropol- dissertation which he was preparing at the time.
ogy Departments of the Universidad Autnoma Ixtapalapa
and the Colegio de Michoacn. His major works on
Murras Vassar courses included the inter-
prehispanic irrigation civilizations including Obras hidru-
licas prehispnicas en el sistema lacustre del Valle de Mxico mediate level Cultural Anthropology, that he
(1973) are still frequently cited. Among his other notable co-taught at first with Helen Codere. This is
works are Antropologa y marxismo (1980) and Historia de la described in the 1950-1951 catalogue number of
etnologa: Los precursores (1973). In many ways Palerm the Bulletin of Vassar College as a study of
personified Murras ideal of an anthropologist who followed
primitive social groups. The nature of culture.
Marxs advice in founding institutions to insure the contin-
uance of the discipline.

70 71
Elman R. Service (1915-1996) graduated from the Dorothy Demedracapoulou Lee (1906-1975), a Greek
University of Michigan. He earned his Ph.D. at Columbia immigrant to the United States, graduated from Vassar
University (1951) and taught there until 1953. He taught College (1927). She taught there from 1939 until 1953
at Michigan from 1953 until 1969 and at the University of when she left to teach at the Merrill Parker School in
California, Santa Barbara from 1969 until retirement in Detroit which she helped to found, and where she re-
1985. Services research included Latin American Indian mained until 1959. At Harvard from 1959 to 1961, she
ethnology, cultural evolution, and method and theory. He helped to establish the Freshman Seminar Program. She
developed theories on social systems and the rise of the was married to Vassar philosophy professor Otis Hamilton
state. Among his books are Spanish-Guarani Relations in Lee. A member of the Culture-Personality school of
Early Colonial Paraguay (1954), Tobati: Paraguayan Town anthropology, she specialized in the cultures of American
(with Helen S. Service, 1954), A Profile of Primitive Culture Indians and in issues concerning women, education, and
(1958), Profiles in Ethnology (1963), Cultural Evolutionism: family life, as well as in Greek folklore. She is the author
Theory in Practice (1971), Origins of the State and Civiliza- of Freedom and Culture (1959), a collection of her essays.
tion: The Process of Cultural Evolution (1975), and A Century For an obituary see the April 20, 1975 issue of The New
of Controversy: Ethnological Issues from 1860 to 1960 (1985). York Times.
19 - Barnes: John V. Murra

Social and economic aspects of subsistence, U.N.s early years it had very high levels of
kinship, and marriage. Murra also taught popular and international governmental sup-
advanced courses including Language, Myth, port. Many prominent Africans and Afro-
and Society, which explored concepts and Americans worked on U.N. sponsored projects
values as reflected in the language and myth- and Murra had the opportunity to come to
ology of different primitive groups. Relative know some of them personally, including his
status of animistic and mechanistic attitudes, supervisor, Ralph Bunche. 73 Murras
magic and science, knowledge and belief (ibid.). commitment to improved civil rights for Afro-
Murra was sometimes responsible for another Americans enhanced his interest in their
advanced course, Primitive Society which ancestral homelands. As with his field-work in
included Discussion of different approaches to Ecuador, Murra took a brief practical
the study of society. An intensive study of certain experience, combined it with the anthropology
societies with a view to discovering their basic courses he had taken from Radcliffe-Brown in
values and their relation to our own society Chicago in 1935 and 1936 and his own
(ibid). Cultural Dynamics, the only course prodigious reading in multiple languages, and
mentioned in the catalogue which specifically began to present himself as an expert, in this
dealt with ancient Peru, was taught by Helen case on African affairs.74
Codere, until the 1955-56 academic year when
Murra taught it. In a c.v. prepared in the late For a while Murra maintained his active
1960s Murra stated that he taught an Inca course interest in the Caribbean. In the summer of
at Vassar (c.v. Murra, NAA). Perhaps he is 1953, accompanied by Tommy Sawyer Murra,
referring to Cultural Dynamics. he worked for Sidney Mintz and Yale University
in Jamaica. After their work was completed the
During six months of 1951 Murra worked as Murras went to Cuba (intending to visit Ernest
a United Nations Economic Affairs Officer and Hemingway who proved to be off the island)
Africa Area Specialist in the Trusteeship Di- and on to Yucatan to visit Maya sites, and then
vision, helping to resolve issues of African land to Mexico City to visit ngel Palerm (Castro et
tenure and decolonization. Although he had al. 2000:42-43). This was Murras first trip to
never been to that continent, he at least had the
advantage of being untainted by colonial
involvements. Also in 1951 he was employed as 73
Ralph Johnson Bunche (1903-1971) was an Afro-
a consultant by Stringfellow Barrs72 Foundation American Marxist political scientist, educator, and
for World Government. His time at the U.N. diplomat and a holder of the Nobel Peace Prize for his
proved to be another pivotal experience. In the mediation in Palestine, as well as a recipient of the
presidential Medal of Freedom. He helped to found and
administer the United Nations and was active in the cause
of Afro-American civil rights. Bunche earned a B.A. from
72 the University of California Los Angeles (1927), and a
Stringfellow Barr (1897-1982) was a historian and
president of St. Johns College, Annapolis, Maryland, and masters degree(1928) and doctorate (1934) from Har-
founder and President (1948-1958) of the Foundation for vard. Bunche chaired the department of political science
World Government, as well as a developer of the Great at Howard University (1928-1950), taught at Harvard
Books Curriculum. He was an editor of the Virginia Quar- (1950-1952), and was a member of the New York City
terly Review (1931-1937). Among his books are The Will of Board of Education (1958-1964).
Zeus . . . (1961) and The Mask of Jove . . . (1966), studies of
ancient Greek and Roman culture, and, with Stella Stan- Anon. 1951b, 1951c, 1951d, 1951e, 1951f, 1951g,
dard, The Kitchen Garden Book . . ., a guide to growing and 1954b, 1956c, 1957b, 1960a, 1961b, 1961c, 1961e; Murra
cooking vegetables. He also published a novel, Purely 1951b, 1951c, 1951d, 1951e, 1951f, 1951g, 1954a, 1955a,
Academic (1958). Barr advocated tolerance of Communism. 1955c, 1955g, 1955h, 1956b.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 20

Mexico. At that time it was possible for United overthrown until the late nineteenth century
States citizens to go to that country without a reflected a pre-European, pre-Capitalist, and
passport. preliterate past (Murra in Rowe 1984:641).
However, the extensive international slave
Murra returned to teaching at Vassar in trade had enmeshed African societies with
1954. Around this time he began to collaborate European, Islamic, and American colonial
with Vassar professor, David Lowenthal, and economies for centuries.
other members of the geography, economics,
anthropology, sociology, history, and political The version of this course that Murra
science faculty in teaching Geography 208, an presented at Vassar suggested Africa as a possi-
interdepartmental area study course focusing on ble home of the human species, and surveyed
the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. This the ecology, languages, and biology of that
course was offered in the spring of 1953, and in continent. Topics included East and South
the 1953-1954, and 1954-1955 academic years African pastoralism, the lineage, age sets and
according to various catalogue numbers of the their meaning for political organization among
Bulletin of Vassar College.75 the Masai, Nuer, Nyakyusa, and Zulu, as well as
state formation in East and South Africa as
During the 1956-57 academic year, Murra found among the Nuer, Ankole, Ganda,
initiated a course at Vassar on The African Rwanda, Garotse, and Zulu peoples. The matri-
Heritage, described in that years catalogue as lineal belt of Central Africa was discussed with
A survey of a series of African cultures south of the Mayombe-Kongo, Bemla, and Ila cultures as
the Sahara; their history, characteristic social exemplars. European settlement and its con-
structures and value systems; the transfer of sequences in East and Central Africa was
African institutions and arts to the New World another broad topic covered using the work of
and the changes they have undergone in Brazil, Godfrey Wilson,76 Monica Hunter Wilson,77
the Caribbean and the United States. Murra
had previously taught a course on Africa in
Chicago in 1944 (Murra in Rowe 1984:841) and 76
Godfrey Wilson (1908-1944) was a British social
it was in that context that he met Tommy anthropologist who studied change in Africa. He received
Sawyer. This course became the basis for other a degree in classics from Oxford University (1931). He
studied under Bronislaw Malinowski at the London
courses on Africa that Murra taught at the
School of Economics and married Monica Hunter (note
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos 77). In Tanganyika he worked with the Nyakyusa-
(Lima), at the Universidad de Puerto Rico, and Ngonde. He was the first director of the Rhodes-Living-
at the Universit de Paris, at Columbia stone Institute, an anthropological institution in what was
University, and at the New School for Social then Northern Rhodesia. With Hunter he wrote The
Analysis of Social Change Based on Observations in Central
Research (Murra in Rowe 1984:641). Africa Africa (1945). He served in the South African Medical
interested Murra in part because he believed that Corps during World War II and committed suicide while
early twentieth century field studies of that on active service.
continents native kingdoms that had not been
Monica Hunter Wilson (1908-1982) was a South
African social anthropologist who conducted field-work
among the Pondo, a Xhosa group. She spoke Xhosa since
According to Lowenthals recollection, his collaboration childhood and was, for many years Professor of Social
with Murra began in January, 1953 (David Lowenthal, Anthropology at the University of Capetown. Monica
personal communication to Heather Lechtman, 11 June Wilson and her husband Godfrey Wilson were members
2009). However, this chronology conflicts with c.v.s Murra of Malinowskis seminar at the London School of Econom-
prepared in the 1960s (see note 86). ics. Her major work is Reaction to Conquest (1936). She is
21 - Barnes: John V. Murra

Peter Abrahams,78 Julius Lewin,79 and Ellen as seen by Max Gluckman,81 A. L. Epstein,82 J.
Hellmann80 as sources. African law and litigation B. Danquah,83

Max Gluckman (1911-1975) was a South African born
British social anthropologist who had been a Rhodes
Scholar at Oxford University. He was the second director
also the author of The Analysis of Social Change, Communal
of the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute (after Godfrey Wil-
Rituals among the Nyakyusa (1959), Langa: A Study of Social
son, see note 76) and the first Professor of Social Anthro-
Groups in an African Township (with Archie Mafeje, 1963),
pology at the University of Manchester. He founded the
and the editor of The Oxford History of South Africa (with
Manchester School of anthropology which emphasized
Leonard Monteith Thompson, 1969).
case studies. He is the author of Custom and Conflict
(1955), African Traditional Law in Historical Perspective
Peter Abrahams (b. 1919) is a South African novelist. (1974), and Economy of the Central Barotse Plain (1968),
His books include Mine Boy (1946), Tell Freedom (1954), among other work. He was a Structural-Functionalist, a
and The View from Coyaba (1985), among others. Marxist, and active in the African independence struggle.
79 82
Julius Lewin was a lawyer and Senior Lecturer in Native Arnold Leonard (Bill) Epstein (1924-1999) was a
Law and Administration at the University of Witwaters- Jewish-British anthropologist who worked in Africa,
rand. He was a liberal Jewish opponent of the South particularly in the copper belt of what is now Zambia, as
African apartheid regime. He is the author of various books well as in Melanesia. Educated first in the law, he ob-
and pamphlets on race relations and inequality in Africa tained a doctorate from the University of Manchester.
including The Colour Bar in the Copper Belt (1941), Studies Early in his career he was a Functionalist, but later he
in African Native Law (1947), Politics and Law in South began to appreciate the role of individual emotions and
Africa: Essays on Race Relations (1963), and The Struggle for representations. He was a member of the Manchester
Racial Equality (1967). Like Murra, Lewin wrote for The School of anthropology (see note 81) and, from 1950 to
Nation. 1955 he was associated with the Rhodes-Livingstone
Institute. He studied issues of urban and rural life, law
Ellen Hellmann (1908-1982) was the first woman to courts, trade unionism, black-white relations, and mining.
obtain a D.Phil. from the University of Witwatersrand He is the editor of The Craft of Social Anthropology (1967).
(1940). Her thesis is entitled Early School Leaving Among His book, Mantupit: Land, Politics and Change among the
African School Children and the Occupational Opportunities Tolai of New Britain (1967) was a result of his Melanesian
Open to the African Juveniles. She was a Zionist-Socialist and field-work. An interview of Epstein is in Current Anthro-
the author of numerous studies of race relations in South pology (1997) and an obituary by Moshe Shokeid appears
Africa including Rooiyard: A Sociological Study of an Urban in the American Anthropologist (2000).
Native Slum Yard (1948) based on field-work conducted in
Johannesburg, South Africa in 1933, Handbook of Race Joseph Kwame Kyeretwi Boakye Danquah (1895-
Relations in South Africa (with Leah Abrahams, 1949), The 1965) was a Ghanaian statesman, nationalist, and writer.
Application of the Concept of Separate Development to Urban He was a descendant of Akan royalty. He held a doctorate
Areas (1961), The Impact of City Life on Africans (1963), from the University of London. Danquah died in a
and Conflict and Progress: Fifty Years of Race Relations in Ghanaian prison where he had been incarcerated for
South Africa . . . (with Henry Lever, 1979). She realized the political reasons. He is the author of Gold Coast Akan
importance of combining diachronic studies with function- Laws and Customs and the Akim Abuakwa Constitution
alism in order to understand migrant communities. (1928) and Akan Doctrine of God (1944).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 22

T. O. Elias,84 and Julius Lewin were included in religions and cosmologies rounded out the
the course, as was a consideration of West Africa course, along with an exploration of the
as a center of plant domestication. The shift to African heritage in the New World (course
agriculture practiced by males, and surplus and syllabus, Murra, NAA). Although this course
redistributive economies in forest and savanna appears to have been a thorough introduction to
ecozones were the foci of other lessons. The African ethnology, human ecology, and ethno-
West African history of state formation, with history, it would be daunting for a scholar with
emphasis on the army and warfare, was another decades of practical experience in Africa to
topic with the examples of ancient Ghana and attempt such a panorama. For someone with
Timbuktu, as well as the Fulani, Hausa, Ashanti, Murras limited experience, it was a feat of
Benin, Yoruba, and Dahomey. There was breathtaking intellectual daring.
consideration of the Ewe and Ibo, stateless West
African groups presented from the perspective of Murra remained on the Vassar faculty, with
Cheikh Anta Diop.85 Dogon, Nupe, and Nuer gaps, until 1963. He taught there in the 1950-51
academic year, and, nominally, from spring of
1954 to 1963.86 Murra often expressed appre-
Taslim Olawale Elias (1914-1994) was a distinguished
Nigerian jurist and pan-Africanist. He received LL.B.
(1946), LL.M. (1947), Ph.D. (1949), and LL.D. (1962) thesis, first presented in 1951, argues that Pharaonic Egypt
degrees from the University of London. He was called to was a black culture. It remains an influential work in the
the bar in Londons Inner Temple in 1947. In 1951, while Black Pride movement. Diops book Nations ngres et
holding a UNESCO fellowship, he became a research fellow culture (1955) is based on that thesis. He established a
and instructor in anthropology at Manchester University. radiocarbon laboratory at the University of Dakar (now
In 1954 he became a research fellow at Oxford University. the Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar). Among his
In 1956, as a visiting professor, he was instrumental in many works are The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or
developing an African Studies Department at the Reality (1974), The Cultural Unity of Black Africa . . .
University of Delhi, India. He was a governor of the School (1978), Civilisation ou barbarie: Antropologie sans com-
of African and Oriental Studies (London) and a professor plaisance (1981), and the chapter on ancient Egypt in the
and dean at the University of Lagos. In the late 1950s he UNESCO General History of Africa (1981-). Diop de-
helped to draft Nigerias independence constitution and in nounced racial biases and believed that there were broad
1961-62 the constitution of Congo. He was the first patterns of African cultural unity. He argued that all lan-
attorney general of Nigeria, chief justice of the Supreme guages could develop scientific terminology and translated
Court of Nigeria, and a president of the International Court Albert Einsteins Theory of Relativity into the Wolof
of Justice (World Court). He was the author of Nigerian language, Diops mother tongue.
Land Law and Custom (1951), Groundwork of Nigerian Law
(1954), Makers of Nigerian Law (1956), the Nature of 86
Although Heather Lechtman remembers Murra
African Customary Law (1956), and Africa and the teaching at Vassar during her freshman year, 1952-53
Development of International Law (1972). He valued both (personal communication, 11 December 2008), the
British and traditional African law, believed that law documentary record at Vassar suggests he was not teach-
evolved in tandem with social development, and advocated ing there from fall of 1951 through fall 1953. In a to
hybrid systems. He contributed to the development of whom it may concern letter in Spanish setting out his
concepts of a non-Eurocentric international law. In his professional qualifications and experience, dated 17 June
writings Elias romanticized the medieval African empires of 1964, Murra describes himself as a professor (catedrtico)
Songhai and Timbuktu. on leave (con licencia) from Vassar College when he
worked for the United Nations in 1951 (Hanuco Project
Cheikh Anta Diop (1923-1986) was a Senegalese files, Junius B. Bird Laboratory of South American Ar-
historian, anthropologist, physicist, and politician. He chaeology, Anthropology Division, American Museum of
studied pre-colonial African culture and is one of the most Natural History, hereinafter Hanuco Files, A.M.N.H.).
influential African intellectuals of the twentieth century. In At the time Murra had been a part-time lecturer whose
Paris he studied physics under Frdric Joliot-Curie, son-in- contract had not been renewed. Up until the late 1960s,
law of Pierre and Marie Curie. Diops 1960 Paris doctoral in a series of dated c.v.s which form part of the Murra
23 - Barnes: John V. Murra

ciation to Vassar for having supported him at a Ethnohistorical Uses of the XVIth Century
time in his life when his Communist background Sources on Inca Social and Economic Organ-
and citizenship problems increased his diffi- ization at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de
culties in finding employment. However, by the San Marcos in Lima.88 Up to this point Murra
time Vassar hired Murra he was already a United had had little opportunity to work with un-
States citizen, and his Vassar contract was published archival sources himself, although he
apparently not renewed during the worst years of saw the potential and had subjected available
McCarthyism. Murra encouraged student published sources to close readings. Attending
interest in politics from a leftist perspective, his classes were many individuals who later
giving his favorites subscriptions to The Nation as became famous archaeologists or historians and
graduation presents (Murra 1958d). These gifts close colleagues of Murras, including Duccio
were well in accord with Vassars liberal political Bonavia,89 Lus Lumbreras,90 Ramiro Matos
culture. Concurrently with his work at Vassar
Murra taught at Columbia University in the
spring of 1954-55, at Fordham University in the
summer of 1954, and at the New School for
Social Research in 1958-59. At Columbia he
presented a course on the peoples of the Andes
(Murra 1956a: iv).

In 1958 and 1959, with his passport in hand,

and on leave from Vassar, Murra conducted
ethnological and ethnohistorical work in Peru. This is according to typed notes, presumably by John V.
Murra, in the John Victor Murra File, Vassar College.
He was joined in Lima by Harriett Davis (now
Harriett Haritos) after her 1959 graduation with 89
Duccio Bonavia (b. 1935) is an Italian-Peruvian
a major in anthropology. Davis had previously archaeologist. He has investigated bioarchaeological topics
worked with Murra in Martinique in 1957 including the introduction and development of maize in
(Harriett Davis Haritos, personal commu- South America and the domestication of camelids.
nication, 15 June 2009). Davis later obtained a Among his books are Arqueologa de Lurn (1965), Ricchata
quellccani: Pinturas murales prehispnicas (1974) published
masters degree in anthropology from Columbia
in English as Mural Painting in Ancient Peru (1985), Los
University. In the 1959-60 academic year Murra Gavilanes: Mar, desierto, y osis en la historia del hombre
did additional archival research in Lima. During (1982), and Per, hombre y historia: De los origines al siglo
this period Murra taught a general course, The XV (1991).
Economic Organization of the Inca State, based 90
on his dissertation87 and an advanced seminar, Lus Guillermo Lumbreras (b. 1936) received both a
bachelors degree and a doctorate from the Universidad
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. He established Perus first
Social Sciences faculty at Ayacuchos Universidad San
Papers in the National Anthropological Archive, Murra Cristbal de Huamanga during the 1960s and later helped
stated that from 1951 through 1953 he worked full-time on to establish a similar unit at the Universidad Nacional
his doctoral dissertation and then resumed teaching at Mayor de San Marcos. Among his achievements are the
Vassar in 1954. However, at some point in the late 1960s construction of a cultural-chronological framework for
he began to list his time at Vassar as continuous from 1951 Peruvian prehistory and the development of social archae-
to 1963 and he omitted the detail that he had first been ology, a Marxist analysis which relates the Andean past to
hired as an adjunct lecturer. the political present. He has held many important museum
and teaching posts within and beyond Peru. Among his
To whom it may concern letter by John V. Murra, 17 main publications are La arqueologa como ciencia social
June 1964, Hanuco Files, A.M.N.H. (1981) and Chavn: Excavaciones arqueolgicas (2007).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 24

Mendieta.91 Franklin Pease, and Mara Rostwo- elite was thrilled by Huxleys visit and relished
rowski. Murra considered Rostworowski to be the opportunity to learn from him. By contrast,
the most imaginative Andean scholar in the use Murra had no such illustrious family
of ethnohistorical records whose earliest work connections, and had not yet fully developed
is full of insights (Murra in Rowe 1984:640). In the expertise that would make him famous.
Cusco Murra interacted with many exceptional Nevertheless, Murra undertook to educate an
people including archaeologists Richard Schaedel unwilling Huxley about the Inca (Alita Kelley,
(see Dillehay, Andean Past 8) and John Howland personal communication 19 April 2009).
Rowe (see Burger, Andean Past 8), as well as
prominent writer Aldous Huxley (1894-1963). In 1960 Murra also spent a few weeks in the
Huxley was then near the end of his life, but at Archivo General de Indias in Seville. In 1961 he
the height of his fame and powers, and was taught under Organization of American States
considered by many to be something of a guru. auspices at Mexicos Escuela Nacional de
His extended family, for at least four generations, Antropologa e Historia. From 1961 to 1963 he
had been deeply entwined into the bedrock taught at Yale as a visiting professor, offering a
supporting Britains literary, scientific, course on Andean anthropology. It was at
educational, and religious communities.92 Cuscos Vassar, however, that Murra attracted his first
principal students who went on to careers in
anthropology. These include Heather Lechtman
Ramiro Matos Mendieta (b. 1937), a native Quechua (Vassar class of 1956), then a physics major with
speaker, is currently Curator for Latin America at the a keen interest in anthropology, and now
Smithsonians National Museum of the American Indian.
Professor of Archaeology and Ancient
He obtained his doctorate in 1962 from Universidad Na-
cional Mayor de San Marcos where he taught from 1970 to Technology and Director of the Center for
1988 and is now a professor emeritus. Matos has conducted Materials Research in Archaeology and
archaeological and ethnological research in Peru, Ecuador, Ethnology (CMRAE) at the Massachusetts
Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. Among his publications are Institute of Technology (M.I.T.). Immediately
Pumpu: Centro administrativo inka en la Puna de Junn, Per
after graduation Lechtman won a Vassar grant
(1994) and Prehispanic Settlement Patterns in the Upper
Mantaro and Tarma Drainages, Junn, Peru (with Jeffrey to spend the summer with Murra and Davis in
Parsons and Charles Hastings, 2000). Martinique, as a participant in the Research
and Training Program for the Study of Man in
One of Aldous Huxleys maternal great grandfathers was the Tropics (Vassar College press release
Thomas Arnold (1795-1842), a famous headmaster of
February 13, 1956).
Rugby School. One of his maternal uncles was poet
Matthew Arnold (1822-1888). Another was literary scholar
Tom Arnold (1823-1900). Aldous Huxleys maternal aunt, Another of Murras Vassar students who
Mary Augusta Arnold Ward (1851-1920) became famous went on to a successful career in anthropology is
as the novelist Mrs. Humphrey Ward. Aldous Huxleys archaeologist Nan Rothschild, a member of the
paternal grandfather, Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895)
was Charles Darwins famous defender. His father, Leonard
Vassar class of 1959.93 At Vassar Rothschild
Huxley (1860-1933), was an educator and biographer.
Aldous Huxleys brother, Julian Huxley (1887-1957), and
half-brother, Andrew Huxley (b. 1917) became famous as historian Stephen Runciman (1930-2000).
biologists. Another half-brother, jurist David Bruce Huxley
(1915-1992) compiled and revised the laws of Bermuda. Anita (Nan) Askin Rothschild (b. 1938) was awarded
Aldous Huxleys son, Matthew Huxley (1920-2005) was an a doctorate from New York University in 1975. She taught
educator, epidemiologist, and anthropologist. Author at Barnard College from 1981 to 2007 and is now director
Elspeth Huxley (1907-1997) was a cousin by marriage. of Museum Studies at Columbia University. She has done
Among Aldous Huxleys early students were novelist prehistoric, historic, and ethno-archaeology in New York
George Orwell (Eric Blair, 1903-1950) and medieval City and in New Mexico. She has also worked with
25 - Barnes: John V. Murra

worked as Murras office assistant for two and a (Sandweiss, Andean Past 3), informal student
half years. She recalls him as a charismatic Csar Fonseca,97 Inge Harman, Enrique Meyer,98
teacher who treated students as professionals, Patricia Netherly (see Netherly this volume, pp.
encouraging them to attend American Anthro- 72-73), Roger Rasnake, Frank Salomon, Izumi
pological Association meetings and conduct Shimada99, and Freda Wolf (see Wolf, this
field-work. Murra also contributed to anthro- volume, pp. 69-72).
pology at Vassar by inviting speakers to campus
and organizing an anthropology club called
Ohemaa after a Ghanaian term for queen Quechua and Aymara speaker, and Roman Catholic
mother the woman who sits behind the throne priest. Among his many publications are works on bilin-
and advises the king (Rothschild, personal gual education, politics, ethnic relations, Quechua and
Aymara language and literature, kinship, and aspects of
communication, 19 June 2009). At Vassar Murra Bolivian history.
also taught Janet Mathews Fitchen.94
Csar Fonseca Martel (1933-1986) obtained a doctor-
Later, at Cornell, Murras well-known ate from the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos
students included, in addition to Denise (1972) where he taught. He worked with John Murra
informally at the Smithsonian, and at Cornell University,
OBrien95 who also studied with him at Vassar, as well as during the Hunuco Project. He was an eco-
Javier Alb,96 Rolena Adorno, Martha Anders nomic anthropologist who developed John Murras
theories of verticality. From 1968 to 1985 he worked with
his friend Enrique Mayer (see note 98) in Chaupiwaranga,
Caete, Tulumayo, and Paucartambo, Peru, studying
museum collections. Among her major works are New York Andean systems of production, forms of exchange, and
City Neighborhoods: The Eighteenth Century (1990) and economic development. He is the author of Sistemas
Prehistoric Dimensions of Status: Gender and Age in Eastern agrarios de la cuenca del ro Caete del departamento de Lima
North America (1991), and Colonial Encounters in a Native (with Enrique Meyer, 1979) as well as numerous articles
American Landscape: The Spanish and Dutch in North about the Peruvian peasant economy.
America (1993). With Eleanor B. Leacock she edited The
Ethnographic Journals of William Duncan Strong, 1927-28 98
Enrique Meyer (b. 1944), the son of Jews who fled from
(1994). the Nazis, grew up in the Peruvian highlands. He studied
for his undergraduate degree at the London School of
Janet Mathews Fitchen (d. 1995, age 58) graduated Economics and received his Ph.D. from Cornell University
from Vassar in 1958. She was awarded a Master of Arts by (1974). He has taught at the Pontificia Universidad
the University of Illinois at Urbana (1959), and a Ph.D. Catlica del Per, and has been head of the Department
from Cornell University (1973). All of her degrees were in of Anthropological Research at the Inter-American Indian
anthropology. Fitchen grew up on a dairy farm in upstate Institute in Mexico City. In 1982 he joined the faculty of
New York, did field-work with Oscar Lewis in Mexico, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In 1995
made major contributions to our understanding of rural he moved to Yale University. His research interests
poverty in the United States. At the time of her death she include Andean agricultural systems and Latin American
was the chairwoman of Ithaca Colleges department of peasantry. He is the author of The Articulated Peasant:
anthropology. She is the author of Poverty in Rural America: Household Economies in the Andes (2001).
A Case Study (1981) and Endangered Spaces, Enduring
Places: Change, Identity and Survival in Rural America 99
Izumi Shimada (b. 1948) is a Distinguished Professor
(1991). An obituary by Wolfgang Saxon was published in of Anthropology at Southern Illinois University. He holds
the April 7, 1995 issue of The New York Times. a B.A. from Cornell University (1971) and a doctorate
from the University of Arizona (1976). He has excavated
Denise OBrien (d. 2008) obtained an A.B. from Vassar at the Moche site of Pampa Grande. Since 1978 he has
College (1959) and a Ph.D. from Yale (1969). She was the directed the Sicn Archaeological Project and he also
editor of Rethinking Womens Roles: Perspectives from the works at Pachacamac. Among his numerous published
Pacific (with Sharon F. Tiffany, 1984). works are Pampa Grande and the Moche Culture (1994) and
the edited volume Technologa y la produccin cermica
Javier Alb (b. 1934) is a Bolivian ethnohistorian, prehispnica en los andes (1994).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 26

Murras requests for generous leaves from joined the Vassar faculty in the fall of 1968 and
Vassar became an issue. In 1963 he was awarded retired in 1993. The department has prospered
an $89,300 National Science Foundation grant ever since. It now offers over thirty courses
to direct archaeological, ethnological, and ethno- taught by a full-time faculty of seven, plus
historical research on Inca provincial life in the visiting professors.
Hunuco, Peru region. In accord with British
sociocultural anthropologists such as Malinowski In Peru I once heard a deliciously garbled
and Radcliffe-Brown, Murra believed that field- account of Murras Vassar years. There a
work should be continuous over several years. student, who had no idea I had graduated from
When he requested three additional consecutive that college, earnestly told me his version of
years of leave for this research, there was a John Murras struggles to gain a United States
parting of the ways. Although Vassar encouraged passport. According to this account, Murra was
faculty and student research, its commitment to in trouble with United States authorities
undergraduate education required that faculty because of his leftist background, but a convent
members spent much of their time teaching in of very intellectual and liberal nuns took up his
Poughkeepsie. Furthermore, the anthropology cause and gave him sanctuary. Prior to the late
section of the Department of Economics, 1960s Vassars all female student body and
Sociology, and Anthropology seems to have been somewhat isolated, walled campus with ex-
experiencing some sort of crisis. Helen Codere tensive grounds and neo-Gothic architecture
who had long taught at Vassar, moved to Bran- made it resemble a rural monastery. I couldnt
deis, leaving a subdepartment essentially without wait to relate this version of the telephone
faculty. The dozen anthropology courses in the game to Murra who was aware of our mutual
1963-64 catalogue issue of the Bulletin of Vassar connection. When I did he looked baffled at
College were all listed as to be taught by a new first, then leaned closer and whispered in a
lecturer, African specialist Alexander Alland, or mock-conspiratorial tone, But its true, you
with the instructors to be announced. Alland know! John did have a sense of humor.
did not remain long at Vassar, although he
continued working in anthropology. It appears PUBLIC INTELLECTUAL
that John Murra left a subdepartment in collapse.
However, Murra never expressed any bitterness
over his years at Vassar. On the contrary, he M.A. (1948) from Columbia, as well as an M.A. (1954)
and Ph.D. from Harvard (1958). He began an association
seems to have appreciated the colleges support
with the American Museum of Natural History in 1941 as
during a difficult time in his life. a volunteer. He eventually became the scientific authority
for the Museums Gardner D. Stoat Hall of Asian Peoples.
By the late 1960s, after an interim period He taught at Vassar College from 1969 to 1993. As an
presided over by the prehistorian Morton Levine, actor and the son of an actress, Fairserviss lectures had a
dramatic flair that attracted many students to Anthropol-
the Vassar Anthropology Department, which by ogy. The emergence of civilization in the Old World was
then had separated from Economics, and later one of his major theoretical interests and he often ex-
separated from Sociology, stabilized under the plored a speculative archaeology aimed at a mixed reader-
chairmanship of Walter A. Fairservis, Jr.100 who ship. Among his major works are Excavations in the Quetta
Valley, West Pakistan (1956), Archaeological Surveys in the
Zhob and Loralai Districts, West Pakistan (1959), The Roots
of Ancient India . . . (1971), An Experiment in Civilization:
Walter Ashlin Fairservis, Jr. (1921-1994) was an An Experiment in Prehistory (1975), and field reports on his
archaeologist, actor, and playwright who conducted field- Hierakonpolis Project, published by Vassar College
work principally in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Egypt. He (1983). An obituary of Fairservis by Wolfgang Saxon
held an A.A. from Chicago (1941), a B.A.(1943), and an appeared in the July 16, 1994 issue of The New York Times.
27 - Barnes: John V. Murra

During the 1950s John Murra functioned as Spanish Harlem, at 321 East 121st Street103 in a
more than just a teacher at a small college for house that was later destroyed in preparation for
women. He was a public intellectual who had a public housing project. Later he moved to 27
considerable credibility due to his anti-fascist role Pierrepont Street, in Brooklyn Heights.104
in the Spanish Civil War. Murras
anthropological and political interests were Murra wrote for a general readership in
broad. In addition to Andean studies, they national publications, most notably The Nation
included the evolution of the state in Africa, (Murra 1954b, 1955a, 1955c, 1955e, 1955g,
patterns of land tenure, decolonization, and 1955h, 1958d, 1959a). He also published brief
African art.101 He also continued his active articles in limited circulation papers such as the
research interest in Puerto Rico and the French Vassar Miscellany News (Murra 1955b) and the
Caribbean, adopting advocacy positions on the Vassar Chronicle (Murra 1956c; Murra and
problems encountered by immigrants from these Mercer 1957). During the 1950s and early 1960s
islands to the United States.102 he often spoke to educated general audiences,
most frequently about Africa (Anon. 1956c,
Fifty or sixty years ago most Puerto Ricans 1957b,1960a, 1961b, 1961c, 1961e), Puerto
who settled in New York City struggled with a Rico and the Caribbean (Anon. 1958), and least
physical, social, economic, and cultural en- frequently about Peru, the Incas, and Andean
vironment drastically different from what they culture in general (Anon. 1961f, 1961g). Some-
knew on their home island. Many found times, though, Murra expressed impatience with
themselves in the slums of Manhattans Spanish the use of anthropology to shed light on
Harlem or the West Side, a situation roman- contemporary problems. In a comment made to
ticized by the contemporaneous musical West the Vassar Miscellany News Murra said anthro-
Side Story. It is a shock to revisit anthro- pology is like the case of the man who sold the
pological examinations such as Up to the Slums bear skin while the bear was still in the forest
(1958) by Murras friend and colleague Elena (Zahner 1950:3). People expected anthropology
Padilla, or investigative journalism reports like to provide overnight answers to questions
Dan Wakefields Island in the City (1959) or The arising in modern nations.
Other Puerto Ricans (Wakefield 1959; see also
Murra 1959a). The photos alone convey the Meanwhile, in 1949, Murra had begun
horror of life in neighborhoods where every day Freudian psychoanalysis, a process that became
was a constant struggle against poverty, a vital part of his personal identity. In the mid-
discrimination, filth, overcrowding, crime, and twentieth century, psychoanalysis was accepted
ill-health, the like of which we have not seen in by most intellectuals as an important heuristic
this country in decades. Murra did what he could system and Murra committed to it fully. Murra
to raise consciousness of these problems without
blaming the victims, even living for a while in
Wakefield 1959:82; Memo, September 1950, the
Vassar College Office of Public Relations, John Victor
Murra File, Vassar College.
101 104
Anon. 1956c, 1957b, 1957c, 1960a, 1961b, 1961c, An envelope sent to Murra at that address by Csar
1961e; Murra 1951b, 1951c, 1951d, 1951e, 1951f, 1951g, Fonseca and postmarked March 27, 1968 is among the
1954a, 1954b, 1955a, 1955h, 1956b, 1964c. Hanuco files in the Junius B. Bird Laboratory of South
American Anthropology, Anthropology Division,
Anon. 1957d, 1958; Gillespie 1950; Murra 1951a, American Museum of Natural History, hereinafter Bird
1955b, 1955d, 1957a, 1957b, 1959a. Lab. A.M.N.H..
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 28

had met one of his future psychoanalysts, Saul B. THE HUNUCO PROJECT
Newton105 during the Spanish Civil War (Castro
et al. 2000:33). Newton seems to have influenced Murra conceived the idea for his major field
Murra deeply in terms of Murras attitudes research, the Inca Provincial Life Project,
towards both sexual and parent-child better known as the Hunuco Project, early in
relationships. At Newtons suggestion, starting in his career. According to Murra, Wendell Ben-
1951 and continuing until 1996, Murra kept nett first drew his attention to Iigo Ortiz de
diaries recording his dreams, thoughts, con- Zigas 1562 Hunuco Visita (Castro et al.
versations, and personal activities. Sometimes 2000:109). Bennett was both an advocate and
chaotic and impressionistic, sometimes clearly practitioner of interdisciplinary studies that
written, these are intimate and emotionally combined archaeology with ethnography,
charged. They reveal a private personality very geography, botany, history, and other fields of
different from that of the confident authority research. A portion of Ortizs Hunuco Visita as
Murra projected in public. Another of Murras transcribed by Padre Domingo Angulo, head of
psychoanalysts was the Chilean Lola Hoffman the colonial section of Perus national archive,
who also worked with Murras friend Jos Mara had been published between 1920 and 1925 in
Arguedas. Murra placed great trust in Hoffman, the Revista del Archivo Nacional del Per. In
crediting her with curing him of a Seconal 1955-1962 more of this visita appeared in the
(barbiturate sleeping pill) addiction and of same journal, while in 1955-56 Marie Helmer
keeping Arguedas alive longer than would published the 1549 visita to the Chupachos in
otherwise have been the case. In the early 1950s the Travaux de lInstitut Franais dtudes
Murra also worked with psychoanalyst Leon N. Andines. Murra was also influenced by the
Goldensohn106 (Murra 1956a:v). Annales school of historiography and his friend
Alfred Mtraux107 who, in his general synthetic
work Les Incas (1961) stated that study of
105 administrative records was often more fruitful
Saul B. Newton, n Cohen (d. 1991, age 85) was a
New York psychoanalyst with ties to University of Chicago
than examination of formal, published
radical circles. From its foundation in 1957, until his death, chronicles about the Inca.
Newton headed a controversial Manhattan therapeutic
commune, the Sullivan Institute for Research in
Psychoanalysis. Membership in the Institute peaked in the
1970s. Newton taught that family ties were at the root of
most mental illnesses and urged the separation of parents Alfred Mtraux (1902-1963) was a Swiss-Argentinian
from young children. He advocated personal liberation ethnographer and civil rights leader. Educated mainly in
through multiple sexual partners, but denied that he France, he received a doctorate from the Sorbonne
pressured Institute members into unwelcome relationships. (1928). Mtraux was the founder and first director (1928-
Newton was, however, an avowed Com-munist, a labor 1934) of the Institute of Ethnology at the Universidad de
union organizer, and an opponent of nuclear arms and Tucman, Argentina. From 1941 to 1945 he played an
power. An obituary of Newton by Bruce Lambert was important role in the production of the Smithsonians
published in the December 23, 1991 issue of The New York Handbook of South American Indians. Mtraux held a
Times. The Sullivan Institute/Fourth Wall Community by Amy number of short term teaching posts in the United States,
B. Siskind is a disillusioned insiders view of Newtons Latin America, and Europe. He conducted field research
commune (2003). on Easter Island, in Argentina, Peru, Chile, Brazil, Mex-
ico, Haiti, and in Europe immediately after the Second
Leon N. Goldensohn (d. 1961, age 50) was a United World War. He worked for the United Nations (1946-
States Army psychologist who assessed the mental health 1962). Among his many works are La civilization matrielle
of Nazi defendants during the Nuremberg Trials. The notes des tribus Tupi-Guarani (1928), Mdecine et vodou en Haiti
of his interviews were published as The Nuremberg (1953), Ethnology of Easter Island (1971), and Les Inca
Interviews (2004). (1961).
29 - Barnes: John V. Murra

During the late 1950s Murra had made field Service, also joined the team. Robert McKelvey
visits to the Hunuco area and knew from Bird, then a graduate student at the University
personal observations that late period arch- of California, signed on as the botanist, bringing
aeological sites of many types were abundant along his wife, Mary Watson Bird. As a son of
there, and that the great Inca administrative Junius109 and Margaret [Peggy] Bird,110 Robert
center of Hunuco Pampa was well preserved. Bird had grown up with South American
Murra proposed an integration of several lines of archaeology. Peter Jenson, a Peace Corps
evidence to create a more advanced inter- volunteer with museum experience, ran the lab
pretation of Inca life. The visitas provided a list of for a while. Archaeologists Gordon D. Hadden
sites with a variety of functions. These included and Daniel Shea111 were also part of the team.
villages, shrines, markets, and fortresses, as well
as roads and their way-stations or tambos. In his
successful National Science Foundation appli- anthology of Carters writings, with biographical material
cation Murra expressed the belief that it would is Witness to the Past: The Life and Works of John L. Cotter
be possible to locate and visit every place published in 2007 by John L. Cotter (posthumously),
Daniel G. Roberts, and David Gerald Orr.
mentioned, excavating a selection.
Archaeological evidence could then be 109
Junius Bolton Bird (1907-1982) was, from 1931, until
integrated with the detailed historical accounts. his death, Curator of South American Archaeology at the
Because the documents included much economic American Museum of Natural History. His work at Fells
data, including information on agricultural Cave in the south of Chile suggested that all of the
Americas were first occupied quickly and at an early date,
practices, Murra suggested that a botanist be an
while his Huaca Prieta excavations in the Chicama Valley
integral part of the project. He could observe of Northern Peru yielded early decorated gourds and
contemporary plant use which, Murra believed, twined textiles. Bird was President of the Society for
would shed light on past practices. American Archaeology (1961) and received the order of
el Sol del Per in 1974. He may have been an inspiration
for the fictional character Indiana Jones. His book Travels
As project staff, Murra assembled a small
and Archaeology in South Chile was put together after his
team of American and Peruvian field-workers. death by his colleague John Hyslop. Short biographies by
Murra himself conducted the archival and ethno- Hyslop appeared in Natural History (1989) and in Christo-
graphic research. Donald E. Thompson agreed to pher Winters International Dictionary of Anthropologists
serve as the senior archaeologist. Thompson was (1991) An obituary by Craig Morris was published in the
American Anthropologist (1985).
the son of famous Mayanist J. Eric S. Thompson.
John L. Cotter,108 of the United States Park 110
Margaret (Peggy) Lee McKelvey Bird (1909-1996)
graduated from Bryn Mawr College in 1931, the same year
she met her future husband Junius Bolton Bird whom she
John L. Cotter (1911-1999) held a B.A. (1934) and married in 1934. That summer the newlyweds participated
M.A. (1935) in Anthropology from the University of in an archaeological excavation in Labrador, and then
Denver and a Ph.D. (1959) from the University of Pennsyl- spent nearly three years in South America, conducting
vania. Over the course of his life he excavated at a variety excavations at Fells Cave, Palliaike Cave, and Mylodon
of famous North American sites including the Lindenmeier, Cave in southern Chile, among other projects. Peggy Bird
Colorado palaeoindian site; the Clovis, New Mexico type continued to assist her husband in a variety of professional
site; the Bynum Mounds, a Mississippi Hopewell site; the ways throughout his career.
Emerald Mound temple in Natchez territory; in colonial
Jamestown, Virginia; and in urban Philadelphia. He was the Daniel Shea teaches at the Department of
founder, and the first president, of the Society for Historical Anthropology, Beloit College. He earned a MS (1967)
Archaeology. He worked for the National Parks Service with a thesis entitled The Plaza Complex of Hunuco Viejo
and taught at the University of Pennsylvania and was a and a Ph.D. (1968) with a dissertation entitled Wari-
curator at the University Museum there. A short obituary Wilka: A Central Andean Oracle Site, both from the
by John Rose appears in a 1999 issue of Archaeology. An University of Wisconsin, Madison. He currently conducts
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 30

The Peruvian archaeologists Manuel Chvez and Juan M. Ossio Acua,116 and American
Balln,112 Ramiro Matos Mendieta, Lus Barreda Freda Wolf.
Murillo,113 and Rogger Ravines114 joined the
project, as well as Peruvian students Csar According to the outline presented in
Fonseca Martel, Emilio Mendizbal Losack,115 Murras N.S.F. proposal, and interim reports
submitted, the first year of the project, to begin
officially on July 1, 1963, was devoted to survey
to identify the installations mentioned by Ortiz
archaeological research in Chiles Atacama Desert.
de Ziga, including the great site of Hunuco
Pampa and fortresses noted by Ortiz but not
Manuel Chvez Balln (1918-2000) obtained his visited by him. Of special interest was the
doctorate in education from the Universidad Nacional market town at Chinchacocha. The extent to
Mayor de San Marcos. After a few years as a secondary which markets, as opposed to other forms of
school instructor he began to teach at the Universidad state-sponsored or local exchange, functioned in
Nacional San Antonio Abad del Cusco and at San Marcos.
Chvez Balln accompanied Julio C. Tello on some of his the Andes remains somewhat unclear, but
expeditions, including to the site of Wiaywayna near Murra addressed this issue in many of his
Machu Picchu. Inspired by Tello, Chvez Balln became a writings, including his dissertation. In general,
self-taught archaeologist dedicated to elucidating and Murras Hunuco-centered work has
preserving the cultural heritage of Cusco. In 1952 he led an
contributed a great deal to our understanding of
expedition to the now famous Qero ayllu in Paucartambo.
He discovered the site of Marcavalle, an Early Horizon site the economic organization of the Inca state.
near Cusco. He is the father of archaeologist Sergio Ch- The second year of the Hunuco Project was
vez. Machu Picchus site museum is named for him. devoted to ethnological work and to excavation
of selected sites. The third and final year, to end
Lus Barreda Murillo (1929-2009) held a doctorate in on July 1, 1966, was designated for analysis and
anthropology and history from the Universidad Nacional de
the preparation of manuscripts for publication
San Antonio Abad del Cusco. He was an archaeologist who
specialized in the pre-Inca cultures of Perus Departments including the republication, with scholarly
of Apurmac, Puno, and Cusco and who held a variety of commentary, of Hunuco visitas (Ortiz 1967,
important teaching and administrative posts at UNSAAC. 1972).
Rogger Ravines Snchez (b. 1940) holds a doctorate In his interim report to the N.S.F. Murra
from the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and
expressed some disappointment in the results
has also studied at the University of California, Berkeley
and at Harvard. He is a Peruvian archaeologist who has achieved by the mid-point of the project. Al-
held a variety of important administrative positions. He is
the editor of Technologa Andina (1978), and the author of
Panorama de la arqueologa andina (1982), Chanchn: 116
Juan M. Ossio (b.1943) studied history at the Pon-
Metropol Chim (1980), La cermica tradicional del Per tificia Universidad Catlica del Per (1960-1965) and
(with Fernando Villiger, 1989), Arqueologa prctica (1989), anthropology at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San
and 100 aos de arqueologa en el Per (1970), among other Marcos (1963-1966). From the University of Oxford he
works. obtained a Diploma in Social Anthropology (1967), a
B.Litt. (1970), and D.Phil. (1978). He is a senior professor
Emilio Mendizbal Losack (1922-1979) was an at PUCP. He has twice been a Tinker Visiting Professor at
ethnologist and artist who contributed to our understand- the University of Chicago (1988, 2000). He is the editor
ing of Peruvian folk art traditions, especially Sarhua of Ideologa Mesinica del Mundo Andino (1973) and the
paintings and Ayacucho retablos. Among his publications author of Los indios del Per (1992), Parentesco, reciprocidad
are Pacaraos: Una comunidad en la parte alta del Valle de y jerarqua en los Andes (1992), Las paradojas del Per oficial
Chancay (1964), Patrones arquitectnicos inkas (2002), and (1994), El cdice Mura (2004), and En busca del orden
Del Sanmarkos al retablo ayacuchano: Dos ensayos pioneros perdido: La idea de la historia en Felipe Guaman Poma de
sobre arte tradicional peruano (2003). Ayala (2008).
31 - Barnes: John V. Murra

though at the start Murra presumed that a one panels that could be carried by two men or one
hundred percent match would be possible horse. This explained the work of the project
between installations mentioned by Ortiz and and circulated in remote areas.
sites on the ground, Murra and his colleagues
had been able to find and visit only about half of At the time Murra began his Hunuco field
the places. Murra did feel that the project had and archival research his practical experience
successfully documented the ethnic frontier with archaeology and the use of unpublished
between the Yacha, including the site and village original documents was limited. He had
of Cauri, and the Wamali country around the attended Fay-Cooper Coles Illinois summer
present settlement of Jess or ucon. Villages in field school and had participated in Colliers six
Yacha territory had been partially excavated. At month reconnaissance of Ecuador. He had also
Hunuco Pampa Murras team had excavated a done some independent reconnaissance work in
house, as well as storehouses, and they had the Hunuco region. He had spent a few weeks
examined the sites extensive ceremonial in the Archivo General de Indias, and rather
architecture. They had also made a pottery more time in Lima and Cusco colonial archives.
sample and followed the Inca highway or Capac Privately Murra was considerably more cir-
an (Great Road in Quechua) north to the cumspect than one could be in a successful
tambo of Tapataku and south to Tunsucancha. grant application. On October 8, 1963, en route
to South America, he wrote in his diary . . . I
However, Murra admitted that he had have no idea even of what could be done in
underestimated both the difficulties of doing Per, re Inca, in Hunuco. . . Inexperience and
archaeological field-work in a high altitude enthusiasm may have led Murra to promise
location not served by paved roads, and the more than could possibly have been revealed
suspicion with which Peruvians often regarded through colonial documents and archaeological
foreign researchers. He said that the time spent remains.
explaining and mending fences limited the
amount of research he was able to accomplish. In In spite of disappointments and frustrations,
an article published in a 1965 issue of Curator the Hunuco Project, especially Murras pub-
Peter Jenson is more explicit. He acknowledges lication and studies of the Hunuco visitas
tensions between foreign researchers and local (Murra 1972a; Murra, editor, 1964; Ortiz 1967,
people, both educated and illiterate. Because the 1972) led him to his most influential
concept of work done without monetary explanatory framework, that of verticality or
recompense was unfamiliar in the area, the the simultaneous access of an ethnic group or
motives of the scientists were widely questioned. state to various productive ecological niches.
There was a lack of cooperation, attempts at Murra established case studies that he argued
spying, and a formal accusation of gold theft. supported his reconstruction. One encompasses
This closely parallels the reception of Charles the small ethnic groups of Hunuco, the
Marie de La Condamines survey work in Chupaychu and Yacha, each consisting of a few
Ecuador during the 1730s, suggesting that such thousand individuals, who controlled or shared
reactions were wide-spread and deeply rooted in various resources at some distance from their
the Andes. Murras team attempted to counter population centers. These included pasture
ill-will with gifts of photographs and a series of lands, salt works, cotton, maize, and coca fields,
community addresses. When it became apparent and forests.
that the costs of photo distribution were mount-
ing, Jenson developed an exhibition of four
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 32

Perhaps the most important case is that of ta,119 William P. Mitchell,120 Charles R. Ortloff
the Lupaca, a large ethnic kingdom with its
population center in the Lake Titicaca Basin but
with outlying colonies in the desert oasis valleys M.A. (1958), and Ph.D. (1963), all in geography, from the
of what is now northern Chile, as well as in the The University of California, Berkeley. Among his teach-
tropical forests of the eastern Andean slopes. ers were James Parsons, John H. Rowe, and Carl Sauer.
He is the Carl Sauer Professor Emeritus of the Depart-
Murra also thought that small ethnic groups ment of Geography of the University of Wisconsin,
centered on the central coast of Peru, as well as Madison. His recent work has offered criticisms of the
large north coast polities, may have controlled pristine myth of American environments before 1492
resources distant from their political and and his current research includes a history of agriculture
population centers. in the Americas. He is the author of The Aboriginal
Cultural Geography of the Llanos de Mojos, of Bolivia (1966),
and Cultivated Landscapes of Native Amazonia and the
Over the years Murras insights have served Andes: Triumph over the Soil (2001).
as templates for other studies (c.f. Jorge Hidalgos
2004 collection of articles, Historia andina en Clark Lowden Erickson (b. 1954) has an undergradu-
Chile and the Chincha Project [1983-2005] ate degree from the Washington University in St. Louis
(1976) and a doctorate from the University of Illinois
directed by Heather Lechtman, Lus Lumbreras, (1988) and is an associate professor in the Department of
Craig Morris, and Mara Rostworowski). One of Anthropology of the University of Pennsylvania and an
the outstanding Chincha Project participants is associate curator at the University Museum. He has made
Andean Past editor Daniel H. Sandweiss who enormous contributions to our geographical, archaeologi-
cal, and practical knowledge of South American agricul-
based his doctoral dissertation (Cornell
ture, especially of the raised fields in the Lake Titicaca
University 1989) on his Chincha field research. region, and of the fields, paths, and other earthworks of
This dissertation was published in 1992 as The the Bolivian lowlands. He is the editor of Time and
Archaeology of Chincha Fishermen: Specialization Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical
and Status in Inka Peru in the Carnegie Museum of Lowlands (with William Bale, 2006). A biographical
sketch of Erickson by Deborah I. Olszewski was published
Natural History Bulletin.
in Expedition magazine (2008).

Several lines of criticism have developed 119

Alan L. Kolata (b. 1951) obtained his Ph.D. from
concerning Murras notions of verticality and Harvard University (1978). He is the Neukom Family
Andean complementarity. One is that a pax Distinguished Professor of Anthropology and Social
Sciences at the University of Chicago. He leads interdisci-
incaica or pax Tiwanaku would have been
plinary research projects studying the human ecology of
necessary for small and vulnerable groups of the Lake Titicaca basin during the past 3000 years. He has
individuals to maintain control over valuable also worked on the north coast of Peru and in Thailand
resources far from their major population centers, and Cambodia. He is the author of Valley of the Spirits: A
a condition that Murra himself ad-mitted (Murra Journey into the Lost Realm of the Aymara (1996), The
Tiwanuku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization (2003), and
1979b: 222). Another is that Murra was selective Tiwanuku and its Hinterland (2003).
in the details he chose to include in his models,
ignoring some of the information contained in his 120
William P. Mitchell (b. 1937) obtained his Ph.D. from
sources and dismissing other sources as the University of Pittsburgh (1972). He is Professor of
exceptions. Fur-thermore, knowledge of Anthropology and Freed Professor in the Social Sciences
Andean agro-pastoral technology has developed at Monmouth University, Monmouth, New Jersey. He has
made a longitudinal study of the town of Quinoa in Perus
since the 1970s. Thanks to the work of William Ayacucho Department, and of Quinoan immigrants to
M. Denevan,117 Clark Erickson,118 Alan L. Kola Lima. He focuses on political economy, peace and war,
human ecology, socio-cultural evolution, and religion. He
is the author of Peasants on the Edge: Crop, Cult, and Crisis
William M. Denevan (b. 1931) earned his B.A. (1953), in the Andes (1991), Picturing Faith: A Facsimile Edition of
33 - Barnes: John V. Murra

and Michael E. Moseley (see Ortloff and they came to be stored in the Junius B. Bird
Moseley, this volume, 279-305), among others, Laboratory of South American Archaeology in
we now understand that altiplano raised fields the Anthropology Division of the American
and irrigated highland terraces ameliorate micro- Museum of Natural History. Numerous small
climates and produce a variety of foodstuffs, excavations were made at Hunuco Pampa, and
albeit with the investment of a fair amount of those at storehouses were reported in Morris
labor. The management of concentrated doctoral dissertation, Storage in Tawantinsuyu
resources may have been more effective than (1967) and in subsequent articles by Morris.
that of scattered ones. Daniel Sheas 1967 University of Wisconsin
masters thesis, The Plaza Complex of Hunuco
Murra also formulated his ideas of settlement Viejo, and a preliminary article on the same
patterns before the rapid native depopulation of topic published in 1966 in the Cuadernos de
the Andes in the colonial period was fully under- Investigacin of the Universidad Nacional
stood. Demographic collapse provides oppor- Hermilio Valdizn (Hunuco) also report results
tunities for settlement reorganization and re- of the project. Reconstruction of the most
allocation of resources. The patterns observed spectacular architecture at Hunuco Pampa was
during and after drastic population reduction also undertaken by the project after its N.S.F.
may not reflect the pre-collapse situation, how- termination date of July 1, 1966 because the
ever vehemently litigants may have asserted real Peruvian Patronato Nacional de Arqueologa
or fictional past rights to bolster their claims as provided funds for Murras team to rebuild a
they had supposedly been in an economy where portion of the site (see cover, this volume and
land purchase was unknown. Because Spanish illustration, p. 64). John Murra hoped that Craig
law, as applied to the New World, affirmed pre- Morris would eventually produce a monograph
conquest land tenure arrangements, claimants that fully reported the archaeological aspects of
needed to present arguments to Spanish officials the Inca Provincial Life Project. However,
that included claims to tenure extending into the Morris continued at Hunuco for many years,
remote past. The only ethnohistorical accounts supported by his own major grants, then worked
of land use available to Murra, and to subsequent at the La Centinela site in Perus Chincha
scholars, come from colonial contexts in which Valley, at Tambo Colorado, in the Ica Valley,
all participants, Spaniards, Indians, and even and, briefly, at Cochabamba, Bolivia. He was
African slaves, are adjusting rapidly to new and not able to completely publish his own
shifting economic realities. independent work before his death, let alone
that of Murras Hunuco Project. Fortunately,
Most of the archaeological work conducted archaeologists can expect this situation to be
as part of the Inca Provincial Life Project was partially remedied soon. Alan Covey, who work-
never published. Murra had the archaeologists in ed with Morris at the American Museum of
his project turn over their field notes to him. For Natural History, has prepared a monograph
many years he kept them in Ithaca, in upstate drawing on Morris excavations at Hunuco.
New York, but eventually, through Craig Morris, However, he did not incorporate materials from
Murras project (R. Alan Covey, personal com-
munication, 20 January 2009). Having seen the
the Pictographic Catechism in the Huntington Free Library
(with Barbara H. Jaye, 1999), and Voices from the Global
Hunuco field notes left by Murras team, it is
Margin: Confronting Poverty and Inventing New Lives in the my opinion that a solid regional archaeological
Andes (2006). He is the editor of Irrigation at High Altitudes: survey report could have been produced.
The Social Organization of Water Control Systems in the
Andes (with David Guillet, 1991).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 34

Murras return to South America marked a to integrate African material into his classes. He
turning point for him. As he explained in a 1989 also encouraged Mesoamerican/ Andean
interview (Ansaldi and Caldern), much of his comparisons (Murra 1977a, 1982e).
life had been accidental up to that point. He was Nevertheless, after 1958, with one minor
sent to Chicago because he had an uncle there. exception (Murra 1964c), Murra never
He learned Spanish because his commitment to published on Africa, Puerto Rico, or the French
the anti-fascist left motivated his presence in Caribbean again except in the context of
Spain during the Spanish Civil War. He went to comparisons with Andean material. He did,
Ecuador in 1941 because he had to earn a living however, remain for many years both a member
and the project needed a Spanish-speaker. Legal of the International African Institute, and a
difficulties prevented him from returning to fellow of the African Studies Association (c.v.
Ecuador for doctoral research in a living Murra, NAA). During the Hunuco Project
community, so he wrote a library dissertation on Murra acquired the deep expertise in Andean
an extinct civilization. Murras continuing need cultures for which he was famous during the
to support himself financially, his excellent second half of his life. His new focus allowed
Spanish and good French, and his citizenship him to develop an impressive body of work on
problems led him to work in Puerto Rico and the Inca state, or Tawantinsuyu, as he preferred
Martinique, although he had no special to call it.
commitment to the Caribbean. Just as he was
prevented from going to South America, he was It was in 1964, during the Hunuco Project,
unable to travel to Africa, another continent that that Murra met his close associate, Craig Morris,
interested him. However, once he obtained his then a young archaeologist, and another
United States passport and was free to go University of Chicago graduate. Murra and
anywhere, Murras life came more under his own Morris remained friends for the rest of their
conscious direction. From 1958, when he lives. For some time Morris shared with Murra
returned to South America after an absence of the responsibility for teaching Andean
sixteen years, he devoted himself almost archaeology and ethnohistory at Cornell
exclusively to Andean topics, albeit with a University. Poignantly, their obituaries appear
comparative perspective. side-by-side in the December 2007 issue of the
American Anthropologist. During the 1970s and
When Murra was able to travel to .80s, when Morris would commute from New
conferences in Africa he had the opportunity to York City to Ithaca, he would stay in the damp
interact with many European anthropologists, basement of John Murras house on 515 Dryden
missionaries, and colonial agents, primarily Road near campus, which John Murra occupied
British, French, and Belgian, who had decades of from 1971 (purchase contract, Murra, NAA).
field and administrative experience on that Murras home was a rather dramatic place, with
continent. He also may have met Africans a sun porch that combined ski lodge furniture
studying their own cultures, and other scholars and life-size murals of figures taken from the
whose university work in the British and French early seventeenth century account of the
systems had focused exclusively on Africa. In his Peruvian Mestizo chronicler Felipe Guaman
private writings there are hints that Murra Poma de Ayala painted for him by Freda Wolfs
realized that British socio-cultural anthro- younger brother. To a large extent Murra lived
pologists dominated African studies, leaving little with and for his work.
room for someone outside their circle. However,
until the end of his teaching career he continued
35 - Barnes: John V. Murra

During the course of the Hunuco Project, mote modernization and equality by converting
Murra was frequently away from the field sites to Vicos into a semi-autonomous, self-directed
do archival research, to attend conferences, to community. This was a truly revolutionary effort
consult with psychoanalysts, and to teach. He in applied anthropology. The project im-
taught at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de mediately attracted criticism from both the
San Marcos in Lima as a visiting professor of political left and right, as well as from the
ethnology from 1965 to 1966. Murra described anthropological profession. In 1963, as part of a
the space and facilities he was given as lavish, national land reform program, the workers of
which contrasts with the sad situation of the Vicos acquired the hacienda. The Vicos Project
university ten or fifteen years later. In 1966, upon had served as a model for the Peace Corps, but
leaving, he was made an honorary professor of attitudes towards foreign interventions
San Marcos (investiture program, Murra, NAA). hardened in the 1960s. The Peace Corps itself
In 1965 Murra was a visiting professor of Inca was expelled from Vicos in 1965. Although
studies at the Universidad de Chile in Santiago. Murras friend Jos Mara Arguedas had
When the Hunuco Project ended he was offered supported the Vicos Project, Murra himself had
a professorship at the Universidad Nacional Her- a far different research agenda, one much more
milio Valdizn under the same terms as Peruvian oriented towards understanding the past than
professors. Murra did not accept this offer.121 ameliorating the present, except through moral
encouragement. Nevertheless, assuming Holm-
CORNELL UNIVERSITY bergs academic line must have created certain
expectations Murra was unlikely to fulfill. When
In 1966-67, after returning from Hunuco, I studied at Cornell in the 1980s mention of the
Murra became the first N.S.F. post-doctoral Vicos Project still elicited tense reactions from
associate in anthropology at the Smithsonian some faculty members. Cornell Universitys
Institution. There he continued his studies of Koch Library holds extensive records of this
Huanco and of the Lupaca kingdom of Bolivia. project.
In 1968, after Allan R. Holmbergs (1909-1966)
untimely death had opened a faculty position, Murras Cornell teaching of undergraduate
Murra was hired by Cornell University, from and graduate students was more advanced and
which he retired in 1982 as a professor emeritus. tightly focused than the general instruction in
Murras situation as Holmbergs successor was undergraduate anthropology he had given at
problematic. Holmberg is best known for the Vassar. During his last year at Cornell, 1981-82,
Vicos Project, which he directed. In 1952, with he offered an ethnohistory course,
the cooperation of the Peruvian government, Anthropology 418, consisting of two parts
Cornell began an innovative development pro- African material, one quarter Andean topics,
ject in northern Peru that continued for some and one quarter themes on Siberian
fifteen years. For five years the university leased ethnography. The African portion examined the
the highland Vicos Hacienda in the Callejn de dynastic and demotic oral traditions of Rwanda,
Huaylas, approximately 250 miles from Lima. drawing upon the work of Alexis Kagame,122
There some 1800 Peruvian Indians had been
living in virtual serfdom. The goal was to pro-
Father Alexis Kagame (1912-1981) was a Rwandan
historian, ethnologist, philosopher, priest, and intellectual
Letter from Ing. Pedro Jos Cuculiza, Rector, leader of the Tutsi who articulated their cosmography in
Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizn, Hunuco to John contemporary terms compatible with Christianity. He
Victor Murra, 10 August 1966, Hunuco files, A.M.N.H. came from a family of court historians who converted to
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 36

Jan Vansina,123 Luc de Heusch,124 and Murras including the accounts by indigenous
old Vassar colleague, Helen Codere. It also chroniclers Guaman Poma de Ayala and Blas
covered Ashanti administration and military oral Valera and administrative, census, and litigation
traditions as reported by Kwame Arhin125 and papers were combined with archaeological data.
Ivor Wilks.126 Written sources for the Andes Siberian military and tribute collecting papers
and scholarly reports in the fields of ethno-
history and ethnology were used in discussions
Roman Catholicism around the time of World War I. His of ethnogenesis.
published works include the multi-volume La divine pasto-
rale (1952-1955), a creation myth and history of the world;
Le code des institutions politiques du Rwanda (1952), a defense Murra also taught a course on the history of
of Tutsi feudalism, and The Bantu-Rwandese Philosophy of United States anthropology from Schoolcraft to
Being (1956). In 1959 the rival Hutu nation violently the death of Benedict which is discussed in
overthrew Tutsi hegemony, but Kagame survived the Frank Salomons contribution to this volume. In
addition, Murra taught Anthropology 633,
Jan Vansina (b. 1929) is an historian and anthropolo- Andean Research, a course which emphasized
gist specializing in the peoples of Central Africa, especially sources other than chronicles. These included a
in their history before European contact. He is a professor microfilm of Gonzalez de Cuencas colonial visita
emeritus at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Among to what is now northern Peru, land and water
his books are Oral Tradition: A Study in Historical Methodol-
court records, quipu transcriptions, visitas,
ogy (1965), Kingdoms of the Savannah (1966), Oral Tradition
as History (1985), Living with Africa (1994), Antecedents to Quechua oral traditions recorded in the Huaro-
Modern Rwanda: The Nyiginya Kingdom (2004), and How chir manuscript, the chronicle of Guaman
Societies are Born: Governance in West Africa Before 1600 Poma de Ayala, reports by Domingo de Santo
(2004). Tomas, better known for his early Quechua-
124 Spanish dictionary, and by Juan Polo de Onde-
Luc de Heusch (b. 1927) is a Belgian ethnographer and
film-maker who studied at the Sorbonne in Paris before
receiving a doctorate in anthropology from the Universit
Libre de Bruxelles (1955). Among his films are Fte chez les In the 1970s and 1980s Murra drew hun-
Hamba (1955), an account of daily life and ritual practice dreds of people to his lectures at Johns Hopkins,
in a village of the Hamba of Kasai; Ruanda: Tableaux dune at San Marcos, in European cities, and at other
fodalit (1956), an historic investigation of Rwandan
distinguished venues. However, shortly before
society; Sur les traces du Renard Ple (with Jean Rouch and
Germaine Dieterlen, 1983), and Une rpublique devenue folle retirement he could not always attract even the
(Rwanda 1894-1994) (1996) in addition to films on Belgian four or six students he needed to run his ad-
society. From 1955 to 1992 he taught at the Universit vanced seminars at Cornell. Perhaps students
Libre de Bruxelles, as a full professor from 1960. were eager to hear him in the relatively anony-
125 mous context of a large lecture hall, but did not
Kwame Arhin is the editor of Ashanti and the Northwest
(with Jack Goody, 1965), Ashanti and the Northeast (1970),
wish to accept the demands Murra would put
The Life and Work and Kwame Nkrumah (1993), and The upon them in smaller, more specialized classes.
Cape Coast and Elmina Handbook: Past, Present, and Future
(1995) among many other works of a practical nature
dealing with politics, economics, land tenure, and history (1961), Asante in the Nineteenth Century: The Structure and
of West Africa. Evolution of a Political Order (1975), and is an editor of
The History of Ashanti Kings and the Whole Country Itself,
126 and Other Writings by Otumfuo, Nana Agyeman Prempeh I
Ivor G. Wilks (b.1928) is a British historian and
anthropologist who did field-work in Western Africa (1956- (with Adu Boahen et al., 2003).
1996). He taught at the University of Northern Ghana
(1953-1966) and at Northwestern University (1971-1993). Letter from John V. Murra to Craig Morris, 26 iii 81,
He is the author of The Northern Factor in Ashanti History Bird Lab, A.M.N.H.
37 - Barnes: John V. Murra

I believe that Murra had his biggest impact on Mexico, and Tokyo.128 By May he was back in
South American audiences. In both his lectures Mexico, at the Centro de Investigaciones Su-
and his writing he drew upon his extensive periores of the Mexican Instituto Nacional de
knowledge of general anthropology. Many of the Antropologa e Historia.129 Here he encouraged
key works in this field were unavailable to Latin scholars to combine the study of Nahuatl
American scholars both because there were few documents with Aztec archaeology.130 In the fall
Spanish-language editions of the English and of that year he was in Seville.131 In the fall of
French classics and because Latin American 1978 he was once more in Seville,132 but also
library resources did not equal those of Europe participated in a conference on pramos in
and the United States (Murra in Rowe 1984: Venezuela (Murra 1979b). In 1978-79 he spent
646). John Murra, however, had the profound a total of eight months at the Archivo General
insights of many great minds informing his de Indias. In January 1979 he taught at the
scholarship. Because these insights were not well- Universidad de Antofagasta, Chile, while in
diffused throughout the Spanish-speaking world, June of that year he was in Paris.133 In the spring
Murras work incorporating them must have of 1980 he was doing research in Lima under
seemed double-dazzling. the auspices of the Instituto de Estudios
Peruanos. In 1981 he was at Johns Hopkins
Just as at Vassar, Murra took frequent leaves University.134 John Murras international
and many trips of short duration away from presence was vast and the time he spent at his
Cornell, incidentally transferring many of his home base minimal.
teaching, counseling, and administrative re-
sponsibilities to other faculty members. In 1970- Throughout his teaching career, one of John
71 he taught once again at Yale, replacing his Murras concerns was the education of Latin
friend Sidney Mintz who was on leave. Judging American graduate students. With ngel
from published student evaluations, this was not Palerm he organized the Comparative Seminar
a success. From 1974 on Murra taught at Cornell on MesoAmerica and the Andes in 1972. The
only in the autumn semester (Murra in Rowe
1984:646). In 1974-75 he was at the Institute for
Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. For 128
Letter from John V. Murra to Craig Morris, 13 Febru-
part of 1975 he was researching Aymara ary, 1977, Bird Lab, A.M.N.H.
kingdoms in the Archivo Nacional de Sucre. In 129
1975-76 he was at the Universit de Paris X Letter from John V. Murra to Craig Morris, 30 May
1977, Bird Lab, A.M.N.H.
Nanterre with Fulbright support. Simultaneously,
he taught a three-month seminar, Ethnie et tat 130
Letter from John V. Murra to Toribio Meja Xesspe, 9
dans le monde Andin (Ethnicity and the State April 1977, Bird Lab, A.M.N.H.
in the Andean World) at the cole des Hautes
tudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris. In the spring Letter from John V. Murra to Craig Morris, 10 October
of 1976, with Einaudi Foundation support, Murra 1977, Bird Lab, A.M.N.H.
lectured in Torino, at the Universidad de Sevilla, 132
at the Departamento de Antropologa y Etnolo- Letter from John V. Murra to Craig Morris, 30 October
1978, Bird Lab, A.M.N.H.
ga de Amrica de la Universidad Complutense
(Madrid), at Bonn University, at the London 133
Letter from John V. Murra to Craig Morris, 4 June
School of Economics, and at Cambridge 1979, Bird Lab, A.M.N.H.
University. During the last weeks of 1976 and
the first weeks of 1977 he visited Bolivia, Lima, Letter from John V. Murra to Craig Morris, March 26,
1981, Bird Lab, A.M.N.H.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 38

next year, he established the Lake Titicaca Field (Murra 1994a:2) and the basis of several other
Project with prominent Peruvian archaeologist publications.
and Marxist theorist Lus Lumbreras and support
from the Fulbright Program. Among the In 1977 Murra organized the Otoo
participants were Javier Alb, Mnica Checa,135 andino, a semester-long program at Cornell
Freda Wolf, John Hyslop, Augustn Llagostera, which brought together students and established
Elas Mujica,136 Franklin Pease, Marcela Ros,137 scholars from both Latin America and the
Mario Rivera,138 and AnaMara Soldi. The Lake United States. One of Murras frustrations at
Titicaca Field Project was the genesis of John Cornell was that he could not always obtain
Hyslops Columbia doctoral dissertation, An admission to graduate studies and fellowships for
Archaeological Investigation of the Lupaqa Kingdom Latin American students whom he considered
and its Origins. This, in turn was a first step to possess real talent and personal merit. He
towards his 1984 book The Inca Road System seemed to feel that Cornell was not sufficiently
flexible in matters of formal admission stan-
dards. On the other hand, he sometimes had to
There is no biographical information available for teach students whose presence he had not
Mnica Checa. personally approved.
Elas Mujica Barreda (b. 1950) has built a distinguished LIFE BEYOND CORNELL
career in Peruvian archaeology, anthropology, and history.
He participated in a variety of projects that have studied
Murra remained active for more than a
the suitability and sustainability of traditional agricultural
practices, the ancient Moche, the urban archaeology of decade after his retirement from Cornell. In
Lima and Arequipa, colonial history, and Quechua folk 1982-83 he was a consultant to the Banco
tales. He has dedicated himself to the kind of institution- Nacional de Bolivias Museo Nacional de Etno-
building advocated by John Murra. Mujca is Vice-Presi- grafa in La Paz. In 1983-84 he held a Guggen-
dent of the Andean Institute of Archeological Studies
heim Fellowship for research in Spanish
(INDEA) and the Deputy Coordinator of the Consortium
for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Eco-region archives, including the Archivo Nacional and
(CONDESAN), an Advisor for Cultural Heritage of the the Academia de Historia, both in Madrid, and
Backus Foundation, a member of the Peruvian National the Archivo de Indias in Seville. Simultaneously
Technical Commission for Cultural Heritage, and a World he taught at the Universidad Complutense
Heritage Center Regional Expert for the monitoring of and
(Madrid), and at the Universidad de Sevilla, as
regional reporting on the World Heritage in Latin America
and the Caribbean. Among his many published books are well as at the Institut Catal dAntropologi in
a series of edited volumes on Moche conferences (with Barcelona. He nevertheless found time to teach
Santiago Uceda), Arqueologa de los valles occidentales del a summer school course at the University of
area centro sur andina (1990), Per andino prehispnico (with Chile in 1984 (Castro, this volume). In the next
Rafael Varn); La sostenibilidad de los sistemas de produccin
campesina en los Andes (with Jos Lus Rueda, 1997), El
academic year, 1985-86, he was once again a
brujo: Huaca Cao, centro ceremonial Moche en el Valle de visiting professor at Complutense, at the
Chicama (with Eduardo Hirose Maio, 2007), and Investiga- Universidad de Sevilla, and at the Institut
ciones en la Huaca de la Luna . . . (with Santiago Uceda and Catal dAntropologi. In the spring of 1987 he
Ricardo Morales, 2007). was the Suntory-Toyota Visiting Professor at the
Marcela Ros is the wife of Peruvian archaeologist Lus
London School of Economics. In 1987-88 he
Guillermo Lumbreras. conducted research at the Instituto de Antro-
pologa, Buenos Aires and taught as a visiting
Mario Rivera is a Chilean archaeologist who received professor at the Universidad de Buenos Aires. In
his doctorate from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
He teaches at Beloit College.
39 - Barnes: John V. Murra

1990-91 he was a fellow at the Archivo de Indias. the University of Rochester, Rochester, New
York. His series was entitled Reciprocity and
By then most Civil War wounds had healed. Redistribution in Andean Civilizations. Al-
John Murra liked to tell the story of a chance though these lectures were never published in
encounter he had in a Spanish bar. There he fell Murras lifetime, Heather Lechtman and Freda
into conversation with a fellow veteran, but was Wolf, with a grant from the Reed Foundation,
unsure whether the man had been a former are transcribing the lecture tapes in preparation
Nationalist or a former Loyalist. The stranger for publication in the Morgan Lecture series of
broke the ice by dramatically and emotionally the University of Chicago (Lechtman, personal
declaring, Whichever side you were on, I was communication, 12 June 2009; Lechtman and
your comrade! It turned out that this un- Wolf, n.d.).
fortunate old soldier meant it literally, not
metaphorically. He had been fighting for one side At least nine important publications carry
when he was captured by the other and made to John Murras name as editor.140 He also exerted
fight for it, allowing him the claim that he was a his influence by serving on editorial boards
fellow-in-arms with anybody who had fought in including those of Chungar (Arica, Chile),
the Civil War. Histrica (Lima, from 1976), Historia Boliviana
(Cochabamba), the Revista del Museo Nacional
During the course of his long life John Murra (Lima), and Runa (Buenos Aires). He was an
received many honors. Perhaps the greatest is Advisory Editor of the Hispanic American
Perus Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun Historical Review (1984-89). He was also a
which he was awarded in 1987. In addition to member of the Advisory Board of the Handbook
being an Honorary Professor of the Universidad of Latin American Studies published by the
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Murra was also Library of Congress.
an Honorary Professor of the Humanities of the
Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Per. In 1998 John Murra was active in many professional
San Marcos again honored him with the organizations. He was on the Board of the
academic decoration Honor al Mrito and, on American Society for Ethnohistory (1962-1969)
the same occasion he received an academic and was president (1970-1971). Murra was also
medal from the Universidad Nacional San a councilor of the American Ethnological
Antonio Abad del Cusco (see Lechtmans Society (1961-1964) as well as president (1972-
contribution, this volume, group photo, p. 68). 1973). He was president of the Institute of
Murra was granted an honorary doctorate from
the Universitat de Barcelona in 1993. In 1969 he
presented the Lewis Henry Morgan139 Lectures at

universal unilinear sequence of ethnical periods in

139 Ancient Society . . . (1877) as an attempt to explain the
Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) was a lawyer and
pioneering anthropologist. He studied at Union College, origin of family formations, political regimes, and econo-
Schenectady, New York. His residence in the Iroquois mies. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels read Morgan
territory of upstate New York and contact with his Indian towards the end of Marxs life and chose his model as the
neighbors allowed him to produce his breakthrough cornerstone for Marxist ethnology. Several book length
account of Iroquois political organization, The League of the biographies of Morgan have been published.
Ho-d-No-sau-nee or Iroquois (1851). He discovered the
phenomenon of social kinship systems and systematized Arguedas 1996; Guaman Poma de Ayala 1980; Murra,
worldwide comparisons of kinship in Systems of Consanguin- editor 1964, 1976, 1991; Ortiz de Ziga 1967, 1972;
ity and Affinity in the Human Family (1870). He modeled a Revel et al. 1978; Rojas Rabiela and Murra 1999.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 40

Andean Research (1977-1983).141 He was photographs or line drawings of them. Likewise

nominated for the presidency of the American architecture, one of the universally
Anthropological Association in 1982, but not acknowledged accomplishments of Inca
elected. However, he circulated his campaign civilization, seems to have interested Murra only
statement widely, considering it to be an in so far as it functioned economically and
important commentary on the state of politically. He never published the vast majority
anthropology in the United States (Murra of the plans, drawings, and photographs amassed
1982f). He was a founding member of the Institu- by his Inca Provincial Life (Hunuco) Project,
to de Estudios Peruanos and of the Asociacin although he must have known that these would
Peruana de Antropologa e Historia. He was a be of great interest to archaeologists. His
member of the the Socit des Amricanistes de seemingly poor ability to visualize restricted his
Paris, of the Instituto Indgenista Interamericano full apprehension of Andean culture in subtle
(Mexico), and the Sociedad Boliviana de Histor- ways. It is tempting to make a psychoanalytic
ia. After his retirement from Cornell John Murra interpretation of this hiatus. Murra, the son of a
used the Institute of Andean Research as his sole nearly blind mother, was limited in his own
institutional affiliation, although he could have visual skills.
claimed many others.
Likewise, although Murra respected those
PERSONAL REFLECTIONS ON who focused on the religious, ideological, and
JOHN VICTOR MURRA symbol systems of the Inca such as Pierre Du-
viols and R. Tom Zuidema,142 by Murras own
Murras international experiences, combined
with his work in ethnohistory, archaeology, and
ethnography helped him to formulate his holistic 142
Reiner Tom Zuidema (b. 1927) began his studies at
views of anthropology in general, and Andean the University of Leiden with the intention of joining the
studies in particular. To Murra, sub-disciplinary civil service of the former Netherlands Indies (Indonesia).
However, in 1949 the Dutch government recognized the
boundaries were invisible. All sources of
independence of Indonesia, so Zuidema shifted his focus
information, as well as most approaches, were to anthropology. From 1951 to 1953 he resided in Spain,
necessary to understand the totality of culture. preparing his doctoral dissertation on problems of social
However, although Murra maintained an organization in the Inca empire. He then completed three
impeccable personal appearance, he otherwise years of field-work and archival studies in Peru, in the
United States, and at Spains Archivo de Indias. From
showed very little engagement with visual
1956 to 1964 he was curator of the South American,
culture. His dissertation contains no illustrations, North American, and Siberian collections of the State
not even maps which would have been helpful to Museum of Anthropology of the Netherlands. From 1964
readers not intimately familiar with the to 1967 he taught anthropology at the Universidad de San
geography of Peru. Of course, at the time Murra Cristbal de Huamanga in Ayacucho, Peru, conducting
field-work there with his students. From 1967 until his
was writing, he was embedding his arguments in retirement in 1993 he was a professor of anthropology at
territory he, himself, had never seen. He the University of Illinois, Urbana. At both Huamanga and
discussed the importance and glories of Inca Illinois he was an inspiring teacher who educated many
textiles, generally without providing any successful students. Most of his publications examine Inca
culture, kinship, and social organization in relation to
ritual, mythology, art, and concepts of time. Although
often declared by others to be a structuralist, Zuidemas
For a short history of the I.A.R. see Daggett, this personal perspective is that, so much as possible, he
volume, pp. 307-314 and J. Alden Masons 1967 pamphlet, studies the Incas on their own terms. His book, The Ceque
A Brief History of the Institute of Andean Research, Inc. 1937- System of Cuzco (1964) introduced a new paradigm to Inca
1967. studies.
41 - Barnes: John V. Murra

admission he found it difficult to comprehend Denise Y. Arnold144 and Juan de Dios Yapita,145
such approaches (see Castro, this volume, p. 75- Clark Erickson, Chris and Ed Franquemont
77). He showed little interest in music, poetry, (Peters Andean Past 8), Tristan Platt, Matthias
aesthetics, or ritual, except in so far as these Strecker,146 and Gary Urton,147 among others,
revealed social and economic structure. This is that an integration of science and non-scientific
striking given his devotion to Freudian psycho- world views was, indeed, sometimes partially
analysis with its emphasis on symbols. Murras possible. However, at the time of my
work does not employ statistics or any of the conversations with Murra, I also saw it as the
hard sciences directly, although he saw the
value of scientific approaches and appreciated
the importance of human ecology. has done field-work among Aymara-speaking people as
well as extensive research in Spanish colonial archives. He
Murra stressed the need to let the wishes and is Associate Professor of Anthropology and Director for
perspectives of people in the Andean countries the Center of Latin American and Caribbean Studies at
New York University. He is the author of Pathways of
guide research. By the time I had the opportunity Memory and Power: Ethnography and History among an
for private conversations with Murra I had Andean People (1998).
already done field-work in remote Mestizo and
Quechua communities of Ecuador and Peru. I Denise Y. Arnold is an anthropologist who has, for
many years, worked within Aymara culture, along with her
imagined that John was urging me to reach out to
partner, Juan de Dios Yapita. She is the director of the
the la gente humilde, everyday folk, perhaps Instituto de Lengua y Cultura Aymara, La Paz, Bolivia.
unlettered and monolingual in Quechua or Among her recent books with Yapita are River of Fleece,
Aymara, poor, and without a public voice, but River of Song (2001), and The Metamorphosis of Heads:
knowledgeable in their world-views and the ways Textual Struggles, Education, and Land in the Andes (2006).
Another of her recent books is Heads of State: Icons,
of their cultures. I thought Murra was asking
Power, and Politics in the Andes (with Christine Ann
researchers to integrate the cosmologies, politics, Hastorf, 2008).
aspirations, practices, and needs of these Ande-
ans into research plans and grant proposals. I 145
Juan de Dios Yapita Moya is an Aymara
believed that he was advocating a search for anthropologist, linguist, and poet who often works with
alternatives to Western science and its his partner Denise Y. Arnold (see note 144).
methodology and underlying assumptions. From 146
Matthias Strecker (b. 1950) is a German-Bolivian
experience I realized how difficult this would be,
teacher who has dedicated himself to the preservation of
even for ethnographers. Although Murra did not Bolivias cultural patrimony, especially its rock art. He is
admit this to me, he, too, understood the the editor of numerous publications of the Sociedad de
problems from the perspective of his own field- Investigacin del Arte Rupestre de Bolivia (SIARB).
work. I believe that he considered the willingness 147
and ability to spend long periods of time in Gary Urton (b. 1946) received a B.A. from the
University of New Mexico (1969), and an M.A. (1971)
constructive interaction with ordinary local and Ph.D. (1979) from the University of Illinois. For many
people to be a crucial test, and one that he, years he taught anthropology at Colgate University, but is
himself, had perhaps failed. Later I learned from now the Dumbarton Oaks Professor of Pre-Columbian
the lives and work of Thomas Abercrombie,143 Studies at Harvard University. He conducted field-work
at Pacariqtambo near Cusco, Peru. On the basis of that
research he published At the Crossroads of the Earth and
Sky: An Andean Cosmology (1981). For over a decade he
Thomas Alan Abercrombie (b. 1951) received a has been regarded as one of the worlds experts on the
B.G.S. from the University of Michigan (1973), and an quipu. On that topic he has published Signs of the Inca
M.A. (1978) and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records
(1986). He is an anthropologist and ethnohistorian who (2003) among other works.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 42

political and quasi-mystical vocation that it produced for the Handbook of Latin American
indeed is. As I got to know John Murra better I Studies (Murra 1967c, 1970b, 1972b, 1974b,
also realized that the Andean people he often 1976c, 1978d, 1980a, 1982c). John Murra held
had in mind were established intellectuals like the keys to many doors, as I discovered when he
Jos Mara Arguedas or Franklin Pease who did wrote my letter of introduction to the Archivo
set much of their countrys research agendas. de Indias in Seville.

One of Murras very great personal strengths Murras lecture style was outwardly
was that he was willing to change course abruptly confident, elliptical, and even cryptic. He would
when he realized mistakes. He repudiated often make statements like, . . . as Arguedas
Communism forever when he understood the said . . . and students would have to figure out
discordance between its ideology of a better that he meant Jos Mara Arguedas, the
world and the cruel behavior of its Russian Peruvian anthropologist, indigenista novelist, and
leaders. Once he saw from face-to-face contact at poet, not Alcides Arguedas (1879-1948), the
conferences how deeply versed the British socio- Bolivian statesman, diplomat, historian, and
cultural anthropologists were in African indigenista novelist whose life overlapped in time
knowledge, he knew he couldnt match them and with Jos Maras. This was very difficult in the
no longer presented himself as a public expert on days before the Internet. Murra was impatient
Africa. However, by the time the Hunuco with direct questions. Students were just
Project was finished he had developed true supposed to know that the Lake was Titicaca,
expertise in Andean cultures and he was the not Poop or Cayuga and prove themselves
John Murra who became famous in that field. worthy of his attention through their knowledge
of Andean cultures and their dedication to
Murra was well-integrated into the Andeanist them. In this respect those born into such
communities of South America, Europe, and the cultures clearly had the advantage. Although
United States. His circle can be reconstructed Murra advocated a broad, internationalist
not just from the friends and colleagues he anthropology, he privileged the study of ones
mentioned in interviews, and from his own culture, perhaps without intending to do
voluminous correspondence in the Smith-sonian so, while divorcing himself from the subculture
National Anthropological Archives and into which he, himself, had been born (see
elsewhere, but by noting the many reviews and Salomon, this volume, p. 97). At the risk of
comments he published.148 Murra was generally tedium, I have included many footnotes with
an appreciative reviewer except when he en- this biography, making explicit the identities
countered films aimed at a popular audience. His and accomplishments of people Murra
reflections on the relative merits of con- referenced only vaguely. The difficulty of this
tributions to ethnohistorical literature can be task convinced me of its necessity.
found in the series of annotated biographies he
Murra maintained a good personal library.
Towards the end of his life he divided his books
Murra1951a, 1954a, 1954b, 1955b, 1955c, 1956d, to be sent to Latin America. Then, as now, theft
1958c, 1959a, 1959b, 1960b, 1960c, 1964c, 1965, 1966c, from Latin American public and university
1967e, 1968c, 1969, 1970c, 1970d, 1970e, 1973, 1974c,
1975b, 1975c, 1976e, 1976d, 1977b, 1977c, 1977d, 1978e,
libraries was a problem. I asked Murra if it
1978f, 1978g, 1978h, 1979d, 1980a, 1981b, 1981c, 1982c, bothered him that many of his books would not
1982d, 1982e, 1983a, 1983c, 1984a, 1984c, 1985d, 1985e, remain where they were sent, but would
1988c, 1988d, 1988e, 1989b, 1990, 1993a, 1993b, 1994b, disappear into private collections. He gave me
1994c, 1996a, 1996b; Murra and Wachtel 1998.
43 - Barnes: John V. Murra

one of his sphinx-like smiles. He assured me that My first encounter with John Murra was at
anyone who would appropriate his books would the London School of Economics when he
be someone who would appreciate them. He then lectured there in 1976. His presence created
gave me a few duplicates for my own private buzz, and a large number of people assembled to
library with his signature and good wishes. He hear the famous intellectual expound. Murras
encouraged scholarship in many ways and had a talk was highly specialized and tightly focused,
fine sense of irony. with no compromises made toward his audience.
It was obvious that some people had come
Murra sometimes wrote about the expecting a more general presentation, but were
anthropologists he knew personally, enhancing trapped in the intricacies of vertical archipelagos
our understanding of their lives. Murras greatest and household inventories of four hundred years
contribution along these lines was his pub- before. It was impossible to leave, with eager
lication of letters to him, and to their mutual academics standing in every space not occupied
psychoanalyst Lola Hoffmann, by Jos Mara by a chair. A few people at the back of the large
Arguedas (Arguedas 1996; see also Murra 1978e room began unobtrusively to pass the time by
and 1983a). Murra first met Arguedas in 1958 at reading books and newspapers held on their
a conference during which he also met histor- laps. Most speakers would have ignored this, but
ians Mara Rostworowski and Franklin Pease. John Murra demanded everyones full attention
Reading Arguedas letters is a haunting ex- whenever he spoke. He turned adults into
perience. One perceives him slipping deeper and recalcitrant and embarrassed schoolboys by
deeper into a depression which, in those pre- telling them to put away their books or leave.
Prozac days, could not be interrupted, in spite of On the other hand, if Murra himself was bored
the efforts of Arguedas and his physicians. One by a lecture, he did not hesitate to convey that
knows the sad ending in advance. Murra also to the speaker. At one of the Northeast Con-
published an appreciation of Julio C. Tello149 ferences on Andean Archaeology and Ethno-
(Murra 1980b) and an obituary of his close history, a student had lost control of his pre-
associate in the Institute of Andean Research, sentation and was talking beyond his allotted
John Hyslop (Murra 1994a). time. Although he was neither the organizer nor
the moderator, Murra began clapping loudly,
slowly, and rhythmically, completely humiliating
149 the student. Murra could be fearsome, indeed,
Julio Csar Tello (1880-1947) was one of the founders
of Peruvian archaeology. In spite of a humble background
and few had the force of personality to
he obtained a bachelors degree in medicine in Peru (1909) withstand him.
and then studied at Harvard where he earned an M.A. in
anthropology (1911). Tello was an energetic field worker One of my regrets in life is that although I
who discovered the famous Paracas mummy bundles in studied in two of the places Murra taught, our
1925, and also identified the Chavn culture. Between 1917
and 1929 he represented his native district of Huarochir in time in those places did not overlap much, if at
the Peruvian national congress. He founded the Museo de all. When I first came to Cornell in 1966 as a
Arqueologa y Etnologa of the Universidad Nacional high school advanced placement student Murra
Mayor de San Marcos and the Museo de Arqueologa had not yet arrived there and I had not yet
Peruana. Chapters in the life of Julio C. Tello as
developed an interest in the Andean countries.
reconstructed by Richard Daggett have appeared in Andean
Past 1, 4, and 8. Tello communicated his findings mainly When I returned to Cornell eighteen years later
through a series of newspaper articles, especially in Limas he had already retired, although he was still
El Comercio. His articles have been collected in The Life and quite a Presence in Ithaca, and on campus
Writings of Julio C. Tello (2009), edited by Richard L. Burger. during his relatively rare visits. He would,
Tello is also the author of Paracas (1959).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 44

however, usually participate in Cornell projects bulk of his correspondence and his diaries. The
and events, if expressly invited to do so. He was latter reveal his second abiding intellectual
a gracious moderator at the Fifth Northeast passion after Andean studiespsychoanalysis.
Conference on Andean Archaeology and Ethno- More than anything else, they demonstrate that
history, held at Cornell in 1986, and contributed John Murra was, as Wordsworth wrote of Isaac
to Andean Past 4. Newton in The Prelude, a mind forever
voyaging through strange seas of Thought,
The trajectory of John Murras life has been alone.
eloquently set out elsewhere, both in his own
words, and in those of others. At least nine For years I sought to understand John
interviews of Murra have been published, Murras transition from young Communist
broadcast, recorded, or posted on the Internet.150 activist to anthropologist, scholar, and sage, but
One, Castro et al., is book length. Other details without success. It was only over the course of
of Murras life can be gleaned from Arguedas writing this biography that I realized that from
letters to him (Arguedas 1996) and from tributes youth to old age he seems to have been drawn
published during Murras lifetime (Castro et al. into the deep river of utopian thought, a stream
2002; Contreras 1993; Henderson and Netherley that runs from Plato to Thomas More, to
1993; Lorandi et al. 2003; Neira 2006; Raczynski nineteenth century Welsh socialist Robert
1995; Vsquez 1970; Vega 1983) as well as from Owen, to Karl Marx and the Marxists, to the
the many appreciative obituaries written in his Quechua utopia of Jos Mara Arguedas, and to
memory.151 Salomons tribute, in particular, is an the psychotherapeutic commune of Saul B.
insightful summary of Murras intellectual Newton. The abandonment of Communism did
contributions to anthropology. Readers should not end Murras longings for an ideal society, or
also not miss Comrades (1998), Harry Fishers rather, for ideal societies. Like other utopians
memoir of the Spanish Civil War, which contains Murra sometimes produced authoritative work
many admiring recollections of Murra. At least a before he had experienced the facts on the
couple of denunciations of Murra have also been ground.
published (Anon. n.d. [c. 1950]; Condarco
1977). Inca culture has long served as a template
for utopian thinkers such as Garcilaso de la
In spite of all that has been written about Vega, el Inga in the early seventeenth century,
John V. Murra, an original book length biography Voltaire in the eighteenth, and Philip Ains-
remains possible, and I have begun that task. In worth Means in the first half of the twentieth.
it I am making use of the richness of Murras Around the time that Means wrote Fall of the
personal and professional papers which are now Inca Empire . . . (1932), anthropology was
part of the Smithsonian Institutions National suggesting new models for living, with its
Anthropological Archives. These include the insistence on cultural relativism and its
explorations of cultural diversity. Murras
attraction to the Incas seems quite natural in
Ansaldi and Caldern 1989; Castro et al. 2000; Gerassi terms of his utopian vision. At the same time,
1980; Harriman 1983; Hermosa n.d.; Ipia 1976; Rowe
1984; de Siles 1983; Wolf 1966.
anthropology helped Murra appreciate the
thousands of possible solutions to human
Alb and Bubba 2007, Anonymous 2006a, 2006b, problems. Murra learned to identify, elucidate,
2006c, 2006d, 2007e; Gleach et al., Harris 2006; Hevesi and praise the Andean approaches to those
2006; Neira 2006; Salomon 2007, also forthcoming in an problems. Eventually he came to admit that his
edition of Formaciones edited by Jacques Poloni-Simard.
45 - Barnes: John V. Murra

enthusiasm for the Andean world probably Murras Hunuco Project files, Craig Morris
bordered on exaggeration, but he did not lose his files of letters, articles, and unpublished papers
faith in the overall importance of Andean by John Murra, and John Hyslops file of letters
contributions to culture. The Communist step- and articles by Murra, all at the A.M.N.H.s
ped to one side, but the Anthropologist- Junius B. Bird Laboratory of South American
Advocate took his place. Archaeology. The cover photograph of this issue
of Andean Past and the one accompanying the
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS bibliogaphy of works by and about John Victor
AND AN INTRODUCTION Murra come from the A.M.N.H. My discovery
of the Cooper Family Files at the Brooklyn
Because Murras life story has already been Historical Society was entirely fortuitous.
well told by others, I realized that to add to the
narrative already established I would need not Robert S. Leopold, Director, Smithsonian
only to draw upon my own experiences, Institution, National Museum of Natural
recollections, impressions, and interpretations, History, National Anthropological Archives and
but also to channel the spirit of John Murra Leanda Gahegan, Archivist made my research
himself by conducting some original archival there a valuable and enjoyable experience. As
research. Partial records of John Murras Civil Marcus Porcius Cato the Censor wrote more
War experiences and of the Fear and Courage than two millennia ago, Pabulum aridum quod
Under Fire Project can be found in New York consideris in hiemem quam maxime conservato,
Universitys Tamiment Library & Robert F. cogitatoque hiemis quam longa siet.152
Wagner Labor Archives. I thank the librarians
there for granting me access. Jacinta Palerm shared childhood
recollections of John Murra and her father,
Ghostly footprints of Murras time at Vassar ngel Palerm. Laura Rand Orthwein/Laura
College remain there, and I thank Dean Rogers Murra/Laura X confirmed details of her
of The Catherine Pelton Durrell 25 Archives relationship with John Murra. I am grateful to
and Special Collections Library, Vassar College, Jess Contreras Hernndes, William M. Den-
and Lucy Lewis Johnson and Terri Lynn Cronk of evan, Pierre Duviols, Jorge Hidalgo, Antoinette
the Vassar Anthropology Department for helping Molini, Pierre Morlon, Elas Mujca, Juan
me discern them. Clifford Sather and I shared Ossio, Ann Peters, Tristran Platt, Frank
memories of Vassar in the 1960s and 70s. Salomon, and Tom Zuidema for providing me
Heather Lechtman worked with me to mesh her with autobiographical information. Eugene B.
memories with the documentary evidence. Bergmann, Alita and Alec Kelley, Daniel J.
Harriett Davis Haritos and Nan Rothschild also Slive, and Freda Wolf were also of enormous
gave me their perspectives as Murras Vassar assistance in the preparation of this biography.
students. I thank Junie Valhund for her cheerful
companionship. My fellow editor Daniel H.
Lechtman, along with Andean Past board Sandweiss helped me imagine Murra in his
member Richard L. Burger facilitated my access teaching days at Cornell. I am grateful to
to Institute of Andean Research records at the Thomas F. Lynch for letting me borrow some of
Anthropology Division of the American Mu-
seum of Natural History. Paul Beelitz and Alex
Lando of the A.M.N.H. assisted my access. Keep as much dry fodder as possible for winter and
Sumru Aricanli graciously made available John remember how long winter lasts (loose translation by the
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 46

his insight. Ellen FitzSimmons Steinberg joined Vitoria was a Dominican priest who taught at
the search for references. It was Ellie Schrum Salamanca, Spain for many years. Credited with
who pointed out that Murra did not adhere to developing the important concepts of both
old mistakes. My husband and fellow editor natural law and international law, and a
David Fleming participated in, and supported, defender of the rationality of Amerindians,
my research and suggested many good leads. Vitoria influenced many people, including King
Charles V of Spain and Bartolom de las Casas,
In many ways Dick Daggetts serial biography the Indians great advocate. Nevertheless,
of Julio C. Tello, published in earlier issues of Vitorias ideas are only known to us through the
Andean Past, has inspired my approach to this books of his students.
biography of John V. Murra. It was Dick who
showed me that truth resides in the details. Although Murra published widely during his
Josephine P. Meeker taught me the value of lifetime, he did not publish everything he
constructing a time-line as a tool to under- wished. Frank Salomon is able to convey some
standing. If David Block had not spontaneously of Murras ideas which, otherwise, would fade
sent me a draft of what became our bibliography with human memoryMurras thoughts on the
of works by and about John Murra I could never history of American anthropology as revealed in
have begun the research for this appreciation of his courses, classes described in his published
Murras life and work. I also owe a debt to John interviews (Castro et al. 2000:80-83) but never
Murra himself. I believe that by depositing his converted into a book by Murra himself. In
papers in the Smithsonian, Murra invited addition, Rolena Adorno, Victoria Castro, Inge
biographical scrutiny. I think he showed implicit Harman, Heather Lechtman, AnaMara
approval of such projects by publishing, late in Lorandi, Patricia Netherly, Silvia Palomeque,
his life, both the Arguedas letters and a book and Freda Wolf de Romero share Murras
length interview of himself (Castro et al. 2000). impact as a mentor of women, collectively
presenting a remarkably coherent portrait.
While I have worked hard to establish and Complementing all this is a bibliography of
confirm the time-line and connections of John works by, in honor of, and about John Murra
Murras life, I have felt free to indulge myself by which David Block and I have compiled.
relating anecdotes and to write about John
Murras writing and teaching, and to make Its length, breadth, and complexity serve as
certain leaps of interpretation. I hope that my an approximation of John Murras scholarship.
tribute will serve as a good introduction to the In addition to appearing in this volume of
rest of our special section on Murra which Andean Past, an earlier version will be part of
emphasizes his place as a mentor. This is among the French language translation of Formaciones,
the most important roles scholars assume and Murras pioneering collection of articles on
some of their most penetrating insights are often Andean culture. I hope that this special section
conveyed during classes, and in private of Andean Past dedicated to the memory of John
consultations, but are seldom recorded for Victor Murra will stimulate fresh thought on the
posterity. cultural dynamics of the Andean region to
which he dedicated most of his adult life.
For instance, in the fields of philosophy,
jurisprudence, and Hispanic studies, Francisco de
Vitoria (1492 [?]-1546) exemplifies both the
importance and the elusiveness of teaching.
47 - Barnes: John V. Murra

John Victor Murra instructs Vassar College anthropology class in Blodgett Hall, c. 1960. The student
second from the viewers right is Laura Rand Orthwein/Laura Murra/Laura X. Photo by Howard
Green, Poughkeepsie, New York courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural
History, National Anthropological Archives.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 48

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS BY, IN HONOR OF, AND Lechtman, Heather and Freda Wolf, editors
ABOUT JOHN VICTOR MURRA n.d. [in preparation] Reciprocity and Redistribution in
Andean Civilizations. Lewis Henry Morgan Lec-
BOOKS, ARTICLES, AND REVIEWS tures presented at the University of Rochester,
1969. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago
Collier, Donald and John Victor Murra Press, Lewis Henry Morgan Lecture Series.
1943 Survey and Excavations in Southern Ecuador. Murra, John Victor
Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History 1942 Cerro Narro and Andean Chronology. M.A.
Anthropological Series 35, Publication 528. Also Thesis, University of Chicago.
published in Spanish as Reconocimientos y excava- 1946 The Historic Tribes of Ecuador. In Handbook of
ciones en el sur del Ecuador. Cuenca: Centro de South American Indians, edited by Julian H.
Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca Steward. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of
(1982); and as Reconocimientos y excavaciones en American Ethnology Bulletin 143, Volume 2,
el austro ecuatoriano (2007). Cuenca: Casa de la The Andean Civilizations, pp. 785-881. Washing-
Cultura Ecuatoriana, Nucleo del Azuay. ton, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Condarco Morales, Ramiro and John Victor Murra 1948 The Cayapa and the Colorado. In Handbook of
1987 La teora de la complementariedad vertical eco- South American Indians, edited by Julian H.
simbitica. La Paz: Hisbol. Series Breve Biblioteca Steward. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin
del Bolsillo 2. Contains Murras essays, El con- 143, Volume 4, pp. 277-291, plates 57-60. Wash-
trol vertical de un mximo de pisos ecolgicos ington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
en la economa de las sociedades andinas, pp. 29- 1951a Review of The Puerto Rican Journey: New Yorks
85 (Murra 1972a) and El Archipilago vertical Newest Migrants by C. Wright Mills, Clarence
revisitado, pp. 87-104 (Murra 1985c). Senior, and Rose Kohn Goldsen. Hispanic Amer-
ican Historical Review 31(4):680-681.
1951b Land Legislation of the Cameroons Under Brit-
ish Administration. United Nations Document
T/AC.36/L.3. Mimeographed.
Bibliographers note: We have not been able to include all 1951c Land Legislation of the Trust Territories of
of John Victor Murras writings of which we are aware. For Togoland and the Cameroons under French
example, we have not located the articles on soccer and Administration. United Nations Document
the literary pieces he published in the Romanian-language T/AC. 36/L.6. Mimeographed.
periodical Dimineata during the 1930s (Castro et al. 2000: 1951d Land Legislation of Togoland under British
22, 24). We have also not been able to find the periodical Administration. United Nations Document
articles and speeches Murra said he wrote on behalf of T/AC.36/L.11. Mimeographed.
unnamed African leaders (ibid: 96). During the 1950s 1951e Land Legislation of Tanganyika. United Nations
Murra contributed regularly to The United States Quarterly Document T/AC.36/L.12. Mimeographed.
Book List published by Rutgers University Press for the 1951f Population, Land Categories, and Tenure in
Library of Congress. However, it is not possible to identify Tanganyika. United Nations Document T/
the individual reviews that Murra wrote. When page AC.36/L.17. Mimeographed.
numbers or other details are omitted it is because articles 1951g Constitutional Developments in Tanganyika,
were discovered in clipping files in The Catherine Pelton 1949-1951. United Nations Special Document
Durrell 25 Archives and Special Collections Library, Prepared for 1951 East African Visiting Mission.
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York; in the archives 1954a Review of The Struggle for Africa by Vernon
of the Anthropology Division of the American Museum of Bartlett. American Anthropologist 56(6):1156-
Natural History, New York City; or in the Smithsonians 1157.
National Anthropological Archives, Suitland, Maryland 1954b The Unconscious of a Race. Review of The Palm-
without such details recorded. We thank Rolena Adorno, wine Drinkard [sic] and My Life in the Bush of
Sumru Aricanli, Richard E. Daggett, Jean-Jacques Decos- Ghosts, both by Amos Tutola. The Nation, Sep-
ter, Pierre Duviols, David Fleming, Leanda Gahegan, tember 25, 179(13):261-262.
Heather Lechtman, Robert S. Leopold, Dean Rogers, 1955a Trusteeship System: How it Operates. The
Deborah Santeliz-Lockwood, Daniel J. Slive, Frank Solo- Nation, January 1, 180(1):10-13.
man, Ellen Fitz Simmons Steinberg, and the staff of New 1955b Puerto Rico: New Immigrant, Old Story, Murra
York Universitys Tamiment Library & Robert F. Wagner Views Questions and Dilemmas Involved in
Labor Archives for assistance in the preparation of this Puerto Rican Migration. Vassar Miscellany News,
bibliography. October 5, 40(3):3.
49 - Block and Barnes: John V. Murra

1955c An African Autobiography. Review of The Dark American Ethnological Society. Also distributed
Child by Camara Laye. The Nation, January 1, as a reprint and reprinted as On Inca Political
180(1):16-17. Structure. Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in the
1955d Puerto Rican Myths. Review of Transformation: Sciences, A-169. Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-
The Story of Modern Puerto Rico by Earl Parker Merrill (1958); also published in Comparative
Hanson. The Nation, February 26, 180(9):181- Political Systems: Studies in the Politics of Pre-
182. industrial Societies, edited by Ronald Cohen and
1955e Reply to Damned with Faint Praise, a letter by John Middleton, pp. 339-353. Austin: University
Frances R. Grant in response to Murra. The of Texas Press (1967). A revised Spanish lan-
Nation, March 26, 180(13):275-276. guage version, En torno a la estructura poltica
1955f Correction: Drinking Tubes on Archaeological de los inka, appears in Murra (1975a), pp. 23-43.
Vessels from Western South America. American An unauthorized Spanish language version
Antiquity 20(3):288. appears in El Modo de produccin asitico: Antolo-
1955g United Nations Publications Obtainable from ga de textos sobre problemas de la historia de los
the Columbia University Press. Booknotes. The paises coloniales, edited by Roger Bartra. Mxico:
Nation, January 22, 180(4):79. Ediciones Era (1969).
1955h Books on Africa. Booknotes. The Nation, January 1958b La funcin del tejido en varios contextos sociales
29, 180(5):106. y polticos. Actas y Trabajos del Segundo Congreso
1956a The Economic Organization of the Inca State. de Historia del Per, Volume 2, pp. 215-240, Also
Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago. This published as a reprint (1961); and in 100 aos de
was first published in 1978 as La organizacin arqueologa en el Per, edited by Rogger Ravines,
econmica del estado inca, translated by Daniel H. pp. 583-608 (1970). The latest updated version
Wagner and modified by the author. Mxico: appears in Fuentes e Investigaciones para la Histor-
Siglo Veintiuno, Amrica Nuestra series 11. This ia del Per 3:145-170. Lima: Instituto de Estudios
work appears as four subsequent editions by Siglo Peruanos, Petrleos del Per edition (1978); in
Veintiuno, as well as in an English language Arte mayor de los Andes: Museo Chileno de Arte
edition, The Economic Organization of the Inka Precolombino, by Paulina Brugnoli and Soledad
State. Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press (1980). Hoces, edited by Julie Palma, with photographs
The Rumanian-language edition, Civilizatie inca: by Fernando Maldonado, and translation by
Organizarea economic| statuli incas, translated by Cecilia Contreras and Barbara Caces, pp. 9-19.
John Murras sister, Ata Iosifescu. (Bucharest: Santiago de Chile: El Museo (1989); and in
Editura tintific i Enciclopedic, 1987), Murra (2002a), pp. 153-170. This article was
includes additional material from Murras pub- originally based on Chapter 4 of Murra (1956a).
lished articles. Material from the English lan- An English language version was published as
guage version is included in Human Relations Cloth and its Functions in the Inca State. Ameri-
Area Files, Inka: Outline of World Cultures can Anthropologist 64(4):710-728 (1962) Murra
codes SE13 and SE80 (an Internet resource). previously updated the English language version
1956b Kenya and the Emergency. Current History for Cloth and Human Experience, edited by
30(177):372-378. Annette B. Weiner and Jane Schneider, pp. 275-
1956c Murra Sees Here Egg-head Culture. Vassar Chro- 302. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution
nicle, March 5, 24:4, 6. Press (1989). See also Cloth, Textile, and the
1956d Review of Man and Land in Peru by Thomas R. Inca Empire in The Peru Reader: History, Culture,
Ford. American Anthropologist 58(5):930-931. Politics, edited by Orin Starn, Carlos Ivn De-
1957a Studies in Family Organization in the French gregori, and Robin Kirk, pp. 55-69. Durham,
Caribbean. Transactions of the New York Academy North Carolina: Duke University Press (1995).
of Sciences (series II) 19(4):372-378. 1958c Review of The Ancient Civilizations of Peru by J.
1957b Discussion [of Raymond T. Smiths The Family Alden Mason. American Anthropologist
in the Caribbean] in Caribbean Studies: A Sym- 60(4):767-768.
posium, edited by Vera D. Rubin, pp. 75-79. 1958d Wonderful Weeks Bouquet. The Nation, May 31
Mona, St. Andrews, Jamaica, British West 180(22):484.
Indies: Institute of Social and Economic 1959a Up to the Slums. Review of Up from Puerto Rico
Research, University College of the West Indies. by Elena Padilla and of Island in the City by Dan
1958a On Inca Political Structure. In Systems of Political Wakefield. The Nation, May 2,188(18):411-412.
Control and Bureaucracy in Human Societies,
edited by Verne F. Ray, pp. 30-41. Seattle:
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 50

1959b Review of Power and Property in Inca Peru by version was published in Cuadernos de Investiga-
Sally Falk Moore. American Sociological Review 27(5):727. cin: Antropologa (Universidad Hermilio Valdi-
1960a Rite and Crop in the Inca State. In Culture in zn, Hunuco, Per, 1966).
History: Essays in Honor of Paul Radin, edited by 1964a Una apreciacin etnolgica de la visita. In Visita
Stanley Diamond, pp. 33-47. New York: Pub- hecha a la provincia de Chucuito por Garci Diez de
lished for Brandeis University by Columbia San Miguel en el ao 1567 by Garci Diez de San
University Press. A revised version was published Miguel, edited by John Victor Murra, pp. 421-
in Peoples and Cultures of South America: An 444. Lima: Casa de la Cultura del Per.
Anthropological Reader, edited by Daniel R. 1964b Rebaos y pastores en la economa del
Gross, pp. 377-389. Garden City, New York: Tawantinsuyu. Revista Peruana de Cultura 2:76-
Doubleday and Natural History Press (1973). A 101. Also published in Murra (1975a), pp. 117-
revised Spanish language version, La papa, el 144; and in Murra (2002a), pp. 309-327. An
maz y los ritos agrcolas del Tawantinsuyu, was English language version, Herds and Herders in
published in Amaru 8:58-62 (1968); in Murra the Inca State, was published in Man, Culture,
(1975a), pp. 45-58; in Cosmos, hombre y sacrali- and Animals: The Role of Animals in Human
dad: Lecturas dirigidas de antropologa religiosa, Ecological Adjustments, edited by Anthony Leeds
edited by Marco Vinicio Rueda and Segundo and A. P. Vayda, pp. 185-215. Washington:
Moreno Yez, pp.181-193. Quito: Departa- American Association for the Advancement of
mento de Antropologa PUCE and Ediciones Science (1965). Also distributed as a reprint.
Abya Yala (1995); and in Murra (2002a), pp. 1964c Review of The Sonjo of Tanganyika: An Anthro-
143-152. pological Study of an Irrigation-based Society by
1960b Review of Power and Property in Inca Peru by Robert F. Gray. American Anthropologist 66(2):
Sally Falk Moore. American Anthropologist 471-472.
62(6):1082-1083 [This review differs from Murra 1965 Review of Los obrajes en el Virreinato del Per by
1959b]. Fernando Silva-Santisteban. American Anthro-
1960c Review of The Incas by Pedro Cieza de Len, pologist 67(5, part 1):1329-1330.
edited by Victor Wolfgang von Hagen and trans- 1966a El Instituto de Investigaciones Andinas y sus
lated by Harriet de Onis. The Hispanic American estudios en Hunuco, 1963-1966. Cuadernos de
Historical Review 40(2):281-282. Investigacin: Antropolga, pp. 7-21 (Hunco,
1961a Guaman Poma de Ayala: A Seventeenth-Cen- Per, Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizn).
tury Indians Account of Andean Civilization. 1966b New Data on Retainer and Servile Populations
Natural History 70(7):35-46 and Guaman Poma in Tawantinsuyu. In XXXVI Congreso Inter-
de Ayala: The Post-Conquest Chronicle of the nacional de Americanistas, Espaa. 1964, Actas y
Inca States Rise and Fall 70(8):52-63, separately Memorias. Volume 2, pp. 35-45 (Seville). An
titled parts of a unified article. A Spanish lan- updated Spanish language version, Nueva
guage version was published in Murra (2002a), informacin sobre las poblaciones yana, was
pp. 375-425. published in Murra (1975a), pp. 225-242; in
1961b Social Structural and Economic Themes in Murra (2002a), pp. 328-340; and as Nuevos
Andean Ethnohistory. Anthropological Quarterly datos sobre las poblaciones yana en el Tawant-
34(2):47-59. Also published as a reprint. A insuyo. Antropologa Andina 1-2:13-33 (Cusco,
Spanish language version, Temas de estructura 1976).
social y econmica en la etnohistoria y el antiguo 1966c Review of Life, Land, and Water in Ancient Peru
folklore andino, was published in Folklore Ameri- by Paul Kosok. American Anthropologist
cano 10:22-237 (1962); and in La etnohistoria en 68(5):1306-1307. A Spanish language version
Mesoamrica y los Andes, edited by Pedro Carras- published in Revista Peruana de Cultura, 7-8:270-
co Pizana, Juan Manuel Prez Zevallos, and Jos 273 (1966).
Antonio Prez Golln, pp. 95-111. Mexico, D.F.: 1967a Nota preliminar sobre el manuscrito de la visita
Instituto Nacional de Antropologa y Historia de los chupachu y la transcripcin usada en la
(1987). An expanded version was published in presente edicin. In Ortiz de Ziga (1967), pp.
Cuadernos de Investigacin: Antropologa (Hun- v-ix.
uco, Per, Universidad Hermilio Valdizn, 1967b La visita de los chupachu como fuente etnol-
1966). gica. In Ortiz de Ziga (1967), pp. 381-406.
1962 An Archaeological Restudy of an Andean 1967c Ethnohistory: South America. Handbook of Latin
Ethnohistorical Account. American Antiquity. American Studies 29:200-213.
28(1):1-4. An expanded, Spanish language
51 - Block and Barnes: John V. Murra

1967d Ltude de Hunuco: Une experience inter-dis- 1970c Comment on Depopulation of the Central
ciplinaire. tudes Latino-Amricaines 3:241-246. Andes in the 16th Century by C.T. Smith. Cur-
Facult des Lettres, Aix-en-Provence, France. rent Anthropology 11(4, 5):461-462.
1967e Review of films Aspects of Land Ownership and 1970d Review of Francisco de Avila by Hermann Trim-
Land Use in the Rural Community of Montero, born and Antje Kelm and Dioses y hombres de
produced by the Land Tenure Center, University Huarochir by Jos Mara Arguedas. American
of Wisconsin; Market at La Paz, Patterns of Living Anthropologist 72(2):443-445.
and Land Use at Vilaque and near Lake Titicaca, 1970e Review of The Last Inca Revolt by Lillian Estelle
producer unknown; and Campesinos and Farming Fischer. Ethnohistory 17(3, 4):173-174.
on Isla del Sol: Annual Market Days at Casani 1970f Nispa Ninchis 1. This is a mimeographed first
(Peru-Bolivia Border), producer unknown. Ameri- issue of a Quechua studies newsletter that Murra
can Anthropologist 69(6):792. intended to produce with Jos Mara Arguedas.
1968a An Aymara Kingdom in 1567. Ethnohistory Arguedas suicide in 1969 prevented the news-
15(2):115-151. Included in Human Relations letter from continuing.
Area Files, Aymara Kingdoms: Outline of World 1972a El control vertical de un mximo de pisos
Cultures SF50 (electronic resource). A Spanish ecolgicos en la economa de las sociedades
language version was published in Murra andinas. In Ortiz (1972), pp. 427-476. Also
(1975a), pp. 193-224; and in Murra (2002a), pp. published privately as a pamphlet by John Victor
183-207. An unauthorized Spanish language Murra (n.d.) Ithaca, New York: Glad Day Press;
translation was published as Un reino aymara en as a pamphlet published by the Universidad Na-
1567. Pumapunku 6:87-93 (1972); 9:31-49 cional Atonoma de Mxico (U.N.A.M.) Izta-
(1975). palapa, Divisin de Ciencias Sociales; in Murra
1968b Perspectivas y actuales investigaciones de la (1975a), pp. 59-115; in Textos de historia de
etnologa andina, Revista del Museo Nacional Amrica latina by Heraclio Bonilla, German
35:124-158 (1967-1968); republished as Las Carrera Damas, Tulio Halperin Donghi, D.C.M.
investigaciones en etnohistoria andina y sus Platt, John Murra, and Juan Carlos Garavaglia,
posibilidades en el futuro in Murra (1975a), pp. Mxico: U.N.A.M (1981); and with updates in
275-312; in Murra (2002a), pp. 445-470; and in Murra (2002a), pp. 85-125.
La Etnohistoria en Mesoamrica y los Andes, edited 1972b Ethnohistory: South America. Handbook of Latin
by Pedro Carrasco Pizana, Juan Manuel Prez American Studies 34:129-144, edited by Donald
Zevallos, and Jos Antonio Prez Golln, pp. E. J. Stewart. Gainesville: University of Florida
113-158. Mxico, D.F.: Instituto Nacional de Press for The Latin American, Portuguese, and
Antropologa e Historia (1987). An English Spanish Division of the Library of Congress.
language version, Current Research and Pros- 1973 Review of Changement et continuit chez les mayas
pects in Andean Ethnohistory appears in the du mexique: Contribution ltude de la situation
Latin American Research Review 5(1):3-36 (1970) colonial en Amerique latine by Henri Favre. His-
and was also re-published as a pamphlet by the panic American Historical Review 53(1):159-160.
Cornell University Latin American Studies 1974a Las etno-categoras de un khipu estatal. In
Program, Reprint Series 35, n.d. Homenaje a Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrn, edited by
1968c Review of Indianische Fische: Feldbauer und Vieh- Roberto Bravo Garzn, Volume 2, pp. 167-176,
zchter: Beitrge zur peruanischen Vlkerkunde by plus foldout chart. Mxico: Universidad Vera-
Horst Nachtigall. American Anthropologist cruzana and Instituto Indigenista Inter-
70(6):1224-1225. americano; republished in Murra (1975a), pp.
1969 Review of Sozialpolitik in Inca-Staat by Angela 243-254, and foldout chart; also published in La
Mller-Dango. Hispanic American Historical tecnologa en el mundo andino/Runakunap
Review 49(4):741-743. kawasayninkupaq rursqankunaqa, edited by
1970a Informacin etnolgica e histrica adicional Heather Lechtman and AnaMara Soldi, Volume
sobre el reino Lupaqa. Historia y Cultura 4:49-61. 1 Subsistencia y mensuracin, pp. 433-442, plus
1970b Ethnohistory: South America. Handbook of Latin foldout chart. Mxico: Universidad Nacional
American Studies 32:103-117, edited by Henry E. Autnoma de Mxico, Instituto de Investiga-
Adams. Gainesville: University of Florida Press ciones Antropolgicas (1981), and distributed as
for the Hispanic Foundation, Library of Con- an offprint. Also published as Etno-categoras
gress. de un khipu regional in Quipu y yupana: Colec-
cin de escritos, edited by Carol Mackey, Hugo
Pereyna Snchez, Carlos Radicati, Humberto
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 52

Rodrguez Pastor, and Oscar Valverde Ayala pp. ris, pp. 15-20 (1985; article translated by Freda
53-58, plus foldout chart. Lima: CONCYTEC Wolf de Romero). Tokyo: University of Tokyo
(1990), and in Murra (2002a), pp. 248-260. Press.
1974b Ethnohistory: South America. Handbook of Latin 1976b American Anthropology, The Early Years, intro-
American Studies 36:91-99, edited by Donald E. duction to Murra (editor 1976), pp. 3-7.
J. Stewart. Gainesville: University of Florida 1976c Ethnohistory: South America. Handbook of Latin
Press for The Latin American, Portuguese, and American Studies 38, pp. 108-118, edited by
Spanish Division of the Library of Congress. Dolores Mayano Martin and Donald E. J. Stew-
1974c Andean Cultures. Encyclopaedia Britannica (15th art. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida for
edition), pp. 854-856. the Latin American, Portuguese, and Spanish
1974d Review of Kuyo Chico: Applied Anthropology in an Division of the Library of Congress.
Indian Community by Oscar Nez del Prado. 1976d Review of Investigaciones arqueolgicas en los
The Americas 31(2):226-227. Valles de Caplina y Sama by Hermann Trimborn.
1975a Formaciones econmicas y polticas del mundo Man n.s. 11(3):445-446.
andino. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos. 1976e Review of films The Incas, produced by Coronet
This consists of 12 essays, originally published Films; Lost City of the Andes, produced by
between 1958 and 1970, and almost all revised Simmel and Meservey; and Intirumi, produced by
for this collection. Each gives a genealogy of UNESCO. American Anthropologist 78(2):383-
publication. There is an Italian language edition, 384.
Formazioni economiche e politiche nel mondo 1977a Comparando las civilizaciones andinas y meso-
andino: Saggi di etnostoria, translated by Ana americanas: Dos simposios. Historiografa y
Mara Soldi. Turin, Italy: Giulio Einaudi (1980). Bibliografa Americanistas 21:265-266.
A French translation edited by Jacques Poloni- 1977b Review of Los aymara de Chinchera, Per: Per-
Simard and published by the cole des Hautes sistencia y cambio en un contexto bicultural by John
tudes en Science Sociale with the Maison des M. Hickman. American Anthropologist 79(1):153.
Sciences de lhomme is forthcoming. It will 1977c Review of The Men of Cajamarca: A Social and
include an introduction based on Salomon Biographical Study of the First Conquerors of Peru
(2007) and Salomon (this volume, pp. 87-102) as by James Marvin Lockhart. Historica 1(1):136-
well as an earlier version of this bibliography. 139.
1975b Review of The Men of Cajamarca: A Social and 1977d La arquitectura inka: Un nuevo estudio de
Biographical Study of the First Conquerors of Peru Graziano Gasparini. Review of La arquitectura
by James [Marvin] Lockhart. American Anthro- inka by Graziano Gasparini and Luise Margolies.
pologist 77(3):652-654. El Comercio, p. 10, 31 August (Lima). An
1975c Review of Struggle in the Andes: Peasant Political abridged version published as Introduccin.
Mobilization in Peru by Howard Handelman. The Arquitectura Inka by Graziano Gasparini and
Americas 32(1):167-168. Luise Margolies, pp. vii-ix. Caracas: Centro de
1976a Los lmites y las limitaciones del Archipilago Investigaciones Historicas y Estticas: Facultad
Vertical en los Andes. In Homenaje al Dr. de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Universidad
Gustavo Le Paige, S.J., edited by Jos Mara Central de Venezuela (1977). An abridged
Casassas, pp. 141-146. Antofagasta, Chile: English language version was published as the
Universidad del Norte. Based on a paper read at Foreword to the English language translation of
the Congreso del Hombre Andino, Arica, Chile, Arquitectura Inka, Inca Architecture by Graziano
June 1973. Also published in Avances: Revista Gasparini and Luise Margolies, translated by
Boliviana de Estudios Histricos y Sociales 1:75-80 Patricia J. Lyon, pp. ix-xxi. Bloomington and
(La Paz, Bolivia; 1978); in Ensayos sobre el des- London: University of Indiana Press (1980).
arrollo econmico de Mxico y Amrica Latina 1978a La correspondencia entre un Capitn de la
(1500-1975), edited by Enrique Florescano, Mita y su apoderado en Potos. Historia y Cultu-
pp.193-198. Mxico: Fondo de Cultura Econ- ra (Lima) 3:45-48. Also published in Murra
mica (1979); and in Murra (2002a), pp. 126-131. (2002a), pp. 223-234. An amplified English
An English language version, The Limits and language version, Aymara Lords and their Euro-
Limitations of the Vertical Archipelago in the pean Agents at Potos, was published in Nova
Andes, was published in Andean Ecology and America 1:231-243 (1978, Turin, Italy)
Civilization: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on 1978b La guerre et les rbellions dans lexpansion de
Andean Ecological Complementarity, edited by ltat inka. In Revel et al. Anthropologie historique
Shozo Masuda, Izumi Shimada, and Craig Mor- des socits andines, Anales 33(5-6): 927-935. An
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English language version, The Expansion of the 28(117):273-287. Special issue entitled Economa
Inka State: Armies, War, and Rebellions, was y sociedad en los Andes y Mesoamrica, edited by
published in Murra et al. (1986), pp. 49-58. A Jos Alcina Franch. Also published in Revista del
Spanish language version, La expansin del Museo Inka (Cusco) 25:103-117 (1995); and in
estado inka: Ejrcitos, guerras y rebeliones, was Dos dcadas de investigacin en historia econmica
published in Murra (2002a), pp. 57-66. comparada en Amrica Latina, edited by Margarita
1978c Los olleros del Inka: Hacia una historia y Menegus Bornemann, Antonio Ibarra, Juan
arqueolga del Qollasuyo. In Historia, problema y Manuel Prez Zevallos, and Jorge Silva, pp. 97-
promesa: Homenaje a Jorge Basadre, edited by 111. Mxico, D.F.: Colegio de Mxico, Centro
Francisco Miro Quesada Cantuaras, Franklin de Estudios Histricos; Centro de Investiga-
Pease G. Y., and David Sobrevilla A., Volume 1, ciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologa
pp. 415-423. Lima: Universidad Pontifcia Social; Instituto Doctor Jos Mara Luis Mora
Catlica del Per, Fondo Editorial; also pub- (1999); and Centro de Estudios Sobre la
lished as Los olleros del Inka: Hacia una historia y Universidad, UNAM; and in Murra (2002a), pp.
arqueologa del Qollasuyo. La Paz: Centro de 294-307.
Investigaciones Histricas (1983); and in Murra 1979d Review of The Vision of the Vanquished: The
(2002a), pp. 287-293. Spanish Conquest of Peru through Indian Eyes,
1978d Ethnohistory: South America. Handbook of Latin 1530-1570 by Nathan Wachtel, translated by
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Moyano Martin. Austin: University of Texas 81(1):171.
Press for the Hispanic Division of the Library of 1980a Ethnohistory: South America. Handbook of Latin
Congress. American Studies 42:135-159, edited by Dolores
1978e Introduction. In Deep Rivers by Jos Mara Mayano Martin. Austin: University of Texas
Arguedas, translated by Frances Horning Barra- Press for the Hispanic Division of the Library of
clough, pp. ix-xv. Austin: University of Texas Congress.
Press. 1980b Dimensin internacional de Julio C. Tello. El
1978f Review of Inequality in the Peruvian Andes: Class Comercio, El Dominical, p. 7, 6 April (Lima). A
and Ethnicity in Cuzco by Pierre L. Van den longer version was published as La dimensin
Berghe and George P. Primov. Hispanic American internacional de la obra de Julio C. Tello.
Historical Review 58(2):345-346. Histrica 6:53-63 (1982). A footnote, p. 53,
1978g Review of The Vision of the Vanquished by Na- states La revista solo public una primera parte,
than Wachtel. The Americas 34(4):567-568. la segunda fue aadida a una publicacin privada
1978h Review of Peru: A Cultural History by Henry F. hecha por el autor. (The journal only pub-
Dobbins and Paul L. Doughty. Ethnohistory lished a first part; the second was added to a
25(4):393-394. private publication by the author). This has not
1979a El valle de Sama: Isla perifrica del reino lupaqa been located. A revised English language trans-
y su uso dentro de la economa minera colonial. lation, The International Relevance of Julio C.
In Amerikanistische Studien/Estudios Ameri- Tello is in The Life and Writings of Julio C. Tello:
canistas: Festschrift fr Hermann Trimborn Americas First Indigenous Archaeologist, edited by
Anlsslich seines 75 Geburtstages/Libro jubilar en Richard L. Burger, pp. 55-64. Iowa City: Univer-
homenaje a Hermann Trimborn con motivo de su sity of Iowa Press (2009).
septuagsimoquinto aniversario, Volume 2, edited 1981a Socio-political and Demographic Aspects of
by Roswith Hartmann and Udo Oberem, pp. 87- Multi-Altitude Land Use in the Andes. In
91. Collectanea Instituti Anthropos 21. St. Cahiers Npalais: lHomme et son environnement
Augustin, Germany: Haus Vlker und Kulturen, haute altitude, Environmental and human popula-
Anthropos-Institute. tion problems at high altitude, Seminaire, Centre
1979b Algunos contrastes entre los pramos y las punas National de la Recherche Scientifique [and] Na-
como zonas de establecimientos humanos. In El tional Science Foundation, Paris, 1-3 octobre 1980.
medio ambiente pramo: Actas del seminario de Edited by Paul T. Baker, Corneille Jest, and
Mrida, Venezuela 5 a 12 de noviembre de 1979, Jacques Ruffi, pp. 129-135. Paris: Editions du
edited by M. L. Salgado-Labouriau, pp. 219-224. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
Mrida, Venezuela, Instituto Venezolano de 1981b Commentary on Reciprocity and the Inca State:
Investigaciones Cientficas. From Karl Polanyi to John V. Murra by Nathan
1979c Derechos a las tierras en el Tawantinsuyu. Wachtel. Research in Economic Anthropology
Revista de la Universidad Complutense 4:688-691.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 54

1981c Review of History of the Inca Empire: An Account 1983a Jos Mara Arguedas, dos imgines. Revista Ibero-
of the Indians Customs and their Origin together Americana 122:43-54. Republished in Arguedas
with a Treatise on the Inca Legends, History, and 1996:265-298.
Social Institutions by Father Bernab Cobo, trans- 1983b Prioridades en la etnografa antigua del mundo
lated by Roland Hamilton. American Ethnologist andino. Semana de Ultima Hora (La Paz), 25 -
8(1):202. February, p. 3.
1981d Prlogo. In La tecnologa en el mundo 1983c Review of Chan Chan: Andean Desert City by
andino/Runakunap kawasayninkupaq rursqan- Michael Moseley and Kent C. Day. Man n.s.
kunaqa, edited by Heather Lechtman and Ana 18(2):410-411.
Mara Soldi, Volume 1, Subsistencia y mensura- 1984a Andean Societies. In Annual Review of Anthro-
cin, pp. 7-9. Mxico: Universidad Nacional pology 13:119-141.
Autnoma de Mxico, Instituto de Investiga- 1984b The Cultural Future of the Andean Majority. In
ciones Antropolgicas. The Prospects for Plural Societies, edited by David
1982a The Mita Obligations of Ethnic Groups to the Maybury-Lewis, pp. 30-38. Washington, D.C.:
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1800, edited by George A. Collier, Renato I. 1984c Review of Estructuras andinas del poder: Ideologa
Rosaldo, and John D. Wirth, pp. 237-262. New religiosa y poltica by Mara Rostworowski de Diez
York: Academic Press. Also distributed sepa- Canseco. Hispanic American Historical Review
rately as a paper read at a meeting comparing the 64(4):790-791.
state in Meso-America and the Andes (1978), 1985a Andean Societies before 1532. In The Cambridge
revised October, 1981. Included in Human History of Latin America, edited by Leslie Bethell,
Relations Area Files, World Cultures, South Volume 1, pp. 59-90. Cambridge and New York:
America, Inka SE13 (an Internet resource). A Cambridge University Press. Spanish language
Spanish language version, La Mita al Tawan- version, Las sociedades andinas antes de 1532
tinsuyu: Prestaciones de los grupos tnicos, was published in Historia de Amrica Latina 1, Amri-
published in Chungur 10:77-94 (1983); and in ca Latina Colonial: La Amrica precolombiana y la
Murra (2002a), pp. 261-286. conquista, edited by Leslie Bethell and translated
1982b El trfico de mullo en la costa del Pacfico. In by Antonio Acosta. Barcelona, Editorial Crtica
Primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas (1990).
Andino-Mesoamericano, 25-31 de Julio de 1971, 1985b Andean Societies before 1532 (bibliographic
Salinas Ecuador, edited by Jorge Marcos G. and essay). In The Cambridge History of Latin Amer-
Presley Norton, pp. 265-273. Guayaquil: Escuela ica, edited by Leslie Bethell, Volume 11, pp. 15-
Superior Politcnica del Litoral. Also published 18. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Uni-
in Murra (1975a), pp. 255-267; and in Murra versity Press. Spanish language version, Las
(2002a), pp. 171-179; and in Reconocimientos y sociedades andinas antes de 1532 (Ensayo Biblio-
excavaciones en el austro ecuatoriano (see Collier grfico) in Historia de Amrica Latina 1, Amrica
and Murra 1943), pp. 403-418 (2007). Latina Colonial: La Amrica precolombiana y la
1982c Ethnohistory: South America. Handbook of Latin conquista, edited by Leslie Bethell. Barcelona,
American Studies 44:102-121, edited by Dolores Editorial Crtica (1990).
Mayano Martin. Austin: University of Texas 1985c El archipilago vertical Revisited. In Andean
Press for the Hispanic Division of the Library of Ecology and Civilization: An Interdisciplinary
Congress. Perspective on Andean Ecological Complementarity,
1982d Review of Parentesco y matrimonio en los Andes, edited by Shozo Masuda, Izumi Shimada, and
edited by Enrique Mayer and Ralph Bolton. Craig Morris, pp. 3-13 (article translated by
American Anthropologist 84(4):909-910. Freda Wolf de Romero). Tokyo: University of
1982e Review of The Transition to Statehood in the New Tokyo Press. A Spanish language version, El
World by Grant D. Jones and Robert R. Kautz. archipilago vertical: Once aos despus, was
Hispanic American Historical Review 62(4):713- published in Condarco 1987, pp. 87-104, and in
714. Murra (2002a), pp. 132-139.
1982f Platform Submitted to Support Candidacy for 1985d Commentary on Staple Finance, Wealth Fi-
President, American Anthropological Associa- nance, and Storage in the Inka Political Econ-
tion. Circulated by the American Anthropologi- omy by Terence N. DAltroy and Timothy K.
cal Association and by John Victor Murra. Earle. Current Anthropology 26(2):200.
Photocopy. On file in the archives of Andean 1985e Review of Religion and Empire: The Dynamics of
Past. Aztec and Inca Expansion by Geoffey W. Conrad
55 - Block and Barnes: John V. Murra

and Arthur A. Demarest. Man n.s. 20(3):553- Universidad Pontifcia Catlica del Per, Volume
554. 2, pp. 359-377. Also published as El Doctor
1986a Notes on Pre-Columbian Cultivation of Coca Barros de San Milln: Defensor de los seores na-
Leaf. In Coca and Cocaine: Effects on People and turales en los Andes. Barcelona: Servei de
Policy in Latin America, Proceedings of the Confer- Publicacions de la Universitat de Barcelona
ence, The Coca Leaf and Its DerivativesBiology, (1993); and in Murra (2002a), pp. 426-438.
Society, and Policy, Sponsored by the Latin Ameri- 1988c Review of La heterodoxia recuperada: En torno a
can Studies Program (LASP), Cornell University, ngel Palerm, edited by Susana Glantz. American
April 25-26, 1985, edited by Deborah Pacini and Anthropologist 90(1):196-197.
Christine Franquemont, pp. 49-52. Cambridge, 1988d Review of The Orgins and Development of the
Massachusetts: Cultural Survival and Ithaca, Andean State, edited by Jonathan Haas, Shelia
New York: Cornell LASP. Also distributed as an Pozorski, and Thomas Pozorski. Hispanic Ameri-
Audiobook by Cornell LASP (1985). can Historical Review 68(4):820-821.
1986b Le difficile accouchement dune histoire andine. 1988e Review of The Evolution of Human Societies: From
In Economies mditerranennes:quilibres et inter- Foraging Group to Agrarian State by Allen W.
communications, XIIIe-XIXe sicles. (Actes du IIe Johnson and Timothy Earle. Man n.s. 23(3):586-
Colloque International dHistoire), Volume 3, pp. 587.
309-313. Athens: Centre de Recherches No- 1989a High Altitude Andean Societies and their Econ-
hellniques de la Fondation Nationale de la omies. In Geographic Perspectives in History,
Recherche Scientifique. edited by Eugene D. Genovese and Leonard
1987a Existeron el tributo y los mercados antes de la Hochberg, pp. 205-214. Oxford and New York:
invasion espaola? In La Participacin indgena en B. Blackwell.
los mercados surandinos: estrategas y reproduccin 1989b Review of Resistance, Rebellion, and Consciousness
social siglos XVI a XX, edited by Olivia Harris, in the Andean Peasant World, 18th to 20th Centuries
Brooke Larson, and Enrique Tandeter. La Paz, by Steve J. Stern. American Anthropologist
Bolivia: Centro de Estudios de la Realidad 91(1):214-215.
Economica y Social. Also published as Existeron 1990 Review of Suma y narracin de los Incas by Juan
el tributo y los mercados en los Andes antes de la de Betanzos, edited by Mara del Carmen Martn
invasion espaola? in Arqueologa, antropologa, e Rubio. Ethnohistory 37(1):95-97.
historia en los Andes: Homenaje a Mara 1991a Le dbat sur lavenir des Andes en 1562. In
Rostworowski, edited by Rafael Varn Gabai and Cultures et socits: Andes et Mso-Amrique: M-
Javier Flores Espinoza, pp. 737-748. Lima: langes en homage Pierre Duviols, edited by
Instituto de Estudios Peruanos and Banco Cen- Raquel Thiercelin, Volume 2, pp. 625-632. Aix-
tral de Reserva del Per (1997); and in Murra en-Provence: Universit de Provence, Service
(2002a), pp. 237-247. An English language des Publications.
version, Did Tribute and Markets Prevail in the 1991b Nos hazen mucha ventaja: The Early European
Andes before the European Invasion? was pub- Perception of Andean Achievement. In Transat-
lished in Ethnicity, Markets, and Migration in the lantic Encounters: Europeans and Andeans in the
Andes: At the Crossroads of History and Anthropol- Sixteenth Century, edited by Kenneth J. Andrien
ogy, edited by Brooke Larson and Olivia Harris and Rolena Adorno, pp. 73-89. Berkeley: Uni-
with Enrique Tandeter, pp. 57-72. Durham, versity of California Press. A Spanish language
North Carolina: Duke University Press (1995). version, Nos hacen mucha ventaja: Percepcin
1987b Inventando una historia andina? Discurso Liter- europea temprana de los logros andinos, was
ario 4(2):347-353. published in Semillas de industria: Trans-
1987c La etnohistoria. In La etnohistoria en Mesoamrica formaciones de la tecnologa andina en las Amricas,
y los Andes, edited by Juan Manuel Prez Zevall- edited by Mario Ruz, pp. 19-35. Mxico: Ciesas
os and Jos Antonio Prez Golln, pp. 159-175. and Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution
Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Antropologa y (1994); and in Murra (2002a), pp. 25-40.
Historia. 1992 Guaman Pomas Sources in Guaman Poma de
1988a El Aymara libre de ayer. In Races de Amrica: El Ayala: The Colonial Art of an Andean Author by
mundo Aymara, edited by Xavier Alb, pp. 51-74. Rolena Adorno, Tom Cummins, Teresa Gisbert,
Madrid: Alianza Editorial. Maarten van de Guchte, Mercedes Lpez-Baralt,
1988b El Doctor Barros de San Milln, defensor de los and John Victor Murra, pp. 60-66. New York:
seores naturales de los Andes. In Actas del IV Americas Society.
Congreso Internacional de Etnohistoria. Lima:
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 56

1993a Review of Ancient Andean Political Economy by Murra, John Victor and Caroline G. Mercer
Charles Stanish. The American Historical Review 1957 Brown Will Discuss Faulkners Negro; Frazier,
98(2):616-617. the Negro Community and Conf. Vassar Chroni-
1993b Review of Provincial Power in the Inka Empire by cle, February 23. 14(17):3.
Terence N. DAltroy. The American Historical Murra, John Victor and Craig Morris
Review 98(4):1355. 1976 Dynastic Oral Tradition, Administrative Re-
1994a John Hyslop 1945-1993. Andean Past 4(1-7). cords, and Archaeology in the Andes. World
1994b Review of Domination and Resistance by Daniel Archaeology 7(3):269-279.
Miller, Michael Rowlands, and Christopher Murra, John Victor. and Nathan Wachtel
Tilley. American Anthropologist 21(3):628. 1978 Prsentation. In Revel et al. (1978), pp. 889-894.
1994c Review of the Inca Empire: The Formation and An English language version, Introduction, was
Disintegration of a Pre-Capitalist State by Thomas published in Murra et al. (1986), pp. 1-9.
C. Patterson. Latin American Antiquity 5(2):184- Sinclaire Aguirre, Carole, Soledad Hoces de la Guardia
185. Chellew, Paulina Brugnoli, and John Victor Murra
1996a Prlogo. In Las Cartas de Arguedas, edited by 2006 Awakhuni: Tejiendo la historia andina. Santiago de
John Victor Murra and Mercedes Lpez-Baralt, Chile: Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino.
pp. 13-16. Lima: Universidad Pontifcia Catlica An English language version published as Awak-
del Per. Second edition (1998). huni: Weaving the History of the Andes, in Memory
1996b [1977] Semblanza de Arguedas. In Las Cartas de of John Victor Murra (1916-2006). Santiago de
Arguedas, edited by John Victor Murra and Mer- Chile: Museo Chileno de Arte Precololombino
cedes Lpez-Baralt, pp. 283-293. Lima: Universi- (2007).
dad Pontifcia Catlica del Per. Second edition Thompson, Donald E. and John Victor Murra
(1998). 1966 The Inca Bridges in the Hunuco Region Ameri-
1998 Litigation Over the Rights of Natural Lords in can Antiquity 31(5) Part 1:632-639. Also pub-
Early Colonial Courts in the Andes. In Native lished in Peruvian Archaeology: Selected Readings,
Traditions in the Postconquest World: A Symposium edited by John Howland Rowe and Dorothy
at Dumbarton Oaks, edited by Elizabeth Hill Menzel, pp. 235-242. Palo Alto, California: Peek
Boone and Tom Cummins, pp. 55-62. Washing- Publications. A Spanish language version, Puen-
ton, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library tes incaicos en la region de Hunuco Pampa was
and Collection. A Spanish language version, published in Antropologa: Cuadernos de Investiga-
Litigio sobre los derechos de los senores natur- cin 1, pp. 79-94 (Universidad Nacional Her-
ales en las primeras cortes colonials en los milio Valdizn, Facultad de Letras y Educacin,
Andes published in Historias 49:101-105 (2001). Hunuco, Per, 1966).
1999 El Tawantinsuyu. In Historia general de Amrica
Latina, edited by Federico Mayor and Germn VOLUMES EDITED BY JOHN VICTOR MURRA
Damas, Volume 1, pp. 481-484. Madrid: Edito-
rial Trotta and Paris: Ediciones UNESCO. Also Arguedas, Jos Mara
published in Murra (2002a), pp. 67-82, plus 1996 Las Cartas de Arguedas, edited by John Victor
foldout map. Murra and Mercedes Lpez-Baralt. Lima:
2002a El Mundo andino: Poblacin, medio ambiente y Universidad Pontifcia Catlica del Per. Second
economa. Lima: Pontifcia Universidad Catlica edition (1998).
del Per, Fondo Editorial and Instituto de Es- Guaman Poma de Ayala, Felipe
tudios Peruanos, Series Historia Andina 24. 1980 El primer nueva cornica y buen gobierno, edited by
2002b Barros de San Milln. In Diccionario histrico de John Victor Murra and Rolena Adorno. Quech-
Bolivia, edited by Josep M. Barnadas, Guillermo ua translations by Jorge Urioste. Coleccin
Calvo, and Juan Ticlla. Volume 1, pp. 272-273. Amrica Nuestra 31. 3 volumes. Mxico: Siglo
Sucre: Grupo de Estudios Histricos. XXI. Reprinted 1988, 1992. Expanded and
Murra, John Victor and Gordon Hadden corrected edition published in Madrid by His-
1966 Apndice: Informe presentado al Patronado toria 16 in its Crnicas de Amrica series (1987);
Nacional de Arqueologa sobre la labor de liem- facsimile CD-ROM of manuscript GKS 2232 4o,
pieza y consolidacin de Hunuco Viejo. In Copenhagen: Royal Library of Denmark, n.d.
Cuadernos de Investigacin, Antropologa 1. and on-line facsimile:
(Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizan, ( /2006/poma/info/
Hunuco, Per.) en/frontpage.htm, consulted 21 March 2008),
plus the Murra-Adorno-Urioste transcription,
57 - Block and Barnes: John V. Murra

searchable and corrected by Ivan Boserup and Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de
Rolena Adorno. lHomme (1986).
Murra, John Victor, editor Rojas Rabiela, Teresa and John Victor Murra, editors
1964 Visita hecha a la Provincia de Chucuito por Garci 1999 Historia General de Amrica Latina, Volume 1,
Dez de San Miguel en el ao 1567. Transcription Los sociedades originarias. Madrid: Editorial
and bibliography by Waldemar Espinoza Soriano. Trotta and Paris: Ediciones UNESCO.
Includes Padrn de los mil indios ricos de la Pro-
vincia de Chucuito en el ao 1574, by Fray PAPERS OF JOHN VICTOR MURRA
Pedro Gutirrez Flores. Lima: Casa de la Cultura
Peruana. The bulk of John Victor Murras papers are in the Na-
1976 American Anthropology, The Early Years: 1974 tional Anthropological Archives of the Smithsonian
Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society. Institution. For a register of these papers see:
St. Paul, Minnesota; New York, New York;
Boston, Massachusetts; Los Angeles California, (consulted 3 June 2009).
and San Francisco, California: West Pub. Co.
1991 Visita de los valles de Sonqo en las yunka de coca de Other archival collections with documents relevant to the
La Paz (1568-1570). Madrid: Instituto de Co- life and work of John Victor Murra include The Catherine
operacin Iberoamericana, La Sociedad Estatal Pelton Durrell 25 Archives and Special Collections
del Quinto Centenario, and Instituto de Estudios Library, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York.
Fiscales. Includes Notas preliminarios sobre el
manuscripto de la visita de los cocales de Sonqo New York Universitys Bobst Library contains extensive
y la transcripcin usada en esta edicin, pp. 6-13; records of the Research Institute for the Study of Man
Introduccin al estudio histrico del cultivo de la with much material relevant to Murras work in the
hoja de la coca [Exythroxylon coca] en los Andes, Caribbean.
pp. 565-581; also published in Murra (2002a),
pp. 359-372, and Los cultivadores aymara de la New York Universitys Tamiment Library & Robert F.
hoja de coca: Dos disposiciones administrativas Wagner Labor Archives houses documents and audio-
[1568-1570], pp. 653-674; also published in tapes relevant to Murras participation in the Spanish
Murra (2002a), pp. 341-358. Civil War.
Ortiz de Ziga, Iigo
1967 Visita de la provincia de Len de Hunuco en 1562, The Harry S Truman Library and Museum, Independence,
edited by John Victor Murra, Volume 1, Visita de Missouri, Records on the Presidents Committee on Civil
las cuatro waranqa de los chupachu, transcribed by Rights Record Group 220 incorporates Murras citizenship
Domingo Angulo, Marie Helmer, and Felipe case records.
Mrquez Abanto. Hunuco, Per: Universidad
Nacional Hermilio Valdizn, Facultad de Letras Several collections of documents in the Anthropology
y Educacin, Series Documentos para la Historia Division of the American Museum of Natural History
y Etnologa de Hunuco y la Selva Central. have papers relevant to John Victor Murra. The records
1972 Visita de la provincia de Len de Hunuco en 1562, there of the Institute of Andean Research contain docu-
edited by John Victor Murra, Volume 2, Visita de ments pertinent to John Murras 1941-42 fieldwork in
los Yacha y mitmaqkuna cuzqueos encomendados Ecuador, to the Inca Provincial Life (Hunuco Project),
en Juan Sanchez Falcon, transcribed by Felipe and to his tenure as President of the IAR. The AMNHs
Mrquez Abanto. Hunuco, Per: Universidad Junius B. Bird Laboratory of South American Archaeology
Nacional Hermilio Valdizn, Facultad de Letras contains further records of Murras Hunuco Project,
y Educacin, Series Documentos para la Historia including field notes and photographs, transcriptions of
y Etnologa de Hunuco y la Selva Central. archival documents relevant to Hunuco, maps of the
Revel, Jacques, John Victor Murra, and Nathan Wachtel, region, official documents authorizing the project, interim
editors reports, and professional and personal letters by or to
1978 Anthropologie historique des socits andines, Murra. Certain letters in the Bird Lab to and from E.
Annales 33(5-6), special issue. Published as an Craig Morris and to and from John Hyslop are also
English language edition, Anthropological History relevant to Hunuco John Victor Murras life and work.
of Andean Polities, edited by John Victor Murra,
Nathan Wachtel, and Jacques Revel. Cambridge Information on Murra in the Archivo General de la
and New York: Cambridge University Press and Guerra Civil, Salamanca, Spain was said by him to be
partially incorrect.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 58

Some significant John Murra papers remain in Andean ish language translation by Martha Len
countries and in private hands. Urdaneta is posted on the website of the Banco
de la Repblica de Colombia, La Biblioteca Luis
INTERVIEWS ngel Urdaneta, Biblioteca Virtual
En la obra de cualquier autor, poeta, lo que sea, cual- banrep/bolmuseo/1986/bol17/ boc3.htm ( c o n -
quiera, hay un retrato que se hace del el, y otra cosa es lo sulted 4 June 2009).
que l percibe de s mismo John Victor Murra speaking to de Siles, Mara Eugenia
Waldo Ansaldi and Fernando Caldern G., 1989 (In the 1983 Conversaciones con John Victor Murra, un
work of any author, poet, whoever, there is a portrait that apasionado del mundo andino. Semana de Ultima
is made of him, but how he perceives himself is something Hora, February 11, pp. 6-8 (La Paz, Bolivia).
else, translation by Monica Barnes). Wolf de Romero, Freda
1966 An Interview with John Victor Murra. Lima
Ansaldi, Waldo and Fernando Caldern G. Times, August, pp. 31-32.
1989 Reconocer el valor de esta sociedad que por
casualidad encontr: Conversacin con John TRANSLATIONS
Murra. David y Goliath 18(54):2-14. Also pub-
lished as Pon la vida, pon los sueos: Conversa- Murra, John V., Robert M. Hankin, and Fred Holling,
cin con John Murra. In Los esfuerzos de Ssifo: translators
Conversaciones sobre las ciencias sociales en 1951 The Soviet Linguistic Controversy: Translated from
Amrica Latina, pp. 245-285, edited by Fernando the Soviet Press. New York: Kings Crown Press
Caldern G. (2000). Heredia, Costa Rica: for the Columbia University Slavic Studies
EUNA. Department.
Castro, Victoria, Carlos Aldunate, and Jorge Hidalgo, Rostworowski de Diez Canseco, Mara
editors 1960 Succession, Coption to Kingship and Royal
2000 Nispa ninchis/decimos diciendo: Conversaciones con Incest Among the Incas. Translated by John
John Murra. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos Victor Murra. Southwestern Journal of Anthropol-
and New York: Institute of Andean Research. ogy 16(4):417-427.
Series Fuentes e Investigaciones para la Historia
Gerassi, John
1980 Unpublished audio-taped interview of John Editors of Chungar
Victor Murra. Abraham Lincoln Brigade Ar- 2009? At the time Andean Past 9 went to press, an issue
chive (ALBA) Audio #18, John Gerassi Oral of Chungar: Revista de Antropologa Chilena.
History Collection, The Tamiment Library, New dedicated to John Murra was in preparation.
York University. Henderson, John S. and Patricia J. Netherly, editors
Harriman, Manny 1993 Configurations of Power: Holistic Anthropology in
1983 Video interview with John Victor Murra. Not Theory and Practice. Ithaca, New York: Cornell
broadcast or distributed. To be deposited in the University Press.
archive of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, Tami- Lorandi, AnaMara, Carmen Salazar-Soler, and Nathan
ment Library, New York University, New York, Wachtel
New York. 2003 Los Andes: Cincuenta aos despus (1953-2003);
Hermosa, Ernest Homenaje a John Murra. Lima: Universidad
n.d. Fragamento de entrevista con John Murra. Pontifcia Catlica del Per.
Presencia Cultural, Televisin Nacional del Per,
Program posted on YouTube, WORKS ABOUT JOHN VICTOR MURRA
(consulted 4 June 2009). Nine minutes of a more Alb, Xavier and Cristina Bubba
extensive interview. 2007 John Murra, solidario militante. La Razn, No-
Ipia Melgar, Jos vember 4, A6 (La Paz, Bolivia).
1976 Etnolgia andina: Entrevista con John Victor Anonymous
Murra. Presencia Literaria 12 September, pp. 1ff. 1942 57 South Siders Receive Degrees at U. Of Chi-
Rowe, John Howland cago: 642 Students Graduated Since Last Sum-
1984 An Interview with John Victor Murra. Hispanic mer. Chicago Daily Tribune, December 20, p. S4.
American Historical Review 64(4):1-21. A Span-
59 - Block and Barnes: John V. Murra

1947a U.S. to Lift Lid on Red Asking for Citizenship. 1955c Goals of Childhood Set Pattern for Adult Life
Chicago Daily Tribune, January 1, p. 42. Anthropologist Says. Boston Globe, November
1947b Denies U. Of C. Ex-Instructor Citizen Rights. 20.
Chicago Daily Tribune, January 18, p. 1. 1955d Engineers Hear Talk by Anthropologist, Pough-
1947c Alien Rejected as U.S. Citizen to Appeal Case. keepsie New Yorker, November 21.
Chicago Daily Tribune, February 12, p. 38. 1956a Murra Chosen Series Moderator. Poughkeepsie
1947d Injustice from a Biased Judge. The Chicago Sun, New Yorker, January 27.
January 24. 1956b Grant Received by Vassar Senior. Poughkeepsie
1948a Red Gospel Advanced by Fund Grants: Exempt New Yorker, February 13.
Trusts Pay Writers. Chicago Daily Tribune, No- 1956c John V. Murra . . . will be Moderator of a Series
vember 7, p. 1. of Four Meetings about African Arts . . . Vassar
1948b Second Ruling Due Nov. 22 in Murras Citizen- Miscellany News, February 15, 40(15):1
ship Plea. Chicago Daily Tribune, November 10, 1956d Vassar Professor Receives Degree. Poughkeepsie
p. B1. New Yorker, March 19.
1948c Igoe Studies Plea of Ex-U. Of C. Aid Accused as 1956e Faculty Notes. Vassar Chronicle, December 15,
a Red. Chicago Daily Tribune, November 23, p. 14(12):8.
A10. 1956f John V. Murra Attends AAA Meetings. Pough-
1948d Igoe Files Findings as Prof. Murra Acts in Citi- keepsie New Yorker, December 29.
zenship Ban. Chicago Daily Tribune, November 1957a Faculty Notes. Vassar Chronicle 14(14):4, Janu-
24, p. 3. ary 19.
1948e Citizenship Request is Turned Down. A.P. 1957b Program in Commemoration of New State of
report. Wisconsin Rapids Daily Tribune, Novem- Ghana. New Paltz Independent, April 18.
ber 24, p. 2. Also published as Denies Citizenship 1957c 400 Attend Opening of African Unit. Afro-
to Teacher. The La Crosse Tribune, November American, October 5 (Baltimore, Maryland).
24, p. 11. 1957d John Murra to Attend Seminar in Puerto Rico.
1949a U.S. Opposes Appeal of Educator in Fight to Poughkeepsie New Yorker, November 11.
Gain Citizenship. Chicago Daily Tribune, Sep- 1957e John Murra to Speak at Brandeis. Poughkeepsie
tember 22, p. 5. New Yorker, November 25.
1949b Reverse Denial of Citizenship to Ex-U.C. Aid: 1958 Caribbean Course Slated by AAUN. Pough-
U.S. Court of Appeals Clears Murra. Chicago keepsie New Yorker, January 3.
Daily Tribune, December 15, p. 9. 1959a Murra Opens Convocation with Anthropology
1950a Deny Rehearing to U.S. in Murra Citizenship Address. Vassar Miscellany News 44(1), Septem-
Bid. Chicago Daily Tribune, February 2, p. 7. ber 23.
1950b Igoe, Reversed, Grants Citizen Oath to Russian. 1959b New Faculty Members Cited, Professors on
Chicago Tribune, June 15, p. C10. Leave Return. Vassar Miscellany News 44(2):1, 4,
1950c Engineers Hear Talk by Anthropologist. Pough- September 30.
keepsie New Yorker, November 21. 1960a John V. Murra of the Anthropology Department
1956 Columbia to Make a Study of Tropics. The New will lecture . . . on the All Africa Conference
York Times, April 21, p. 37. which He Attended. Vassar Miscellany News,
1953 American Friends Plan Seminar. Vassar Miscel- March 2, 44(19):1.
lany News, March 4, 37(17):5. 1960b Professor to Talk to Harding Club. Poughkeepsie
1954a J. Murra, M. Flack Join Vassar Faculty. Vassar New Yorker, May 10.
Miscellany News 38(15):3, February 17. 1961a Advisers Air Program of Health Unit. Advance ,
1954b Flack and Murra, New VC Faculty Members. February 13 (Staten Island).
Vassar Chronicle, February 20,11(15):6. 1961b Africa to Incas. News (Detroit, Michigan),
1954c AAUW Study Group to Hear Mr. Murra. March 22.
Poughkeepsie New Yorker, October 22. 1961c U-D Will Host Special Talks on African Ways.
1954d Murra Named to Fair Club Board. Poughkeepsie Northwest Record, March 23.
New Yorker, November 27. 1961d Trustees Grant Fourteen Faculty Leaves . . .
1955a Vassar Lecturer Attends Meeting. Poughkeepsie Vassar Miscellany News, May 10, 45(25)1, 6.
New Yorker, January 5. 1961e Africa Lecture Slated. News (Detroit, Michigan),
1955b John V. Murra Speaking at Brandeis. Pough- October 13.
keepsie New Yorker, April 16. 1961f Asks Truer Inca Study. News (Newark, New
Jersey), November 24.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 60

1961g Ethnologist Seeks True Inca Image. Sun, Novem- in the context of his participation in the Spanish
ber 30 (Baltimore, Maryland). Civil War.
1961i True Picture of Inca. Science News Letter 80(23): Friedman, Rosalind
364. 1960 Anthropologists, Philosophers, Historian Attend
1962a LWV Announces Names of Series Patronesses. Conference. Vassar Miscellany News 44(13):1,
Register, January 18 (New Haven, Connecticut). January 13 .
1962b Second Lecture in LWV Series Set Wednesday. Gillespie, Adele
Register, January 28 (New Haven, Connecticut). 1950 Murra Speaks on Conditions Prevailing Now in
c. 1964 [exact date unknown] En Hunuco habra Puerto Rico. Vassar Miscellany News 35(9):3, 6,
otro Machupicchu: As afirma catedrtico de November 22 .
EU. La Prensa (Lima). Gleach, Frederic W. and Frank Salomon
1966 Carnet Social. La Chrnica, February 10 (Lima). 2006 Death Notices: John V. Murra. Anthropology
1983 292 Receive Fellowships from Guggenheim News 47(9):36.
Fund. The New York Times, April 10, Metropoli- Gleach, Frederic W. with David Block, Jane Fajans, John
tan Desk, Late City Final Edition, Section 1, p. Henderson, David Holmberg, Eduardo Kohn, Heather
48. Lechtman, Frank Salomon, and Gabriela Vargas-Cetina
2006a [Frederic W. Gleach] John V. Murra. Ithaca 2006 Obituary: John V. Murra
Journal, p. 4A, October 25.
2006b John Murra, Anthropologist. International Herald index. php ?id=17 (consulted 26 June 2009).
Tribune, News Section, October 25, p. 3. Glaser, June
2006c John Victor Murra. Lives in Brief. The Times 1959 Experience in Peru Related by Murra. Vassar
[London], November, 1. Features, p. 66a. Miscellany News 44(2):1, 4, September 30.
2006d Anthropologist J. Murra: Expert on Incan Em- Harris, Olivia
pire. Watertown Daily Times [New York], 2006 John Victor Murra: An Anthropologist Who
November 3. Dedicated Himself to Understanding the Incan
2007e Correction of October 24, 2007 Obituary about Civilization. Guardian, p. 39, November 4.
John V. Murra Regarding Incident in his Life. Spanish language translation published in conos
The New York Times, November 2, Late Edition, 26:164-66 and on-line:
final, Metropolitan Desk section, page 2.
n.d. (c. 1950) Untitled editorial denouncing John [consulted 1 August 2009].
Victor Murras citizenship application and his Henderson, John S. and Patricia J. Netherly
hiring by Vassar College. National Republic Letter- 1993 Murra, Materialism, Anthropology, and the
gram 222 (Washington, D.C.). The National Andes. In Configurations of Power: Holistic An-
Republic Lettergram, an offshoot of The National thropology in Theory and Practice, pp. 1-8. Ithaca,
Republic magazine was edited by Walter S. New York: Cornell University Press.
Steele, an anti-Communist activist Hevesi, Dennis
Castro Rojas, Victoria, Craig Morris, and Carlos Ivan De 2006 John V. Murra, 90, Professor Who Recast Image
gregori of Incas, Dies. The New York Times, October 24.
2002 Homenaje a John Murra. Gaceta Arqueolgica On-line at:
Andina 26:223-227.
Condarco Morales, Ramiro /24murra.html?scp=1&sq=%22John%20Victo
1977 Un ataque a Murra. Presencia Literaria June 5, p. r%20Murra%22&st=cse (Consulted 4 June
2 (La Paz, Bolivia). 2009, includes correction).
Collier, Donald Hirschman, Joan
1942 Ecuador Expedition Returns. Field Museum News 1955 Upper Classmen Interview Professors; Compare
13(3):3. Freshmen. Seniors in Class, Loss of Spontaneity
Contreras, Jess . . . Vassar Miscellany News, 40(11):3, December
1993 Solemne investidura de doctor honoris causa al 7.
professor John V. Murra: Discurs de presentaci Honan, William H.
pel professor Jess Contreras. Barcelona: Univer- 1992 U.S. Returns Stolen Ancient Textiles to Bolivia.
sitat (in Catalan and Spanish). The New York Times, September 27, page 23.
Fisher, Harry Jenson, Peter
1998 Comrades: Tales of a Brigadista in the Spanish Civil 1965 A Traveling Exhibit in the Andes. Curator 8(3):
War. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 223-227.
Contains many mentions of John Victor Murra
61 - Block and Barnes: John V. Murra

Klineberg, Rosemary Bauer, Arnold J.

1954 Murra Conducts Discussion Group. Vassar 1976 Review of Formaciones econmicas y polticas del
Miscellany News, 39(7):3, November 3. mundo andino. Hispanic American Historical
Neira, Hugo Review 56(3):472-473.
2006 Hugo Neira comenta la trayectora de John Brading, David
Murra. Presencia Cultural, Televisin Nacional 1981 From the Peasants Point of View. Review of
del Per. Economic Organization of the Inca State. The Times
http:/ Literary Supplement, August 14, p. 938 .
php?s=Murra&submit= Caballero, Antonio
(Consulted 4 June 2009). 1987 La tragedia (ilustrada) de la conquista. Review of
Raczynski, Christiane Nueva cornica y buen gobierno. Cambio 16, May
1995 John Murra: Conquistado por los Andes. El 5, pp. 144-145.
Comercio, E24, 29 October (Lima). Cahill, David
Redfield, Robert and Fay-Cooper Cole 1990 History and Anthropology in the Study of An-
1947 Case Against Murra. Letter to the Sun, January dean Societies. Review of Anthropological History
(Chicago, Illinois). of Andean Politics, edited by John Victor Murra,
Salomon, Frank Nathan Wachtel, and Jacques Revel, among
2007 John Victor Murra (1916-2006). American Anth- other books. Bulletin of Latin American Research
ropologist 109(4):793-795. 9(1):123-132.
Vsquez Aliaga, Jos Carter, William
1970 John Murra: Agudo peruanista. La Prensa, Sep- 1965 Review of Visita hecha a la provincia de Chucuito
tember 5 (Lima). por Garci Diez de San Miguel en el ao 1567.
Vega, Roberto American Anthropologist n.s. 67(5), part 1:1327-
1983 Un maestro de la historia del Tawantinsuyu. 1328.
Tiempo Argentino, 30 May, p. 7. Dwyer, Edward B.
Wachtel, Nathan 1976 Review of Formaciones econmicas y polticas del
1973 La reciprocidad y el Estado Inca: De Karl Polanyi a mundo andino. Ethnohistory 23(1):70-71.
John V. Murra. Lima: Publisher Unknown. Elliott, J. H.
Wakefield, Dan 1973 Review of Visita de la Provincia de Len de
1959 The Other Puerto Ricans: Headlines Have Ob- Hunuco en 1562, Volume 1 by Iigo Ortiz de
scured the Fight that Most Must Make Against Ziga. Journal of Latin American Studies
Slum Living and Intolerance. The New York 5(2):321.
Times Sunday Magazine, October 11, pp. 24, 25, Escajadillo, Toms
82-85. 1996 Reveladoras cartas. Review of Las cartas de
Zahner, Barbara Arguedas, edited by John Victor Murra and Mer-
1950 Profile Mr. Murra. Vassar Miscellany News, cedes Lpez-Baralt. Debate 18(91):63 (Per).
October 18, 35(4):3, 5. Faron, Louis C.
1965 Review of Visita hecha a la provincia de Chucuito
REVIEWS OF THE WORKS OF JOHN VICTOR MURRA por Garci Diez de San Miguel en el ao 1567.
Ethnohistory 12(3):263-265.
Alb, Xavier 1968 Review of Visita de la Provincia de Leon de
1983 Dos nuevas ediciones completas de Waman Hunuco en 1562, Volume 1 by Iigo Ortiz de
Puma. Review of El primer nueva cornica y buen Ziga. American Anthropologist 70(3):620-621.
gobierno by Guaman Poma de Ayala. Annales 1981 Review of Anthropologie historique des socits
E.S.C. 38(3):633-635. andines, edited by Jacques Revel, John Victor
Ballesteros Gaibrois, Manuel Murra, and Nathan Wachtel. Hispanic American
1987 Guaman Poma de Ayala, cronista indio, Review Historical Review 61(1):106-107.
of Nueva cornica y buen gobierno by Guaman Gose, Peter
Poma de Ayala. Historia 16, March, pp. 83-88. 1987 Review of Anthropological History of Andean
Bankes, George Polities edited by John Victor Murra, Nathan
1983 Review of The Economic Organization of the Inca Wachtel, and Jacques Revel. Man n.s.
State. Journal of Latin American Studies 15(1):199- 22(4):762-763.
200. Ganster, Paul
1974 Review of Visita de la provincia de Leon de Hunu-
co en 1562, Volume 2, Visita de los Yacha y
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 62

Mitmaqkuna cuzqueos encomendados en Juan Mitchell, William P.

Snchez Falcn by Iigo Ortiz de Ziga. Ameri- 1988 Review of Etnografa e historia del mundo andino:
can Anthropologist 76(4):923-924. Continuidad y cambio, edited by Shozo Masuda
Guarisco, Claudia and of Anthropological History of Andean Polities,
1992 Nuevo aporte de John Murra: Visita de los valles edited by John Victor Murra, Nathan Wachtel,
de Sonqo. El Peruano, 9 September, pp. 6-7. and Jacques Revel. American Anthropologist
Higgins, James 90(1):198-199.
1982 Review of El primer nueva cornica y buen gobierno Morris, Craig
by Guaman Poma de Ayala. Bulletin of Hispanic 1979 Review of La organizacin del estado Inca. Ameri-
Studies 59:84-85. can Anthropologist 81(4):922-924.
Kjonegaard, Vernon Moseley, Michael E.
1982 Review of El primer nueva crnica y buen gobierno, 1987 Review of Anthropological History of Andean
edited by John Victor Murra and Rolena Adorno Polities, edited by John Victor Murra, Nathan
with Jorge L. Urioste. New Scholar 8(1, 2):442- Wachtel, and Jacques Revel. Hispanic American
448. Historical Review 67(4):699-700.
Lavall, Bernard Ortega, Julio
1982 Review of El primer nueva crnica y buen gobierno, 1981 Review of El primer nueva crnica y buen gobierno,
edited by John Victor Murra and Rolena Adorno edited by John Victor Murra and Rolena Adorno
with Jorge L. Urioste. Bulletin Hispanique 84(1- with Jorge L. Urioste. Vuelta 5(58):35-37.
2):226-227. Ossio, Juan M.
Loza, Carmen Beatriz 2001 Guaman Poma en Internet. Review of El primer
1992a Review in Spanish of Visita a los valles de Sonqo nueva cornica y buen gobierno (GKS 22324o) El
en los yunka de coca de La Paz, 1568-1570. Revista Comercio, El Dominical, 3 June (Lima) .
Andina 10(1):251-252. Pease, G. Y., Franklin
1992b Another review in French of Visita a los valles de 1973 Las visitas de Hunuco en el siglo XVI: Nuevas
Sonqo en los yunka de coca de La Paz, 1568-1570. Ediciones. Review of Visita de la Provincia de Len
Journal de la Socit des Amricanistes 78(1):158- de Hunuco en 1562 by Ortiz de Zuniga. El
161. Comercio, El Dominical, 4 February (Lima).
Ludea de la Vega, Guillermo Peters, Ann H., and Calogero Santoro
1985 Review of El primer nueva cornica y buen gobierno 2004 Reviews of El mundo andino: Poblacin, medio am-
by Guaman Poma de Ayala. El Comercio, 20 biente, y economa. Chungar 36(1):241-245.
March (Lima). Schaedel, Richard P.
Mallku (sic) 1968 Review of Visita hecha a la provincia de Chucuito
1977 Etnohistoria e ideologa. Review of Formaciones por Garci Diez de San Miguel en el ao 1567. Chu-
econmicas y polticas del mundo andino. El Diario, cuito. Hispanic American Historical Review
January 23, p. 10 (Bolivia). 48(2):290-292.
Means, Philip Ainsworth 1969 Review of Visita de la Provincia de Len de Hunu-
1944 Review of Survey and Excavation in Southern co en 1562. by Iigo Ortiz de Ziga. Hispanic
Ecuador by Donald Collier and John Victor American Historical Review 49(3):542-544.
Murra. American Anthropologist 9(3):366-367. 1977 Review of Formaciones econmicas y polticas del
Middleton, DeWight R. mundo andino. Hispanic American Historical
1977 Peasantries and Other Topics: South and Meso- Review 42(1):129-131.
america. Reviews Formaciones econmicas y polti- Silverblatt, Irene
cas del mundo andino, among other works. Ameri- 1989 Review of Anthropological History of Andean
can Anthropologist 79(1):98-104. Polities, edited by John Victor Murra, Nathan
Millones, Luis Wachtel, and Jacques Revel. American Ethnolo-
1982 Ethnohistorians and Andean Ethnohistory: A gist 16(2):400-401.
Difficult Task, a Heterodox Discipline. A book Spector, Ivan
review article that evaluates La organizacin 1952 Review of The Soviet Linguistic Controversy by
econmica del estado inca and Formaciones econ- John Victor Murra, Robert M. Hankin, and Fred
micas y polticas del mundo andino, among other Holling, among other works. American Slavic and
books. Latin American Research Review East European Review 11(1):82-83.
17(1):200-216. Villamarin, Juan A.
1989 Review of Anthropological History of Andean
Politics, edited by John Victor Murra, Nathan
63 - Block and Barnes: John V. Murra

Wachtel, and Jacques Revel. Ethnohistory

2005 Review of Historia General de Amrica Latina,
Volume 1, Los sociedades originarias, edited by
Teresa Rojas Rabiela and John Victor Murra.
Hispanic American Historical Review 85(3):499-
Weinberg, Gregorio
1982 Crnica, alegato y utopa, review of El primer
nueva cornica y buen gobierno by Guaman Poma
de Ayala. La Nacin, 14 February, pp. 2-3,
(Buenos Aires); also published in El Comercio 20
March, 1985 (Lima).
Willey, Gordon R.
1944 Review of Survey and Excavations in Southern
Ecuador by Donald Collier and John Victor
Murra. American Anthropologist 46(1, part
1):129-131. Reconstruction of Hunuco Pampa as directed by
Zuidema, R. Tom John Victor Murra and Gordon Hadden (1966). Photo
1982 Review of El primer nueva crnica y buen gobierno, courtesy of the Anthropology Division,
edited by John V. Murra and Rolena Adorno American Museum of Natural History.
with Jorge L. Urioste. Latin American Indian
Literatures 6(2):126-132.

Bibliography compiled by David Block, Bibliographer,

Benson Latin American Collection,
University of Texas at Austin
and Monica Barnes

29 October 2009

John Victor Murra in his official portrait as the first National Science Foundation
Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Smithsonian Institution (1966-67)

INTRODUCTION what it means to have been his student and

Heather Lechtman colleague and to have been mentored by him.
and Freda Yancy Wolf de Romero
We contacted a few womenthere are many
In considering a contribution to the special morefrom North and South America and
section of Andean Past 9 that honors John asked each to comment on the ways in which
Murra and that documents an historic era in Murra affected her development and maturation
Andean anthropology, both of us agreed that a as an anthropologist. We added our own
unique contribution should come from women perspectives. It is remarkable to see the
who were students and colleagues of John similarities in these accounts, not having
Murra. The most accurate and honest way to consulted with each other. As Freda notes,
document the strong support and unwavering How quickly we recognized him, and perhaps
commitment Murra gave to women at various he us. Some of the women whose texts appear
stages in their intellectual and professional lives here were students of John Murra. All of us
was to ask them to write their own versions of were his colleagues.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009): 65-85.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 66

ANTHROPOLOGY IS MY VILLAGE when questioned that he was from North

America. By his east European upbringing he
HEATHER LECHTMAN was culturally very much a Jew, but he avoided
Cambridge, Massachusetts any affiliations, personal, political, or otherwise
with Jews that might have been founded on a
The Andean achievement is to combine such sense of shared roots.
very different things into a single system.
There is a tendency in the social and human Murra was a soldier in the international
sciences to diminish differences. Then there is army that helped the people of Spain fight
the other stance, which is mine, that wants to
against fascism. The only identity card he
emphasize, to the point of exaggeration, the
Andean achievement, the effort it took to
carried with him and curated protectively
combine all of that. Anthropology is the throughout his life was his Livret Militaire, issued
science of differences, whereas science in on 14 April 1937 by the Ministerio de Defensa
general is the systematic knowledge of Nacional, Repblica Espaola, Brigadas Interna-
uniformities. But ours, no. Ours is a paean to cionales, Ejrcito de Tierra. For political party,
difference.1 the ministerio entered Antifascist. For
profession, Student of Archaeology. By 15
(John Murra, in Castro et al. 2000:140-142. May 1938 the carnet registers Murra as
Translation by the author) Squadron Leader in the 15th Brigade. I have
Murras International Brigade carnet and will
I knew John Murra for 54 years. We met in deliver it to the Archive of the Abraham
1952, when he was a new lecturer in Lincoln Brigade, located at the Tamiment
anthropology at Vassar College and I was a Library, New York University.
sixteen year old freshwoman determined to
study physics there. During those 54 years I However, it is his identity as an
would say that the two most consequential and anthropologist that Murras students
persistent identities he allowed himself were as experienced and that most of us appropriated.
a soldier in the International Brigades of the For Murra, anthropology was a way of life, an
Spanish Civil War and as an anthropologist. attitude by which one could relate to, capture
the peopled world, and recognize the
Murra refused to be consigned to any multiplicity of solutions humans devised to
category, a social tendency in the U.S. that he manage that world. In his several day interview
hated. Born in Russia, he was no Russian, nor with his Chilean colleaguesVictoria Castro,
did he consider himself Romanian, though he Carlos Aldunate, and Jorge Hidalgo (2000)he
left Romania for the United States at the age of makes his position clear. Ever since he
seventeen. He did not want or need a discovered anthropology at the age of eighteen,
nationality. When abroad he might respond in Radcliffe-Browns2 classes at the University of
Chicago, his concerns both as a social scientist
and as a political actor on this planet remained
El logro de lo andino es combinar en un solo sistema anthropological concerns. He declared himself
cosas tan distintas. Es que hay una tendencia en las an anthropologist, first and foremost, because he
ciencias sociales y humanas a reducir diferencias. Y hay la
otra posicin, que es la ma, de querer enfatizar y hasta
was interested in and invested in an alternative
exagerar el logro, el esfuerzo que toma combinar todo esto. to the world in which we live presently. If there
La Antropologa es la ciencia de las Diferencias. Mientras
que la ciencia en general, es la ciencia de Uniformidades.
Y lo nuestro no. Lo nuestro es un canto de la diferencia. For Radcliffe-Brown see Barnes, this volume, note 8.
67 - John V. Murra: A Mentor to Women

were no interest in human diversity, there would characterized his structuring of the Hunuco
be no anthropology (2000:75). Viejo project in 1958. Archaeology and history
were of a piece for Murra. He was unwilling to
When I studied at Vassar, from 1952 to draw firm distinctions, to construct boundaries
1956, there was one constant theme he between them.
drummed into us, regardless of the subject
matter of the course: the existence and I had met Murra in New York briefly in
continuity of cultural differences. Murras eye 1952, one month before beginning college. I
was always on the multiplicity and adaptability decided to enroll in one of his anthropology
of solutions to what is essentially the human classes. I wound up taking every anthropology
social condition. The responsibility of course he and Helen Codere3 taught at Vassar
anthropology was to discover, to broadcast, and and graduated with a double major, in physics
to champion human social and cultural and anthropology. My entire career has involved
diversity. That responsibility was not only his, an effort to mesh the two fields, to contribute to
he made it ours. He insisted that the anthropology from a platform built upon the
fundamental contributions anthropology made physical and engineering sciences.
to social science were the concept of culture and
the methodology of field-work. Murra never tried to dissuade me from
studying physics, nor did he exert pressure to
During my Vassar years Murra did not offer focus my energies and interests solely on
classes on the Andean world. After his legal anthropology. He described himself as
battle in the federal courts to be accorded U.S. interstitial, as operating between systems
citizenship, which he won in 1950, the rather than wholly within them. He understood
government still denied him a passport. He was what it took me decades to realize, that being
unable to travel to the Andes until 1956 when interstitial locates one at interfaces, which is
his passport was issued. Instead, Murra taught where the action is. In his own way he let me
about African societies, especially because he know that it was O.K. to be an interstitial. His
was seriously involved in the political viabilities goal was to discern and present cultural diversity
of newly established nations, such as Ghana and through the mechanisms of anthropology. Those
Nigeria. He taught about the Nuer and the goals became mine. I understood that I might
indigenous peoples of the North American approach them with tools that could become
Plains. We learned about culture. tools of anthropology. Developing the tools was
my responsibility. It was a responsibility that
But there was something else I recognized in could stand as my reciprocal exchange with
Murra, long after having graduated from Vassar, Murrastudent to teacher.
that influenced my own intellectual trajectory
profoundly. He was as interested in and excited I did not continue with graduate school in
by new approaches, uncommon methods by cultural anthropology or in archaeology. Yet my
which to represent human diversity as in materials engineering research that is focused on
diversity itself. We all consider Murra an ethno- Andean prehistoric production technologies has
historian. But he defined ethnohistory in his been guided by a concern for identifying the
own terms: By ethnohistory I mean that I am culture of technologies. What was Andean
going to excavate but I am also going to read about Andean metallurgy, and how and why did
documents (2000:80). It was that new
combination of methodological approaches that 3
For Codere see Barnes, this volume, note 42.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 68

it differ from metallurgies that developed in When I introduce students to my graduate,

equally sophisticated ways in other ancient two semester seminar and laboratory classes in
social settings? Ultimately my Andean studies the materials science of material culture, I begin
led me to propose not only that technologies are my remarks by assuring them that the class in
culture bearing and culture producing systems, which they are enrolled is not a class in
but that they may represent and display ethno- laboratory analytical procedures, nor is it a how
categories by which people order experience. to class. It is an anthropology class.
Ethnocategories are rendered through
technological behavior just as they are rendered Murra hated when North Americans asked
linguistically. The utility of a materials- him what he did. I learned to hate the question
archaeological approach, of focusing on what too. Usually I respond that I am a New Yorker.
and how people do rather than on what and how Only when pressed by those I admire do I reply,
they say, is that it confines us to detailed I am an anthropologist. Murra often declared,
scrutiny of materials and their relationships in Anthropology is my village. What he gave
practice. Ethnocategories arise from patterns of mewhat he gave to all his studentswas his
technological practice, whether or not those village.
patterns are labeled linguistically (Lechtman
1999: 223, 230). REFERENCES CITED

Castro, Victoria, Carlos Aldunate, Jorge Hidalgo, editors

For Murra it was much more than O.K. for 2000 Nispa Ninchis: Decimos Diciendo, Conversaciones
me to be interstitial. It was important, and with con John Murra. Lima: Instituto de Estudios
time we both understood his ease with respect Peruanos and New York: Institute of Andean
to my dual professional education and his Research.
support for the ways in which my contributions Lechtman, Heather
1999 Afterword. In The Social Dynamics of Technology,
to anthropology were expressed. His support edited by Marcia-Anne Dobres and Christopher
helped me focus, and it surprised neither of us R. Hoffman, pp. 223-232. Washington, D.C.:
that my focus aimed at discerning cultural Smithsonian Institution Press.
features of Andean technological behavior.

John Victor Murra (second from viewers left) wearing two academic decorations presented to him on his 82nd
birthday, August 24, 1998, by the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and the Universidad Nacional
San Antonio Abad del Cusco. Seated outside the Centro Cultural de San Marcos (La Casona) are, from left to
right, AnaMara Soldi, John Murra, Heather Lechtman, and Freda Wolf (photo: courtesy of Heather Lechtman).
69 - John V. Murra: A Mentor to Women

MENTORS AS INTELLECTUAL PARENTS competition. Murra, at that point, was about to

begin the Hunuco Project, about which he
FREDA YANCY WOLF DE ROMERO spoke at the AES meetings. Murra, Martin, and
Lima, Peru I drove from Ithaca back to New York City
together. It was a magical trip. Murra was in his
Death ends a life. But it does not end a element. He was a terrific actor with a dynamic
relationship (Robert Anderson, I Never stage presence who found his best voice when
Sang for My Father, 1966) he was in front of an audience, so he was in
excellent form in the afterglow from the AES
The personal relationship one has with a meetings. He also loved nothing better than a
mentor or intellectual father or mother is often young audience who hung on his every word,
ignored. It is important to recognize that such which we certainly did. In addition to giving us
relationships are significant in academic insightful advice about our upcoming field
disciplines, as they are in life in general, and are experience and Mexico, he told us about the
very much part of what graduate schools advo- forthcoming multidisciplinary Hunuco project
cate as scholars learning from scholars. Just as encompassing ethnohistory, archaeology,
we feel some aspects of our childhood and ethnobotany, and ethnology. He talked about
family relationships were good or bad and the Hunuco visita (Ortiz 1967 [1562]) and
these perceptions consciously or unconsciously about Peru and psychoanalysis and made me see
affect how we relate to the world, they also exist the world in a way I had never seen it before. I
in our professional and intellectual lives and had also never met a 46 year old man who was
what we want to accomplish and pass on, trying so alive and open to change.
to improve or equal what we received from
others. Teachers are important all through life I had already recognized I was an anthro-
to help fill the gaps and empty spaces in our pologist, which is not something you choose, but
experience and early family life. something you discover about yourself. When I
heard my first lecture in physical anthropology
I met John Murra in the spring of 1963 at as a freshman, I could finally put a name to what
the American Ethnological Society meeting at I knew I was, even though I also knew it was not
Cornell University. I was 20 and a sophomore at physical anthropology that I wanted to do.
Barnard about to go to Mexico for a first field Courses in other disciplines just seemed to be
experience with Gary Martin, a student of bad anthropology, and I graduated from Barnard
Murra and Sidney Mintz1 at Yale, who was with more than double the number of credits I
giving a paper in the Elsie Clews Parsons2 essay needed for the major.

I served an apprenticeship with Murra on
For Mintz see Barnes, this volume, note 60. and off for several years, and in exchange I was
Elsie Clews Parsons (1875-1941) received her doctorate his assistant. My own father died when I was a
in sociology from Columbia University (1899). She was a child and my experience with John patched over
founder of the New School for Social Research and of the
American School of Research, the first female president of
the American Anthropological Association, and president
of the American Ethnological Society. For over twenty Town of the Souls (1936). Every other year the American
years she was an associate of the Journal of American Ethnological Society awards the Elsie Clews Parsons prize
Folklore. Her publications include The Social Organization for a graduate student paper. Her obituary by Leslie Spier
of the Tewa of New Mexico (1929), Hopi and Zuni Cere- and A.L. Kroeber appeared in a 1943 number of the
monialism (1933), Pueblo Indian Religion (1939), and Mitla: American Anthropologist.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 70

some of the paternal gap. I think of Murra as my remarked he learned how to answer the phone
intellectual father. I acted as a sounding board from Robert Redfield,5 to whom I think he was
for him and helped him write, which was not a an assistant in the Chicago days. An
simple task. This was partly because English, anthropologist he held in great esteem was Ruth
which he spoke very well, was not his mother Benedict,6 with whom he had also worked in the
tongue, but mostly because it was very hard for early days. I think because of his own difficulties
him to just spill out all the information he had in liberating himself, he tried to help women to
worked so hard to glean and understand, so that liberate themselves. In 1964, he gave me Doris
just anybody could read it, and besides, Lessings The Golden Notebook, now a feminist
somebody might say he was wrong. This last is classic, but at the time the novel had only been
really more realistic than paranoid, because in published a couple of years before. He very
anthropology there is almost nothing one can much approved of people creating themselves
say about a culture and even less about culture and changing their names to fit the new person
or cultures in general that is not controversial. they had become; he favored psychoanalysis. He
He also wrote better when he had someone to had particular sympathy for women. I think he
accompany him, argue with him, to rejoice with was especially sensitive to and intrigued by
him at those eureka moments, and to blame women because mothering was the largest gap in
when he was lit up by a possible connection his own childhood. He especially sympathized
which didnt pan out. He told me he could only with prom queens, lonely, shy intellectuals, and
write with Karl Reisman,3 Irving Goldman4 and nuns, and others who felt trapped by what other
me. I never met the other two so cannot people expected of them. He accepted you as
generalize. you were, was supportive of what you wanted to
do, and very good about helping you find where
We do not always choose what we learn it fit the larger anthropological picture, and
from our mentors and our teachers. Murra once finding ways of doing it.

Murra always took women seriously, treating
Karl Reisman earned a Ph.D. in social anthropology
with a speciality in anthropological linguistics. He has
us with an intellectual respect I had not always
published articles on aspects of the language and culture found at Barnard, and in the beginning I was
of the West Indies and of Africa. very young and knew virtually nothing about
the Andes. He emphasized the importance of
Irving Goldman (1911-2002) was one of Franz Boas last
field-work, and of knowing the people well
students. A life-long resident of Brooklyn, he was John
Murras neighbor for a time. From 1936 to 1942 he was a where you were doing field-work. This included
member of the Communist Party. Goldman did field-work not only the people whose culture you were
with the Modoc of Oregon (1934), with the Alkatcho studying, but also local intellectuals. It was
Carrier of British Columbia (1935-36), and with the essential to participate in the culture of
Cubeo of the Amazon (1939), as well as library research
on other groups. He was interested in issues of culture
anthropology in the country where you did
change and political evolution, often re-interpreting research, and to maintain long-term
anthropological works. Among his publications are The relationships (read lifetime commitments) both
Cubeo: Indians of the Northwest Amazon (1963); Ancient with colleagues and informants. You could not
Polynesian Society (1970), an analysis of the regions status ever really know the culture unless you spoke
systems, and The Mouth of Heaven (1975), on the Kwa-
kiutl (now designated the Kwakwaka'wakw). From 1949
to 1980 he taught at Sarah Lawrence College. An obituary
of Goldman by Paula Rubel and Abraham Rosman ap- 5
For Redfield see Barnes, this volume, note 11.
peared in the December 2003 issue of American Anthropol-
ogist. For Benedict see Barnes, this volume, note 32.
71 - John V. Murra: A Mentor to Women

the local indigenous language as well as the of independence (1821). Searching Catholic
national language, in the latter case, well parish records from the former Lupaqa kingdom
enough to perform professional acts such as to study Aymara social organization historically
giving papers, publishing results, teaching, was, of course, very much in the Murra
attending professional meetings, and tradition. I even found a baptism book in one of
participating in, or helping form, the discipline the coastal valleys where the Lupaqa had
of anthropology in the country where you did islands of resources where they cultivated
research. It was the way to protect crops that couldnt be grown in their altiplano
anthropology, not to mention the fact that we kingdom. In the 1670s their descendants were
will never have a true anthropology until we still in the coastal valley and still claiming
have anthropologists of all different cultural membership in the ayllus located up above in
backgrounds. He believed in anthropology for its the seven divisions of the Lupaqa kingdom. In
importance to the informants themselves, who addition to the usual participation in
were always the people who had a vested anthropology and ethnohistory meetings in
interest in their own culture and history. One of Lima and Cusco, I taught an anthropology
his favorite examples was how important Ruth course to young people from rural zones around
Landes work with the Mdewakantonwan Puno as part of a teacher training course in a
Santee (called by others the Mystic Lake Sioux) normal school in Puno, and participated with
was to the Santee themselves, when years after international development teams in writing new
her field-work they realized they had lost a lot of bilingual textbooks in Aymara-Spanish and in
their culture and were trying to retrieve it. He Quechua-Spanish, teaching them anthropology,
was always aware of the importance of trying to and suggesting chapters on local themes such as
find out as much as possible about the Andean planting, harvesting, and fiestas.
past because it was important to Andean people
to know their own past, to be able to shape an It is sometimes surprising to realize what we
authentic identity of their own. Andean peoples have internalized from our mentors and
have only recently begun to have even limited intellectual fathers and mothers, the parts of
space in the history books used in their national them that live within us. I think I trained in
schools. psychoanalytic psychotherapy largely due to
Murras indirect influence, and, although my
My own ethnohistorical work was with the interest began with cultural anthropology and
sixteenth and early seventeenth century Ay- ethnohistory, it moved toward the interface of
mara and Quechua dictionaries, grammar books, culture and psychology. While I did not follow
and manuals written by Catholic priests as aids an academic career, Murra greatly influenced
in their proselytization efforts. I did a study of the work I did in ethnohistory, my writing, work
Aymara kinship based on the terminology and with patients, and also my personal and family
information found in these sources, kinship life. Having married into a Peruvian family and
being a particular concern of the church. In Juli raising children in Peru, keeping or regaining a
on Lake Titicaca, I copied and photographed cultural perspective certainly saved my sanity on
about eighty parish books recording births, more than one occasion. Murra looked upon
deaths, and baptisms, all in the European system everything as anthropology and was often
but with the occasional Andean detail that frustrated by his departmental colleagues in the
made it all worthwhile, especially because most universities in which he taught because they
of the early books are organized in terms of didnt apply anthropology to themselves or the
Andean ayllus from 1621 until roughly the time world around them. In the case of women
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 72

Murra recognized the huge difference womens AN EXTRAORDINARY TEACHER

reproductive cycle and child-rearing activities, WHO TAUGHT ALL THE TIME
as well as their culturally ascribed roles, make in
their professional lives, and was good at PATRICIA NETHERLY
considering individual strategies in working with Nashville, Tennessee
these differences, as well as building on the
peculiarities of personal backgrounds. He also I have always felt privileged to have had the
recognized the value of the motherhood opportunity to train under John Murra. That
experience. I once commented to Murra about this opportunity came my way was largely his
the differences between the conversations of doing. We met in 1966, at a seminar at la
groups of women and those of groups of men. Catlica, a university in Lima where I was
He looked thoughtful, and said, But at least the studying in the doctoral program in history.
women talk about real things. John was just finishing the Hunuco Project and
still had research materials to hand. He sat me
Murra was complex, conflictive, brilliant, down to practice paleography on a microfilmed
and an anthropologists anthropologist. He was roll of notarial documentsall in letra cadinilla
true to anthropology and his friends, though which in the hands of sixteenth century
often nicer behind your back than to your face. notaries clerks became a kind of shorthand. I
Anthropology was not just his profession or his could not make much progress, but my
discipline, it really was his village, although it perseverance was sufficient to earn me an
stretched over the globe, and particularly in invitation to apply to Cornell for graduate work.
Europe, the United States, and Latin America,
he had friends who cared deeply about him. John Murra was an extraordinary teacher,
Anthropology is where he lived, it is what he and he taught all the time. The first semester of
loved, what he defended. He left us a rich legacy graduate school began the summer before with
which is internalized within us as much as it an intensive Quechua course where John was
exists on library shelves and has become an one of the students. He believed that knowing
integral part of our vision of the Andean world this language was indispensable for a full
and anthropology. He never tried to persuade or understanding of Andean culture in the present,
dissuade us that we could or could not do and in the past. To an unusual degree, John
anything as women, he always assumed we directed his teaching toward students and
could. And thank heaven, he did not make scholars from the Andean region. That first
being married a requirement for women to be semester we met twice a week with the late
able to go into the field as Boas did with his very Csar Fonseca Martel, who had carried out
famous women students Ruth Benedict, Ruth ethnographic research as part of the Hunuco
Landes,7 and Margaret Mead.8 project. Csar was attempting to map out the
meaning of the term ayllu. None of us knew at
the start exactly where the full meaning lay, but
Ruth Landes (1908-1991) did field-work among the John kept asking questions with exquisite
Objibwa, the Dakota, and the Potawatomi, obtaining a patience until the moment arrived when the
doctorate in 1935. On this basis she published Ojibwa
Sociology (1937), Ojibwa Woman (1938), Ojibwa Religion
and the Midwiwin (1968), and The Mystic Lake Sioux
(1968). Landes pioneered the study of race and gender Louisiana Acadian cultures. Her biography, Ruth Landes:
relations, interests reflected in her study of candombl, an A Life in Anthropology is by Sally Cooper Cole (2002).
Afro-Brazilian religion (City of Women 1947). Landes had
strong interests in Afro-American, Jewish, Mexican, and For Mead see Barnes, this volume, note 33.
73 - John V. Murra: A Mentor to Women

breakthrough in understanding finally came to relationship and is a credit to his extraordinary

Csar and to us all. humanity.

Above all, the lesson and the legacy which KICKING OFF A NEW PERSPECTIVE IN
infused Johns work were his profound respect ETHNOHISTORY
for, and understanding of, the peoples of the
Andes and their achievements. He celebrated ANA MARA LORANDI
their mastery of a harsh and exacting Buenos Aires, Argentina
environment and the skills they demonstrated in
farming, herding, water management, and I had the opportunity to get to know John
weaving. Beyond the study of living people, Victor Murra, and to speak with him
Murra looked to colonial administrative records, extensively, during a rock art conference which
particularly the visitas, or official inspection took place in Hunuco, Peru in 1967. At that
tours, where local leaders sought to explain their time I was conducting archaeological research in
culture to the Spaniards. His honesty and rigor northwestern Argentina and had a general
in the use of these materials can be seen in the background in the Andean world. The date is
way he laid out the words of Andean people in very significant because, during these years,
full quotation. His careful editions of colonial Murra was kicking off a new perspective in
visitas and other documents, which he ethnohistory, approaching colonial sources with
encouraged his former students and colleagues the eye of an anthropologist. Murra had been
to publish, are his achievement and his enduring working on the interdisciplinary project of
memorial to the creators of Andean civilization. Hunuco Pampa and had analyzed the earliest
visitas (colonial inspection tour reports). On this
I had originally trained as an historian. occasion he presented his model of vertical
Studying in Peru had opened the possibility of control of ecological niches, or archipelagos
combining archaeology and linguistics with as he later called them. Along with other
history in the study of the past, but I had a very congress participants we made an excursion to
hazy idea of anthropology and ethnohistory the great Inca tambo, and, without any doubt,
when I began to work with John Murra as a this first direct contact with Tawantinsuyu,
graduate student. In truth, I was a bit more guided by Murras fascinating discourse, was the
ecumenical than he was comfortable with. first change in direction of my professional
However, one of Murras sterling virtues as a career.
graduate adviser was that while he insisted that
you do something in a particular way, he did not From this moment we remained in contact
stand in the way of your doing it. It is hard for and my research, as well as the courses I offered
bright women to realize their potential. I didnt at the Universidad de la Plata, reflected the
go to graduate school in the United States until interdisciplinary perspective which Murra
after I had discovered or been discovered by promoted. A short time later I prepared an
John Murra. It probably would be better to say article in which I analyzed and compared
recognized: we mutually recognized each other. various models, presenting a global focus on
John was remarkably patient with the travails of social interaction in the Andean world from the
balancing career and family and was always kind double perspective of archaeology and ethno-
to my children in an Old World avuncular way. history (Lorandi 1977). These frameworks were
This goes way beyond the formal academic Murras model of vertical control (Murra 1972),
Augusto Cardichs study of the upper limits of
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 74

cultivation (Cardich 1975), and the Huari y Lla- When I returned to Argentina in 1980, I
cuaz article by Pierre Duviols (Duviols 1973), an began my first ethnohistorical research and
exploration of the prehispanic dual organization progressively I abandoned archaeology. In 1984
of farmers and herders. In the original work I the Universidad de Buenos Aires offered me the
also incorporated an analysis of Mara Rostwo- directorship of the Instituto de Ciencias
rowskis coastal dynamics (Rostworowski 1974), Anthropolgicas of the Faculty of Philosophy
but because of problems with length I had to and Letters. The following year I founded the
eliminate it. Murra really appreciated my Ethnohistory Section within the Institute. From
analytic approach. When, in 1971, I visited him then on I could dedicate myself completely to
in New York and accompanied him to Yale developing this discipline which lacked up-to-
University where he taught at that time, he date specialists in Argentina. I devoted myself to
encouraged me to disseminate my work. It was research, but above all, to training new students
subsequently published in France (Lorandi who incorporated John Murras teaching into a
1978) and in England (Lorandi 1986) as a core understanding of the Andean world. Murra
synthesis. On this trip to the United States, on visited us in 1982 and in 1988 and participated
his advice, and through the contacts he gave in the First Congress of Ethnohistory (Primer
me, I visited the Universities of Illinois and Congreso de Etnohistoria) which I organized in
Michigan and gave seminars in those places. Buenos Aires in 1989, an occasion on which he
was paid a special tribute.
In the following years, even though I
continued with my archaeological research in Murra was my tie to the academic world
Argentina, I kept abreast with developments in outside my country. Frequently I met foreign
ethnohistory, and each encounter with Murra at specialists who, when I presented myself,
different congresses, plus our frequent exchange immediately told me, Ah. John Murra has
of letters, increased my interest in the subject. spoken to me very favorably of you! I always
However, the years I lived in Paris, 1976 to had the feeling that he had been the promoter
1979, plus earlier visits, were decisive and of my professional career, but, above all, that he
produced a substantial change in the course of had made a substantial change in my life. I
my professional career. I offered seminars at the recognize that I embraced ethnohistory with
cole des Hautes tudes en Sciences Sociales, much greater passion than archaeology, perhaps
but, more importantly, I attended those offered because my original education in history allowed
by Nathan Wachtel1 and his group in which, in me to involve myself in a more humanistic
1978, John Murra also participated. Murras manner with Andean society which, even
pioneering teaching was the central axis of the though modified by the long colonial process,
themes tackled. still retains the cultural pattern which Murra
identified as the essence of lo andinoor

Editors note: Nathan Wachtel is Professor of History and In personal terms I can say that in ethno-
the Anthropology of South and Meso-American Societies history I found my place in the world, not only
at the Collge de France and Director of Studies at the with the subjects I researched, but also through
cole des Hautes tudes en Sciences Sociales. Among his
published works are Vision des vaincus: Les indien du Prou
the chance to educate students, and to develop
devant la conqut espagnole (1971), Anthropologie historique the discipline in my country. Without John
des socits andines (edited with Jacques Revel and John V. Victor Murra my life would have been different.
Murra, 1978), and Dieux et vampires: Retour Chipaya It was my good fortune that we met on lifes
75 - John V. Murra: A Mentor to Women

road when I was just 31 years old and could re- THE ABILITY TO BESTOW CONFIDENCE AND
orientate myself thanks to this great teacher of STIMULATE NEW IDEAS
Translated from the Spanish by Monica Barnes Santiago de Chile
No one can doubt John Murras ability to
Cardich, Augusto bestow confidence and stimulate new ideas
1975 Agricultores y pastores en Lauricocha y lmites among his students. The notable thing about
superiores del cultivo. Revista del Museo Nacional this surprising relationship is that he never
41:11-36 (Lima). discriminated in this form of instruction
Duviols, Pierre
1973 Huari y Llacuaz: Agricultores y pastores: Un
between men and women. He simply
dualismo prehispnico de oposicin y comple- appreciated the modesty, talent, and honesty of
mentariedad. Revista de Museo Nacional 39: 95- people.
117 (Lima).
Lorandi, Ana Mara I first met John Murra in 1971 when I was
1977 Arqueologa y etnohistoria: Hacia una visin
totalizadora del Mundo Andino. In Obra del
an anthropology student. On the occasion of
centenario del Museo de La Plata, Volume 2, pp. the Congress of Archaeology we received
27-50. La Plata, Argentina: Facultad de Ciencias visitors at the University of Chile and I was
Naturales y Museo. dazzled by two teachers, John Victor Murra and
1978 Les horizons andines: Critique dun modle. Luis Guillermo Lumbreras.1 Both embodied a
Annales: Economie, Societ, Civilization 33(5-
6):921-926. Special issue edited by Jacques
dynamic notion of history, and of the Andean
Revel, John Victor Murra, and Nathan Wachtel. world, for sure. Their commitment to work left
1986 Horizons in Andean Archaeology. In Anthro- an indelible imprint on me, and also significantly
pological History of Andean Polities, edited by John marked my path in life, as a graduate student, as
Victor Murra, Nathan Wachtel, and Jacques a teacher, and as a researcher, up to the present.
Revel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
and Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de
lHomme. The summer school course which John
Murra, John Victor taught at the University of Chile in January
1972 El Control vertical de un mximo de pisos ecol- 1984 included an analysis of the possibilities of
gicos en la economa de las sociedades andinas.
the comparative method, the topic of exchange,
In Visita de la provincia de Len de Hunuco en
1562 by Iigo Ortiz de Ziga, edited by John V. the new work of Nathan Wachtel2 in Cocha-
Murra, Volume 2, Visita de los Yacha y mitmaq- bamba, Bolivia on the collca or storehouses of
kuna cuzqueos encomendados en Juan Sanchez the Inca, along with criticism of Murras own
Falcon, transcribed by Felipe Mrquez Abanto, work, and the inculcation of the necessity to
pp. 427-476. Hunuco, Per: Universidad Na-
study and republish documents continuously.
cional Hermilio Valdizn, Facultad de Letras y
Educacin, Series Documentos para la Historia Among the themes to which he called our
y Etnologa de Hunuco y la Selva Central. attention was the miracle of the potato,
Rostworowski de Diez Canseco, Mara ethnological advances, and work in native
1974 Pescadores, artesanos y mercaderes costeos en languages up to and including recent Andean
el Per prehispnico. Revista del Museo Nacional

Editors note: for Lumbreras, see Barnes, this volume,
note 90.
Editors note: for Wachtel see Lorandi, note 1.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 76

ethno-astronomy, to say nothing of his closest During the course of my research, on a visit
specialities such as changes in, and the to Santiago, I gave him the work to read, and so
expansion of, Tawantinsuyu; weavers and that he could comment upon the first chapter of
potters; coca fields; and mullu or Spondylus shell. this thesis, in which, to some extent, I had
considered his suggestions. Eleven years later he
When I presented him with the proposal for wrote from Madrid, Congratulations on having
my masters thesis, directed by Rolando Mellafe finished the thesis! And its 530 pages! Who
at the University of Chile he commented to me: else could have shared the joy, although I had
delayed eleven years in finishing Huacca
. . . The thesis project. I will tell you that muchay: Evangelizacin y religin andina en Char-
the plan of study seems to me to be only a cas, Atacama colonial (Huaca Worship: Evangeli-
first approximation . . . But, you also have zation and Andean Religion in Charcas, Colonial
to tell yourself that I have never studied Atacama).
religious phenomena, and I dont feel
prepared, on one hand, but on the other At some point I sent him a work on terraces,
hand, the fact is that these themes attract a small article in a scientific journal, and he
me. I have had many debates with [Pierre] wrote to me that,
Duviols3 on the theme to the point that he
believes that I must occupy myself with it, This is a theme which merits a great deal
an area in which I know very well that I of attention . . . One of the agreeable
dont have any sensibilities and I dont things about Creces is seeing your name as
touch such themes. I was reared in an an author identified with the Universidad
atmosphere in which the anti-clerical de Chile (personal communication, 12
struggle was a fundamental element, and May 1988).5
this has left psychological roots, although
not intellectual ones. At this time we were still under military
government and any kind of stability was
Now I know through the reading of so difficult.
many old papers that there was always an
important struggle involving the priests
and friars of the first century and a half of pero por otro el hecho es que me atraen estos temas. Con
the colonial occupation . . . I believe that Duviols he tenido muchos debates sobre el tema ya que el
cree que yo tengo que ocuparme, donde yo se muy bien
this isnt reflected in your project. Even donde no tengo sensibilidad y no toco tales temas. He sido
though we dont have direct data on the criado dentro de un ambiente donde la lucha anti-clerical
Andean population, we can focus on the era elemento fundamental y esto ha dejado races
reflection of what happens in the psicolgicas aunque no intelectuales.
ecclesiastical literature (Murra, personal
Ahora s que la lectura de tantos papeles viejos que
communication, 25 February 1986).4 siempre hubo una lucha importante involucrando los
sacerdotes y frailes del primer siglo y medio de la ocupa-
cin colonialcreo que esto no est reflejado en tu proyec-
Editors note: for Duviols see Barnes, this volume, note to. Ya que no tenemos datos directos de la poblacin
54. andina, tenemos que fijarnos en el reflejo de lo que pasaba
en la literatura eclesistica.
. . . el proyecto de tesis. Te dir que el programa me
parece slo un primer bosquejo. . . Pero tambin tienes Es un tema que merece mucha atencin. . . una de las
que darte cuenta que yo nunca he estudiado fenmenos reflexiones agradables de Creces es ver tu nombre como
religiosos, ya que no me siento preparado, por un lado, autora identificado con la Universidad de Chile.
77 - John V. Murra: A Mentor to Women

He never stopped thanking me for so much and about the affection and loyalty of Freda
care and effort expended on the transcription of Wolf and AnaMara Soldi.7
the audio tapes of the interviews which later
gave form to Nispa Ninchis. My fellow editors Murra solidified my holistic comprehension
Carlos Aldunate and Jorge Hidalgo and I of the Andean world, and of history, and gave
overwhelmed him with our questions during a me the certainty that by combining the separate
stay which we shared with John for this purpose tactics of anthropology, archaeology, ethno-
in Zapallar, on the Chilean coast. During the history, and ethnography one could increase the
long process of correcting these transcriptions enormous complexity of its unique cultural
John demonstrated infinite patience and I, after history.
a while, learned many things. Johns replies
never ceased surprising us. In personal terms, Translated from the Spanish by Monica Barnes
like so many of us, in some way he made you a
participant in his decisions and sought your REFERENCE CITED
opinions while relating various situations.
Castro, Victoria, Carlos Aldunate, and Jos Berenguer
1984 Origenes altiplanicos de la fase Toconce. Estudios
His correspondence provided, at the same Atacameos 7:209-235.
time, lessons on the world and, especially, on
people. He stimulated and pleased with his very THE GREEN PATCHWORK PAPER
special manner of teaching. However, without
doubt the strongest aspect was the ROLENA ADORNO
demonstration that he believed in you and your New Haven, Connecticut
work, something which was not merely
intellectual, but also involved you completely as As I reflect on the role that John Murra
a human being. Ever since 1983, when he played in the development of my intellectual
listened to, and commented on, our work on the and professional academic life, I focus on the
altiplano origins of the Toconce Phase (1300- lessons I learned from him as a teacher. Murra
1450 A.D.; Castro et al.1984), he showed us his was perhaps the most exciting professor I had in
interest and approval. His opinions created in graduate school, but we got off to a rocky start.
me a solid confidence in the work we were Having decided in 1972 that I wanted to
doing, as well as in my intuitions, and, along concentrate on colonial Spanish American
with that, a very powerful tie of friendship and literature as my field of specialization in the
trust. doctoral program in Romance Studies, Spanish,
at Cornell University, I was advised by faculty in
I will never forget how he spoke about my department to take a course or two on
women he admired. For example he said that Andean ethnohistory and civilization from
Heather Lechtman was an extraordinary Professor Murra. So I went to his office at
person with much imagination (personal advising time, taking my turn among the
communication, 1977). This was praise I heard students lined up to see him. When I introduced
him deliver in many forms towards his myself and told him that I was interested in
extraordinary friend and doctor Lola Hoffman,6

Editors note: Lola Hoffman (d. 1988) was a psychoana-
lyst who treated both Murra and his friend the Peruvian Editors note: for AnaMara Soldi, see Barnes, this
novelist, essayist, poet and anthropologist, Jos Mara volume, note 67.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 78

studying El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, he that I still strive to live up to in and outside the
glowered down at me and, scowling, asked: classroom after thirty-plus years of university
Why not Guaman Poma? I shrank back, teaching.
shaken, and I did not gather the courage to
return until a semester later. That was the In Murras encouragement of students work,
beginning of a long and productive professional I was one of those on whom he focused, despite
and personal relationship. the fact that I was not an anthropologist-in-
training. It was, of course, my literary-studies
As a teacher, I found Johns passion for the work with texts and literary history that he saw
Andean world to be both daunting and as promising. To stimulate my interest he placed
inspiring. No dilettanti welcomed in his before me his two-part article in Natural History,
classroom! When an undergraduate student published in 1961, Guaman Poma de Ayala: A
(this was a mixed, graduate-undergraduate Seventeenth-Century Indians Account of
seminar that met in the ethereal realms of Andean Civilization and The Post-Conquest
McGraw Hall) explained that he would very Chronicle of the Inca States Rise and Fall, not
much like to go to the Andes for research the to mention the 1936 Paris facsimile edition of
following summer but had no money to do so, the Nueva cornica y buen gobierno. He showed
John (glowering again) said, Well, ask your me the sheaf of typewritten notes that he had
parents to refinance their home! Hed made his taken on that work over the years, and this
point, and no further whining or shedding of became the basis for the ethnological index in
crocodile tears was tolerated. Typically, John our print (1980, 1987) and online (2001, 2004)
would storm into the classroom, write the names editions of Guaman Pomas manuscript. John
and concepts he wanted to discuss on the encouraged my reading of the Nueva cornica,
blackboard, and dive in. While, according to which resulted in my doctoral dissertation, the
todays demands for mentoring and the like, title of which described the Nueva cornica as a
John seemed indifferent to students, he was, in lost chapter in the history of Latin American
fact, carefully cultivating them, placing before letters. Because I asked other questions than
each one what he thought might reach or direct John did about Guaman Pomas writing (I was
his or her interests. It was sheer mastery, and always interested in what the Andean chronicler
this practice bespoke the seriousness with which had read, his library), John found my thesis
he engaged his students as well as his subject only mildly interesting. Yet, after I completed
matter. Writing papers for his courses always my Cornell Ph.D. and was on the faculty of the
resulted in his careful, thoughtful readings and Department of Foreign Languages and
pertinent written comments. When, in the Literatures at Syracuse University, John
course of that seminar, I told John about Sebas- suggested that I take two particular chapters of
tin de Covarrubias Horozcos 1611 Tesoro de la it and make it into an article for publication. It
lengua castellana, o espaola, he immediately and resulted in Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala: An
enthusiastically ordered several photocopies of Andean View of the Peruvian Viceroyalty,
the entire out-of-print 1943 edition to make 1565-1615 published in the Journal de la Socit
them available for purchase by his students, des Amricanistes (1978) which, at least in my
complementing his active use of the Quechua- own view, has withstood the test of time.
Spanish dictionaries of that era. New sources,
new research tools, new questions were greatly Its writing was another story, and it is the
welcomed by him. In all these ways, and many last one I will tell here. John and I met
more, John Murra provided a pedagogical model periodically at his McGraw Hall office in Ithaca
79 - John V. Murra: A Mentor to Women

that autumn semester, 1977 (during his famous exasperation, he said, Give it to me. Ill see
Otoo Andino, see Barnes, this volume, p. 39), what I can do. I discovered when he returned
as I worked through draft after draft of the the paper to me a week later that he had
article. It was a difficult essay to write, not only carefully cut it apart (those were the days of
because I was a novice at academic writing (it literally cutting and pasting), composed and
would be my second article), but also, primarily, typed up new transitional passages and internal
because the article had many goals. The conclusions, and pasted the whole back together
discrete, manageable objective was to set forth with its new patches. Here, he said, handing it
Guaman Pomas readings of the works of others, back to me, see if this works. And he placed in
as evidenced in his chronicle, documenting my hand my paper, sticky with glue and
them as carefully as possible. My breakthrough highlighted by his typewritten
was having just discovered, two years post- patcheshighlighted because he had done this
dissertation, that Guaman Poma, without editorial work using a very clever pedagogical
attribution, had quoted and paraphrased Fray strategy of typing his sentences on scraps of pale
Bartolom de las Casass unpublished Tratado green paper! The green-paper draft resulted in
de las doce dudas (1564), which was integral to the finest writing lesson I have ever received.
the Andean chroniclers arguments about the
need for Spaniards to obey Andean law (instead How I let this patchwork paper slip out of
of vice versa) and his formulation of a proposal my files at some point over the years I do not
to restore Andean sovereignty. My discovery of know, and I am sorry that it is gone. But no
Guaman Pomas unnamed source showed, matter. It exists in my memory as vividly as if I
among other things, that his nomination of his had it in front of me now. To my way of
son as sovereign prince of the Indies of Peru thinking, it represents John Murras pedagogical
was not sheer nonsense. It merely updated Las personality in its toughness and its extraordinary
Casass proposal of a half century earlier in generosity. My acknowledgment to Johns
which the Dominican had recommended the memory in my The Polemics of Possession in
restoration of Inca sovereignty in the person of Spanish American Narrative (2007) states it best.
Huayna Capacs grandson, Titu Cussi Yupanqui, John was breathing his last as I wrote, in
who in 1560, had been the reigning Inca at October, 2006, that he was the greatest of
Vilcabamba, but whose rule, and that of his last teachers, for the example of his single-minded
successor, Thupaq Amaru, had ended decades devotion to the pursuit of knowledge about the
before Guaman Poma wrote the Nueva cornica. ancient Andes, his intellectual generosity, and
He no doubt nominated his son precisely his help in teaching me to write. Here, just
because the main Inca line had died out and a now, I have unlocked the secret of the last
restoration candidate would have to be found. clause of that sentence. I went on to conclude,
Our collaboration in studying and editing the
Another challenge of my study was to chronicle of Guaman Poma, which lasted from
highlight the personalities and set forth the the typewriter age to the era of the Internet,
workings of Spanish missionary culture with stands as a testament to what I owe him. That,
which Guaman Poma was directly or indirectly of course, is another story, which I have
engaged. Historical investigation and textual attempted to tell in the special issue of Chungar
analysis came together uneasily. The difficulty to be published by the University of Arica, Tara-
was to create a coherently unfolding narrative paca, Chile, which, like this section of Andean
exposition. John had the solution. In reference Past, will be devoted to John Murras memory
to my antepenultimate draft and with slight and his multiple legacies.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 80

DO ANTHROPOLOGY THE WAY THAT indigenous Andean languages and encouraged

POETS WRITE POETRY his students to devote themselves to lengthy
field- work and in-depth historical investigation.
North Potomac, Maryland John was unlike any other teacher or college
professor I ever encountered. It was not easy to
I remember with remarkable clarity my first convince him to take you on as a serious
encounter with John Murra. I was student. Once he did, he accepted you, not just
contemplating a graduate degree in as a student, but as a human being. He was
anthropology with a special emphasis on the committed to you and concerned about you as
Andes and had traveled to Ithaca, New York a person with a particular psychological,
specifically to meet Professor Murra and to cultural, and social make-up. He also ex-
determine what he was like, and if he was the pectedinsisted, reallythat you deal with him as
teacher whom I and my husband, Roger the complex person he was. He had a cultural
Rasnake, were looking for. We thought that we heritage, a mother, a father, an intellectual
would get some of our questions answered about formation, a political background, personal
anthropology at Cornell and learn some commitments, and an anthropological vision
particulars about Professor Murra. We had been that made him the person he was, and he
warned that he might not be interested in trusted that you would be cognizant of these
working with us and that we could expect him things in your interactions with him.
to be tough, demanding, and difficult.
In studying a topic in a seminar, or in
Now, after nearly thirty-five years of having preparing for field research, John expected his
known himhaving studied with him and students to develop a depth and breadth of
worked with him, having been mentored and understanding based on historical literacy that
supervised, and edited by him, having traveled was, for anthropologists at least, of a
together, attended meetings together, even breathtaking scale. For John, a time frame of
cooked meals togetherafter thirty-five years of five hundred or even a thousand years was
correspondence and visits and conversation, I scarcely adequate to answer the kinds of
can say, yes, indeed, John Murra was tough and questions he posed about Andean society,
demanding and sometimes difficult. But that polity, and ecology. Nonetheless, even when
was only a small fraction of what he was! He was working and thinking in very broad historical
also immensely knowledgeable. He was and geographical terms, John never lost sight of
intellectually curious and extremely politically the individual and the idiosyncrasies that shape
aware. He was adventuresome, entertaining, human behavior and decision-making. All these
worldly-wise, and charming! In addition to all characteristics combined to make John Murra
this, he was a committed teacher who believed an exciting and inspiring teacher and colleague.
that it was important to maintain a real and
honest relationship with his students, who were John believed that Andean cultural history
expected to be as devoted to Andean research was relevant for contemporary life. He felt
as he was. He did not hesitate to let you know strongly that the Andean history that he, and
when your efforts were inadequate. However, he other like-minded scholars, were deciphering
also was open to his students ideas and readily was of great relevance to social and political life
recognized their contributions. He impressed in the modern Andean republics, and he
upon us the great importance of studying communicated this understanding and this
81 - John V. Murra: A Mentor to Women

excitement to his students and to scholars academics from all parts of Latin America and
throughout the world of Andean studies. For Europe. Of course he also dealt with male
John, every historical or archaeological scholars, publishers, university administrators,
revelation, every linguistic discovery, every and others, cultivating a wide circle of influence
investigation of Andean social and cultural and support. As a woman in an anthropology
practices contributed to the larger effort of department with an almost exclusively male
accurately describing the Andean achievement, faculty, I took special notice of the scholarly
and each students contributions were exchanges and collaborative relationships he
recognized and appreciated as part of a larger maintained with women around the world. I
effort. also noticed the strong personal relationships he
had with current and former students and the
John was, undeniably, a charismatic speaker loyalty they felt towards him. All these things
and lecturer who attracted scholars and motivated me, and my husband as well, to
activistsboth men and womento the cause of persevere in our efforts to convince Professor
understanding the Andean accomplishment. It Murra to chair our doctoral committees and
is worth pointing out that John liked women and allow us to do doctoral research under his
enjoyed working with them. He had strong and guidance and tutelage.
positive relationships with many women, both
students and colleagues. It never seemed to After my years of class work, field-work
occur to him that women might be lacking in preparations, and proposal writing at Cornell
any of the physical, social, or intellectual skills were over, John continued to maintain contact
that an anthropologist or historian might need with me and my husband. During years of field
to carry out her investigations. For someone of research in the Andes, during dissertation
his generation, an awareness and appreciation of writing and defense, during my first experiences
women as intellectual equals was not a given of college teaching, during applied work in
and was unusual even in university settings. Bolivia, during my pregnancies and the early
childhood years of my girls, John was a regular
The stream of visitors and correspondence correspondent, an occasional guest in my home,
that found its way to Johns door in his latter and an ongoing part of my life. Remarkably, he
years is testimony to the fact that he had strong was supportive of my decision to give up
emotional ties to many women the world over. research and teaching and spend undivided time
(Here I am not even considering his marriages with my children. He was interested in my
or romantic liaisons.) It is important to note daughters as unique human beings and curious
that, in my experience, John related to women, about the process of child rearing and
not in some sort of stereotypical, gender-driven socialization.
way, but as individuals. Regardless of gender, he
was challenging to work with and expected real John never ceased to expect that I would
commitment from his students, whether male or eventually find time to rededicate myself to the
female. He was truly dedicated to the cause of scholarly work that I had begun with my initial
Andean studies and worked best with those who research on Andean reciprocities. He told me,
shared that dedication. not too long before his death, that he had begun
the work of translating Collective Labor and
As a female grad student beginning my Rituals of Reciprocity, my dissertation, into
studies with him, I observed John working in a Spanish. His hope was to see it made available
collegial fashion with women researchers and to an Andean audience. Of course, that hope
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 82

and the obligation to share that knowledge with we had full fellowships so that we could devote
an Andean public are mine as well. I recognize ourselves to working towards a masters degree
them, however, for what they are. They are his which was the result of an academic Andean
creationhis work in me, which I acknowledge project, not of institutional financial interests.
and appreciate and intend to see to completion.
We didnt know if John would come or not.
One more interesting thing about John He had only accepted us as students towards the
Murra is that I keep learning from him, even end of the course, after we had taken classes
now after his death. Early in my sojourn at with Luis Lumbreras,1 Carlos Sempat Assa-
Cornell, I became aware that John had little dourian, Csar Fonseca Martel, Tristan Platt,
patience with those who viewed anthropology as Frank Salomon, Magnus Mrner,2 and Segundo
a career, a job, or a path up the academic Moreno Yaez,3 among others. Professor Murra
ladder. John said more than once that we really arrived just at the moment when the majority of
shouldnt expect to make a living from our students had broken not only with disciplinary
anthropological inclinations. Because I was boundaries, but also with our original academic
young and just starting my career, I found this areas, and, with a little awe, had begun to
stance a bit confusing. John made his vision a perceive something of the complex diversity of
little clearer when he explained that we should Andean culture, and of the specifics of the
do anthropology the way that poets write poetry. system of colonial domination, as well as the
What he meant, of course, was that we should persistence and transformations of societies
do it for the sheer love of it, and because we are prior to the rupture of the colonial bond. In the
compelled to do it. I may finally have reached a
point in my life where I can truly comprehend
his meaning. 1
Editors note: for Lumbreras see Barnes, this volume,
note 90; For Sempat Assadourian see Barnes, note 49; for
EIGHT THOUSAND SOLUTIONS Fonseca Martel see Barnes, note 97; for Platt see Barnes,
TO THE SAME PROBLEM note 64; and for Salomon see Barnes, note 48, and Salo-
mon, this volume, pp. 87-102.
Editors note: Historian Magnus Mrner (b. 1924) is a
Cordoba, Argentina prolific and multi-lingual author who has specialized in
Latin America. Among his best known works are The
I first met John Murra in 1984, soon after his Expulsion of the Jesuits from Latin America (1965), Race and
Class in Latin America(1970), The Andean Past: Land,
retirement. He was 68 years old and I was 37. Societies, and Conflict (1985), and The Transformation of
He was a professor at FLACSO, Quito (Facul- Rural Society in the Third World (1991).
tad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales in
Quito) in its first masters degree program in Editors note: Ecuadorian Segundo Moreno Yaez (b.
1939) became an anthropologically oriented historian
Andean History. This was a pioneering after a thorough grounding in philosophy, theology, and
educational experiment in the history of the ancient languages. He studied at Bonn under the late Udo
Andean region, not just of individual Andean Oberem and wrote his dissertation on rebellions in the
countries, in which basic principles could be re- Audiencia de Quito. He is one of the founders of the
established. Apart from one person from Spain, Department of Anthropology of the Universidad Catlica
(Quito). He has been Director of the Seccin de Antro-
all of us students came from Andean countries pologa de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana and the
or had lived in one of them for almost a decade. founder of the Revista de Antropologa Ecuatoriana. He has
We arrived as graduates in different disciplines, also held posts in the Instituto Otovaleo de Antropologa
and as was customary at FLACSO at that time, and in the Banco Central del Ecuador, among other
83 - John V. Murra: A Mentor to Women

meantime, nobody knew very clearly what to do When, in 2000, Victoria Castro, Carlos
with all this. John once told me that he had Aldunate, and Jorge Hidalgo published Nispa
never had a dialogue with such eager students. ninchis/decimos diciendo . . ., their 1993
As the years passed I realized that he appeared interviews of John Murra, even if they reduced
before us just at the point when we were ready Johns catalytic role by saying that his struggle
for him. consisted in . . . demonstrating cultural
achievements where others only saw poverty . .
A large proportion of us students who chose .,4 the type of battle through which John helped
to take Johns seminar had participated in the us to liberate ourselves in 1984 was
Latin American leftist militancy of the 1960s underscored. John Murra, in the interviews, told
and 70s which had just been militarily defeated them that in order to show one first had to
by right wing forces, and we were in the middle see, but for him the vision was rather
of the process of reviewing our intense and obvious. A goose has two legs. It isnt necessary
difficult prior experiences. As in the past, the to be a philosopher [to see that]. One has to see
study of social sciences had gone hand-in-hand geese,5 he said. However, that which appeared
with political activism. In addition, we faced obvious to John, his capacity to see and
serious problems with our work, and, perhaps, show, two words key to his operation, were
these had prompted us to become masters not easy for us to decipher then. I still
degree students. The analytic tools we knew understand that seeing is far from simple, and
segmented society on the basis of concepts from I also realize that even for him it wasnt easy to
political economics where economic structures find the path towards showing.
dominated the whole social complex and led to
the classic division of society into social classes. By 1984 we had already seen geese, but
During the 1970s, in the midst of the maelstrom poor geese, because that was what we leftist
of social movements, advances had been made militants knew how to see, and because of this
in the critique of evolutionism and the we felt very comfortable with John. Like him we
inevitable succession of modes of production. saw geese and, without ignoring the existence of
peacocks, we fixed on geese, as he did when he
However, in terms of analytical instruments, chose to see potatoes instead of continuing to
we had come only to the point of accepting the fixate on maize. Both were political optionsone
existence of a political superstructure separate tries to center oneself on something and leave
from an economic structure, and the idea that the rest in the background, but without
both could have had independent movements. removing it from consideration. This also
That is to say, a complex of advances which did related to Murras very well-known struggle with
not modify the initial homogeneity put in place Communism. I would like to make it clear that,
by economic factors only partially complicated according to my understanding, this only had to
the panorama. These instruments were not only do with the leadership of a Stalinist Communist
insufficient, but also reductionist for people with party, or with a certain type of leader, but which
militant backgrounds who did field-work or absolutely had nothing to do with his former
archival studies with an analysis centered on
popular sectors or Andean campesinos. What
was worse, the instruments were questionable in 4
. . . mostrar los logros culturales donde otros slo ven
terms of what must be done with the knowledge pobreza . . . (p. 12)
Que el ganso tiene dos patas. No hay que ser filsofo.
Hay que ver gansos (p. 24).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 84

comrades or fellow-combatants who continued a more than important advance which, for many
to be his friends, and were part of the network of us, opened another world, the possibility of
in which he lived. thinking about history from a perspective not
only distinct from that of power (which we
However, even if we saw geese, the truth is already had), but to begin to penetrate the
that we hadnt seen the same geese as John, in logicsnot the logicof Andean societies and try
so far as we centered ourselves on dividing the to reconstruct their specifics, keeping in mind
geese into the rich and the poor and according the existence of their own thinking, alternate
to their internal logic. We couldnt see their propositions to those of the elites, and imagine
non-economic differences. Even when what they would be. That is, to include the
confronted with difficulties in facing the time doubts of anthropology within historical
depth of processes, the only people who could thinking, and work together with archaeologists
see better than us were the few anthropologists and ethnographers, or train ourselves to
in the group. Yes, they could see, even if later accomplish the work of recovering the best
they didnt know what to do with their vision. traditions of these disciplines, not all of them.
That which we non-anthropologists couldnt see
was Andean societies in their diversity, with The course of Murras critical trajectory,
their ayllus or kin groups, with their important including his break with the leadership of the
cultural achievements interrupted or disrupted Communist Party and its politics, and his de-
by the Spanish invasion which submitted them commissioning as a Party militant, we
to a regime of colonial domination that understood very well. Our relocation in a well-
maintained their ethnic authorities because the known and common territory was what let John
Spaniards didnt find any other way to exploit explain to us his political life choice, to become
them. For centuries the domestic units of the an anthropologist in order to take a position in
ayllus only obeyed the authorities of their own the militant life, in as much as there existed a
leaders, whom they elected or accepted through form of the anthropological discipline (that
an internal selection process which we still dont which is practiced by those who learn the
know, and with consequences that continued language of the people they study) which allows
after the rupture of the colonial pact, and which knowledge of the 8000 solutions to the same
still have a bearing on the configuration of their problem, from which each society chooses one.6
dominant elites.
During that course, in a conversation which
The power to perceive these cultural we had after he returned our final exams, we
differences intertwined with colonial showed the confusion with which our future
domination which treated indigenous ayllus presented itself to us, perhaps looking for advice
quite differently from European peasants who without saying so explicitly. It was a very
were classified on the basis of the economic and difficult dialogue on our part due to his usual
social class criteria on which we based our ability to leave us in the end analyzing the
analysis. All this was only possible thanks to the naturalized elements which included our own
work of John Murra and his followers or close questions, before giving us a partial response
colleagues. In order to achieve this, it was which, in the end, laid out the paths to take in
necessary to go through a long year of courses order to build our own reply.
and effort and destructuring reflection which
later affected our whole relationship with the
world. From a historiographic perspective it was "Creo que hay 8.000 soluciones al mismo problema y que
cada sociedad escoge alguna (p. 75).
85 - John V. Murra: A Mentor to Women

I dont remember well how much he said, or things and commercial success. It will be a
how he managed to get us to make our own society of solidarity where talent and the dignity
conclusions about the necessity of the act of of work are valued, without discrimination. I
seeing and later the act of showing in place of believe it will also be a world with a
our usual transform in the name of . . ., a predominance of woman workers, creative,
problem that was not easy for him to resolve, intelligent, living in fellowship, and with the
either, according to my understanding. From capacity to found institutions which permit
that arose the necessity that in the future we transformation to continue beyond the life of
would take our places, that we would reflect on one person, by providing for the education of
the fact that we had some small power over the young people who will guarantee and make
word which gave us a certain authority, and, possible the re-creation and continuity of the
perhaps, that would lead us to a sort of social life choice and work of unequaled value which
listening; that after seeing and respecting, we John Murra left us as a legacy.
would see how to use our power over the word
to show society as a whole the cultural Translation from the Spanish
achievements of the diverse Andean groups, but by Monica Barnes
only during the lapse of time when these groups
could still not express themselves.

There, as well, we perceived that Johns

social utopia, his eagerly awaited goal, was a
world of diverse people, accepted as such, who
had the means of directly expressing their
situation and their interests, and struggling for
them. These are the political conclusions which
I remember that we took away from this first
and intense relationship with him, and it was at
that point we began a personal relationship
which was strong, lasting, and very significant
for me in that he became a dear friend with John Victor Murra in Chicago,
whom I shared the same basic language in Spring, 1945
relation to the world. (Photograph courtesy of Heather Lechtman).

In conclusion, it is important to underscore

that his commitment was to the world, both as
a combatant in the International Brigades of the
Spanish Civil War, and in his struggle against
discrimination, which he developed everywhere
he lived, in support of Afro-Americans, and in
solidarity with Spaniards, Africans, women, and,
mainly, with Andean societies and their
achievements. A central part of his life was his
commitment to humanity in the search for a
different future, for alternatives to build upon, a
future separate from the domination by material

University of Wisconsin-Madison

INTRODUCTION1 Schoolcraft,2 Lewis Henry Morgan,3 John

Wesley Powell,4 Franz Boas,5 Paul Radin6. . . His
After my doctoral advisor, John V. Murra,
died, I rummaged in my basement for papers to 2
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1793-1864) was a pioneering
help me remember him. I found, under a stack geographer, geologist, and ethnologist,who is credited with
of punch-card-era computer work, a manila the identification of the source of the Mississippi River.
folder of yellow legal-size pages that I had He studied at Union College and Middlebury College. His
completely forgotten. They were my notes from first wife, Ojibway-speaker Jane Johnson Schoolcraft,
Murras 1971 Cornell University course History greatly aided his research. He is the author of numerous
works on American Indians. A biography of Schoolcraft,
of U.S. Anthropology. Indian Agent and Wilderness Scholar: The Life of Henry
Rowe Schoolcraft was published in 1987 by Richard E.
In 1971, as I began graduate school, Murra Bremer.
gathered a few students, mostly his own 3
For Morgan see Barnes, this volume, note 139.
advisees, twice weekly in a garret tucked under
the slate mansard of Cornells McGraw Hall. 4
John Wesley Powell (1834-1902) was a noted geogra-
Our group was a small one and unrepresentative pher, linguist, and explorer of the American West. He was
of Cornell anthropology as a whole, for at that educated at Illinois College, Wheaton College, and
time Murras students seemed to the rest of the Oberlin College but did not graduate from any of those
institutions. He was a director of the U.S. Geological
department to be a personalistic sect. His Survey, the founding director of the Bureau of Ethnology
lectures gave unique pleasure. I loved to hear at the Smithsonian Institution, and the founder of Wash-
the names of our North American ancestors ington, D.C.s Cosmos Club. Among his best known works
spoken in his Rumanian burr. His huge eyes are Canyons of the Colorado (1875) and Introduction to the
opened wide to deal out penetrating, respect- Study of American Indian Languages . . . (1877). Several
book length biographies of Powell have been published.
compelling glances when he mentioned the
names of the honored ones: Henry Rowe 5
The German-American Franz Boas (1858-1942) created
in the U.S.A. the role of the anthropologist as a Ph.D.-
trained specialist. He, himself, held a doctorate in physics
from the University of Kiel (1881). Many of his students
at Columbia University went on to become prominent
Editors note: this article is a revised and expanded researchers. Boas fought tirelessly against racism and
English-language version of the second part of a larger criticized evolutionary frameworks as lacking cultural
article accompanying the French translation of Forma- depth. From the 1880s Boas conducted fieldwork among
ciones econmicas y polticas del mundo andino (1975), a Arctic peoples and tribes of the Canadian Pacific coast.
collection of major early essays by John V. Murra, edited He stressed the importance of cultural context and
by Jacques Poloni-Simard, and to be published by cole history. He propounded the four-field concept of anthro-
des Hautes tudes en Sciences Sociales with the Maison pology, and was an early advocate of the participant-
des Sciences de lHomme. It was submitted to Poloni- observer method in fieldwork. He formulated cultural
Simard in August 2008 and to Andean Past in September relativism as a central theme of American anthropology.
2008. His numerous published works include The Central

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009): 87-102.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 88

lectures were often elliptical and indirect, with Murra, that well-dressed marvelous smooth
important points left between the lines. A expert (Bellow 1975:36). When I asked Murra
semester was not enough for most of us to about this, he said Bellow was alluding satirically
understand fully, but thirty-eight years might be. to Murras cleverness in talking his way out of a
debt to the University bursar.
The side of Murra that these lectures
expressed has not been evoked in any of his THE ANTHROPOLOGIST AS IMMIGRANT/
many tributes and obituaries. Anthropologists THE IMMIGRANT AS ANTHROPOLOGIST
know a lot about Murras life as an Andeanist.
However one should also know something about Murras inclination to delve into the
his life as an American immigrant intellectual. colonial and early-republican roots of U.S. and
Canadian ethnology had something to do with
By the time Murra hit Andeanist print he an immigrants curious comparing of the old
had given a lot of work and thought to the country and the new, but more to do with his
U.S.A. It was not the stereotyped Rumanian insistence on knowing who one is, both
anti-Franco combatiente of 1937 who wrote his historically and psychoanalytically. His resulting
works; it was an adoptive Chicagoan, a young singular view of American anthropologys past is
man acquainted with the likes of anthropologist worth a second look, now that some quarters of
Robert Redfield7 (who taught him about Lewis U.S. anthropology have once more become
Henry Morgan, for Murra the totemic U.S. receptive to humanism and historicism.
intellectual) and Philleo Nash (later President
Kennedys Commissioner of Indian Affairs). The 1971 course represented an early
Saul Bellow, the novelist par excellence of savvy moment in the development of inquiry into the
young Chicagoans on the make, knew him in history of the field, and an incomplete one by
the 1940s when both were financially strapped todays standard. Thanks to George Stockings
University of Chicago students. Bellow later and Richard Handlers University of Wisconsin
mischievously gave his name to an accountant: Press publications (c.f. Stocking 1992), to Regna
Darnells from the University of Nebraska Press
(starting 2005)8 and to many other researchers
Eskimo (1888), Kwakiutl Culture as Reflected in Mythology published in the History of Anthropology
(1935), Race, Language, and Culture (1940), the Mind of Newsletter (formerly edited by Henrietta
Primitive Man (1944), Primitive Art (1951), and many Kuklick), the history of North American
articles on the Indians of North Americas Northwest
anthropology today flourishes far beyond what
Coast, among other topics.
Murra had to offer. Nonetheless his early
Paul Radin (1883-1959) was a student of Franz Boas perspective on how anthropology sat within
and an ethnographer of the Siouan Winnebago or Ho- American intellectual history was well-
Chunk tribe in Wisconsin. He also contributed to an researched and original, and remains a durably
understanding of African art and folktales. His work is
characterized by emphasis on biography and attention to provocative one.
intellectuality in Native American cultures. Among his
works are The Method and Theory of Ethnography (1933), When Murra spoke to Latin American
The Italians of San Francisco (1935), Primitive Religion: Its audiences, and when he talked to us about his
Nature and Origin (1937), Indians of South America (1942),
efforts to build research institutions in the
The Culture of the Winnebago as Described by Themselves
(1949). He was the editor of African Folktales and Sculpture Andean countries, he sometimes said that the
Darnells Histories of Anthropology Annual is in its fourth
For Redfield see Barnes, this volume, note 11. volume as of 2008.
89 - Salomon: John V. Murra

Sputnik-era U.S.A. was a good platform for as each field developed vested interests and
launching various disciplinary tactics. ideological fetishes. Murra saw his course as one
However it would be completely wrong to think way to oppose a breakup. He was not exactly a
this meant his interest in the North American conciliator; he upheld a distinctive minoritarian
growth of the disciplineby 1971, explosive humanism and historicism against all comers.
growth in terms of sheer graduate enrollment But he didnt think conciliators or unifiers were
numberswas merely instrumental. In 1974, as really needed. In fact he commented that North
President of the American Ethnological Society, Americans mania to reconcile sometimes
he had the option of dedicating a number of the made mush of inquiry. Rather he thought
AES Publications to any theme he chose. He ethnographic commitment, the bond with the
decided on American Anthropology: The Early peoples we study, should suffice as common
Years. In its preface he wrote: ground, indeed a social contract, even among
scholars who disagree about everything else.
I am not a historian of our craft. When I
receive my copy of the History of Murras course could be taken as a history of
Anthropology Newsletter, I nod my head in that pact, and it was chronologically organized.
recognition or amazement. All those Nevertheless, time and again he circled back
kinsmen resurrected, reevaluated, toward a few pervasive themes. These themes
scrutinized. Events, influences, reveal something about his intellectual
skullduggery, and alternative readings of peculiarity as well as about anthropology, and it
the evidence are us because they are part is these which I will sketch in the following
of our past. . . I pretend that it pages.
[anthropology] is my only ethnic, religious,
and ideologic [sic] affiliation. This stance CATHEXIS
may not be a scientific one, and may be
the reason why I do not conduct research Cathexis was always central. To this
in the history of anthropology. But I am a Freudian, nothing but love was strong enough to
committed, critical, patriotic consumer of cement the ethnographic pactthough his ways
the work of those who do (Murra 1976:3- of expressing love could be peculiar. The power
4). of passions in shaping intellectual history formed
a leitmotif. As Murra stated in one of his course
North American anthropology is not really lectures:
a discipline in the usual sense, but a
consortiumone can still hope, a symbiosisof There is no Boas school of thought but
very different studies that were brought together there is a Boas emotional group and an
by a common motive: inquiry into the original institutional tie. Boas as a historicist is a
peoples of the Americas. The alliance among mistake; as Kroeber9 says he had no
archaeologists, biologists, cultural
anthropologists, and linguists seemed to Murra 9
Alfred L. Kroeber (1876-1960) was an influential
a great achievement, and a deep-rooted one. He American anthropologist who studied under Franz Boas
showed us how it took shape in the middle (Ph.D. 1901). As an archaeologist he excavated in New
Mexico, Mexico, and Peru. He developed the concept of
nineteenth century, long before the the culture area, a region in which societies shared
professionalization of the discipline crystallized certain basic traits and operated in similar natural envi-
these as fields or quadrants. Schisms among ronments. As founder of the Anthropology Department of
the quadrants were already occurring in 1971, the University of California at Berkeley, he did much to
record the languages and cultures of the Indians of the
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 90

historical sensehe just got stuck in [Mohave] . . . raided far away, largely
that category by not being an from curiosity. . . They had high regard for
evolutionist. The emotional storm dreams and for reasoning from dreams. All
wasnt about his ideas, but his this was done before 1917: that is, before
personality, and other personalities Malinowski,10 and before Kroebers own
stirred up by the fact that his seminars, [psycho]analysis; most of it was done by
unlike others of the time, had female 1912.
In discussing the Columbia University Murra noticed something anthropologists
graduate department he remarked that Robert Lowie,11 Radin, and Kroeber had in
[Intellectual history] is often the effect of Joe common:
on Nelly. Murra had an Old World sense of
the honor of achievement and seniority, and he They spent large parts of their lives alone,
chastised those of us who, as he thought, callow- widowed, or divorced. It wasnt their
ly gossiped about major scholars. But at the isms, but their marginality in civilized life,
same time he also had a comedic sense of the that made the field and the museum
way things work. Stories of particular central in their personal lives and their life
anthropological Joes and Nellies seemed to him callings.
both important and amusing. In class he limited
himself to some dry semi-Freudian kidding Despite his theoretical insistence that vocations
about intellects enslavement to Eros: The unit are unitary, fusing the scholarly with the
[of Boasian academic organization] is the personal, a stoic or soldierly impatience with
foreign-born Jew and the WASP woman. weakness made Murra a tough love advisor
rather than a fatherly one. Students could not
Such kidding was the visible outcrop of a count on him for much comfort amid the
larger rumination, born of psychoanalytic loneliness of fieldwork.
struggles, that Murra clearly carried on
constantly yet never shared with us. It PROFESSIONALISM
concerned relations between the passions of the
subconscious and the work of intellect, Another axis of the course concerned
including such themes as solitude and insomnia, democratic science and professional science.
dreaming and phobia, as well as desire. In class Our classroom sat barely 45 km from the lovely
Murra expressed admiration for Alfred L. Kroe- Cayuga Lake village of Aurora, where Lewis
bers recognition of dream work in his early field
research: 10
For Malinowski see Barnes, this volume, note 36.
Robert H. Lowie (1883-1957), educated in German
humanism, took his A.B. from the College of the City of
New York (1901) and his Ph.D. from Columbia University
American West. Among his many published works are (1908) under Franz Boas. He was an expert on North
Animal Tales of the Eskimo (1899), The Arapaho (1902-07), American Indians and, as a theorist, helped to formulate
The Chumash and Costanoan Languages (1910), Anthropol- the doctrine of cultural relativism which holds cultural
ogy (1936), Cultural and Natural Areas of Native North constructs to be interpretable only within the contexts of
America (1938), and The Archaeology and Pottery of Nazca, individual societies. Among his books are Primitive Society
Peru . . . (edited by Patrick H. Carmichael, 1998). Kroe- (1920), Primitive Religion (1924), History of Ethnological
bers wife Theodora published a biogaphy of Alfred L. Theory (1937), and The Crow Indians (1935). An obituary
Koreber in 1970 and Julian H. Stewart published one in of Lowie was published by Paul Radin in the American
1973. Anthropologist in 1958.
91 - Salomon: John V. Murra

Henry Morgan lived and propounded ethnology university elites loyal to the German graduate
long before it became a profession. More school model, the self-trained anthropologist
orthodox Cornell anthropologists never Otis Mason13 spoke up for the older citizen-
mentioned Morgan. I think they were scholar tradition which had produced the likes
embarrassed for their long-dead neighbor, then of Schoolcraft and Morgan. Mason praised
so utterly out of fashion. But like it or not,
Morgan was our genius loci, and he was in many a science in which there is no priesthood
ways the fulcrum of Murras thinking about U.S. and no laity, no sacred language; but one
anthropology. in which you [the general educated public]
are all both the investigator and the
It interested Murra a great deal that investigated (Mason quoted in Hinsley
Morgans career was a life lived in pre-academic 1976: 41).
science. Morgan grew up on 600 formerly Iro-
quoisan acres granted to his father after the Murra thought Masons party, though
1779 massacre of the Cayuga. His career as a politically doomed, scientifically inadequate,
railroad lawyer and Republican state senator was and compromised by racism, still deserved
to serve the transformation of upstate New York respect. He taught us to esteem people for what
into the continents first industrial boom area. was possible within their times; Morgan and the
Murra made no bones about the fact that other primitive ethnographers were no more
Morgans study of the Iroquois peoples grew and no less racist than their contemporariesbut
directly from a Rhodesian situation of land they were more than that; they went beyond
theft that followed U.S. independence. (He was their racism. He likewise had sympathy for the
alluding to Ian Smith. The comparison between proto-anthropologies that Latin countries
historic and current political situations was (including Rumania) had been developing
characteristic.) contemporaneously via non-academic self-
studies in folklore and vernacular-language
Upstate New Yorks post-revolutionary philology.
culture included a citizen-scholar ethos which
academic growth would later displace. College Looking back, one wonders if part of Murras
or seminary educated townsfolk expected that enjoyment of the Andean countries did not
people would teach themselves and each other. come from the circumstance that when he
Secret societies became the free universities of arrived, scholarly life in the Andes still had
the time, offering a course upward for the some of the same malleable, historically open-
humble. Morgan invited an educated Seneca ended character. When in 1886 Andrew
man, Ely Parker12, and Parkers wife, to join his Dickson White14 invited Lewis Henry Morgan
own secret lodge: the Society of the Gordian 13
Knot, later called Grand Order of the Iroquois. Otis Tufton Mason (1838-1908) graduated from
Columbian College (now George Washington University)
This was to be the start of important careers for in 1861. He was an advocate of evolutionary theories of
both men. social development. He was a curator at the Smithsonian
Institution, a founder of the Anthropological Society of
At the end of Morgans era, when the Washington, and an editor of the American Naturalist. His
books include Summaries of Progress in Anthropology:
citizen-scientist ethos was under attack from
Womans Share in Primitive Culture (1894) and The Origins
of Invention . . . (1895).
Ely Samuel Parker (1825-1895) was a Seneca sachem,
civil engineer, and Civil War general on General U.S. Andrew Dickson White (1832-1918) was the founder,
Grants staff. with Ezra Cornell, of Cornell University.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 92

to Cornell, Murra remarked, the task of groups struggles with the latifundist world
creating national intellectual models was nearly Larreas peers had made.
finished; [it] is now the difficult task of the
Andes. Murra and Curtis Hinsley were right, too, to
emphasize the limitations of the pre-academic,
As I was getting ready for my first Cornell- citizen-scholar scene. With no canonical way to
guided trip to Ecuador, Murra counseled me organize debate, disagreements among scholars
that I would find in Quito a situation something became feuds. Without powerful institutions,
like Morgans. I never wrote down exactly what there was no way to fund gifted researchers who
he said, but I remember the gist: since happened to be poor, like the tireless autodidact
commanding research institutions and ethnohistorian Aquiles Prez, whom I found
professional associations did not exist in hunched at a tiny desk over a cobblers shop.
Ecuador, I would find the most interesting For such reasons, Murra regarded the transition
talents in citizen-scholars grouped only by their to professional scholarship and university
own affinities. leadership as a costly, but inevitable and useful
That advice led to wonderful encounters.
Olaf Holm, a Dane who had come to Ecuador to Murras extensive teaching about Franz
manage a cacao plantation, became a self- Boas, the locomotive of North American
trained archaeologist after finding precolumbian professionalization, had, then, a covert as well as
figurines among his seedlings. Osvaldo Viteri, a an overt purpose. It was a monument to great
painter, built a truck-mounted mobile studio scholarship, but also a how-to lesson in scholarly
whose jolting journeys brought him to politics. Murra began by pointing out that Boas
undocumented prehispanic sites. Padre Jos first festschrift (Laufer 1906) was bestowed on
Mara Vargas guarded in his Dominican him for reasons that had everything to do with
monastic cell a huge collection of early colonial academic politics. It happened before he did all
papers, a treasure trove of ethnohistory, the things that Leslie White15 hated, meaning
originally compiled to defend Ecuadors disputed before he had created a great corpus of
borders. Costanza and Alberto di Capua, refugee ethnography. What Boas had done was
Italians who built Ecuadors first toothpaste transform a vocation to a profession, and find
factory, were in their off hours applying to South for it a place in the constellations of power and
American papers the exacting humanist money. He was sponsored by many influential
methods learned in the old country (see Bruhns,
this volume, pp. 103-107). The dapper
provincial aristocrat Hernn Crespo Toral made 15
Leslie Alvin White (1900-1975) was an American
it his vocation to transform gold held by the anthropologist who formulated a technology-oriented
model of cultural evolution. He earned a B.A. (1923) and
Banco Centralprecolumbian gold jewelryinto M.A. (1924) from Colombia University, and a Ph.D. from
the core of a great museum. In the solarium of the University of Chicago (1927) under Fay-Cooper Cole.
his mock castle, the aged oligarch Carlos He engaged in bitter academic disputes with the followers
Manuel Larrea pored over the papers of a of Franz Boas. His major works are The Science of Culture
vanquished seigneurial order. Meanwhile, a few and The Evolution of Culture and several monographs on
American Indian cultures. A biography by Harry Elmer
blocks down the avenue at the Casa de la Cul- Barnes comprises the Forward to his festschrift Essays in
tura, the nationalist ethnohistorians Piedad and the Science of Culture (edited by Gertrude E. Dole nad
Alfredo Costales pounded out number after Robert L. Carneiro, 1960. An obituary of White by Elman
number of the journal Llacta, glorifying Quichua Service, Richard K. Beardsley, and Beth Dillingham was
published in the American Anthropologist in 1976.
93 - Salomon: John V. Murra

non-academics including Carl Schurz,16 who writing the AAAs charter, the latter two
saw Boas as the embodiment of the liberal favored a mass membership, no-credentialing
aspirations of his own 1848 revolutionary policy. (George Stocking 1988). According to
generation. In one of his lectures Murra stated: Murra:

Boas [in his contention with the old McGee pointed out that a generous
powers of the American Ethnological policy will bring generous finances; how
Society] was a meticulous scholar, but also did Boas propose to finance? . . . McGee
a power wielder, an organizer. He was really arguing for himself. McGee,
attracted and favored New York City John Wesley Powell, or Lewis Henry
people, immigrants, and their children, Morgan couldnt have joined the AAA
especially women. A wheeler-dealer, under Boas rules!
spinner of nets, an anthropological tank.
On my yellow legal pad I capitalized what
Boas struggle to academicize anthropology Murra said loudly: NOT THE DOCTRINES
via graduate schools goes on now in BUT THE STRUCTURE OF THE
countries that dont have a professional PROFESSION.
guild, like Chile and Peru. There, the self-
made anthropologists want the prestige of EXPERIENCE
having grad schools, but not the elitist
consequences. As Murra saw the 1902 AAA fight, it was
one outbreak of a permanent tension in U.S.
The past he was talking about seemed to him academe. American scholars inherit at the same
parallel to his present. In the Chicago 1902 fight time European esteem for intellectual
with W. J. McGee17 and George Dorsey18 over credentials and American dislike of
intellectuals as a privileged class. It seems
Carl Schurz (1829-1906) was a German-American significant that Murras struggle for citizenship
politician and journalist, who served as a U.S. army
occurred at a time when the latter sentiment
general during the Civil War.
was quite strong. He could take it in stride
William John McGee (1853-1912) was a self-taught because he felt that anti-academic sentiment
geologist and ethnologist associated with John Wesley was one part of an American mind-set that also
Powell. He served as president of the American Anthro- entailed positive historic values.
pological Association, the National Geographical Society,
and the American Association for the Advancement of
Science. Among his works are Palaeolithie Man in America: At the time Murra gave his lecture about
His Antiquity and Environment (1888), Geological Atlas of McGee, New York was convulsed with racialized
U.S. (1894), Maya Year (1894), The Seri Indians (1898), as anger over what was called the Ocean Hill-
well as articles on the Sioux, primitive mathematics, and Brownsville school affair. Black parents in these
trepanation in Peru.
Brooklyn neighborhoods had seized on new
George Amos Dorsey (1868-1931) was Curator of school regulations to take control, expelling an
Anthropology at Chicagos Field Museum from 1896 to entrenched and white-dominated teachers
1915. He held an A.B. from Dennison College (1888), an union. As Murra interpreted it:
A.B. (1890) and Ph.D. (1894) from Harvard. He con-
ducted excavations at Perus ancient Ancn cemetery and
other important South American sites. Among his more
than seventy-five publications on American Indians and (1903), and The Cheyenne (1905). Dorseys obituary was
physical anthropology are Archaeological Investigations on published by Fay-Cooper Cole in the American Anthropolo-
the Island of La Plata (1901), The Arapaho Sun Dance gist (1931).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 94

The revolt of black parents against paper administrators were used to accommodating. He
credentials and teachers reliance on scolded the social scientists for sponsoring
[standardized achievement] tests is a merely ritual fieldwork, which is forced to fit
continuation of American resistance to . . . in interstices of the academic calendar. You
European cumulative and bookish cant see the whole culture in summer . . . Like
credentials. Only the blacks and a few Hawaiian pineapples, our experience is grown
others havent been bought out by Europe. can size.
In natural science, theres no resisting it.
But in social studies, in human things, we American museumsthe Peabody at Harvard
can still hold experience as the credential. and its homonym at Yale, the American
To make experience the prerequisite for Museum of Natural History in New York,
the institutionthats the contribution of Pennsylvanias University Museum, and the
the U.S. Field Museum in Chicagowere often hostile to
professionalization, but they did one great thing:
This mind-set left a mark on anthropology. they were able to sponsor long fieldwork
Long-lasting emphasis on personal and local unconstrained by semesters. In Murras eyes,
experience stood in tension with historical Kroeber, who was Berkeleys museum man
perspective and with disciplinary rigor. among other things, was right to speak of:

Maybe . . . blindness to history is a product submerging oneself in other ways of life as

of . . . avidity for direct experience and an act of personal liberation and self-
dislike of vicariousness. L.H.M. didnt care understanding, the only ecstasy we will
for anything he couldnt observe. . . The ever have from our given past and path.
intellectual character of U.S.
anthropology, and other sciences, is self- Because Murra saw long, open-ended
starting and immediate. expeditions as the heart of the anthropological
task, he taught respectfully about museum
Murra sympathized with this mentality, men. We were expected to take their bigotry
which made Americans into field-workers and even their entanglements in military
(though not participant observers) long before intelligence in perspective, the better to
Boas or Malinowski. In his role as an advisor of appreciate their impact in enlarging and
young anthropologists, Murra tried to promote internationalizing field research.
Boasian professionalism without suffocating the
self-starting habit of mind, which he liked. The Peabody anthropologists were the first
Unlike his deans, he made practiced ethno- [U.S. anthropologists] to go abroad, before
graphers welcome regardless of diplomas. World War I, to Maya lands (where the
spying was done), and to Africa.
McGee was right about the necessity for
practical field experience, the dispen- Murra also credited the museums ability to
sability of Ph.D.s. You must be immersed publish long works on anthropology. Until well
at some point. into the twentieth century the Smithsonian was
still the only place to publish large studies; in
He contrasted deep fieldwork involving fact the beginning of other [academic press]
personal cathexis with the skimpy, narrowly outlets was the beginning of its deterioration.
programmed field excursions Cornell Despite his disappointment in Julian H.
95 - Salomon: John V. Murra

Stewards19 evolutionist manhandling of South post-Stewardian approach as an evolutionary

American ethnography, Murra admired his chore (Murra 1988:586).
adroit manipulation of the federal funding
system to publish the Handbook of South The interesting thing for himand for all his
American Indians as Smithsonian Bureau of studentswas how humans make changes within
American Ethnology reports (Steward 1946- their evolutionary moments. If societies alter
1959). In the 1960s museums had lost ground from one form to another, they do so
due to their not getting any Sputnik sauce,20 historically, through what would later be called
and Murra took on a consultancy seeking to agency. This was what diachronic anthropology
prevent the collapse of the Smithsonians should study. Murra detested coarser
unique anthropological establishment. materialists such as Leslie White and Marvin
Harris22 the latter then the predominant public
STATECRAFT voice of anthropology in the U.S.for laying a
heavy thumb on the scale of historical
Although Murra valued much of the North interpretation.
American intellectual past, he also felt that it
showed some durably wrong inclinations. One of Just as wrong, Murra thought, was
these was the search for an overarching evolutionists tendency to see the politicization
evolutionary natural science of society. Murra and centralization of society as an inevitable and
remarked that although much of Morgans uniform process. The justification for studying
evolutionary model was wrong and refuted, we the evolution of states, he thought, was not to
would never get rid of his evolutionism. multiply purported laws of complexity. It was on
the contrary to skeptically probe the clout of
This was not a matter of denying the validity kings and the varieties of political experience.
of an evolutionary frame for understanding Thinking of peoples buffeted by states, Murra
complexity. As a materialist, Murra asked for answers about states and answers to
acknowledged that if evolution is true of some states. How different it [kinship-based state
of nature, then it is true of all nature, including society] was! What anthropology has to offer is
socio-cultural human nature. But that only
helped to define the constraints on humanity in study. Among his major works are Economic and Social
each of its techno-environmental conditions. Organization of a Complex Chiefdom . . . (1978), Archaeo-
The neo-evolutionist Stewardian venture of logical Field Research in the Upper Mantaro, Peru, 1982-
1983 (1987), and How Chiefs Come to Power . . . (1997).
ranking societies in a schema of determinately
emerging adaptive complexity seemed to him 22
Marvin Harris (1927-2001) was an American anthro-
the most drab, least creative program for pologist who formulated theories of cultural materialism
anthropology. In a book review which caused combining Karl Marxs emphasis on the means of produc-
tion with the impact of demographic factors on other parts
hard feelings, he referred to Timothy Earles21 of socio-cultural systems. He studied as both an under-
graduate and a graduate student at Columbia University,
For Steward see Barnes, this volume, note 37. obtaining a Ph.D. there in 1953. He taught at Columbia
from 1953 until 1980, then at the University of Florida,
Murra meant National Defense Education Act funds Gainesville from 1980 until 2000. Among his 17 books
available after the space technology panic of 1957. These are The Rise of Anthropological Theory (1968), Cultural
funds fueled a vast expansion of U.S. universities. Materialism: The Struggle for a Science of Culture (1979),
and Theories of Culture in Post-Modern Times. An obituary
Timothy K. Earle (b. 1946) is known for his contribu- of Marvin Harris by Maxine L. Margolis and Conrad
tions to an understanding of the chiefdom form of political Phillip Kottak was published in the American Anthropolo-
organization. He has used Hawaii as an important case gist in 2003.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 96

the proof that there was an alternative. States, ethnic friction as a normal and basic part of the
particularly precapitalist states in Africa and the human condition for better or worse. In one
Americas, were his ethnological center of guise or another inter-ethnic situations provoke
gravity. In teaching about Burundi, Cameroon, primitive anthropology, raw but fertile
or Zulu politics, however, his point was not at situations of encounter and reflection. Boas or
all to show regularities of state formation but, on Malinowskis foreignness in his academic
the contrary, to show how surprisingly the country seemed to Murra to be a central fact.
sources and uses of political power can vary.
Long after the utopian in him had perished, he Boas, the foreign agitator . . . like Malinow-
argued by example and indirectly, for the ski [advanced by] coagulating refugees and
unsuspected political alternative. colonials into a group; Boas swiftly pulled
together a tight but heterogeneous group
ETHNICITY . . . He was their rescuer and their patron.

In the 1970s a substantial number of He insisted that the battle between the
American sociologists and anthropologists were academic machine Boas was creating around
trying to reinvent or reabsorb the Marxian 1900 and the informal lineages of the Harvard,
legacy, among them Murras great friends Eric Pennsylvania, and New York museum sets was
Wolf23 and Sidney Mintz24. He had nothing but an ethnic battle. When the AAA in 1919
admiration for their inventive historicism, even expelled Boas for dissenting against
as he hung back from their larger Marxian anthropological involvement in spying on
program. But he disliked cruder versions of Central America, of twenty who voted against
Marxian social science. In his view, insistence Boas, fifteen were at Harvard and many were
on class as the sovereign analysis had prevented former U.S. government employees. Murra
scholars, both North and South American, from identified them as WASP upper crust.
writing history in cultural depthjust as
frameworks of nationality and race had done Murra was likely speaking indirectly of
earlier. The Rumanian in him insisted forever himself when he agreed with Claude Lvi-
on ethnicity: more than race, more than Strauss25 that anthropology is a way of living
nationality, more than stratification. with an unresolved ethnic identity. He
particularly felt empathy for anthropologists
His interest in it was not limited to sweet- who grew this way, for example Morris
tempered multiculturalism, either. He regarded
Claude Lvi-Straus (b. 1908) is a French ethnologist
Eric Robert Wolf (1923-1999) was an anthropologist and anthropological theorist famous for developing
well-known for his studies of peasant societies, especially anthropological structuralism, a system that analyses a
in Latin America. He obtained his Ph.D. from Columbia complex field in terms of formally interrelated and oppos-
University after World War II. An early exponent of ing parts. He received his doctorate from the Sorbonne
peasant (as opposed to primitive) studies, he later (1948). He lived in Brazil in the 1930s and 40s, teaching
emphasized linkages between worldwide economic systems and conducting ethnographic field-work there. He
and local ethnographic facts. Among his many influential presented two theses, one on the family and social life of
works are Sons of the Shaking Earth (1959), Peasants the Nambikwara Indians and the other The Elementary
(1966), and Europe and the People Without History (1982). Structures of Kinship (published in 1949). Among his other
An interview of Wolf by Ashraf Ghani was published in famous books are Tristes Tropiques (1955), Structural
the American Anthropologist in 1987 and an obituary by Anthropology (1958), The Savage Mind (1962), and the
Jane C. Schneider in the same journal in 1999. four volumes of Mythologiques(1969-1981). A good guide
to the work if Lvi-Strauss was published by Edmund
For Mintz see Barnes, this volume, note 60. Leach in 1970.
97 - Salomon: John V. Murra

Swadesh,26 in self-exile from the then-unfriendly ones always got on Murras nerves. But Murra
United States driving the only Moskvitch car liked the idea. After the paper was done, he
in Mexico City, alienated at home, successful commented in private that an outspoken Jewish
abroad. identity is a good thing, but the waffling, evasive
relation to Judaism he thought he saw in others
As Boas turned to anti-racism, Sapir27 (and I asked myself, only in others?) was an
turned to Jewish consciousness. . . He took ethnic neurosis.
his Nootka skills to Yiddish and

On the Peruvian side, Murras friendship Murras notion of the anthropological calling
with Peruvian anthropologist, novelist, and poet as a way to bring forth something grand
Jos Mara Arguedas rested in part on empathy ethnographyout of something inwardly pain-
with Arguedas lonely, out-of-the-zeitgeist fulalienationhas much to do with his respect
ethnic loyalties (Murra and Lpez Baralt 1996). for individuality. He adhered strongly, though
not orthodoxly, to Freudianism because he
Murra was, however, notoriously touchy thought it an unbudgeable fact that at every
about his own unresolved ethnic identity. He level from intimacy to nationality one lives
felt that the persona he had forged in his against ones people, as well as with them.
Spanish soldiering and his profession was his Whether at the inner level of the psyche or the
only real identity and deserved to be accepted outer level of professional action, he saw the
beyond questioning. He hated to hear his Jewish agonistic creation of the self as a basic human
childhood name mentioned. As it happened I process. He admired good self-documenters
was the only overtly Jewish student in his group. like Lowie, Kroeber, Sapir, and Swadesh whose
When I proposed to write a seminar paper on writings help us follow theirs. Murra valued
Guaman Pomas allusions to Hebrew scriptures, Sapir, too, for being a dissenter himself and
some fellow students told me it was a bad idea finding dissent within culture. Others might
because religious discussionseven ethnological credit tribes with unanimity; Sapir said things
like, The Burucubucu say so-&-so; Two Crows
The Americanist linguist Morris Swadesh (1909-1967) denies it (referring to Dorsey 1885:211-371).28
originated glottochronology, a method for estimating
chronologies of language divergence based on lexical Above all, Murra brought forward as
comparison. He held a B.A. and an M.A. from the
University of Chicago and a Ph.D. from Yale with a exemplar of the anthropologist self-realized in
dissertation on the Nootka language. He published 130 cryptic uniqueness an earlier expatriate, Paul
articles and 17 books and monographs. An obituary by Radin (Radzyn), the most historical and most
Norman A. McQuown was published in the American European of his generation. He returned to
Anthropologist in 1968. Radin over and over, out of proportion to the
Edward Sapir (1884-1939), a published poet and Boas- dimensions of the course. Murra pointed out
ian linguist who concentrated on North American Indian that Radin, the originally Polish author of
languages, is most famous as the co-creator of the Sapir- remarkable ethnographies about the Winnebago
Whorf hypothesis which postulates relationship between (now self-denominated Ho-Chunk) of
grammar and thought patterns. He graduated from
Columbia College in 1904. He continued at Columbia to
study linguistics and anthropology. Ruth Benedict pub-
lished an obituary of Sapir in a 1939 issue of the American This phrase was later amplified as the title of a mono-
Anthropologist. Included is a complete bibliography of graph on the famous Omaha kinship problem, by Robert
Sapirs published work prepared by Leslie Spier. Harrison Barnes (1984).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 98

taught at Kenyon [College], Fisk being disliked but subtly demanded to be loved
University [a Negro campus], and at 75, had the same flavor.
Brandeis, and Black Mountain [a short-
lived but profoundly influential Now, Murra said, we are swept into the
experimental avant-garde campus]. He dimmer atmosphere of social science. He
lived to see his books republished and despised the new, quantitativist-dominated
popular after years on remainder tables. establishments into which midwestern deans
Radin, Murra remarked, had no disciples in any were forcibly relocating anthropology. He
grand school; was he a part of history, having no quoted with approvals Kroebers famous article
impact?29 about anthropologists as changelings in the
house of social science (Kroeber 1959). And
Murra sympathized with Radins ethno- Murra went on:
graphic emphasis on Winnebago (etc.)
biography and autobiography (c.f. Radin 1949) Do sociologists call us bird-watchers,
because they foregrounded the non-solidity, antiquarians? It does not matter. We
the non-rigidity of culture and the self-creative dislike the facelessness of sociological
powers of every person as cultural being. He method more than we value its
liked Radins lack of nomothetic ambition. methodological virtues. [Anthropology] is
the daughter of natural science by esthetic
The Winnebago Tribe (1990 [1923]) ends humanism. It started with a glowing sense
nowhere after a mountain of description, of discovery in studying culture. It is truly
but its his best work. Its more like called intellectualizing romanticism. But it
anthology than analysis, full of big but is never called sterile or toneless.
mutually relevant quotes. Uniqueness is
not reduced but put center-stage. In 1982, Murra ran unsuccessfully for
President of the American Anthropological
When Murra remarked that the obituary Association. His platform was partly a protest on
Radin wrote about Lowie (1958) reflected a lot the above lines, going on to speak against
of Radins self, we wondered if Murra were not
hinting that in remembering Radin he was in Sputnik-subsidized inflation in the number
turn reflecting his own sense of self. Like his of U.S. anthropologists, the vested interest
fellow Cornellian the expatriate novelist of departments in growth without
Vladimir Nabokov, whom he read with spelled-out priorities, be they regional or
admiration, though not affection, Murra intellectual, the lavish federal grants . . .
sometimes tried his audiences wit with plays of shoe-horning research into mental
mirroring. One suspected indirect self-comment health and other administratively selected
when he said of Boas, His lack of praise to categories.
students disturbed peoplehe was a stern
taskmaster whom everybody both loved and His candidacy was not just a protest. It was
hated. His comment that [Radin] didnt mind also an appeal to remember what had been vital
and central in the United States ethnological
experience. Having just finished preparing, with
But this statement referred only to the United States, Nathan Wachtel and Jacques Revel, the special
the scope of the course. Murra also thought that Radin Andean number of Annales, (Murra et al. 1986
had productive dialogue with some anthropologists in Revel et al. 1978), he reflected on the special
other countries.
99 - Salomon: John V. Murra

orienting role that the epic of Native American supporting. Murra could, and sometimes did,
achievement played in New World intellectual teach marvelously on the British
history. He hoped the A.A.A. would expand the anthropological tradition (he was an admiring
tradition of the same classic ethnographers his friend of Raymond Firth who taught at Cornell
course expounded. American anthropologists in 1970)30 and on French ethnology, especially
should orient themselves around French African researches. France, too, he often
reminded us, also had nationally rooted ethno-
documentation and comparison of the graphic inquiries and anthropological societies
cultural history of all human societies, with long before it had anthropology departments.
a special, though not exclusive,
commitment to those civilizations The most original of his cosmopolitan
vanquished in the expansion of Europe lessons was his lecture segment (in a different
and the United States . . . the historical course) about the ethnohistory of the Russian
anthropology approach, so new and empire. One thing that made it compelling was
experimental in France, is our pride and comparison of imperial Russia to the United
heritageit could give a focus and a new States as a particular kind of expansive
urgency to the A.A. [American formation: an early-industrial state trampling
Anthropologist] (Murra 1982). vast temperate and subarctic tribal
hinterlands. Murra began with Stephan
COSMOPOLITANISM Krasheninnikov, who pushed Russian
exploration south from Alaska to the
Murras interest in the United States had Californian confines of the Spanish empire in
nothing to do with nationalism and everything 1735-1737, and ended with the fortunes of
to do with cosmopolitan curiosity. Had the contemporary ethnographic inquiry in the
disasters of the 1930s landed him someplace else Soviet Union. In connection with Boas Jesup
he would surely have delved into the place and Northwest expedition of 1897-1902 he talked
the history around him no less piercingly. In his with admiration of the Russian exile ethno-
lectures, tantalizing digressive threads pointed graphers Lev Shternberg31 and Vladimir
to other inquiries about other continents and Bogoraz32 (then all but forgotten in the United
other anthropologies, which never became full
scale courses, at least not at Cornell. 30
For Firth see Barnes, this volume, note 35.
Lev Yakovlevitch Shternberg (1861-1927) was a
Murra complained that his colleagues Ukranian ethnographer who studied the peoples of the
pushed him into average anthropology instead Russian northern Pacific islands and of Siberia. With
of letting him teach what he alone could teach. Boass patronage he worked for the American Museum of
By this he apparently meant a cosmopolitan Natural History. He was politically active in Marxist and
curriculum in ethnology. He took a strong Jewish social movements. He accomplished some of his
ethnographic work while a political prisoner in Siberia.
interest in views of American ethnology from
other intellectual traditions. Indeed in the first 32
Vladimir Germanovich Bogoraz (1865-1936), who was
week of the course I have been evoking he had an associate of Lev Shternberg, and who used the pseud-
us read and debate critiques against American onym N.A. Tan, was a Russian revolutionary, essayist,
novelist, poet, folklorist, and linguist who studied the
anthropology by the Swede ke Hultkranz Chukchi people of Siberia while in political exile. Like
(1968) and the Hungarian Tams Hofer (1968), Shternberg he participated in the American Museum of
both of whom argued against the export of the Natural Historys Jessup Pacific Expedition (1900-1901).
programs that United States foundations were A bibliography of Bogorazs work was published by Katha-
rina Gernet in 1999.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 100

States). Murras brief lessons about Chukchee or crafts educated Ojibwe wife Jane Johnston,
Gilyak (Nivkh) seemed outcrops of greater Morgans Seneca friend and co-author Ely S.
study. He always kept an eye out for meritorious Parker, and Boas great Amerindian collaborator
ethnographers on the other side, urging us to George Hunt33 never failed to loom large. There
have a look at Sovietskaya Etnografiya; The was, of course, something personal about his
good ones write sandwiches, you know, a slice of affection for intellectual lives lived among rather
anthropology between two slices of Lenin. than within cultures.

He seemed to regret that little research had TO LIVE AS AN ANTHROPOLOGIST

come of his strong east-European interests.
After all, in the Cold War era, just about Awed by Murras knack for getting along
anything concerning the Soviets was fundable, with so many kinds of people, by his charm and
and with his deep Russian knowledge Murra his polyglot savoir-faire, some of us wondered
could surely have made a career of it. Indeed in why he bound himself so tightly to the archival
1950 Columbia had offered him paid work on life of ethnohistory (c.f. Ortiz de Ziga 1967-
Soviet ethnology. In 1951 Murra published a 72). He never became much of a face-to-face
piece explaining to Americans the importance ethnographer. His patience for the discomforts
of The Soviet Linguistic Controversy, the of Andean village life had limits. It seems,
moment when Stalin seemed about to open a looking back, that his life among South
space for cultural research by reassigning American intellectuals mattered more to him
language from superstructure to base (Murra than did his outings on the puna (which is not
et al. 1951). But the cold war burden of politics to deny that such trips in the company of
and, above all, the impossibility of unfettered cultural and archaeological field-workers had
fieldwork in the Soviet sphere, put Russian- revelatory effects on him; c.f. Collier and Murra
language ethnohistory permanently on Murras 1943). The emerging institutional research life
back burner. of Andean countries, not the Quechua or Ay-
mara rural scene, was the scene in which he
Murra had a prescient sympathy for another achieved great participant-observer insight.
kind of cosmopolitans, not fashionable at that
time, but now widely appreciated. These were He demanded his doctoral candidates build
the native intellectuals of the empires collegial and ethnographic connections as major
everywhere, then sometimes called organic personal commitments, not mere contacts.
intellectuals or evolus. Alongside Perus He mentioned that:
Indian chronicler Felipe Guaman Poma de
Ayala, or Francis La Flesche, the magnificent German and Japanese anthropologists
native ethnographer of the Omaha and Osage, when they arrive [in their countries of
he liked to put Samuel Johnson, the pioneer research] usually attend local universities
Yoruba-Anglican historian of Nigeria, or Jomo and develop emotional and social ties.
Kenyatta, first prime minister and president of This corresponds to humanism in
Kenya, or the Akan intellectual J.B. Danquah, anthropology. Whereas, we from the U.S.
whom he knew slightly. Danquahs aristocratic
hauteur seemed to Murra an amusing
counterpoint to the populist tone of de- 33
Tlingit George Hunt (1854-1933) was a friend and
colonizing anthropology. North American collaborator of Franz Boas. Through marriage he also
Indian interlocutors, people such as School- became expert in Kwakiutl or Kwakwakawakw language
and culture.
101 - Salomon: John V. Murra

come for short noncommittal visits and Bellow, Saul

objectivist purposes. 1975 Humboldts Gift. New York: Viking Press.
Collier, Donald and John V. Murra
1943 Survey and Excavations in Southern Ecuador.
At Cornell his great institutional energies were Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History,
directed not so much toward institution- Publication 528, Anthropological Series, volume
building, as toward opening spaces for collegial, 35.
non-bureaucratic affinity. Murra fought Dorsey, J. Owen
1885 Omaha Sociology. In Third Annual Report of the
continual campaigns in the graduate school for Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, pp.
better recognition of international credentials, 211-371.
better funding of outgoing travelers and Hinsley, Curtis
especially, fellowships for incoming foreign 1976 Amateurs and Professionals in Washington
Anthropology, 1879 to 1903. In American
students. He invariably demanded that graduate
Anthropology: The Early Years, edited by John V.
students take part in the institutions of their Murra, pp. 36-68. St. Paul, Minnesota: West
host countries. Publishing.
Hofer, Tams
Students of other anthropological masters in 1968 Anthropologists and Native Ethnographers in
Central European Villages: Comparative Notes
Murras generation sometimes find it hard to
on the Professional Personality of Two
understand what was so compelling about him. Disciplines. Current Anthropology 9(4):311-315.
Compared to some, Murra wrote little (and Hultkranz, ke
often published in relatively obscure outlets). 1968 The Aims of Anthropology: A Scandinavian
He preferred regional, middle-level modeling to Point of View. Current Anthropology 9(4):289-
grand theory, at a time when a grand theory
Kroeber, Alfred L.
wave was cresting. He could be maddeningly 1959 The Personality of Anthropology. Kroeber
inconclusive: invited to give the Lewis Henry Anthropology Society Papers 19:1-5.
Morgan lectures at Rochester University in L[aufer], B[erthold]
1969, he could not be bothered to write them 1906 Boas Anniversary Volume: Anthropological Papers
Written in Honor of Franz Boas . . . Presented to
up for publication. Him on the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of his
Doctorate, Ninth of August, Nineteen Hundred and
Yet those who worked with him never cease Six.New York: G. E. Stechert & Company.
to hear his echo in their minds. Having lived Murra, John Victor
into an age when humanism, skepticism, 1982 Platform Submitted to Support Candidacy for
President, American Anthropological
tolerance for uncertainty, and love of the ethno- Association. Circulated by the American
graphic particular are again becoming welcome Anthropological Association and by John Victor
in our discipline, one feels that in the end his Murra. Photocopy. On file in the archives of
teaching of unfashionable anthropology did Andean Past.
make its mark. We are much the richer for it. 1988 Review of The Evolution of Human Societies: From
Foraging Group to Agrarian State by Allen W.
Murras life was not only a remarkable career in Johnson and Timothy Earle. Man n.s. 23(3):586-
Andean research; it also demonstrated one very 587.
special way to live as an anthropologist. Murra, John Victor, editor
1976 American Anthropology: The Early Years. St Paul,
REFERENCES CITED Minnesota: West Publishing Company.
Murra, John Victor, Robert M. Hankin, and Fred Holling
Barnes, Robert Harrison 1951 The Soviet Linguistic Controversy. Columbia
1984 Two Crows Denies It: A History of Controversy in Slavic Studies. New York: King's Crown Press for
Omaha Sociology. Lincoln: University of the Columbia University Slavic Languages
Nebraska Press. Department.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 102

Murra, John Victor, and Mercedes Lpez-Baralt, editors. Steward, Julian H., editor
1996 Las cartas de Arguedas. Lima: Pontificia Universi- 1946-59 Handbook of South American Indians. United
dad Catlica del Per, Fondo Editorial. States Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin
Murra, John Victor, Nathan Wachtel, and Jacques Revel, 143, 7 volumes. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Gov
editors. ernment Printing Office.
1986 Anthropological History of Andean Polities. Stocking, George W.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1988 Guardians of the Sacred Bundle: The American
Ortiz de Ziga, Iigo Anthropological Association and the
1967-72 Visita de la provincia de Len de Hunuco en 1562, Representation of Holistic Anthropology. In
edited by John V. Murra, Volume 1, Visita de las American Council of Learned Societies
cuatro waranqa de los chupachu. Hunuco, Per: Occasional Paper 5: Learned Societies and the
Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizn, Evolution of the Discipline, edited by Saul B.
Facultad de Letras y Educacin, Series Docu- Cohen and David Bromwich, pp. 17-25.
mentos para la Historia y Etnologa de Hunuco 1992 The Ethnographers Magic and Other Essays in the
y la Selva Central. History of Anthropology. Madison: University of
Radin, Paul Wisconsin Press.
1958 Robert H. Lowie, 1883-1957. American
Anthropologist 60(2):358-375.
1949 The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by
Themselves. Baltimore, Maryland: Waverly Press.
1990 [1923] The Winnebago Tribe. Lincoln: University
of Nebraska Press.
Revel, Jacques, John Victor Murra, and Nathan Wactel
1978 Anthropologie historique des socits andines.
Thematic issue, Economies, Societs, Civilisations,
Annales 33(5-6).


Fundacin Nacional de Arqueologa de El Salvador
San Francisco State University

Costanza Di Capua examines a pot in her collection. Portrait by Jacob Blickenstaff (2006).

Costanza Di Capua died unexpectedly in her country and I had, at least, been there once!
Quito home in the early morning of May 5, The visitor was Costanza. We spent the day
2008, at the age of 95. She was a dear friend of together, looking at the displays, including type
mine for over thirty years. We met when the collections from Cerro Narro, some materials
Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the from the Caribbean littoral, plus the usual
University of California, Berkeley, called me and flotsam that ends up in museum corners, going
asked if I would guide a visitor from Ecuador. out to lunch, and talking all day. After that we
No one there knew anything at all about that met whenever she and her husband Alberto

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009): 103-107.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 104

came to San Francisco to visit their son, and I The latter half of the1930s was a tense time
stayed with them many times in Quito, when I for Italian Jews. Mussolini enacted a series of
was doing archaeological research in Ecuador. anti-Semitic laws that made it difficult for Jews
We talked, argued, and gossiped, and had a to earn a living, get an education, or even,
wonderful time. Speaking with Costanza eventually, to move safely in the streets. Costan-
brought a breath of fresh air. She did not look at za met her cousin, Alberto Di Capua, in 1938,
life like most of my academic friends do; she shortly before Alberto emigrated to Ecuador.
pursued her interests out of her own passion. Alberto then proposed to his cousin by mail and
Talking with Costanza was always stimulating, she sailed alone to Ecuador to marry him in
often a revelation, and sometimes, many times, 1940. They set up housekeeping in a home in
I was far out of my depth. Calle Juan Rodrguez in the Amazonas district of
Quito, then called Calle de las Casas Rojas
As Frank Salomon, another old friend has because the houses had red roofs and fronts that
said (personal communication, September imitated brick. Costanza lived in this house with
2008): Alberto to the end of both their lives. It was
here that their three children, Ana Rosa,
Yes, its true, conversations with Costanza Marco, and Alejandro were born.
were like no other conversations. To the
end (we last met less than a year before Alberto had begun a pharmaceutical busi-
her death) her focus and tenacity were ness, Laboratorios Industriales Farmacuticos
absolutely strict. You had to be one hun- Ecuatorianos (LIFE), which soon grew to pros-
dred percent awake to take part in those perity and importance. Costanza was a home-
conversations! But at the same time she maker, somewhat at loose ends in this new land,
was intellectually generous. The last thing and she threw herself into family life.
she gave me was her paper on the place of
Dante in Italian Jewish tradition, which I Costanza was extremely fond of music and
enjoyed mightily as I read it on a bus the cultural life of Quito in the 1940s and 50s
bumping down to Saraguro. She was a liv- was not all that great. She got her relatives to
ing outcrop of the very best of pre-WW II give her phonograph records of classical music
European humanism, setting an example for her birthdays and anniversaries. Every Sun-
that very few people now know how to day she had her friends over to listen to music.
follow. But we are trying.
Costanza became an Ecuadorian citizen in
Costanza Di Capua was born in Rome, to 1951 and, as her children grew and started
an old Italian Jewish family. She attended school school, she began to enter into cultural and
there, gaining an excellent education with an community affairs. She was instrumental in
emphasis on Latin, Greek, philosophy, and establishing the first Jewish temple in Quito
literature. She was awarded a Ph.D. in Modern during the 1950s and, in the 1960s, was the
Languages in 1935 from the Universit La intellectual leader and whip of a group of citi-
Sapienza. Her doctoral dissertation is titled zens who established the Quito Philharmonic
Joseph Roth, Kafka, Brod, and Judaism. Costanza Orchestra. She remained active in temple and
spoke Italian, Spanish, French, and English cultural affairs until her death.
fluently, although she preferred to write and to
present talks in either Italian or Spanish. In 1959, her children nearly grown, she
began to collect Ecuadorian precolumbian art.
105 - Bruhns: Costanza Di Capua

She was immediately attracted to the topic and about her apparently declining health (a reac-
became interested in iconography, so she began tion to the death of her Alberto and to the years
to study anthropology. This eventually resulted of worry and work that had gone into making
in a number of her most widely read and appre- the end of his life as pleasant as possible),
ciated publications. Her interest led her into a wanted her to move to a high-rise apartment.
long friendship, and an active collaboration, The Amazonas district had become a tourist
with Hernn Crespo Toral in the founding of area and most of the houses on Juan Rodrguez
the Museo del Banco Central del Ecuador as the were now hotels or worse. A rough element had
national museum of archaeology, anthropology, moved in and Costanza said she often let trans-
and history. vestite prostitutes hide from the police in the
garden. Homosexuality was illegal, and very
She also turned to the wonders of her new heavily punished in Ecuador at the time.
city. She was sensitive to the baroque because of Costanza, who was a practical as well as a world-
her exposure to it in her native land. When she ly person, did not approve. Costanza really
went to Quito she became interested in the didnt want to leave the house where she and
Quito baroque. Because she was not a Roman Alberto had spent their lives together and,
Catholic, she had a certain detachment and her fortunately, her grandson Eduardo Kohn Di
works are free of the stultifying religiosity of Capua, was in Ecuador, using his Nonas house
many studies of church art and architecture. as a home base while he did his field research in
Her interest resulted in a small bilingual guide- anthropology in the Amazon region. Eduardo
book published in 1965, Quito Colonial. This worked out a system whereby, when he wasnt
was the first work of its type ever published in there, Costanza had a nurse-companion at night
Ecuador and this book, coupled with Costanzas as well as a secretary-companion most days.
other efforts, was important in the establish- Because there were also servants in the house,
ment, in 1978, of the colonial quarter as one of this was enough to ensure her safety and well-
UNESCOs Heritage of Humanity sites. being. Also, her son and grandchildren in Quito,
as well as Ana Rosas children visited her fre-
Their children grown, Alberto and Costanza quently, as did many other people.
traveled to the United States and Europe with
some frequency on both business and family Costanza was nearly blind and very deaf for
affairs and then, when Alberto retired and his the last decade of her life, but it did not slow her
health started to fail, they took numerous down a bit. Costanza was an indefatigable
cruises. However Costanza (out of Albertos traveler, visiting her children and grandchildren
hearing) referred to these vacations as another in the United States and her old home and
2 weeks on the Love Boat. She found them friends and family in Italy and Europe. At 90,
boring, but gladly went because it was a way her her son Marco being stationed in Delhi, she
beloved Alberto could take a vacation. traveled to India. Marco had visited Benares
and described to his mother the sun rising over
Alberto died in 1997. Costanza, who had the Ganges. Costanza, whose interest in Dante
kept him alive for the last decade of his life by was always phenomenal, remembered that, for
sheer force of will, was devastated. However, Dante, Jerusalem was the center of the earth,
she was pulled from the excesses of mourning by and the sun rose in Benares and set at Gibraltar.
the need to catalogue Albertos (and her) books So she had to go to India to see the sun rising
and paintings and by the desire to preserve her for herself!
own freedom of action. Her children, worried
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 106

Despite many honors from universities and that she had published the year before. Other
institutes, Costanza never had an institutional honors included official recognition by UNES-
affiliation, although she could have had one for CO in 2003 of her role in the preservation of
the asking. She did not think of herself as a colonial Quito. In 2005 the Municipio of Quito
professional, but as a gifted and curious ama- awarded her the medal of the Order of Barn de
teur. Considering that she was far more knowl- Carondelet for her cultural efforts, and the
edgeable than many of my professional col- Government of Ecuador in 2006 bestowed upon
leagues, and had a gift of insight into problems her the Gold Medal for Civic and Cultural
that was extremely penetrating, one wonders if Merit. She was also presented an Italian decora-
an academic affiliation is really all that it is tion, the Order of a Cavalier of the Star of
cracked up to be! Certainly, in Costanzas case Italian Solidarity. On April 17, 2008 the Casa
it made no difference at all in the quality of her de la Msica of Quito rendered homage to
thought and her publications. Not being pushed Costanza with a special concert in honor of her
to publish or perish, she was free to mull over role in founding the Quito Philharmonic.
problems until she had resolved them to her
own satisfaction. Her publications were limited, Costanza Di Capua is survived by her
mainly by her own perfectionism and the fact children, grandchildren, and great grandchil-
that she was busy, as Patricia Netherly once dren. Her daughter, Ana Rosa Di Capua de
said, ruling the universe. However, she always Kohn of Princeton, New Jersey, has two chil-
viewed her family as first and herself as second dren, Eduardo and Emma. Eduardo and his
and their needs or demands had priority, even family live in Montreal. Eduardo has two sons,
though she frequently (at least to me) com- Benjamin and Lucas (the latter born after
plained about never having time of her own to Costanzas death). Costanzas son Marco, the
work on her projects. Then she would laugh and Embassy Energy Advisor for the United States
say, well, my family needs me and my friends do Ambassador in Beijing, and his wife Anne, have
too and that was that. Costanza was a matri- two daughters, Kathleen and Emily, who work
arch and not just of her own family. She looked and study in the United States. Alejandro,
after all sorts of visiting or passing scholars Costanzas other son, and his wife Cecilia Saco-
archaeologists, historians, artists, writers, who- to live in Quito. Their three children, Daniela,
ever. She had an active social life and was much Ana Gabriela, and Carlos Alberto, all study in
involved in the archaeological, literary, and Spain. Doa Costanza is also survived by a host
musical communities of Quito. of friends, all of whom mourn her and celebrate
their good fortune at having known her.
Costanza gave a great many talks, including,
in her last year of life, several at the Museo del One of these friends, Frank Salomon, recalls
Banco Central, on iconographic themes dear to (personal communication, September 31, 2008):
her heart. She also spoke to Italian groups in
Quito and to other cultural institutions on a . . . one of the last things she wrote (in
wide range of topics. Costanza was elected a 2006, I think) was an essay on the memory
member of the Institute of Andean Studies in of Dante Alighieri among Italian Jews. It
Berkeley in 1979, where she presented a paper was really about many things besides
Further Evidence of a Trophy Head Cult in Dante, being in truth a meditation on the
Pre-Columbian Ecuador at the annual meeting humane symbiosis that Christianity and
that year. This was an elaboration of her paper Judaism enjoyed in some parts of Italian
on trophy heads and head shrinking in Tolita history, and beyond that, implicitly, about
107 - Bruhns: Costanza Di Capua

how Doa Costanza situated herself as nellAmerica indigena, edited by Davide Dominici,
a tolerant humanist who at the same Carolina Orsini, and Sofia Venturoli. Bologna:
time sympathized with sacred culture.
A beautiful piece. Article about Costanza Di Capua

In addition Doa Costanza published a great Aguirre, Milagros

many articles on cultural matters, reviews, 1993 Costanza Di Capua: Del Tiber a Valdivia. Revista
Diners 131:6-11.
letters to the editor, and short articles in Quito
magazines and newspapers. Of these, the only
one I know anything about is a long review of
The Mapmakers Wife which she was writing and
sending to a Quito newspaper in 2005 in the
hope of inspiring someone to translate this book,
which is so pertinent to Ecuador, into Spanish.


I am indebted to Marco Di Capua, Eduardo Kohn Di

Capua, Frank Salomon, Ronald Lippi, and Patricia
Netherly for help with this appreciation of the life of Doa
Costanza. We hope she is busy, as usual, ruling the
Costanza di Capua as a young woman in the
kitchen of her house in Calle Juan Rodrguez.
SELECTED PUBLICATIONS OF COSTANZA DI CAPUA Costanza was a wonderful cook. Ronald Lippi
swears that her rabbit and polenta was the best he
1965 Quito colonial: Gua y recuerdo. Guayaquil: A. G. has ever had. Many of us, including, I suspect,
Seinfelder (second edition 1968, third edition
Alberto, would vote for her pasta dishes.
1978 Las cabezas trofeos: Un rasgo cultural de La
Tolita y Jama-Coaque y breve anlisis del mismo
rasgo en las dems culturas del Ecuador pre-
colombino. Antropologa Ecuatoriana 1:72-164.
1984 Consideraciones sobre una exposicin de sellos
arqueolgicos. Antropologa Ecuatoriana 2-3:79-
1985 Chaman y jaguar: Iconografa de la cermica
prehistrica de la Costa Ecuatoriana. Miscelanea
Antropolgica Ecuatoriana 6:157-169.
1994 Valdivia Figurines and Puberty Rituals: An
Hypothesis. Andean Past 4:229-270.
1997a La luna y el Islam, La serpiente e el Inka: Una
semntica de la Imaculada en Espaa y su men-
saje ulterior en la Virgen de Quito. Memoria
7:95-119 (Instituto de Historia y Antropologa
Andinas, Quito).
1997b Una atribucin cultural controvertida. Fronteras
de la Investigacin 1:5-14.
2002 De la imagen al Icono: Estudios de arqueologia e
historia del Ecuador. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala.
2003 Una interpretacin tentativa para los figurines
Palmar Inciso. In Il sacro e il paesaggio


Instituto Nacional de Cultura, Per

In 1933 Julio C. Tello began a program of (Anon. 1933b in Daggett 1987:139).1 This
field-work in the Nepea Valley. There he article analyses the circumstances of the discov-
carried out various projects, among them exca- ery of this burial context and the objects associ-
vations at a site called Punguri by local people ated with it. The goal is to reconstruct the event
then and Punkur by archaeologists and the which included the deposit of this precolumbian
general public today. At the time, Tello was trumpet or huayllaquepa which is, at present, the
interested in everything related to his concept of only object known to remain from the context
Chavn. At present, Tellos field records are excavated by Tello at this site.2
divided between the Museo Nacional de
Arqueologa, Antropologa e Historia del Per PUNKUR
(MNAAHP) and the Museo de Arqueologa y
Antropologa of the Universidad Nacional Punkur, as described by Tello, is on the
Mayor de San Marcos (MAA-UNMSM). Previ- right bank of the lower Nepea River Valley, at
ously unpublished documents relating to Tellos km 409 on the Pan-American Highway North,
excavations at Cerro Blanco and at Punkur where it makes a turn to the east, near the town
were recently printed by MAA-UNMSM (Tello of San Jacinto. Its distance from the coast is 27
2005). km and its altitude is 230 masl (Daggett 1987:

In the course of investigating the role of

large exotic molluscs including Spondylus prin- 1
El primer hallazgo de las gentes de la cultura Chavn,
ceps, Strombus galeatus, Conus fergusoni, and identificado en el terreno.
Fasciolaria princeps, among others, in the ritual
and paraphernalia of central Andean pre- The whereabouts of all the other objects associated with
columbian societies, my colleagues and I found this burial offering are unknown, although the discovery
was published in various periodicals of the day and
a natural trumpet made from the shell of a extensive field data are now available. These objects,
Strombus galeatus, a marine gastropod (Falcn et among which are a stone mortar and pestle, both
al. 2005). Later, I established that it pertained to beautifully decorated, belong to Perus national cultural
the burial context of a sacrificed woman found patrimony and their value is emblematic because they
by Tello at Punkur, which he declared enthusi- correspond to a context excavated by one of the founders
of Peruvian archaeology; they belong to a time in which
astically to be the first trace of the people of the earliest iconographic repertories associated with
the Chavn culture identified in the area monumental architecture were being created; and they
come from a known archaeological context which makes
them one of only two known cases. The other Formative
decorated stone mortar from an excavated context was
recently recovered from the Santa Valley site of San
Juanito (Chapdelaine and Pimentel 2008:248-253).

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009): 109-129.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 110

114; Vega-Centeno 1999:5). Today the setting under the direction of Lorenzo Samaniego
of Punkur is the same as Julio C. Tello when Romn changed the fortunes of this monument
saw it more than seventy years ago (Figure 1). by preparing it for visitors.3

Like many of the huacas in the valleys of the RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PUNKUR BURIAL
Peruvian coast, Punkur appeared to be an OFFERING
earthen mound set in the middle of sugar cane
fields, in this case belonging then to the Socie- In this article I consider the burial offering in
dad Agrcola Nepea Ltda (Nepea Agricul- its funerary context, which is characterized by
tural Company Ltd.), administered by a North- its status as a primary context, its articulation
American, John B. Harrison, who had exca- with the monuments architecture, and its
vated there in 1929 (Daggett 1987:112). Harri- composition and associated objects, the majority
son had also excavated at Cerro Blanco during of them elaborate and exotic in relation to the
the previous year, when, during the course of location of the find.
the construction of irrigation canals and wagon
roads, its well-known Chavinoid walls were Until recently, the absence of better refer-
uncovered. It was the photographs of these ences to the work of Tello at Punkur forced
murals that made Tello take an interest in the researchers to resort to reports in newspapers of
Nepea Valley sites (Bischof 1997:203; Daggett the day, to discussion of the little iconography
1987:111-112). that had been published, and to site visits (Bis-
chof 1994, 1995; Daggett 1987; Proulx 1973,
Through the recent publication of Tellos Vega-Centeno 1998, 1999). As for the discovery
field notes, it is now known that Punkur was and description of the contents of the burial
the object of at least two clandestine excava- offering, there were only brief references (Anon.
tions. The first of these was conducted by an- 1933b in Daggett 1987:139; Tello 1943:136-
other hacienda administrator called Subiri in 137), a few profile drawings of excavations in
the western part of the site many years previ- the temple, and a photo which shows the funer-
ously (hace muchos aos). The second exca- ary context at the foot of the clay feline (Larco
vation was by Harrison (Tello 2005:76; Figure 2001:15-29, figure 24). In this article I recon-
2). struct events related to the excavation of the
burial offering, principally as narrated by re-
Tellos work at the site attracted the atten- cently published documents from the Tello
tion of the press. Nevertheless, once the site had Archive.4
become old news and the emotion of the mo-
ment had passed, Punkur did not become the There is detailed information about the way
object of greater attention, and the continuity of that Tello came to work in the Nepea Valley
research there was lost because of the political (Bischof 1997; Daggett 1987:112). According to
hostilities of the government at the time to-
wards Tello (Daggett 2007:81, 83-84, 87-91).
No conservation measures were taken, and the 3
face of the polychrome clay sculpture of a feline, consulted July 20, 2008).
unique in all the Andes, was destroyed (Bischof
1994:173; Samaniego 2006:18, 22-23; Vega- I worked directly from papers in the Tello Archive in
Centeno 1999:7, 12). Fortunately, in 1998, a UNMSM. However, because those documents are now
published, I refer to the pagination of the published book,
research and restoration project at Punkur not to the original foliation of the documents themselves.
111 - Falcn Huayta: Reconstruction at Punkur

the field notes, when Tello decided to excavate another surface painted brick-red (ibid.).5 On
in front of the clay feline, an earlier excavation the following day, Tello cleared the area better,
had already been made in the area by Harrisons and confirmed that earth had previously been
workers who had begun to excavate the waka removed. Nevertheless, he decided to go at least
from its upper part in the north, opening a deep 2 m deeper in order to understand the structure
trench. They had encountered what Tello later of the huaca (ibid.).6 At that point Platform 2
called the Painted Staircase (escalera pinta- was already quite clear. During this operation
da) and the clay feline found in the middle of Tello discovered a lower plastered and painted
it (Tello 2005:76, photo P9/F2/ 56 on p. 78). wall, distinct from the staircase structure, and
The discovery of the feline made Harrison and he decided to follow it. He was sure he had an
his workers so enthusiastic they were about to interesting discovery and enlarged the area of
destroy the head of the idol under the suspicion excavation to 3.5m in length by 2.5 m in width,
that it contained the treasure they sought. ordering his workers to dig until reaching the
Fortunately, Harrison did not take the sugges- painted wall (hasta alcanzar el muro pintado;
tion and decided to contact Tello (ibid.). Con- ibid.).
tinuing his search, Harrison discovered a small
quadrangular feature at the top of the monu- The following day, when the area was
ment and decided to excavate almost its entire cleared to a depth of a meter, Tello ordered the
floor which was at a depth of 4 meters from the work to stop there. He went into the trench to
top of the excavation. At this point he was examine the excavation to decide if they would
halted by the resistance of the fill and the lack continue to deepen it only near the painted
of results (ibid.: 80-81). Under these circum- wall, which had been discovered about 30cm
stances, Harrison ordered excavation in front of below, and a little in front of, the last step of the
the clay idol to a depth of one meter, at which Painted Staircase (ibid.).7 With his shovel he
point excavation ended because of the compac- removed a lump and was surprised to notice the
tion of the fill (ibid.: 90). rim of what appeared to be a cup (taza) which
he examined in private and which gave him the
Four years later, on Tuesday, 19 September sensation of stone or of iron (sensacin de
1933, Tellos workers had already cleared the piedra o de fierro; ibid.: 91). Tello had been
rubble left by Harrison on the part of the site presented with a a stone mortar which he did
containing the Painted Staircase, the clay feline, not disinter immediately because, as he said,
and in front of it. Tello decided to excavate
there because he thought that Harrisons test Not being yet sure of the type of object I
trench was shallow, and that by deepening it had found, I covered it with earth and I re-
one might encounter human remains (algunos
cadveres) given the presence of the idol near-
by. An important point is that Tello said that 5
Torta formada aparentemente por cal y arena o tal vez
Harrison broke the plaster of the floor (rompi por una arcilla especial blanquizca y arena que forma una
el enlucido del piso), which consisted of a layer capa como de cuatro centmetros de grueso colocada sobre
apparently formed by lime and sand, or perhaps otra superficie pintada de ladrillo.
by a special whitened clay and sand, which
formed a cap some 4 cm thick, located over por lo menos unos 2m de profundidad con el fin de
conocer la estructura de la huaca.

Haba descubierto como a 30 centmetros por debajo
y un poco atrs del ltimo peldao de la escalera pintada.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 112

mained at the site and ordered the laborers Copper objects and human bones, which ap-
to continue working at my side . . .8 peared to be disturbed, were located in the
back-dirt (en el desmonte).
They were continuing to go down on the sides
while Tello remained above the mortar, when On Thursday, 21 September, Tello ex-
one of them alerted him to the presence of an panded and cleaned his excavation with the
object in the form of a drill (en forma de goal of photographing the objects in situ, finding
barreno). Tello covered the new find and the fragments of purplish clay murals. He once again
work day continued. The fact that the workers checked the prepared surface of the platform
were speaking in Quechua aroused his suspi- and the fill consisting of layers of semi-spherical
cions. Tello indicated that he once again cov- adobes slightly flattened, and hardened clay
ered with earth the finds of the day and selected with a few stones (ibid.: 93).11 We note the
a new watchman to stay and sleep at the site, absence up to now of references to the presence
guarding the objects until the following day. In of ceramics in the fill. This situation continued
the afternoon the administrator of the hacienda throughout the course of the excavation and is
and his wife arrived at Punkur. Tello told them very important because it contradicts the infor-
what had happened and invited them to witness mation which subsequently appeared in newspa-
on the next day the removal of the stone objects pers of the time.
including a large stone vessel with engravings
in the Chavn style and a tool similar to a mace, I continue to follow events from Tellos
also completely made of stone (ibid.).9 perspective:

In an account of the events of this day Tello at about 1.2m from the line which the up-
said he took down a wall which ran longitudi- per part of the sounding forms with the
nally along the platform and which retained its base of the first step of the Painted Stair-
fill. Likewise he indicated that case, as one sees in the attached schematic
drawing, a precious gray stone mortar with
during the excavation of the two stone decoration in relief on its external surface
objects towards the rear center of the was found, as well as a large pestle also
sounding a mound of ash and small carbon made of stone (ibid.).12
fragments was found, as well as guinea pig
skeletons at two sides, and a type of white Harrison took photos and filmed the discovery.
plumage at various points (ibid.: 92).10 At this point Tello intuited that he was being

No seguro an de la clase de objeto que haba fragmentos de carbn y a uno y otro lado esqueletos de
encontrado lo cubr con tierra me par sobre el sitio y cuyes y una especie de plumilla blanca en varios sitios.
orden a los obreros que continuaran trabajando a mi
alrededor . . . 11
Capas de adobes semiesfricos aplanados o achatados
y barro endurecido con algunas piedras.
Vaso grande de piedra con grabados al estilo Chavn y
otra que es una herramienta semejante a una porra 12
Como a 1.20m de la lnea que en la parte superior del
tambin toda de piedra. pozo forma la base del primer peldao de la escalera
pintada como se ve en el esquema adjunto se encontraron.
Durante la excavacin que condujo al hallazgo de las . . un precioso mortero de piedra gris con ornamentaciones
dos piezas de piedra se encontr hacia la parte media y en relieve en su cara externa y un largo moledor
posterior del pozo un montn de ceniza y pequeos igualmente de piedra.
113 - Falcn Huayta: Reconstruction at Punkur

presented with his first authentic Chavn tomb bus galeatus and the Spondylus princeps valves to
(autnticamente Chavn). Successive events which we will return later.
confirmed his hunch of being near the body of
the burial. Continuing, he noted the presence of The objects found were moved to the nearby
very fine purplish dust and a few pieces of town of San Jos. On Friday 22 September,
charcoal. Tellos team proceeded with the excavation of
the fill containing the funerary context until
Soon I [Tello] discovered the skull and they arrived at the floor on which the body had
from its position I deduced that the body been placed. Likewise, the clearing of the north
was placed with the face up and a little or main faade and the east side of the temple
forward (ibid.: 94).13 continued. During this work they found a few
isolated cadavers, some Moche sherds, and
The fragile bones of the cadaver defined the constructions of rectangular adobes within the
position of the body with the head towards the rubble near the surface. This aspect is interest-
east and the feet to the west. The purplish fine ing, because such references are characteristic of
dust was found mainly around the waist and mentions which appear in the field notes of the
pelvis of the individual. Tello attributed its presence of human remains, among which were
presence to the remains of the soft tissues isolated skulls. The presence of another type of
(partes blandas) and the clothes of the ca- ceramic is only referred to in a news article
daver. At this time Tello, as he later did in the dated 28 September, which was neither written
company of Rafael Larco Hoyle, recovered nor dictated by Tello, in which fragments of
black ceramics (fragmentos de cermica
many turquoise beads and a bluish stone. . negra) were mentioned (Anon 1933a in Dag-
. The beads were of different sizes, and of gett 1987:137). When Tello referred to the
various shapes; the work is relatively crude presence of ceramics at Punkur in a newspaper
in the majority of the beads, nevertheless, report, he did so in the following manner: I also
a few are very well made, especially a large found ceramic fragments which belong to the
sphere (ibid.).14 finest types and pieces encountered (ibid.
136).15 As we have seen, this could refer to the
One must observe that, up to this point, Tello presence of Moche ceramics which were found
does not mention in his field notes the presence in the rubble which covered Punkur.
of several objects associated with the burial
offering, such as the huayllaquepa made of Strom- Saturday, 23 September was dedicated to
clearing the two columns that began to appear
towards the east side of the temple, and to
almost completely clearing the main (north)
Un polvillo muy fino de color violceo y de algunos facade (Figure 3). According to the available
trozos de carbn de palo . . . Pronto descubr [dice Tello] records, the body was not touched, and clear-
el crneo y por su posicin deduje que el cadver estuvo
echado pues la cara estaba hacia arriba con una ligera ance was limited to a niche at the foot of the
inclinacin adelante (ibid.: 94).

Numerosas cuentas de turquesas y de una piedra
azulada. . . Las cuentas eran de diferentes tamaos, y de
varias formas, el trabajo es relativamente tosco en la Hall tambin fragmentos de cermica que acusan
mayora de las cuentas; sin embargo, unas estn muy bien pertenecer a modelos y piezas de los ms finos que se han
talladas principalmente una grande esfrica (ibid.). encontrado.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 114

idol. At the end of the day Toribio Meja Xesspe eral pieces, perhaps by the weight of the fill, or
and his wife arrived from Lima. perhaps during handling, so that only Tello
perceived the incisions which mark its Chavn
On Sunday, 24 September, Punkur received affiliation. The left hand on the last curve of the
the visit of various personalities who took part huayllaquepa shell was not noticed, so this motif
in the extraction of the individual within the remained unknown (Figure 4).17
burial offering. Among them were Rafael and
Javier Larco Hoyle, Alfredo Hoyle, a Mr. Toribio Meja assumed the recording for the
Miano, a photographer, and the draftsman Mr. excavations on the following day, Monday, 25
Daz. Views of the context were recorded with September, as indicated by the notes in the
still photographs and on cin film. Rafael Larco Tello Archive of the MAA-UNMSM. On this
Hoyle and Tello concentrated their work on the day the removal of the last elements of the
body of the burial offering and Tello declared, context was finished, adding additional data
about the event. Meja noted that 70 shells of
It appears that the cadaver corresponded Scutalus proteus appeared at the sides and
to an individual of poor constitution who shoulder of the body along with
was probably put to rest with the muscles
and legs flexed. Around the body, espe- a good quantity of beads made of turquoise
cially around the waist, I encountered a and of shells, two examples of Spondylus
multitude of turquoise beads, and a few pictorum with two pairs of perforations
purple cylindrical beads, some triangular made in order to wear them as pendants.
plates with closed [sic] edges, or sharp ob- The presence of very fine, pulverized,
jects which look like shark teeth. In addi- somewhat purplish earth is noted around
tion a good set of shell beads was found, and below the body, as if it consists of the
and a magnificent example of Strombus remains of clothing, or other objects that
with the external surface also worked in perhaps accompanied the cadaver (Meja
Chavn style (ibid.).16 in Tello 2005:97).18

This is the first mention of the huayllaquepa

of Strombus galeatus, in spite of the fact that it 17
Milano Trejo Huayta found the remains of the
certainly would have been visible since the day huayllaquepa from Punkur in two separate bags in the
when the stone objects were removed, because MNAAHP storehouse of organic material in 1999. Later,
it was located between them and the body of the noticing the similarity of the fragments and their joins, he
proceeded to glue the parts together, reconstructing the
individual. The Strombus was broken into sev-
conch trumpet and revealing, in this way, the incised
design of a left hand. The recent final restoration was
entrusted to Rosa Martnez Navarro, conservator of the
16 MNAAHP (Falcn et al. 2005).
Parece que el cadver correspondiera a un individuo
de constitucin pobre y al ser acostado se le coloc
probablemente con los muslos y piernas flexionadas. A los lados y hombro del cadver: buena cantidad de
Alrededor del cadver y principalmente alrededor de la cuentas de turquesa de conchas, dos ejemplares de
cintura encontr multitud de cuentas de turquesas y Spondylus pictorum con dos pares de perforaciones como
algunas cuentas cilndricas de color morado, de lminas para llevar colgados. Se constat la presencia de tierra
triangulares con bordes cerrados [sic] o espinosos que muy fina pulverizada de aspecto algo violceo alrededor y
parecen dientes de tiburn. Adems se encontr un buen debajo del cadver como si se tratara de restos de las
lote de cuentas de conchas y un magnfico ejemplar de partes tal vez correspondientes a los vestidos, algunos
Strombus que presenta la superficie externa labrada otros objetos que quizs acompaaron al cadver. This
tambin del estilo Chavn. was written by Toribio Meja Xesspe in the site notebook.
115 - Falcn Huayta: Reconstruction at Punkur

Having cleaned the area, they noted that the pet, whose surface appears ornamented
individual had been placed on a platform and with hidden [sic] figures, also in Chavn
that the back of the body had made a small style; sixty examples of land snails (Scuta-
depression in it. lus proteus); a pair of mollusc shells (Spon-
dylus pictorum); and skeletal remains of
Later, the work was organized to clear the guinea pigs and birds, very fragmentary
walls with polychrome reliefs which were en- and partially pulverized (Anon. 1933b in
countered on both sides of the burial offering. Daggett 1987: 139).19
At this point lenses of ash and molluscs were
detected. I stress that Meja also did not men- Now we know that there was a sequence in
tion ceramics in the fill, except when he referred the appearance and location of the objects
to Muchik ceramics (cermica Muchik) in associated with the burial offering and we can
the upper fill. On the other hand, the iconogra- draw some important conclusions:
phy of the reliefs has been written up and dis-
cussed and several photos of them have been (1) It is improbable that the burial offering
published (Bischof 1994:173 figure 3d; Daggett had an entrance to the surface of the platform
1987:116-117; Samaniego 1992). To this we can which extended to the feet of the feline. Even if
add the publication of the Tello Archive (2005). it is certain that Tello did not see the original
surface, he ascertained that Harrison broke it in
DISCUSSION his search and Tello encountered remains of this
surface as soon as he enlarged his own excava-
What was the fullest description we have of tion. Likewise, it is difficult to think that if
this burial offering before the publication of the Harrison had found any indication of the pres-
field notes? In a newspaper interview that ap- ence of a tomb he would not have continued.
peared on 2 October 1933, Tello mentioned its Nevertheless, he abandoned the excavation at
components in this context: only a meters depth from the start. In conse-
quence, it is most probable that the tomb was
Having made a test pit in front of the sealed and hidden with the fill of the second
small platform on which the talons of the platform.
idol rested, and only at a depth of 2m, a
body was encountered. . . It was placed in
an east-west direction. Next to it were Al realizarse un cateo delante de la pequea
found two stone objects, a large vessel and plataforma donde descansaban las garras del dolo, y slo
a type of pestle, both ornamented with a dos metros de profundidad, se encontr un cadver. . .
estuvo echado en direccin E.O; junto a l se encontraron
figures in relief, in Chavn style. . . Around dos objetos de piedra; un gran vaso y una especie de porra,
the body, and mainly at the level of the ambos ornamentados con figuras de relieve, del estilo
pelvis, about a kilo of turquoise beads was Chavn. . . Alrededor del cadver, y principalmente al
found, of different forms and sizes, from nivel de la pelvis, se concentr como un kilo de cuentas de
the small, discoidal bead, almost flat, to turquesas de diferentes formas y tamaos, desde la cuenta
pequea discoidal casi laminar, hasta la cuenta grande,
the large bead, spherical or cylindrical, and esfrica o cilndrica y de peso de ocho a diez gramos. Se
weighing eight to ten grams. Also found hall, adems, una trompeta de caracol (Strombus
was a conch shell (Strombus galeatus) trum- galeatus), cuya superficie aparece ornamentada con figuras
escondidas [sic], tambin al estilo Chavn; sesenta
ejemplares de caracol terrestre (Scutalus proteus); un par
de conchas (Spondylus pictorum) y restos de esqueletos de
Meja did the recording on 25 September 1933. kuyes y aves, muy fragmentados y en parte pulverizados.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 116

(2) Until now, the presence of Early Forma- valves, but the exact location cannot be deter-
tive ceramics at Punkur has been suggested on mined. Later, some type of burning was possibly
the basis of news items published in the periodi- done.
cals of the time (Anon. 1933a in Daggett 1987,
Daggett 1987:116; Proulx 1973:15). Neverthe- (b) During this initial part of the burial
less, in the light of the field notes and current offering sequence a huayllaquepa of Strombus
observations we can conclude that in the fills galeatus was placed with its mouth or stoma
which constituted the matrix of the funerary facing downwards. The incised left hand re-
context there were no sherds from this period. mained visible on the dorsal face of the marine
gastropod. The piece was unbroken at the
(3) On the basis of my review of the field moment of its deposit, and was fractured by the
notes and photographs I propose the following weight of the fill. Nevertheless, the ventral part,
sequence for the inhumation of the Punkur adjacent to the stoma (columela) contained a
burial offering: round hole in the middle which could hardly be
a fracture made by the fill or during the time of
(a) On the floor of the first platform and removing the specimen from the burial. This
at the middle of the entrance whose lateral suggests that the huayllaquepa may have been
walls exhibit the painted friezes with a zoo- ritually sacrificed by breaking this part in an
morphic personage in a horizontal position, intentional manner, before placement. Likewise,
identified as a bird (Daggett 1987:117, figure in the broad incisions which make the design of
4b), or as ferocious mythical animals Bischof the left hand one finds the remains of red pig-
1994:173), the body of a woman20 was identi- ment which Larco also observed on the bones of
fied, in a flexed position, and with the head the individual (Falcn et al. 2005; Vega-Cente-
towards the east. The face looked up and had a no 1999:6).
slight forward inclination. Apparently the body
was attired in a purplish garment.21 At the sides (c) These objects were lightly buried and
and around the shoulders were placed lomas22 later the stone mortar was deposited with its
snail shells of the species Scutalus proteus and principal design facing up. Around its base was
many beads of turquoise and other stones, placed the large pestle or mano, also deco-
mainly around the waist. Around this section rated with incised strokes.23
were found two pierced Spondylus princeps
(d) Finally, in order to raise the level of
the fill, a retention wall was constructed and a
The sex of the individual is mentioned in the note of an fire was made. Beside it were deposited guinea
anonymous journalist, who surely was told of it by Tello, pigs. Likewise some feathers were spread in the
dated 28 September, 1933 (Anon. 1937a in Daggett 1987; fill.24
Tello 1943:137).

Tello and Meja suggest this repeatedly. One must
consider the possibility that the purplish substance relates In an account of these events, Meja gives the depth of
to a pigment or colored earth, because mural fragments of this level as 1.6m from the surface of the platform (Tello
this color were found in the fill. 2005:114).

22 24
In Peruvian geography and archaeology, lomas is a term I have not considered the copper finds that Tello
referring to the slopes of the western Andean foothills and mentioned because they were apparently in disturbed
the seasonal patches of vegetation upon that that derive contexts. Likewise, I note that a pencil drawing indicates
their moisture from fog. the presence of a support stone (piedra de apoyo) below
117 - Falcn Huayta: Reconstruction at Punkur

(e) When the fill covered the lower wide at the base and have two perforations,
30cm of the walls with the clay friezes, the presumably in order to be strung.
surface upon which the new platform was con-
structed was prepared (Figure 5). (2) Flat turquoises that were square, circu-
lar, and rectangular.
Finally, one has to take into account an
inventory that Meja prepared of the species (3) Cubical beads of Spondylus pictorum or
found next to the Chavn cadaver (especies of Strombus galeatus.
encontradas junto con el cadver Chavn) of
Punkur. Among these notes are mentions of (4) Large, flat beads of Spondylus pictorum
the following: whose length varies between 2 and 4.8cm,
among them two triangular ones, and one in the
(1) Perforated shells of Scutalus proteus form of a human foot with incised toes (pie
snails, among which were found five triangular humano con dedos incididos), etc. (Meja in
beads of serrated teeth, identical to five others Tello 2005:115).
which figure in P12,25 which are assigned a
provenience of the fill of the habitations of ELEMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BURIAL
Building I.26 These last are 3cm long by 2cm OFFERING

One of the problems affecting Peruvian state

the mortar (Tello 2005:92, drawing on folio 518v (104) of museums is the need to order and catalogue
the archive), assigning it the letter d and showing it in collections. It is usual to emphasize research,
a schematic drawing of the base of the excavation (fondo
de la excavacin) of the burial offering. On the other
which must take place as one of the indispens-
hand, a statement by Tello to the press about the contents able pillars of their activity, even if it does not
of the funeral context indicates the presence of bird bones receive the same emphasis and have the same
(Tello 1933) which are consigned to a list of objects resources as are allocated to it in modern muse-
found in the fill of the houses of Building I by Meja ums. Cataloguing and research are indissolubly
(Tello 2005:115) next to a polished turquoise bead, from
which it is reasonable to think that it belonged to the
linked, because it is not possible to deepen the
burial offering context in that, apparently, deposits of such knowledge of a collection, series, or object that
objects were made as the platform was in-filled. Some of is part of a museums holdings if previously there
these extraneous objects would be the unusual conical was not the minimum control of a computerized
adobes with incised faces or surfaces to which Santiago inventory and acquisition data.
Antnez de Mayolo called attention and tried to explain
(Antnez de Mayolo 1933 in Daggett 1987:161).
I now comment on the most important
Likewise, in a statement to the press, Tello argued that he elements of the burial offering and ask some
had encountered in the lower fill of Punkur some beads questions concerning their whereabouts.27
of rock crystal, worked and polished in a special manner
. . (Tello 1933 in Daggett 1987:147; en los rellenos ms
inferiores de Punkur algunas cuentas de cristal de roca, at Punkur.
talladas y pulidas de una manera especial . . .), all of
which leads one to consider that the process of adding fill 27
According to published letters, we now know that the
to raise the platforms of these structures was a ritual act.
political events in Peru at the beginning of the 1930s
influenced the changes in the direction of the institutions
Cinco cuentas triangulares de dientes aserrados, related to the Nepea campaign which, in turn, caused a
idnticos a otros cinco que figuran en P12. resurgence in the intellectual rivalries that obstructed
Tellos work and contributed to a turbulent atmosphere
Building I or Edificio I/I edificio was used by Tello in (Tello 2005:165-179). In relation to this Toribio Meja
his field notes to designate the earliest construction phase Xesspe declared, Because of the absolute abandonment
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 118

The human remains. The fragile skeletal context, restored its original appearance and
remains of the burial offering of Punkur (skull, incised design, recovered its sonic register, and
long bones, and other pieces (otros pedazos) exhibited it (Falcn et al. 2005; Figures 6, 7).
were recovered and sent to Lima during the
Cerro Blanco campaign. The Storehouse of Stone objects
Human Remains at MNAAHP contains only
four skulls from this site, which, on the basis of The identity and quality of stone objects was
their characteristics and annotations written on already made clear with the publication and
them in pencil, correspond to those discovered study of Tellos field notes. Nevertheless, before
in the fill over the site. The bone remains of the this there was a little confusion that arose at the
Punkur burial offering have not been located. time of the excavation of Punkur. In an issue of
La Crnica, one of the newspapers that pub-
The huayllaquepa of Strombus galeatus lished news of the events, dated 5 October
1933, there is a photograph in which appear
As mentioned above, this object was re-
moved from the burial offering in pieces. Never- two of the vessels brought from Nepea by
theless, thanks to the only photo of the context Dr. Tello. Some of the symbols which will
published by Rafael Larco Hoyle, who was an be studied by the archaeologist can be seen
exceptional witness, we can identify it as the faintly.28
specimen in the Storehouse of Organic Material
of MNAAHP, because the photo shows a bro- One of these vessels (vasos), that which shows
ken, whitish, ovoid object among the remains of a thick band below its lip and three triangles
a burial located at two meters below the clay pointing towards the base, like large tusks, is the
feline (Larco 2001 [1938]: figure 24). Later one that appears in association with the burial
research provides more evidence for relating the offering (negatives 94 and 106 of the Tello
photo to the huayllaquepa. A photo in the Tello archive at MNAAHP). This is corroborated by
Archivo of MNAAHP (negative 101), and some Meja in his list of objects encountered in associ-
in the archive of the MAA-UNMSM, now ation with the burial offering. The other piece
published, confirm this definitively because in corresponds to the stone Chavn vessel (vaso
the photos one observes the huayllaquepa, its Chavn de piedra) purchased by Tello from
breaks, and the little and ring fingers of the someone called Silva, whom he met in the
engraved left hand. Hotel Central owned by Vctor L. Prez of
Chimbote (folio 122 del Archivo Tello de
This object was restored in the MNAAHP. MAA-UNMSM). Its iconographic characteris-
The team there identified its archaeological tics correspond with those of the mortar after-
wards known to have come from Suchimn in
the Santa Valley. Later, when Tello returned to
by the government and the institutions charged with the the theme of the funerary context and its de-
conservation and study of archaeological ruins at the time, scription, he noted, in respect to the stone
the excavated parts of the Templo de Punkur were
reburied on the express order of Professor Tello. . .
objects, a mortar and pestle, both of diorite,
(Samaniego 2006:99; Por abandono absoluto de parte del polished and engraved with figures in the classic
Gobierno y de las instituciones encargadas de la
conservacin y estudio de las ruinas arqueolgicas, en la
fecha, se realiza la tarea de enterramiento de las partes Dos de los vasos trados de Nepea por el doctor Tello.
descubiertas del Templo de Punkur por orden expresa del Pueden verse dbilmente algunas de las simbolografas que
Profesor Tello. . .). sern estudiadas por el arquelogo.
119 - Falcn Huayta: Reconstruction at Punkur

Chavn style (Tello 1943:137, figure 17a) and reality, three attached bands that turn in a spiral
illustrated both mortars with their respective around the piece (Figure 8).29
identifications (ibid.: 17b). In 1948 Rebeca
Carrin Cachot published drawings of both With respect to the Punkur mortar I can
mortars as coming from Nepea (Carrin indicate its decorative restraint on the basis of
Cachot 1948: 125, plate 11, figures 7, 8). Curi- three iconographic motifs: (a) a stepped fret
ously, the designs are placed in the same posi- with mirror repeats and with the base of the
tion in which they appear in the La Crnica design at the rim of the vessel. The stepped fret
photos. A little more than a decade ago a photo is emphasized by means of a line which defines
of the Suchimn mortar was published a band; (b) the three large and sharp triangles
(Kaulicke 1994:392, figure 368). It is very which separate the step fret elements and end at
similar to one of Carrin Cachots drawings the base of the vessel; and (c) a rectangular
(ibid.: plate 11, figure 8), but is different from motif running horizontally within a thick band
the one illustrated by Tello as having come from below the rim, such that it repeats around the
this site (Tello 1943: figure 17b), possibly be- whole circumference. The long sides of this
cause the other side of the piece is shown. For motif have small breaks in two places. Within
his part, Henning Bischof published drawings of this motif are two inscribed lines, also with small
three mortars (1994: figure 12): (a) that from breaks.
Punkur; (b) that of Suchimn as presented by
Tello (1943); and (c) one without provenience The step fret motif is very similar to the
drawn by Bischof from a photo in the archive of upper heads of the staffs of authority (bas-
MNAAHP. The last is the same as that illus- tones de mando) or scepters carried by the
trated by Kaulicke (1994) as coming from Such- warrior-priests of Cerro Sechn (Bischof 1995:
imn. Kaulicke suggests that (b) and (c) are one 165, figure 4e). It is differentiated only by the
and the same, the Suchimn mortar (Bischof triangular space which is made by a diagonal
1994: figure 12a-c, 1995:170, figure 7), which is stroke that creates a division from the upper left
correct. Finally, later work, in which the two vertex of the figure towards the base of the step
views of the Suchimn mortar which had previ- fret. In this space three rectangles are inscribed.
ously been presented separately are combined, The three sharp triangles are comparable with
suggests its iconographic development (Vega- those that emerge from a similar motif called the
Centeno 1998: 195, 196, figure 5c). Neverthe- Eccentric Subrectangular Eye (Ojo Sub-
less, it lacks several important motifs that were rectangular Excntrico; ibid.: figure 4b) in the
already part of the iconographic repertoire
(Tello 2005:107, [P9/F7249]).
During the course of research my colleagues and I went
With respect to the pestle with incised to the Storehouse of Lithic Materials of the MNAAHP in
designs, we previously did not have any illustra- search of these pieces, but without results. We did not
tion or description except the comment of find the objects, nor did we encounter the kilo of
Antnez de Mayolo that it was adorned with a turquoises. We thank Julissa Ugarte Garay for her kind
attention. We continued the search in the collection of
pair of designs in ribbons (Antnez 1933 in lithic materials at MAA-UNMSM with equally negative
Daggett 1987:160; adornado con un par de results. Faced with the physical absence of the stone
dibujos en lazos). Now we have a photo avail- objects from the burial offering in the institutions in which
able which shows the design in some detail, so they should be, we registered a formal complaint to the
we can add that the lazos appear to be, in National Institute of Culture in the second half of 2006.
We did the same for the other missing components of this
context and for the Suchimn Mortar.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 120

iconography of the Suchimn mortar (Tello Finally, the guinea pig and bird bones were
2005:107, P9/ F7/ 249). The only difference is other evidence of the diet associated with this
that in the Punkur example the motif is empha- important context.
sized by a band. The rectangle with lightly
broken inscribed lines is similar to the motif THE BURIAL OFFERING AND ITS RELATION-
engraved on a stone block from Sechn Alto SHIP TO THE TEMPLE OF PUNKUR:
(Samaniego 1995:39, 40, figure 13) which is CHRONOLOGY
exhibited in the Museo Max Uhle in Casma.
Therefore, the three motifs which decorate the Several authors have dealt with the theme
Punkur mortar reoccur in the iconography of of the construction phases of Punkur and its
stone objects dating to this period from the relation to the early cultural traditions of the
Casma and Santa Valleys and, because the find central Andes. They agree that there have been
spot of the Punkur mortar is proximate to the at least three construction phases (Bischof 1994:
staircase, this mortar is directly associated with see figure 2, section; Daggett 1987; Samaniego
an object that denotes power. 2006; Vega-Centeno 1998, 1999). The context
of the burial offering was located in the fill of
The other associated objects Platform 2 (plataforma 2; Figure 9) and was
deposited as part of this. This is assigned to the
The potential of the study and analysis of second construction phase of Punkur, or Phase
molluscs from precolumbian archaeological A-2 (fase A-2; Vega-Centeno 1999:7-11).
contexts has been established (Rivadeneira and The famous clay feline is part of Phase B-1
Piccone-Saponara 1998:31; Sandweiss and (fase B-1; ibid.:13). Vega-Centeno places
Rodrguez 1991:55, 56) so that, although we Punkur in the Early Formative c.1800 B.C.-
have not found those from the burial offering, 1200 B.C.
we can still offer some commentary on the
Spondylus princeps valves which are part of the Nevertheless, on the basis of stylistic com-
list of sumptuary and exotic objects associated parisons, I deduce a different chronological
with the burial offering. It must be noted that range for Punkur. I present the arguments for it
these are complete worked pieces and are part here. A first coherent grouping was made by
of the earliest evidence of this type in these Tello, who indicated that a bas relief stone
circumstances, occurring a little before the plaque engraved with a crouching (agaza-
presence of ceramics in the Central Andes at c. pado) feline had traits sufficiently naturalistic
1600 B.C. As we know, later they become more to relate it to the corpus of Chavn objects
frequent and were part of the ceramic and lithic which, according to him, was its place of origin
cultures of Cupisnique and Chavn during the (Kan 1972:73, figure 7; Tello 1960:228).30 Kan,
first millennium B.C. however, questioned this assignment, and also
the Chavn affiliation of the painted feline on
In spite of their number (seventy individu- the clay building of Cerro Sechn (Kan 1972:74,
als), until now little attention has been given to figure 8). Finally, he distinguished the sculpted
the terrestrial gastropods of the species Scutalus feline of Punkur from the Chavn style, al-
proteus associated with the Punkur tomb. These
are lomas snails which reach a size between 3.5
and 5 cm. They can be considered part of the 30
food offerings and are also represented as such Nevertheless, it must be noted that Tello also related
this engraved plaque directly to the Punkur feline head
in Moche ceramics (Donnan 1978: figure 102). (Tello 1960:229).
121 - Falcn Huayta: Reconstruction at Punkur

though the monument itself appeared to indi- framework in which to place the burial offering.
cate a Chavn affiliation (ibid.: 76, figure 11). These correlations support the observations of
Samaniego, who indicated that the three con-
Later, a study of the early Chavn styles and struction phases of Punkur lack ceramics
their precedents reunited these three icons once (Samaniego 2006:38).
again under a more unified classificatory
scheme, and added another example to the On the intra-site level, the stylistic affinity
group, the petroglyph of a feline with an in- between the engraved design of the stone mor-
scribed bird, located in the Jequetepeque Valley tar and the representations on the murals called
(Bischof 1994:180, figure 14d; 1995:171, figure friezes I and II of the earliest Punkur building
8; Pimentel 1986:23, figure 59).Thus, the num- has been noted (Bishof 1994:173). These have
ber of the early felines in this group has in- been assigned to Phase A1 (fase A1; Vega-
creased, making it one of the earliest representa- Centeno 1999:15, figure 10). Nevertheless, the
tions of cats associated with monumental archi- stylistic characteristics of the hand represented
tecture (Falcn and Surez in press). on the Strombus galeatus huayllaquepa of Punkur
relate more to the naturalistic style of the
Along these lines, the following sequence freestanding feline (Vega-Centenos Phase B1),
has been proposed by Henning Bischof for a so that the iconography of the objects from the
series of representations important for the case burial offering context would constitute a group
of Punkur, and considered to be pre-Chavn which associates schematic and geometric
A; (a) the clay murals of Punkur (Punkur motifs with the stylized naturalism of Phase A2
Style); (b) The painted clay feline of Punkur, of a building which in any case shows articu-
and the painted felines of Cerro Sechn; (c) the lated, coherent, and continuous architectural
engraved iconography on the stelae at Cerro modifications.31
Sechn (Sechn Style). One must note, never-
theless, that this sequence is more appropriate As for the hand motif represented by itself,
for classification than for chronological pur- a stone sculpture found at Jaive in the Supe
poses. It has been suggested that the earthen Valley shows the very stylized palms of both
building decorated with two painted felines in hands in which the order of the fingers can be
the interior of Cerro Sechn was constructed in distinguished by their proportions and location
the twenty-fourth to the twenty-second centu- beside a round anthropomorphic face. I note
ries B.C. while the stone building there, also that the hand on the Punkur huayllaquepa
Preceramic, existed sometime between the shows its back. Nevertheless, the Jaiva stone
nineteenth and eighteenth centuries B.C. It sculpture may be one of the first engraved, low
continued in use until the sixteenth to four- relief lithic pieces in the central Andes (Falcn
teenth centuries B.C. (Bischof 2000:48; Fuchs
1997: 159). If I attempt a correlation between
the painted feline of Cerro Sechn and the On the other hand, it has been proposed that geomet-
freestanding sculpted feline of Punkur, consid- ric or schematic conventions are present in the Pre-
ceramic as well as in the Early Formative (convenciones
ering them to be stylistically linked, I can pro- geomtricas o esquematizadas estn presentes tanto en el
pose a chronological position for the latter at precermico como en el Formativo Temprano) and that
about 2100-1800 B.C. In consequence, if the fill there were developed figurative resources available as
which contained the burial offering corresponds guidelines for the Punkur Style (Vega-Centeno 1998:
to an architectural phase immediately prior to 187). I am more in agreement with this position, but think
that this occurred a little before the Initial Period or the
the sculptured feline, it can serve as a temporal Formative.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 122

2006) and may belong to a style of representa- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

tion earlier than the iconographic repertory of
Punkur. However, this suggestion still needs to Sincere thanks go to Henning Bischof for
be refined. Another example of this motif is numerous consultations on the Late Archaic of
found on the stone block associated with Huaca the central Andes. Likewise, Richard Daggett
A at Pampa de las Llamas-Moxeque (Burger and Rafael Vega-Centeno have my gratitude for
1989; Pozorski and Pozorski 1988). This hand is their comments. Finally, I recognize the notable
more naturalistic than that engraved on the efforts of Lorenzo Samaniego Romn for the
Punkur huayllaquepa, to the extent that it recovery of Punkur to the point of converting it
appears to be the impression of a right hand on into a cultural center and an example to Peruvi-
the stone, that is to say, the palm is shown. ans, and to the world, of a seminal stage in the
According to its discoverers, this stone, securely development of precolumbian Andean religion.
associated with Huaca A, is the earliest To a great extent, this article is a tribute to his
securely-dated stone carving known in Peru. A tenacious work.
wooden door from Huaca A produced an uncor-
rected 14C date of 156570 B.C. (351570 B.P. Translation from the Spanish by Monica Barnes
Uga-5462) and is in the mid-range of dates from REFERENCES CITED
that site (ibid.). This date and the iconography
of the felines which flank the entrance portal of Anonymous
the associated architectural complex, assigned 1987a Un nuevo hallazgo arqueolgico, en la Huaca de
to Chavn A, puts it sometime after Punkur. Pungur. El Comercio 28 September, 1933
(Lima). In Reconstructing the Evidence for
Cerro Blanco and Punkur by Richard E. Dagget,
Finally, I would like to indicate that until Andean Past 1, Appendix, p.137.
recently the presence of Strombus galeatus 1987b Nuevas excavaciones arqueolgicas sern practi-
huayllaquepas as part of the cult paraphernalia of cadas en la prxima quincena en el palacio de
the end of the Late Archaic had not been docu- Cerro Blanco, en Nepea. El Comercio, 2
October, 1933 (Lima). In Reconstructing the
mented. Now we have the huayllaquepa from
Evidence for Cerro Blanco and Punkur by
Punkur and a possible representation of another Richard E. Daggett, Andean Past 1, Appendix,
Strombus galeatus huayllaquepa held by one of the pp. 138-140.
seated personages on a mortar from Lambayeque Antnez de Mayolo, Santiago
that is assigned to the same period (Bischof 1933 Los trabajos arqueolgicos en el valle de Nepea.
El Comercio, 15 December (Lima). In Recon-
1995:169, 170, figure 6d). On this object the
structing the Evidence for Cerro Blanco and
Strombus is represented as a spiral which has an Punkur by Richard E. Daggett, Andean Past 1,
oblong vertical piercing and which ends by Appendix, pp. 155-163.
tracing a straight edge, and is serrated with Bischof, Henning
blunt points, which represent the characteristic 1994 Toward the Definition of Pre- and Early Chavn
Art Styles in Peru. Andean Past 4:169-228.
ribs that naturally form on the dorsal surface of
1995 Cerro Sechn y el arte temprano centro-andino.
Strombus galeatus and which, although generally Arqueologa de Cerro Sechn 2:157-184. Lima:
smoothed out in order to incise designs, leave Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Per and
clear traces on the lip edge of the mollusc. In Fundacin Volkswagenwerk-Alemania.
consequence, it is now known that this sonorous 1997 Cerro Blanco, valle de Nepea, Per: Un sitio
del Horizonte Temprano en emergencia.
ritual instrument, abundantly present in the Archaeologica Andina 2:203-234 (Sociedad
galleries of Chavn de Huntar, had its anteced- Arqueolgica Peruano-Alemana, Reiss-Museum
ents at this time. Mannheim, Germany).
123 - Falcn Huayta: Reconstruction at Punkur

2000 Cronologa y cultura en el Formativo centro- Iconography, October 31st and November 1st, 1970,
andino. Estudios Latinoamericanos, 20:41-71 edited by Elizabeth P. Benson, pp. 69-90. Wash-
(Warsaw, Poland). ington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks.
Burger, Richard L. Kaulicke, Peter
1989 The Pre-Chavin Stone Sculpture of Casma and 1994 Los orgenes de la civilizacin Andina 1. Lima:
Pacopampa. Journal of Field Archaeology 16:478- Editorial Brasa, S.A.
485. Larco Hoyle, Rafael
Carrin Cachot, Rebeca 2001 [1938] Los Mochicas, Volume 1. Museo Arqueo-
1948 La Cultura Chavn: Dos nuevas coloniasKuntur lgico Rafael Larco Herrera. Lima: Fundacin
Wasi y Ancn. Revista del Museo Nacional de Telefnica.
Antropologa y Arqueologa 2(1):99-172. Pimentel, Vctor
Chapdelaine, Claude and Pimentel, Victor 1986 Petroglfos en el valle medio y bajo de Jequete-
2008 Personaje de alto rango en San Juanito, valle de peque, norte del Per. Kommission fr Allgemeine
Santa. In Seores de los reinos de la Luna, edited und Vergleichende Archologie des Deutschen
by Krzysztof Makowski, pp.248-253. Coleccin Archologischen Instituts Bonn (KAVA) 31.
Arte y Tesoros del Per. Lima: Banco de Cr- Pozorski, Thomas and Shelia Pozorski
dito. 1988 An Early Stone Carving from Pampa de las
Daggett, Richard E. Llamas-Moxeke, Casma Valley, Peru. Journal of
1987 Reconstructing the Evidence for Cerro Blanco Field Archaeology 15:114-119.
and Punkuri. Andean Past 1:111-132, Appendix, Proulx, Donald
The Tello Material from El Comercio, pp. 133- 1973 Archaeological Investigations in the Nepea Valley,
163. Peru. Research Reports 13, Department of An-
2007 Tellos Lost Years: 1931-1935. Andean Past thropology, University of Massachusetts, Am-
8:81-108. herst.
Donnan, Christopher B. Rivadeneira Giuria, Vctor and Mara del Carmen
1978 Moche Arte of Peru. Los Angeles, California: Piccone-Saponata
Museum of Cultural History, University of 1998 La malacologa y su aporte a los estudios arqueo-
California. lgicos. Boletn de Lima 113:27-32.
Falcn Huayta, Victor Sandweiss, Daniel H. and Mara del Carmen Rodrguez
2006 La litoescultura de Jaiva y las representaciones 1991 Moluscos marinos en la prehistoria peruana:
rupestres preformativas. Arkeos: Revista Elec- Breve ensayo. Boletn de Lima 75:55-63.
trnica de Arqueologa. Pontifica Universidad Samaniego, Lorenzo
Catlica del Per. 1992 Arte mural de Punkur: Aproximacin. Pacfico: Revista de Ciencias Sociales 1:11-37 (Chimbote,
mentos/articulos/5-art-epar-vfh.pdf (Consulted Per).
25 March 2009). 1995 La Escultura del Edificio Central de Cerro Se-
Falcn Huayta, Victor, Rosa Martnez Navarro, and chn. Arqueologa de Cerro Sechn., Volume 2:19-
Milano Trejo Huayta 44. Lima: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del
2005 La Huayllaquepa de Punkur, costa nor-central Per and Fundacin Volkswagenwerk-Alemania.
del Per. Anales 13:53-74 (Museo de Amrica, 2006 Punkur: Proyecto Cultural, Homenaje al Cen-
Madrid). tenario del Distrito de Chimbote. Special edition of
Falcn Huayta, Victor and Mnica Surez Ubills Revista del Centro de Conservacin del Patrimonio
in press El felino en la emergencia de la civilizacin en CulturalOCEUPSUNS (Nuevo Chimbote:
los Andes centrales. Crnicas sobre la piedra: Arte Per: Universidad Nacional del Santa) 8(17).
rupestre de las Amricas, edited by Marcela Sepul- Tello, Julio C.
veda, Luis Briones, and Juan Chacama. Arica, 1933 Las ruinas del valle de Nepea. El Comercio, 6
Chile: Ediciones Universidad de Tarapac. October (Lima). In Daggett, Richard E., Recon-
Fuchs, Peter R. structing the Evidence for Cerro Blanco and
1997 Nuevos datos arqueomtricos para la historia de Punkur, Andean Past 1, Appendix, pp. 144-148.
la ocupacin de Cerro Sechn: Perodo ltico al 1943 Discovery of the Chavin Culture in Peru. Ameri-
Formativo. Archaeologica Peruana 2:145-161. can Antiquity 9(1):135-160.
Kan, Michael 1960 Chavn: Cultura matriz de la civilizacin andina.
1972 The Feline Motif in Northern Peru. In The Cult Lima: UNMSM.
of the Feline: A Conference in Pre-Columbian
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 124

2005 Arqueologa del Valle de Nepea: Excavaciones en

Cerro Blanco y Punkur. Cuadernos de Investiga-
cin del Archivo Tello 4. Lima: Museo de
Arqueologa y Antropologa de la Universidad
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
Vega-Centeno, Rafael
1998 Patrones convencionales en el arte figurativo del
Formativo temprano en la costa norte de los
Andes Centrales. Bulletin de lInstitut Franais des
tudes Andines 27(2):183-211.
1999 Punkur en el contexto del Formativo temprano
de la costa nor-central del Per. Gaceta Arqueo-
lgica Andina 25:5-21.
125 - Falcn Huayta: Reconstruction at Punkur

Figure 1: Map showing the location of Punkur.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 126

Figure 2: Punkur, north facade of the monument today.

Figure 3: The clearing of Platforms 2 and 3 of the north facade of Punkur in progress. Note the central
staircase which gives access to Platform 2 (photograph courtesy of the Tello Archive of the MNAAHP,
negative 109 AT/617).
127 - Falcn Huayta: Reconstruction at Punkur

Figure 4: Left hand engraved on the dorsal side of

the Punkur huayllaquepa.

Figure 5: Schematic drawing of the se-

quence of deposition of the Punkur burial
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 128

Figure 6: The Punkur huayllaquepa during its restoration.

Figure 7: The Punkur huayllaquepa after its restoration.

129 - Falcn Huayta: Reconstruction at Punkur

Figure 8: The Punkur mortar, pestle, and the Suchimn mortar (Tello 2005, CD included, file: Anexo
fotogfico, F2_Punkur, Foto 52-119).

Figure 9: Staircase that leads to the upper part of Platform 2 at Punkur.

Note the poor state of the staircase and the fill that covers Platform 3.
The figure is Arturo Jimnez Borja on a visit to the site in 1971
(photography courtesy of Lorenzo Samaniego Romn, Coordinador General,
Centro de Conservacin del Patrimonio Cultural, Universidad Nacional del Santa).


University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

INTRODUCTION as a modo de casilla (in the form of a little

house), as muy pintado (heavily painted), and
Isabelita is the name of an impressive Early with doors (ibid.:186). An important funeral
Horizon rock engraving in Perus Callejn de chamber within a circular structure may have
Huaylas. It was discovered in 1999 at the Am been associated with the Isabelita Rock during
II site (Pan 5-49) while I was conducting an the middle and late parts of the Early Horizon
archaeological study in the vicinity of the mod- (c. 600-100 B.C.).
ern Pierina Gold Mine (Ponte 2005:247,
1999b). The rock stood in the upper part, or The village of Mareniyoc occupies a large
Cotojirca neighborhood, of the village of Maren- mound composed of the remains of an Early
iyoc in the Jangas district, Huaraz province, Horizon occupation (Figure 11). For millennia
Ancash region (Figures 1, 2, 12-15). Its iconog- Mareniyoc was a primary center within a locally
raphy consists of a human being holding a integrated settlement pattern. This pattern
trophy head, accompanied by four animals included defensible sites that I believe main-
(Figures 1, 3). tained independent status and economic sys-
tems, but shared a powerful religious ideology
In modern Ancash Quechua am means manifested by Isabelitas iconography, and
darkness but is also a prohibitive grammatical present in other areas of the Andes.
element more or less equivalent to the English
word dont. In this context it most likely refers In this paper I analyze the iconography of
to the shadows formed by large boulders because the Isabelita Rock, establishing its relative
Isabelita, in its original placement, was near chronology and meaning through comparisons
funerary chambers constructed in the shelter of with other Early Horizon sculptures. An analysis
overhanging rocks (Figures 4-10).1 However, in of the engraving must center on the role and
the Callejn de Huaylas, am may be derived purpose of religion as an institution, as well on
from amay (the Spanish plural is amayes), found its sociopolitical impact within the community.
in seventeenth century court trials and official
inspection tours from Cajatambo relating to The location of the Isabelita Rock in a space
idolatry (Duviols 2003:178, 186). Here it seems where mortuary rituals were performed connects
to mean a mortuary structure. Individual amayes the image to the ceremonial architecture enclos-
are characterized in the Cajatambo documents ing the nearby Great Stone, another large man-
modified boulder. A human burial with offerings
was under the Great Stone, within a funerary
Initially Isabelita was the name given to a mapping space constructed with fieldstones (Figures 5-7,
control point atop a boulder. We later discovered petro- 9). This context can be related to the Andean
glyphs lower down on its flat surface.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009): 131-175.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 132

notions of machay and malqui documented for were organized through cooperation, trade, and
late prehispanic and colonial times (Arriaga interrelationships with other areas. Even though
1999 [1621]:21; Doyle 1988; Duviols 2003). the primary site is defined only by its magnitude
The Great Stone constitutes the machay, a and its connection with the religious and mythi-
Quechua concept of a natural rock shelter or cal personage represented on the Isabelita Rock,
cave suitable for ritual performances. Malqui is I suggest that during the Early Horizon Coto-
the burial, the mummy of the principal ancestor jirca Phase I (Table 1), the foundation was laid
of the local community. Its people may have for a regional economic model that was dupli-
gathered in the terraced space next to the cated by later groups without any substantial
Mareniyoc mound to venerate it. In the central changes.
Andes no ancestor cult has been detected in any
context earlier than that associated with the Isa- The local religious tradition was stimulated
belita Rock. and influenced by important ceremonial centers
like Chavn de Huntar, Pallka in the upper
The cult there is probably contemporaneous Casma Valley, Cerro Blanco and Punkur in the
with the Capilla Style (600-200 B.C.; Table 1) Nepea Valley,3 Pacopampa in the Department
of the Huaricoto site (Figure12; Burger 1985), of Cajamarca, Puemape and Tembladera on the
the nearest Early Horizon site in the Callejn de north coast (Figure 12, Table 1), and Paracas on
Huaylas that has been investigated. Although the south coast. In other words, the Chavn
more religious practices and human burials have religious cult spread. The development and
been detected in the temperate Quechua ecoz- management of similar ceremonial practices,
one2 of Mareniyoc, they belong to later periods, including the representation of common sym-
confirming the long tradition of ancestor vener- bols, support arguments for the interaction of
ation, especially in the Recuay culture (Table 1) the Callejn de Huaylas with much of the rest of
and in later times (Lau 2002; Hernndez Prnci- the Andes. Before explaining the archaeological
pe 1923 [1622]). context and the interconnection of sites in
detail, I will outline the Early Horizon in the
I postulate that Mareniyoc was integrated Callejn de Huaylas.
with other Early Horizon sites in a shared verti-
cal domain extending from the warm floor of THE AREA OF STUDY
the Santa River Valley to the cold puna of the
Cordillera Negra (Figures 13, 14). This per- The Callejn de Huaylas is a large inter-
ceived linkage led me to focus on the develop- montane valley delineated by two mountain
ment of a local sociopolitical subsystem. I sug- ranges. To the west is the Cordillera Negra. To
gest that settlements in different ecological the east is the Cordillera Blanca (Figure 13).
zones participated in a social interaction sphere The latter is the highest range of snow capped
that was centered in the area where ideology mountains and glacial lakes in the Central
took material form. If ideology is a source of Andes. Within it are thirty peaks higher than
power and can be controlled by the dominant 6000 meters. It also contains the Huascarn
group (De Marrais et al. 1996), the area of National Park, one of Perus important nature
Mareniyoc may have been the place where the
economic resources and subsistence pattern
For discussions of Punkur in Andean Past see Bischof
(1994):172-173, figures 2,3, 12, 14c, 31 and Falcn, this
For a definition of the Quechua ecozone see The Area volume, pp. 109-129. For Cerro Blanco and Punkur see
of Study below. Daggett (1987).
133 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

preserves, and the goal of thousands of moun- (4) Puna pastureland (average elevation 4000
tain climbers every year. masl) consists of relatively flat grasslands domi-
nated by ichu and used today, as in the past, for
The perennial Santa River flows from the maintaining herds.
Cordillera Blanca and through the Callejn de
Huaylas. It is, by volume, the largest Peruvian The ecological zones are integrated by an
river that empties into the Pacific Ocean (Wil- ancient road that connects archaeological sites
son 1988:32). The Callejn de Huaylas was one belonging to several periods (Figure 14). The
of the centers of plant domestication in the road extends from Jangas (2800 masl) on the
central Andes. Evidence from Guitarrero Cave Santa Valley floor, to Cuncashca on the puna
has shown that maize and beans were important (4000 masl). Walking from Jangas to Mareniyoc
staple foods in the region and Phaseolus may in the Quechua ecozone at 3050 masl can be
have been consumed there since the beginning accomplished in about two hours. From there it
of the third millennium B.C. (Kaplan and Lynch takes another two hours to reach Cuncashca.
1999:265). The study area discussed in this Control of these various ecological zones may
paper is in the eastern foothills of the Cordillera have been maintained in the past, as first postu-
Negra. The study area includes four ecological lated for the Andes by John V. Murra (1975:62-
zones (Figure 14): 70). The major center was the Mareniyoc site.
Its position in the middle of the vertical ecologi-
(1) The floor of the Callejn de Huaylas (at an cal zones permitted economic control by the
average elevation of 2800 masl) is heavily culti- local elite and the consumption of the products
vated, especially to the north of Jangas and of all four zones.
Taric. Currently, fruits and flowers are grown
for export. Tree crops such as Pacay, avocado, THE EARLY HORIZON
and lucuma may have been gathered there by IN THE CALLEJN DE HUAYLAS
early societies. The existence of a modern
community of potters in the small town of During the time when the Isabelita Rock
Taric has some implications for past practices. engraving may have been created, important
ceremonial centers functioned in the Callejn
(2) The Quebrada Cuncashca/Llancash system de Huaylas. One of them is the temple of Huari-
(average elevation 3615 masl; Figure 14) is a coto (Figure 12), a large mound where the
natural pass to the puna, and to the western oldest ceremonial architecture dates to the
slopes of the Cordillera Negra and beyond to the Preceramic Period. It served as the setting for
coast. It has perennial water and includes the ritual practices related to the Kotosh Religious
best agricultural land. Tradition (Burger 1992:42, 45, 49-50). Rites
were performed in small public buildings, circu-
(3) The Quechua ecozone (average elevation lar in plan. Ceremonies included the incinera-
3500 masl) is where maize, tubers (oca, olluco tion of offerings in central stone-lined fire pits.
[Ullucus tuberosus], potatoes) and some trees are Another ritual construction, associated in the
grown. There is evidence of agricultural terraces Callejn with the Capilla Style, was a circular
and irrigation canals. However, the area does plaza. This suggests that the sunken plaza of
not offer much space for cultivation and the soil Chavn de Huntar was not necessarily the sole
is not rich in nutrients. model for Early Horizon religious structures in
the Callejn (Burger and Salazar-Burger
1985:131-132, among others). Other contempo-
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 134

raneous public monumental centers also existed mented two carved stones in a clear Sechn
in the Callejn and are said to belong to the Style dated to the Initial Period by comparisons.
Chavn Style (Tello 1960:36). They are defined However, there is no direct evidence linking the
by their magnitude, but have not been suffi- site and these carved stones found in isolation
ciently studied. One such is Pumacayan (3100 and without context. The existence of any pre-
masl), a large mound on the southern side of the Chavn occupation will be clarified with future
Santa River, and within the modern city of findings of Initial Period sites in the Cordillera
Huaraz (Figure 12). Incised Black-and-Red Style Negra. I predict that these will contain cultural
ceramics, carved slabs, and tenoned heads have elements from the coastal valleys.
been found there, but without contextual data.
The Pumacayan building was remodeled repeat- North of the Santa River in Corongo prov-
edly, specifically in Huars and Recuay times ince, a team headed by Terada (Terada 1975,
(Table 1). Long galleries, passageways, and 1980; Morris 1981:961) excavated the La
funerary chambers like those at Chavn are Pampa site (Figure 12), a platform mound
hidden under Recuay structures (Tello 1943: complex with retention walls and non-domestic
155). rooms from the Initial Period Yesopampa Phase
(Table 1). Yesopampa Style ceramics have some
Another important center in the Callejn affinities with the Initial Period Pandanche Style
de Huaylas that has public architecture is the ceramic assemblages from the Cajamarca region,
Tumshucaico site (2295 masl) on the northern while the artifacts of the successive occupation,
side of the city of Caraz (Figure 12). It shares the La Pampa Period (Table 1), have greater
both its plan and style of masonry with monu- affinities with Chavn Style. A stone lintel with
ments in the Nepea Valley (see Proulx 1985: Chavn feline-serpent attributes probably be-
plates 15a, 16a, b). However, Bueno (2003:75) longs to this period (670-540 B.C.).
has recently studied the site, concluding that
there are architectural connections with La It seems that at the same time, different
Galgada. Bueno dates Tumschucaico to the late religious practices existed in the highlands, with
Preceramic Period. Both Pumacayan and some autonomy expressed in the ceremonies
Tumshucaico were densely occupied by post- performed. Likewise, the economic organization
Chavn cultures, including the Inca. It will take of highland communities reflected territorial
additional study to determine whether those differences. Nevertheless, the essence and
sites had a central and articulated role in the requirements of ritual forged inter-regional
diffusion of the Chavn religious cult, or connections through the procurement of goods
whether they functioned independently in so far and raw materials both from the coast and from
as ceremonies are concerned, with religion the eastern tropical forest.
serving to congregate people.
In the Marcara River Valley Gary Vescelius
Within the Callejn de Huaylas there must recorded about 125 sites (Burger and Lynch
exist many other sites which were occupied 1987:1; Lynch 1970:12). Among them, the
during the Early Horizon or prior to it. One Ucush Punta site yielded Chavinoid artifact
problem in identifying them is that much of types such as incised and rocker stamped sherds
their architecture was buried and/or re-utilized (ibid.). In the same area Gero (1992) excavated
during later occupations. Chupacoto (Figure the site of Queyash Alto, a ridge-top site at the
12), another small Early Horizon mound, was confluence of the Marcara and Santa Rivers.
mentioned by Thompson (1962). He docu- Although it belongs to the Early Intermediate
135 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Period, its earliest levels are related to the time, Mareniyoc grew as a local elite population
Huars White-on-Red Style ceramics (200 B.C.- center, but it was also the focus of cyclical
A.D. 250; Gero 1991:132). The site plan of ceremonial activities, as was the religious center
Queyash Alto features two small stone mounds, of Huaricoto (Burger 1993:54). The Mareniyoc
each longer than it is wide, at the extremities of area, including the Am site, has been occupied
the ridge. A linear arrangement of rectilinear many times, from the Early Horizon to the Late
rooms and courtyards fills the entire ridge. Horizon. During the Early Intermediate Period
Terraces follow the contours of the long east (c. 100 to 600 A.D.), Mareniyoc was probably a
and west sides of the ridge (Gero 1991:130, center for the Recuay population. Recuay funer-
2001:19-20, figure 2, left).The layout of this site ary structures surround the center in a dispersed
is similar to those of Chonta Ranra Punta and pattern.
Maquellouan Punta, both sites in the Mareniyoc
area that are described below (Figure 13). Those The Am II site is at an altitude of between
sites have produced Early Horizon and Huars 3500 and 3550 masl (Figures 15, 16). A central
White-on-Red Style ceramics. Marcum, near trail crosses a large ridge with houses and agri-
the city of Huaraz (Figure 13), is another site cultural lands on both sides. The site has a very
with the same sort of plan. It also has yielded irregular and abrupt topography that includes
middle and late Early Horizon sherds. boulders used today, as in the past, as rock
shelters. The boulders are natural formations
MARENIYOC AREA that create shadows and dark spaces. The steep
slopes of the hill are leveled and contained by
The modern village of Mareniyoc stands on retention walls forming terraces. These are said
an artificial mound consisting of deep cultural by todays Mareniyoc farmers to have been built
deposits. The site measures 1200 by 800 meters. by earlier farmers. The modern terraces are
The mound is a series of stepped platforms and filled with agricultural earth and are divided
large habitation areas where people carried out into segments of land called parcelas. Eucalyptus
ceremonial and domestic activities, as indicated is grown for its wood. Prehispanic deposits and
by the thick black midden deposits shown in funerary structures were found in the lees of the
profiles (Figure 11). Judging from artifacts big boulders, under approximately 1m of modern
disturbed by modern house construction and fill (Figures 4-7, 9, 10). The prehispanic terraces
remodeling, Mareniyocs first occupation proba- were constructed in relation to the big boulders,
bly occurred during the Early Horizon. A com- following the contours of the slope (Figures 6, 8-
mon Recuay settlement pattern in the Callejn 10). They were poorly preserved, with walls
de Huaylas and in the Nepea Valley (Ponte standing only to a height of about 0.7m.
2000:223; Proulx 1985:285) is the reoccupation
of Early Horizon villages by modifying their EXCAVATIONS AT THE AM II SITE
scattered structures surrounding a high central (COTOJIRCA PHASE I)
mound. The mound was the architectural focal
point where celebrations took place. The mound For purposes of excavation, the site was
is always formed by fill containing artifacts such divided into sectors according to local agricul-
as sherds, animal bones, lithic instruments, and tural plots and terrace divisions (Figure 6). This
garbage mixed with earth. This fill, contained by was useful for determining the spatial distribu-
stone blocks, constitutes the mound. The fill tion of features and for assessing differences
could have accumulated during the first occupa- between ceremonial and funerary spaces as
tion of the site during the Early Horizon. Over constructed and used during the Cotojirca I
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 136

Phase (755-170 B.C.) of the Early Horizon and human trophy head in his left hand (Figures 1,
the Cotojirca II-III Phases of the Early Interme- 3). The full figure human is depicted in frontal
diate Period (Table 1). position, while the animals, shown in profile,
appear to the right of the principal image (from
Archaeological excavations were completed the viewers perspective). The animals repre-
on three levels of modern terraces consisting of sented are a reptile, a deer or fox, a snake, and
pirca (unmortared stone walls), irrigation chan- some sort of bird.
nels, and planting surfaces (Figures 2, 4, 6-10).
Today these are also used as household dumps. The engraved man has rectangular eyes, a
The area studied was limited to the north side of triangular nose, and an open mouth (Figure 3a).
the Jangas-Pierina road. Five separate Cotojirca The rectangular ears are similar to those in
I Phase contexts were identified: (1) the Isa- Sechn Style sculpture, although Tello (1960:
belita Rock (Figures 1-3, 8); (2) the ceremonial figure 79) also found a stone slab with a frontal
structure surrounding the Great Stone (Figures human face resembling the Isabelita man at
4-7, 9); (3) the Am II Tomb E (Figures 4-7, 9); Qaucho, a site near Chavn de Huntar. On the
(4) the Am II Tomb R or offerings (Figure 6); top of the Isabelita human figures head there
and (5) an area of domestic refuse containing are four long and symmetrical appendages that
Early Horizon artifacts (Context 49IV30; Figure seem to make up a kind of ornament. These
6). could be interpreted as simplified snakes in
agreement with John Rowes comparison of hair
Isabelita Rock to snakes (1970:78). In the Paracas pottery of
Ica a specimen with head appendages also
The Isabelita Rock depicts a human figure exists, but in that image there are only two long
and animals engraved with a hard and sharp appendages. On the Isabelita Rock, the human
instrument on the flat surface of the boulder figures left arm is exaggeratedly long, and only
(Figures 1-3). The rock is andesite, according to three fingers are shown holding a trophy head
an identification made by geologists of the Pieri- by its hair. The hair is represented by four ovoid
na Mine (personal communication, Enrique incisions, a convention that has been observed
Garay, June 1998). It measures 3.0 by 2.5 meters in the iconography of Cerro Sechn (e.g. Tello
and the entire rock weighs approximately 8 1956: figures 83-84). The trophy head is circular
tonnes. This was estimated by the relation of with round eyes, and has a close relationship to
density and weight (according to the geologists). the Chavn trophy heads seriated by Peter Roe
It was probably in its original position when (1974:17). The main figures right arm is less
found, laid horizontally with the flat face bear- visible because of the natural fractures of the
ing the petroglyph forming a table-like plane boulder and the stepped flat surface of the rock
(Figure 2). The rock was threatened by con- surface into which the main figures right side is
struction of a road to the Pierina Mine. There- carved. The Isabelita mans chest is rectangular
fore, this huge petroglyph was relocated to the in form and ends in a rectangular belt decorated
lithic park of the Regional Archaeological with cross-hatching. There are parallels to this
Museum of Huaraz. Now it stands vertically, belt in the corpus of Sechn stone sculpture, but
providing a greater visual impact to the public. the belt decoration per se does not exist within
The incised boulder was between adobe houses Sechns Sacrificial procession (Bischof
(Figures 2, 6, 8). The Great Stone (see below) is 1994:176). The geometric figures on the belt
20 m to the east (Figures 4-7, 9). The principal have similarities to the incised resin-painted
design on Isabelita is a dancing man carrying a designs on bowls and cups from Phase 9 of the
137 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Paracas pottery of Ica (Menzel et al. 1964: figure similarity between the reptile head on the Isa-
53e, f, g, I, k). Roe (1974:18) also showed a belita Rock and the Pallka bone representation,
cross-hatched decoration as feature 147 from although the former has been simplified. An-
the EF Period of John Rowes Chavn seriation other similarity is found in the clay frieze from
that is exactly the same design as that of the Garagay, an Early Horizon temple within metro-
Isabelita mans belt. There is a slight bending at politan Lima. Here a cross-hatched band encir-
the knees of the Isabelita man. The feet are cles the head of a fanged supernatural being
shown facing in different directions, giving the (Burger 1992: figures 43-44).
impression of movement. I interpret this posi-
tion as representing dancing. A second animal, almost completely de-
picted in profile, is in the upper right of the flat
The profile of a reptile or serpent head is boulder (viewers perspective). This could
above the true left shoulder of the human figure represent a deer or a fox with angular legs, a
(Figure 3b). It has a round eye with an incised long snout, and erect ear(s) (Figure 3c). Its
central dot. Two ovoid bands that extend from mouth is open, showing serrated teeth less
each corner of the eye may represent tears. visible than those of the reptile. A similar ani-
There are many parallels to this kind of eye, in mal, also with erect ears, is depicted on a carved
a variety of media including clay sculpture slab adorning the New Temple of Chavn de
(Tello 1960:2 29), clay mural art (Pozorski and Huntar and was interpreted as a viscacha
Pozorski 1986: figure 5), engraved bones (Burger 1992: figure 184).
(Bischof 1994: figures 18, 27a; Tello 1956:
figures 19, 22) and stone slabs (Burger 1992: A third animal on the Isabelita Rock is a
figure 184; Tello 1960: figures 62, 72, 74). It is bird with extended wings and a long beak (Fig-
found on monuments in the Casma Valley and ures 1, 3d). It most closely resembles some type
in the Chavn de Huntar region. These two of seashore bird. Punctation indicates an eye
areas seem to have shared a common tradition. and the tail feathers are rendered with a simple
Other examples of eyes with similar bands have zigzag line. There are many examples of birds in
been reported on Cupisnique Style bottles the iconography of the Early Horizon but they
carved in the form of serpents (Burger and are usually stylized versions of eagles and fal-
Salazar-Burger 2000: figure 39) and on modeled cons. The simple design of the bird on the
ceramic vessels with Cupisnique associations Isabelita Rock is more similar to bird representa-
(Donnan 1992: figure 26). Bischof calls this a tions on Paracas Phase 10 artifacts from Ica (cf.
bi-corned eye (1994:225). Roe called the same Menzel et al. 1964: figure 61c).
iconographic motif a double wing eye (1974:
18), and Tello (1956:49) related it to the The fourth animal engraved on the Isabelita
wrinkles of felines and caymans, an interpreta- Rock is a simplified snake which appears in the
tion that seems salient to an understanding of bottom right corner (from the viewers perspec-
the meaning of this motif. I will call the mouth tive) beneath the bird. The snake is drawn in
of the cayman head saw-toothed, with a slight- profile with a triangular head and curved body.
ly raised snout. The reptile mouth is depicted The simplicity of snake representations was used
as similar to a cats mouth in an association by Peter Roe (1974) to support John Rowes
interpreted by Rowe as a sign of supernatural seriation of the Chavn stone sculpture.
power (1970:81). This attribute is shared with
the being engraved in a bone from the Pallka When seen in its full cultural context, the
temple (Tello 1956: figure 22). There is a strong principal figure, a dancing man carrying a trophy
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 138

and accompanied by animals, constitutes an side facing NNW. Altars imply the idea of
important key to understanding the religion and arranging objects in a ritual setting. One altar
ritual related to mythical beings that spread supported two crossed long bones of a young
during the last part of the Early Horizon. deer and seashells of Mesodesma donacium, while
another smaller one contained a bundle of
Ceremonial Structure around the Great Stone young camelid bones, not arranged in any
particular order. Bones were placed into the
Around the Great Stone there was an al- structure, on top of the middle slab.
most circular masonry ceremonial structure
(Figures 4-7, 9). A single course of masonry and Am II Tomb E
a long, rather weak retaining wall connect this
feature to the Isabelita Rock which is at roughly The chamber below the Great Stone was
the same elevation. Objects were arranged in a 0.85 m high and 2.15 m long. The funerary
cultural deposit at the Great Stone. In excava- space was delimited by a wall of undressed field
tions of the platform, the topmost strata con- stones built against the Great Stone (Figures 4-
tained modern utilitarian ceramics manufac- 7, 9). The space contained the incomplete
tured in Taric, a town of potters on the Santa remains of an adult. The skeleton was in an
Valley floor (Figure 14). These ceramics were extended position with the head to the south
found mixed with prehispanic artifacts. The and the feet to the north. The bones were badly
frequency of the latter increased with depth. An preserved because of the acidity and humidity of
artificial fill of stones and ceramic fragments the soil. Only a few fragments of the skull, a
that covered an earlier structure characterized femur, and metatarsals were recovered. There
the second stratum. This earlier feature was a were several items associated with the burial,
double-faced wall, 0.65 m wide by 0.50 m high. including guinea pigs placed in a spondylus
It formed an ovoid enclosure around the large shell, 81 chrysocolla beads (Figure 17), and 136
stone. This irregular stone seems to have been spondylus beads. Near the feet of the skeleton
the center of ceremonial performance. It formed the presence of ash indicates that ritual burning
a rectangular shelter aligned to the north within may have taken place. We found ceramic offer-
which a bundle of human bones was found. This ings here. These consist of fragments of two
feature is called the Am II Tomb E. The orien- bottles, one jar, and three bowls. We also found
tation of the Great Stone is towards the snowy two 17 cm long copper pins (ticpis in Ancash
peaks of the Cordillera Blanca and it defines an Quechua; for the metallurgical analysis of the
almost direct line to Huascarn which, with a pins see Ponte 1999a: chart 4).
summit at 6768 masl, is the highest peak in the
Cordillera Blanca. One bottle was almost completely restored.
It is dark gray with a round body and a long
The ovoid structure around the Great Stone neck with an everted rim (Figure 18). The other
created an inner offering space where we found was red, and only the long tubular neck (7cm)
two groups of poorly preserved deer and camelid was recovered. The gray bottle was 17cm tall
bones. On the southern side we uncovered a and is similar to a bottle found in a Tomb (G-
small bowl with an exterior red slip surface and Tm4) from the Kunturwasi site in Cajamarca
flat base. Several blue beads were left inside of assigned to the Copa Phase, 380-200 BC (Table
this as an offering (Figure 17). On the western 1; Onuki 1997: 112, figure 53), although the
side, two little structures shaped as altars were latter has a flat base and a thickened external
each created by four rock slabs, with the open rim. There is some resemblance between the
139 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

bottles found in the Am II Tomb E and bottles human skull and two bowls (Figures 21, 22).
from the Huaricoto site (Figure 12), which dates The latter were useful in further clarifying the
to the Early Capilla Phase (Burger 1985: figure diffusion of ceramic styles. One, an open bowl,
22). These comparisons suggest an Early Hori- has 4 mm horizontal incisions in the exterior,
zon date for the tomb. Significantly, similarities repeated around the vessel (Figure 21). This
to the late Initial Period are less marked. There semi-hemispheric bowl is 9 cm high. Incised
is also a slight difference between the Cotojirca lines were colored by orange pigment, as was its
I Phase bottles with round bases and the flat- flat base, while the rest of the surface has a red
based bottles registered by Tello (1956: polished treatment. An identical example found
figure10c) from the Pallka temple in the middle in the Pallka Temple in the Casma Valley
Casma Valley (Figure 12). Some relationship (Figure 12) has been illustrated by Tello (1956:
with the Cupisnique ceramic assemblages can be figure 11y).
suggested because of the long tubular necks
(Tellenbach 1986: plates 131,4; 132,2). The other bowl from the Am II R context
is short and globular, with white wavy band
The bowls from the Am II Tomb E are 16 designs on the upper part of a red polished
cm in diameter and 6 cm tall with divergent surface (Figure 22). This can be identified as an
sides (Figures 19-20). Both internal and external example of Huars White-on-Red. This style
surfaces have orange-to-light-brown burnished was defined primarily by Bennett (1944:75)
surfaces. One of them is decorated with dark- from materials at Willcawain and Chavn de
red horizontal bands. Red-on-Orange Style Huntar. Recently Lau (2004:181, figure 2) has
ceramics similar to the bowls found in the Am analyzed a new set of radiocarbon dates for the
II Tomb E have been found at the Pacopampa Huars White-on-Red Style and suggests that
site in the Cajamarca Department (Figure 12). this style was in use between 400 and 100 B.C.
Daniel Morales has assigned these to the Capilla Lau assigns the Huars Style to the early part of
Expansiva Phase (1998:119; Table 1). This local the Recuay tradition, while other archaeologists
Early Horizon ceramic phase is roughly coeval (Ponte 2000:223; Wilson 1988:295) define
with the Copa and Early Capilla Phases. If the Huars as a late Early Horizon and early Early
Tomb E construction can be dated by its associ- Intermediate Period culture with socioeconomic
ated ceramics, then, given its proximity to the relations of varying intensities, and probable
Isabelita Rock, a similar date may be extended interregional warfare. Whether the Huars Style
to the rock art itself (Ponte 2005:249). is a reflection of a social group that later pro-
duced the totally different ceramics in the
Am II Tomb R Recuay Style, or was a distinct group that
vanished at some point in time remains a subject
Digging into a modern terrace we uncovered for discussion. However, it is clear that the
a large rock about 1.05 m below the surface. To Huars Style existed during the decline of Cha-
call this a tomb may be over-interpreting the vn de Huntar and the rise of Recuay. Looking
feature. I suggest that human bones, now poorly at the Am II R Context with the new radiocar-
preserved, were left as part of ritual offerings. bon data in mind, it appears not incongruent
Although this feature was recorded as Am II R, that two different styles form part of the same
it could have been associated with Context deposit. Both styles shared the same territory
49IV30 (see below) because it was in the same and probably overlapped in time. Both are
stratum and the components were similar. In found above Chavn components. Archaeolo-
the lee of this large rock were fragments of a gists (Burger 1985:125, 1992:165; Lumbreras
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 140

1993:314) have confirmed the Huars Red-on- Nepea Valley by Donald Proulx (1985:325,
White Styles position immediately over Jana- plate1A), and correspond to the Early Chavi-
barriu Phase (390-200 B.C.; Table 1) strata, but noid Phase. Tello encountered Chavn ceramics
in some cases it has been found to be contempo- with incised decoration or stamped circles in the
raneous with the Janabarriu Phase (Burger 1992: subsoil of buildings A, E, and test pit 1 in the
228). Chavn de Huntar temple complex (1960:
figure 151) and at the Pallka temple (1956:
Domestic structures that yielded Huars figures 161, 4, u). Carinated bowls with red slip
White-on-Red Style ceramics spread over the burnishing were also identified (ibid.: figure
Circular Plaza building of the Old Temple of 15b). Richard Burger (1998:424, figure 333)
Chavn de Huntar. There are many differences found the equivalent in the Janabarriu Phase of
between the Chavn architectural styles and the Chavn de Huntar settlement. A small
those of the Huars culture. The quality of group of bowls with wide red bands decorating
Huars structures is poor and their masonry is of the rim and the upper part of the vessel are
a different type from that of the temple. The among the recovered materials from this con-
White-on-Red Style) has been identified in text at Am II (Figures 23d, 24).
several regions of the Andes, always above Early
Horizon levels. It existed during the probable There are numerous brown ollas and gray
rise of interregional warfare and interregional globe-shaped neckless ollas with incurving rims
socioeconomic relations of varying intensities found in the refuse area. One fragment has red
(Wilson 1988:295). pigment along the rim, while the body of this
sherd is a natural orange clay color and has a
Domestic Refuse Area with Artifacts: fine incised diagonal punctated decoration that
Context 49IV30 may have been made with a cactus spine. This
fragment was found beside the Isabelita Rock.
A retention wall running east-west sup- Burger encountered a similar style of decoration
ported a platform near the Isabelita Rock into in the Chakinani Phase (460-390 B.C.; Table 1)
which a 3 m by 1 m excavation unit was dug. ceramics found in the presently occupied town
Within Strata 2, Context 49IV30 was isolated of Chavn de Huntar (Burger 1998:407, figure
from the rest of the excavation unit (Figure 6). 229). Tello illustrated a similar specimen which
This context consists of a 30 cm deposit of loose he assigned to the Chavn ceramic sequence
silty clay soil with abundant mid-size gravel (5-8 (1960: figure 159b). These parallels corroborate
cm). This is a cultural fill, as is indicated by the the Early Horizon date of the Isabelita Rock.
great quantity of diagnostic ceramic sherds
found mixed with the soil. Bones from an adult Complementary to the aforementioned
and an infant were also found in the refuse area, styles are short-necked ollas with everted rims,
along with neckless ollas, shallow bowls, and burnished red surfaces, and decorated olla and
open bowls (Figures 23-27). The open bowls are jar body fragments with parallel red lines on a
hemispherical and have flattened rims. Surface yellowish brown polished surface. Finally, one
treatment consists of burnished patterns and eroded rim with small punctated decoration in
circular stamped impressions made by a tubular a double row (Figure 25c) can be compared with
instrument (6-7 mm average; Figure 25). The the late Initial Period Urabarriu Phase of Chavn
impressed portions are in the upper part of the de Huntar that is associated with the Old
vessels, and the impressions are arranged in Temple (Table 1; Burger 1998: figure 137).
horizontal rows. Similar bowls were found in the
141 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCAL SUBSYSTEM The diagnostic ceramics recovered are fine
(COTOJIRCA PHASE I) open bowls with red polished slip on both sur-
faces. They are related to the Early Horizon
As mentioned above, a prehispanic road styles of the Nepea (Proulx 1985:341, plate
connected Mareniyoc, a major Early Horizon 9B), Casma, and Santa Valleys. In spite of the
local sociopolitical center, with other contempo- small number of artifacts found, I suggest that
raneous sites. These include valley bottom domestic activities took place in these rooms. A
settlements as well as sites in the puna. Here I radiocarbon date obtained from the charcoal
discuss two puna settlements, Chonta Ranra found in the excavated room produced a cali-
Punta and Maquellouan Punta. I then describe brated date range between 390-210 B.C. (Table
Urpay Coto, a site located at the valley bottom 2). No artifacts associated with warfare were
of the Callejn de Huaylas and Quitapampa C found. The lithic inventory is composed of only
(Table 1, Figure 13), a Recuay funerary chamber three projectile points recovered from excava-
in the upper part of the Cotojirca neighborhood tions and two polished points collected from the
of Mareniyoc. surface. Point 109 (60 mm at maximum dimen-
sion) was found in the room and was associated
Chonta Ranra Punta with ceramics and charcoal. Point 108/119 (41
mm at maximum dimension) comes from one of
Within the steppe environment of the puna the probable storage structures. Malpass (1983:
a fortified site, Chonta Ranra Punta (PAn 5-1; figure 43) recorded similar points from Casma
4291 masl) stands at the top of the hill of the sites associated with ceramics.
same name (Figure 28). A 2 m wide perimeter
wall surrounds the site. Chonta is divided into Two D-shaped structures added to the
three sectors: a natural rocky elevation on the northeast platform wall may have restricted
north, an intermediate flat open area where access to the rooms. The position of this site
storage rooms were built, and a rectangular low had strategic advantages because from here it is
platform with residential rooms. Although possible to control the movement of people from
excavations in the rectilineal-to-apsidal rooms the western coastal valleys to the Callejn de
did not uncover plant remains or artifacts, these Huaylas. Also, the site is near the natural water
rooms were probably used for the deposit of food divide of the Cordillera Negra, between the
products. The isolation of the area, the consecu- Santa Valley to the east and the highland puna
tive linear pattern of structures, the cold envi- elevations to the west.
ronment which naturally preserves food, and the
necessity of foodstuffs for the people who re- Maquellouan Punta
mained in the site support this interpretation.
The residential area measured 27 m by 31 m and At the southern edge of the Quebrada Cun-
was delineated by a low, square platform sup- cashca, 200 m below Chonta Ranra, is another
porting a rectangular grid comprised of four hilltop site, Maquellouan Punta (PAn 5-4). This
rooms, each 2 m by 3 m in plan, plus a trape- had a different function, but shared aspects of
zoidal structure standing alone and an apsidal site planning with Chonta Ranra Punta. Ma-
room attached to the platform wall. The rooms quellouan Punta was built along the slope and
are constructed of dressed stone masonry. Test top of a limestone rock formation at 4118 masl.
pits in one of the rooms revealed scattered Its location, with a good view of the Callejn de
ceramics associated with charcoal. Huaylas, could have been a factor in choosing
this place for settlement. Maquellouan was
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 142

connected to the Santa Valley floor by a prehis- triangular black chert points in excavation
toric road (Figure 14). The occupants lived on contexts. Most of the ground stone points were
terraces, and the summit was used for ceremo- collected on the surface, except point 466 which
nial activities. The site plan shows an artificial was associated with a biface. Point 400-2 can be
platform with complex architecture, a central compared with Lynchs Lampas Type 16 (Lynch
plaza with a rectangular room, and a northern 1980: figure 9.3, r). Cutting tools such as coarse
platform based on a natural mound that sup- denticulate implements, or scrapers (n=433), a
ports a residential sector (Figure 29). The plan uniface (lithic 400-5), and utilized flakes com-
of Maquellouan Punta shares some common plete the lithic inventory.
features with that of Chonta Ranra Punta.
However, while Chonta Ranra Punta is bigger, A large number of Early Horizon ceramics
Maquellouan contains much denser archaeolog- were found here (Figures 30, 31), as well as deer
ical deposits. Retention walls were used at this and camelid bones. A silver pin was found in the
site because of its very steep cliff, especially on second patio next to the northern platform.
its northern and southern sides. The rectangular This item of personal adornment, as well as an
room built in the plaza measures approximately incised deer bone and fine ceramics, tells us
13 m x 4 m and yielded information about something about the social organization of the
ceremonial practices. people who lived at the Maquellouan site. A
three meter square excavation pit (Unit A)
Sixty-seven percent of the tools made from placed perpendicular to the thick wall that
faunal parts that were recovered in the Pierina dissects Platform I yielded information about the
area have been found at the Maquellouan Punta constant remodeling and construction at
site. Thirty-two percent of the artifacts made Maquellouan. The foundation of Platform I was
from faunal parts found there were recovered a series of large, cut stones with a loose dirt and
from the rectangular structure. The most com- refuse fill between them. Considerable labor
mon tools are made of camelid bones or taruka was necessary to build such platforms because of
(the northern Andean deer, Hippocamelus the two meter deep fill and the structures many
antisensis) antlers used as gravers and for soft- remodelings.
pressure lithic flaking. Eleven projectile points,
six of black chert, four of fine shale, and one of At about 30 to 40 cm below the ground
a porphyritic igneous rock (point 400-7) were surface of the artificial platform I encountered a
also found with minimal indication of flaking circular structure corresponding to the late
(Grimaldo 1999:216). In general these projectile Cotojirca V (A.D. 1200-1400) occupation of
points share similarities with those from the Maquellouan Punta. This was, perhaps, a do-
Chonta Ranra site. The igneous point has mestic structure. Ceramic fragments dispersed
unique features including ferro-magnesium throughout the site are associated with the
crystals, a rectilinear distal base, and larger size Cotojirca Phase V. Below this was an Early
(64 mm long and 23 mm wide) compared to the Horizon structure. The lower structure clearly
shale points. The shale and chert points have forms a circular room. Its masonry is elaborate
polished surfaces, beveled edges, and flat sec- with carefully chosen cut stones arranged over
tions (points 400-6 and 426). Similar points a limestone calcite soil associated with the core
were found in the debris of buildings A, E, and Early Horizon occupation of the site. The struc-
F at Chavn de Huntar and were associated ture is related to the Janabarriu Style and to
with Recuay ceramics (Tello 1960: figure 142). Huars White-on-Red Style ceramics(Cotojirca
Ground stone points seem to be found above I Phase). At the bottom of Unit A was a deposit
143 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

resting in the small natural hollows in the upper camelid meat was consumed and where neckless
surface of the limestone bedrock. ollas with spouts were used (Figure 33: 3913).
The Cotojirca I Phase ceramics are similar to
Urpay Coto those found at Maquellouan, but compared to
the subsequent Cotojirca IV/Ancosh occupation
The Urpay Coto site (PAn 5-39, Figure 32) (A.D. 650-950) their presence is minimal at the
is on the upper part of a natural hill at 2938 site.
masl. At this altitude the climate is warmer than
it is at sites on the puna or suni ecozones.4 The Quitapampa C
site includes two levels of retention walls that
also could have had a defensive function. Test excavations in the terrace 5 m east of
Rooms and other structures on the top of the Quitapampa C (Pan 5-50), a Recuay funerary
hill can barely be seen because they are covered chamber in the upper part of the Cotojirca
by bushes. However, in the central part of the neighborhood, revealed a feature consisting of a
site excavations uncovered a terrace wall that small, U-shaped stone structure with a different
separated a complex of small structures associ- function from that of the Recuay mortuary
ated with camelid bones and ceramics (Unit C, structure. It is 1.46 m long and 0.79 m high and
Figure 32). Camelid bones consisted of limb was built with rustic masonry of mid-size stones
parts of one adult alpaca, one adult llama, and joined with mud mortar. The structure delin-
two young camelids (Rofes 1999:167). These eated a cist-like chamber filled with silty clay
finds suggest that camelid consumption oc- soil to a depth of 0.56 m. Within this soil were
curred here. A radiocarbon sample was taken small pieces of charcoal and sherds of a neckless
from a ceramic fragment (register number 3924) olla which show clear indications of having been
and yielded a very early date of 1410-1265 B.C. exposed to fire. The floor of the cist is composed
(Table 2). This measurement is problematical. of burnt clay soil 0.06 m thick. A radiocarbon
It is possible that the calcitic soil in contact with sample was taken from the charcoal deposited
the ceramic produced a contaminated date. on the floor. It yielded a date of 480-230 B.C.
(Table 2), which would place it within the Early
In the central part of the hill, I excavated a Horizon. The structure resembled an earthen
2.20 by 2.90 m rectangular room with high cooking oven or pachamanca. The utilitarian
masonry walls. It had a narrow door and a low ollas share some features, including sandy paste,
bench inside. Its function was probably related white inclusions, and orange color. Surfaces are
to habitation, although no domestic features or greatly eroded. The ollas lack parallels with the
artifacts were found inside. Most of the archaeo- Cotojirca Phase I Style. We could not continue
logical structures of Urpay Coto remain buried excavations in this area because of hostile
and covered with vegetation. Therefore, the reactions from the landowner. This zone may
map presented here must be regarded as prelimi- contain an Early Horizon component.
nary. Nevertheless, the portion of retaining
walls investigated reveals a fortified site where DISCUSSION, INTERPRETATION, AND
According to the classification of Peruvian geographer
Javier Pulgar Vidal, who drew upon indigenous concepts,
Assessing the Cotojirca I Phase
the suni zone is between 3200 and 4000 meters in eleva-
tion in the central Andes (Pulgar 1946:105) and is The stylistic elements that comprise the
suitable for the cultivation of tubers and Chenopodium Cotojirca I Phase come principally from the
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 144

Am II Tomb E. The ceramics associated with stamped decoration. This amazing example is in
the burial constitute examples related to the The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York
Early Capilla Style (600-400 B.C.). Bowls with and has been dated to between 400 and 200
Red-on-Orange decoration and divergent side- B.C., within the range I have proposed for the
walls like that found in context 49N11 are Isabelita Rock.
common in the Huaricoto and Early Capilla
Styles, but there is a slight difference in the An incised broad line bowl found beside the
decorative painted band. The same Red-on- White-on-Red bowl in the Am II R burial
Orange decoration appears on neckless ollas in context suggests a longer chronology than has
the refuse area context 49IV30 and is compara- been assumed for the Huars White-on-Red
ble to the Capilla Expansive Phase of the Paco- Style. Lumbreras (1993:417) obtained radiocar-
pampa site dated by Morales (1998:118) at bon dates from the temple of Chavn de Hun-
around 400 B.C. From the same refuse context tar from Huars domestic contexts and burials
decorations of circular and dash-like puncta- within a range from 780 to 150 B.C., but all of
tions confirm the correlation of the Cotojirca these dates are uncalibrated. Surprisingly, the
Phase I with the Huaricoto Style. Huars White-on-Red Style is found in associa-
tion with other styles from the Early Horizon
Another piece of evidence key to accessing such as the incised bowl from the Am II R
the early chronology of the Cotojirca I Phase context. Similarities to the incised Am II R
comes from the pair of bottles found in the bowl may be found in Proulxs (1985:198)
burial. The gray bottle from the Am II E mor- Nepea Broad Lined Incised type dated to the
tuary context resembles a bottle found in a tomb Early Horizon Chakinani Phase.
at the Kuntur Wasi site that corresponds to the
Copa Phase (c. 500-250 B.C.). Proulx (1973: Circular stamped decoration on rounded
plate 1a-c) shows a group of long-necked, bowls has also been found in the refuse deposit
single-spout bottles whose origin is in the Nepe- context 49IV30. This is a feature consistently
a Valley. Because long-necked bottles have not associated with the Janabarriu Phase, a late
been found in the Callejn de Huaylas, one Early Horizon manifestation. Observing the
could argue for an exotic or imported prove- variability of the styles from the 49IV30 context,
nance. Generally, long-necked bottles are found a chronological gap seems to exist among the
at north coast sites within the Cupisnique artifacts deposited with it, probably caused by
tradition. Furthermore, the extended position of disturbance. A more refined classification would
the human body in the Am II Tomb E con- distinguish more than one phase. The Isabelita
forms with coastal mortuary customs during the Rock engraving and the whole Am II site were
Late Cupisnique (c. 500-200 B.C.; Elera 1994: located in a special place according to a sacred
248) and with those of the Puerto Moorin Phase geography.
(350 B.C. to A.D. 1) at the beginning of the
Early Intermediate Period for the Vir Valley Settlement Pattern
(Grieder 1978:51; Wilson 1988:149). A long-
necked bottle with modeled and incised decora- The evidence presented for interaction of
tion depicting a reptile with the same attributes settlements during the Cotojirca I Phase is
as the reptile from Isabelita Rock has been deduced from similarities in artifacts, site plan-
recovered from an unknown context at the ning, and dependency on agriculture and
Tembladera site (Pasztory 1998:98). The vessel pastoralism exploiting a number of vertical
has post-fired red resin paint and circular ecozones. The sociopolitical organization cen-
145 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

tralized in Mareniyoc permitted the multiplica- Casma Valley indicates warfare as a reason for
tion of rites and ceremonies at other, subsidiary, the profusion of fortresses during the Patazca
sites on the puna above it as well as within the Period (350 to 1 B.C.). The increasing popula-
lower warm valley ecozone near the Santa tion and the need for more agricultural land
River. Nevertheless, Mareniyoc is distinguished forced chiefdoms to fight among themselves.
from the rest of the sites in the area by its man-
agement and production of symbols. The large The Am II Ritual Area of Mareniyoc
funerary area is next to the religious site, Am
II. Furthermore, ethnographic data from the As I mentioned in the introduction, the
local farmers support the idea that during the simple architecture around the Great Stone and
Early Horizon Mareniyoc was already a central its human burial beneath may have ceremonial
place controlling the Cuncashca puna where meaning related to the ritual of burial and
today townspeople conduct their animals to dry reverence paid to the interred individual.
season grazing lands (Sergio Vergara, personal Doyles definition of the Cusco Quechua machay
communication, 1998). Transhumance among as a sacred space formed by natural or modified
various ecological zones at different altitudes caves, with openings that were intentionally
within the Callejn de Huaylas has been occur- blocked to reduce the size of the entrances
ring since preceramic times (Lynch 1971). (1988:110) exactly matches the Am II Tomb
The settlement pattern with the distribution
of open spaces as patios between artificial or Another factor that demonstrates the cere-
natural platforms reflects a desire to congregate monial aspect of the Great Stone is its orienta-
people in limited areas. The social activity tion to the highest mountain peaks of the Cor-
developed at the Maquellouan site seems to dillera Blanca. This is related to the well-known
have included ceremonies and rituals where Andean practice of showing reverence to moun-
feasts were important to group coherence. tains through rites performed with sea products
Information recovered from Queyash Alto has (Rostworowski 1986:87). A monolith, Piruro II
indicated the role of celebration sponsored by (PAn 5-9; Figures 34-36), with similar ceremo-
recognized social and political authorities (Gero nial attributes was found on the upper ridge
1992:18). Our data concur in that the commu- above the Am II site, at the boundary between
nity organized its collective life around celebra- the puna and suni ecozones (3930 masl). This
tion and drinking, thus affirming social relations stone was modified to a cubical form. It was
and reciprocity. made of tuff (silica), is 1.22 meters high, and is
enclosed by a nearly circular structure composed
Fortified constructions at high altitude sites of irregularly shaped rocks (Figure 36). The
such as Chonta Ranra Punta may be explained faces of the cubic stone were carved with simple
by the need to install an outpost or refuge that designs, possibly depicting a human face, but
could control the puna and the Cuncashca not in any particular style (Figure 35). Piruro II
Quebrada. Both sites coexisted with similar faces north, towards the Huascarn peak. Only
settlement plans. Furthermore, the communica- two tubular kaolinite beads, each 5 cm long, and
tion with the primary center (Mareniyoc) in a one spherical metal bead were found in the
complementary economy was a means of inte- structure surrounding the stone. Neither ceram-
grating a region where attacks may have come ics nor bones were among the offerings. In
from people occupying the western slopes of the summary, the structures around sacred rocks
Cordillera Negra. Wilsons (1995) work in the may have had the function of shrines, where the
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 146

members of the local communities celebrated A possible connection between the icono-
ceremonies on special occasions, as they cur- graphy of the Isabelita Rock and the manipula-
rently do throughout the year at small Catholic tion of religious power in circular structures is
shrines in Andean communities. the representation of the cat mouth in the
images of the reptile and the feline. Rowe
Isabelita: Assessing the Art Style (1970:81) argued for a relationship between the
jaguar mouth and the religious ritual associated
Although the incision technique on flat with important mythological beings. Further-
surfaces of rock was used in the sculptures from more, in the Cupisnique region a powerful
Cerro Sechn (Burger 1989:552), the represen- religious ideology appeared that featured human
tations on the Isabelita Rock are quite different. trophy heads, a feline/bird/reptile triad, fish, and
The frontal position of the man with a trophy spondylus imported from what is now Ecuador,
head, as represented on the Isabelita Rock never among other elements (Von Hagen and Morris
appeared at Sechn. The artist who made the 1998:57). All of these concepts are expressed on
Isabelita image could have inherited the Sechn the Isabelita Rock. Without doubt some kind of
technique, but his or her cultural expression generalized ritual must have existed in the
differs from the Sechn Style. The reptile head Andes when the late Chavn Style was current,
on the Isabelita Rock is similar to the engraved and aspects of this ritual seem to have been
bone from Pallka and may have been intended both expressed by the Isabelita Rock and per-
to represent the same being. Almost all the formed there.
diagnostic ceramics of the Cotojirca I Phase
found at the Am II site have their counterparts When Menzel and her colleagues studied
within the Pallka temple ceramic assemblage, the ceramic sequence of Ica, based on artifacts
which may have been the center of diffusion at from Ocucaje and Callango, they recognized
this time. innovations introduced in Phase 9 that were
derived from Phase 8, the latter still under
The principal element of the Isabelita Rock Chavn Phase EF influence (Menzel et al. 1964:
is the frontal man holding a trophy head. This 259). The principal innovation, according to
image represents a ritual human sacrifice in- Menzel et al., is a mythical personification of the
tended to ensure a good harvest or success in Oculate Being, represented as the full figure of
some other project (Benson 1997:11). This a man, with a trophy head, appendages on the
images central position may indicate that it is top of this head, angular arms and legs, and
a deity, as seen in Cupisnique petroglyphs (Guff- incised lines marking off the fingers (ibid.: fig-
roy 1999:136). The mammal represented in full ures 44b, 52c, figure 40 from Willey 1974: plate
body profile, if intended to represent a fox, 359). All of these attributes are exhibited by the
evokes the metaphoric significance of such human-like being depicted on the Isabelita
animals in the Andes in connection with agri- Rock. Whether this figure is the same mythical
cultural cycles and productivity (Urton 1985: entity as the Oculate Being, or is the representa-
267). Today deer are considered to be the cows tion of a man with a trophy head and hafted
of the apus or sacred mountains. They belong to knife, remains unclear, but the figure appears
them and when humans kill them they always elsewhere in the Andes (ibid.: 259). In this
have to deposit offerings in exchange for them respect, Grieder (1978:183) suggested a Paracas
(ibid.: 258-259). Both foxes and deer are cur- influence on elements of the Recuay Style
rently seen in the Cordillera Negra in the puna ceramics. Whether true or not, long distance
near outcrops. interactions were occurring at the same time.
147 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

The appearance of the trophy head theme in puna and valley floor interacted with the
two distant regions at the same time confirms Mareniyoc center in a pattern of vertical ecolog-
the decline of the Chavn Horizon, the demise ical control. The Cotojirca I Phase shows the
of its cult, and the emergence of sites such as development of a kin-based chiefdom in a
Pallka and Kuntur Wasi (Burger 1989: 561) and circumscribed mountainous territory within the
the beginning of the White-on-Red Horizon Callejn de Huaylas.
Elements of the iconography expressed on I am grateful to my wife Shari for reviewing and
the Isabelita Rock persisted in the art of societ- correcting the English text. Special thanks go to project
ies such as Recuay and Wari. Examples of members Cesar Aguirre, Santiago Morales, Emily Baca,
Recuay art showing full frontal humans are and Sergio Anchi (all from the Universidad Nacional
common in the media of petroglyphs, bone Mayor de San Marcos). Luis Lumbreras commented on
the first Spanish language draft and I benefitted from
carvings, and ceramics (Ponte 2005). In the Richard Burgers advice on a revised English version. Bill
corpus of Callejn de Huaylas rock sculpture Sapp also helped to improve this paper. Two anonymous
produced during Wari times, one frequently Andean Past reviewers made useful critiques and sugges-
finds depictions of a central human being flank- tions. Research was supported by Minera Barrick Misqui-
chilca, S.A., owner of the Pierina Mine. Sincere thanks
ed by felines. This is a Recuay theme appropri-
goes to Barrick managers, especially Holton Burns,
ated by the Wari imperial apparatus as part of Environmental Coordinator, who included cultural
their efforts to control ideology. mitigation in the environmental management master plan.


Arriaga, Joseph Pablo

This discussion of the Isabelita Rock engrav- 1999 [1621] La extirpacin de la idolatra en el Piru.
ing focused on its meaning in its archaeological Cusco: Centro de Estudios Regionales Andinos
context and elucidated its relationship to con- Bartolom de las Casas.
cepts of space-time during the Cotojirca I Phase. Bennett, Wendell
1944 The North Highlands of Peru: Excavations in the
It also revealed its association with funerary
Callejn de Huaylas and at Chavin de Huantar.
rituals that may have established the foundation Anthropological Papers of the American Mu-
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veneration expressed on a sacred rock. The Benson, Elizabeth P.
Isabelita Rock engraving is contemporaneous 1997 Birds and Beasts of Ancient Latin America. Gaines-
ville: University Press of Florida.
with the EF Phase of Chavn de Huntar rock Bischof, Henning
sculpture seriation (late Early Horizon) while 1994 Toward the Definition of Pre- and Early Chavin
the rounded structure and the burial is earlier, Art Styles in Peru. Andean Past 4:169-228.
as shown by ceramics in the mid-Early Horizon Bueno Mendoza, Alberto
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ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 148

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151 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Chronological Chart: Ceramic Styles of the Northern Highlands of Peru

Cajamarca Callejn de Huaylas Nepea Valley Casma Valley

Scale Chavn de
Pacopampa Kunturwasi La Pampa Huaricoto Pierina



200 Cotojirca III

8 Moche III-IV


100 Cotojirca II

200 Sotera Stamped circles Huars Huars Chankillo

300 Red-on-Orange San Diego

400 Expansiva Late Capilla Cotojirca I Janabarriu Kushipampa Pallka

500 Copa Copa Chakinani

La Pampa Early Capilla
8 Urabarriu

700 Ofrendas

800 Kunturwasi Modeled, Incised Quitapampa

900 Pacopampa Yesopampa

1000 dolo Huaricoto Chavinoid Las Haldas

Table 1: Chronology and ceramic styles of the northern Highlands of Peru.

13 14
Lab No. Site Register No. Sector Unit Material * C F C BP 1F

AA32484 PAn 5-1 137 3 A Charcoal -24.1 0.75750.0053 2,23055 390-210 BC

AA32480 PAn 5-4 443 Platform I A Charcoal -26 0.92110.0044 66040 AD 1280-1390

AA32492 PAn 5-39 3924 Area 2 C1 Ceramic -23.7 0.68340.0041 3,06050 1410-1265 BC

AA32488 PAn 5-50 5025 II Charcoal -24.6 0.75040.0053 2,30555 480-230 BC

Table 2: Radiocarbon dates for Chonta Ranra Punta (PAn 5-1), Maquellouan Punta (PAn 5-4),
Urpay Coto Site (PAn 5-39), and Quitapampa C (PAn 5-50),calibrated according to
Struiver and Becker 1986:863.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 152

Figure 1: Isabelita rock.

Figure 2: Isabelita rock seen from above (from Ponte 2005: figure 2).
153 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Figure 3: Isabelita Rock motifs.

Figure 4: Great Stone.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 154

Figure 5: Plan of Great Stone and surrounding circular structure (after Ponte 2005: figure 4).
155 -

Figure 6: Plan of Am II site (for Great Rock read

Great Stone).
Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 156

Figure 7: Dark Space underneath Great Stone looking east, where offerings were found.
157 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Figure 8: Profile A-A, Am II site. See Figure 6.

Figure 9: Profile B-B, Am II site. See Figure 6.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 158

Figure 10, Profile C-C, Am II site. See Figure 6.

Figure 11: Section of Mareniyoc mound made by local people during house construction.
159 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Figure 12: Map of Peru showing Formative sites mentioned in the text. 1. Mareniyoc; 2. Huaricoto;
3. Pallka; 4. Tumshucaico; 5. Pumacayan (Huaraz); 6. Chupacoto; 7. La Pampa; 8. Guitarrero Cave;
9. Kunturwasi; 10. Puemape; 11. Piruro; 12. Pacopampa; 13. Chavn de Huantar; 14. Cerro Sechn;
15. Punkur; 16. Queyash Alto; 17. Kotosh; 18. Puerto Morin; 19. Tembladera; 20. La Galgada;
21. Cupisnique; 22. Cerro Blanco. Garagay, Paracas, Callango, and Ocucaje are off the map. Garagay
is within metropolitan Lima. The Paracas sites are on the Paracas Peninsula on Perus south coast.
Callango and Ocucaje are in the Ica Valley, also on the south coast.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 160

Figure 13: Map of the Callejn de Huaylas showing the distribution of Early Horizon sites.
Key: 1 = Chonta Ranra Punta, PAn 5-1; 4 = Maquellouan Punta, PAn 5-4; 5A = Balcn de Judas,
PAn 5A; 5F = Marcum, PAn 5F; 9 = Piruro II, PAn 5-9; 13 = Tapa Punta, PAn 5-13; 16 =
Wiaq Punta, PAn 5-16; 17 = Quenapun Punta, PAn 5-17; 24 = Shucsha Punta, PAn 5-24; 25 =
Racrish Punta, PAn 5-25; 29 = Oshku, PAn 5-29; 37 = Mareniyoc, PAn 5-37; 39 = Urpay Coto,
PAn 5-39; 49 = Am II, PAn 5-49; 50 = Quitapampa C, PAn 5-50; 58 = Llaca Am, PAn 5-58;
77 = Ain, PAn 5-77; 79 = Castilla Coto, PAn 5-79.
161 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Figure 14: Map of sites in study area. Key: 1 = Chonta Ranra Punta PAn 5-1; 4 = Maquellouan
Punta, PAn 5-4; 9 = Piruro II, PAn 5-9; 13 = Tapa Punta, PAn 5-13; 16 = Wiaq Punta PAn 5-
16; 17 = Quenapun Punta, PAn 50-1; 37 = Mareniyoc, PAn 5-37; 39 = Urpay Coto, PAn 5-39;
49 = Am, PAn 5-77; 50 = Quitapampa C, PAn 5-50. Scale in kilometers.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 162

Figure 15: Distribution of funerary chambers in the Pierina area.

163 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Figure 16: View of the setting of the Am II site. The site stands on the ridge to the viewers right and is
covered by trees. The Santa River is in the middle ground.

Figure 17: Some of the lapis lazuli and green chrysocolla beads
found in the Am II E Tomb (scale in one centimeter intervals).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 164

Figure 18: Reconstructed gray bottle from

Tomb E, Am II site, context 49IV2. Scale
is in one centimeter intervals.

Figure 19: Cotojirca I

bowls from Tomb E at the
Am II site.
165 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Figure 20: Cotojirca I decorated bowl from Tomb E at the Ama II site.

Figure 21: Cotojirca I decorated bowl from Tomb R at the Am II site.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 166

Figure 22: Cotojirca II decorated bowl from Tomb R at the Am II site.

167 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Figure 23: Cotojirca I sherds from the domestic rubbish heap at the Am II site.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 168

Figure 24: Cotojirca I sherds from the domestic

rubbish heap at the Am II site.

Figure 25: Cotojirca I ceramics from the domes-

tic rubbish heap at the Am II site.
169 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Figure 26: Cotojirca

I ollas from the
domestic rubbish
heap at the Am II

Figure 27: Cotojirca

I bowls from the
domestic rubbish
heap at the Am II
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 170

Figure 28: Plan of Chonta Ranra Punta (after Ponte 2000: figure 3).
171 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Figure 29: Plan of Maquellouan Punta (after Ponte 2000: figure 6).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 172

Figure 30: Ceramics from the Maquellouan site.

Figure 31: Ceramics from the Maquellouan site.

173 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Figure 32: Plan of Urpay Coto. PAn 5-39.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 174

Figure 33: Ceramics from the Urpaycoto site.

Figure 34: The Piruro II monolith in its original setting looking towards
the 6,768 m Huascarn peak.
175 - Ponte: Isabelita Rock Engraving

Figure 35: A human face is barely discernable on the north side of the Piruro II monolith.

Figure 36: Plan of Piruro II monolith and surrounding structure.



Metropolitan State College of Denver ARQUEOBIOS, Trujillo, Per


University of Tennessee, Knoxville ARQUEOBIOS, Trujillo, Per and
Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo, Per
Metropolitan State College of Denver RICHARD BUSCH
Denver Museum of Nature and Science

Numerous researchers have discussed the in a tomb. Nelson (1998) described undisturbed
finds of what they refer to as secondary inter- burials containing incomplete skeletons at the
ments in funerary contexts around the world Moche site of San Jos de Moro. He attributes
(Dulanto 2002; Hecker and Hecker 1992; Klaus these to an extended funerary rite, whereby the
and Tam 2009; Larson 2001; Millaire 2004; body was protected from external elements
Nelson 1998; Weiss-Krejci 2001; Verano 1997). (such as insects) that sped decomposition, in
In the Andean region, the finds range from the order to allow for a transitional component of
jumbled bones that Verano (1997) refers to in the mortuary ritual. This may have included
the tombs at Sipn to ritual re-interment de- long-distance travel and rites of re-incorporation
scribed by Millaire (2004). This pattern has been of the individual back into the social order in
described for numerous sites in Peru dating to accordance with rites of passage as described by
various time periods (Dulanto 2002; Hecker and van Gennep (1960). Nelson (1998) notes that
Hecker 1992; Klaus and Tam 2009; Millaire the partial decomposition of the corpse during
2004; Nelson 1998; and Verano 1997) and may, this interim period might explain lost body parts,
therefore, represent a common feature in particularly if long-distance transport was
mortuary practice, both spatially and temporally, involved in the ritual. Other researchers (Klaus
in this region of the world. and Tam 2009; Millaire 2004; Hecker and
Hecker 1992) have described parts of bodies
Few researchers, however, have described included with principal personages in tombs.
finds of the contexts from which these second- Klaus and Tam (2009) noted a preference at the
ary interments may have been harvested. colonial Chapel of San Pedro de Mrrope for
Verano (1997) described the find of complete long bones and skulls. The site of Santa Rita B
bodies with the bones in a jumbled state at the in the Chao Valley of Perus north coast also
Moche site of Sipn. He interpreted this as demonstrates secondary interments in a funerary
indicating that some decomposition had taken context. However, there are some notable and
place prior to the inclusion of the body in the intriguing differences seen at this north coast
secondary context, and suggested that perhaps site.
the bodies had been stored for future inclusion

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009): 177-194.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 178

The site of Santa Rita B also appears to context of ancestor worship. This is a different
demonstrate a pattern of ritual re-interment, pattern from what is seen at Santa Rita B and
which includes isolated body parts interred with thus, the reason for this strange harvest is not
principal personages. Notable at this site, how- yet clear.
ever, is the presence of what we are calling a
harvested body. This individual demonstrates Secondary burial deposits are often present
missing elements in combination with little or in numerous Andean archaeological contexts,
no evidence for post-interment disturbance, and scholars frequently frame such features as
similar to what Nelson (1998) described at San part of the ancestor cult, or mortuary practices
Jos de Moro. In contrast to what Nelson (1998) that provide continuity between the living and
found, however, there is evidence that Entierro the dead (Dillehay 1995). Such practices help
(Burial) 9 was interred at Santa Rita B shortly enhance collective relationships and legitimize
after death and with flesh intact. Not only is the which resources a particular community controls
skeleton well-articulated, there is no evidence of (Dillehay 1995; Salomon 1995). As noted by
insect activity, and the bones show crushing Klaus and Tam (2009), however, the pattern
injuries consistent with moist bone impacted by one would expect with ancestor worship in-
the placement of several large rocks on top of cludes, at a minimum, successful reproduction
the body. Some of the missing skeletal elements and adult age for those re-interred individuals.
were taken from the body prior to the placement This is not the pattern seen at Santa Rita B with
of the rocks on top of it. Additionally, this respect to Entierro 9. The purpose of this paper
individual appears to be a sacrifice victim rather is to present the case of Entierro 9, discuss its
than an ancestor or another principal personage, possible relevance within the context of Andean
based upon the atypical position of the body, mortuary practice and to further discuss the
including the haphazard manner in which it was possibilities regarding what behavior inferred
interred, evidence of violent injuries on the from it might mean.
skeleton, and its association with other sacrifice
victims also demonstrating atypical burial ARCHAEOLOGICAL SETTING
positions and traumatic lesions consistent with
sacrifice. The skeleton demonstrates missing The Santa Rita B archaeological site is on
elements, primarily long bones (which is consistent the western slopes of the Andes of Northern
with Klaus and Tams description), and not only Peru (Figure 1), in the lower portion of the
is there no evidence of cultural taphonomic middle Chao Valley at an average elevation of
disturbance, but there is, in fact, significant 484 m above mean sea level. Its strategic posi-
evidence that the body was not disturbed tion permitted a certain degree of control over
post-interment given the placement of the the movement of people, goods, and camelid
rocks. This differs from what Dulanto (2002) herds between the coastal and highland regions
describes at Pampa Chica, a Late Initial (Kent et al. 1999). See Gaither et al. (2008) for
Period/Early Horizon site (ca. 700-200 B.C.) in a more detailed description of the site and its
the Lurn Valley on the central coast of Peru. location.
He describes tombs containing incomplete
skeletons. The tombs at this site, however, show Now having completed its tenth season, the
clear evidence of re-opening in order to access Santa Rita B Archaeological Project has been
the human remains and the remains accessed defining the nature of the human occupation of
appear to have been those of principal the site and investigating selected aspects of its
personages. Dulanto (2002) interprets this in the economic, social, political, and ideological
179 - Gaither et al.: North Coast Sacrifice

history. Most recently (since 2001) excavations We have determined that the upper strata of the
have focused on areas of apparent domestic site were deposited sometime between AD 1050
architecture, making up complexes of rooms and 1280. During our excavations here, several
ranging in number from 10-30 enclosures. One human skeletons were encountered that pro-
of these, known as Archaeological Complex duced calibrated C-14 dates of this time period
No. 3 (Conjunto Arquitectnico 3, or just CA3) and which are the focus of this paper (Table 1).
is a rock-walled compound measuring about 29
m N-S x 25 m E-W, subdivided into
approximately 19 partly or completely enclosed
spaces or rooms (Figure 2).

Lab. Cat. Material Taken From Type of Conventional 13C/ 2F Cal* p

No. No. Personage Radiocarbon 12C
Age (CRA)
Beta- SRB- BONE/ PRINCIPAL A.D. 1134-1271 0.886
ENTIERRO #4 900 + 40 -18.4
217488 560-1 R. RIBS PERSONAGE A.D. 1046-1084 0.113

PROBABLE A.D. 1145-1272 0.928

Beta- SRB- BONE/
ENTIERRO #3 HUMAN 890 + 40 -15.5 A.D. 1049-1079 0.072
217489 561-1 L. RIBS

PROBABLE A.D. 1175-1281 0.976

Beta- SRB- BONE/
ENTIERRO #2 HUMAN 850 + 40 -21.6 A.D. 1162-1172 0.024
217490 562-1 R. RIBS

*2-sigma age ranges calibrated using the CALIB RADIOCARBON PROGRAM SHcal 04 for the southern hemisphere developed by McCormac
et al., 2004 used in conjunction with Stuiver and Reimer, 1993.
p = Probability of actual calibrated date falling within stated range.

Table 1: Calibrated radiocarbon dates for human bones samples.

ENTIERRO 9 Assignment of sex in subadults based on

mandibular morphology does have some support
Entierro 9 is the partial skeleton of a in the literature. Sutter (2003) demonstrated an
sub-adult, possibly male, aged 12 years30 accuracy of 77.6% for sex estimation using
months at time of death. Age estimation is mandibular arcade shape in a study utilizing
based on epiphyseal union, dental eruption, and prehistoric known-sex subadult mummies from
long bone lengths using standards developed by northern Chile. The glabellar region on the
both Gaither (2004) and Ubelaker (1999). Both cranium of this skeleton also appeared robust,
sets of standards are consistent with this age indicating a possible male; however, there are
estimate. See Table 2 for details on age no studies addressing the accuracy of this mor-
indicators in this skeleton. The assignment of phology for assigning sex in subadults. The rest
sex as possibly male is based on a very masculine of the cranium was ambiguous with regard to
mandibular morphology. sexually dimorphic characteristics, and the
pelvis was missing.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 180
Skeletal element Age indication in Entierro Number 9 Age range possibilities Age estimate

Dental formation All permanent teeth erupted and in wear with Gaither (2004) = 12 years 21 months 12 years 30
and eruption the exception of the third molar, which has not Ubelaker (1999) = 11 years 30 months months = age
yet erupted range of 9.5-15
years of age

Epiphyseal Union All major long bone epiphyses unfused including Vertebral arches and bodies to centra fuse in 9-15 years of age
the distal humerus early childhood (by 7 years of age) (Scheuer
All vertebral arches fused together, and at least and Black 2000)
partially, to the centra (see L5) Pelvic elements fuse between approximately
L5 body to arch partial union 8-10 years of age (Bass 1995), but all are
Cervical and vertebral rims unfused missing in this individual
No pelvic elements present The earliest epiphyseal union in long bones
All cranial sutures unfused occurs on the distal humerus, the epiphyses
Basilar suture unfused of which can unite as early as 9 years and as
Medial clavicle unfused late as 13 years of age in females and as early
as 11 years and as late as 15 years of age in
males (White and Folkens 2005) the
humerus of Entierro Number 9 is not fused
Basilar suture union usually occurs between
18 and 21 years of age (Scheuer and Black
Medial clavicle union occurs no later than 31
years of age (Scheuer and Black 2000)

Long bone lengths Due to the fragmentary nature of the skeleton, Gaither (2004) = 13 years 12 years
only one long bone was complete enough to Ubelaker (1999) = 11 years
measure. It was the right ulna = 206 mm.

Table 2: Age Indicators in Entierro Number 9

Missing elements include the left humerus, mark on the sternebra, however, is more sub-
radius, ulna, all of the bones of the left hand and stantial and may be the product of violence.
some of the bones of the right hand, the entire Additionally, there is other evidence of trauma
pelvis, the left femur, patella, tibia, fibula, and on the body, and therefore, it is not possible to
all of the bones of the left ankle and foot. The rule out violence as the cause of the cut marks.
right fibula and the bones of the right ankle and Other evidence of trauma includes a peri-
foot are also missing (Figure 3). Pathologies mortem fracture of the right femur (Figure 7)
include the presence of cut marks on one right and possible blunt force trauma to the occipital
rib, on one left rib fragment, and on one unfused region of the cranium. Specifically, the occipital
sternebra. See Figures 4-6 for photos of the cut bone is fractured and partially missing from the
marks on one rib and the sternebra and a draw- back of the skull. There is also a radiating frac-
ing of the location of the marks on the two ribs. ture on the right parietal, running from the
The superficial nature of these cut marks as well posterior to anterior portion and terminating in
as their location on the superior, internal as- the coronal suture (Figure 8). This suggests
pects of the ribs and the posterior aspect of the blunt force trauma to the back of the head,
sternebra support the hypothesis that these which certainly could have been fatal. This
marks may have been caused by natural tapho- trauma, in combination with the body position
nomic processes, which occurred shortly after supports the hypothesis of violent demise. While
death, rather than antemortem trauma. It is there was no evidence of the postmortem dis-
possible, for example, that as the body decom- articulation or dismemberment of body parts, it
posed and the rocks settled, the weight of the should be noted that the state of preservation of
rocks pressing on the bones caused superficial skeletal remains at this site is extremely poor.
cut marks on parts of the skeleton. The cut The bone was extraordinarily fragile, crumbling
181 - Gaither et al.: North Coast Sacrifice

at the slightest disturbance. It is quite possible construction or other cultural transformation

that such evidence was not preserved. processes that occurred during a later occu-
pation of the site. There is no stratigraphic
The position of the body is not typical of evidence for this, but the human remains are so
burials involving principal personages, which close to the ground surface that it is possible
tend to demonstrate a carefully positioned body such evidence may be very subtle and difficult to
and often include grave goods. Burials of princi- discern. The large rocks on top of the body,
pal personages contemporaneous with Entierro however, appear to have been placed on the
9 are often in an extended supine position individual shortly after death and they do not
(Shimada et al. 2004). Entierro 9, however, is appear to have been moved, as doing so would
prone (face down) with several large, heavy most certainly have disturbed the underlying
rocks placed on top of the body around the time remains. The fact that the skeleton, particularly
of death (Figure 9). Given that this is an atypi- the portion covered by the rocks, was perfectly
cal burial position and that this individual was articulated indicates this did not happen. A
excavated from a funerary context involving no second hypothesis is that body parts were
fewer than two principal personages (Entierros harvested from this skeleton for some ritualistic
4 and 8), both of which did demonstrate typical purpose, prior to interment. Once the appropriate
burial positions, it is likely that this is a sacrifice parts were removed, the body was placed in a
victim. It is also interesting to note that, while prone position and covered with large rocks.
there are several missing skeletal elements, there This was all accomplished very shortly after
was no visible stratigraphic evidence of looting death as there are no insect puparia associated
around the area of this skeleton. Additionally, with the body and the crushing injuries resulting
the missing elements are unusual, particularly from the placement of the rocks suggests the
given the position of the body and the presence bones were still moist upon interment. Entierro
of the large rocks. The placement of the rocks 9 presents the most compelling evidence for
on top of the body around the time of death is harvesting at Santa Rita B, however, there are
indicated by the position of the rocks nestled other possible harvested bodies at this site.
deep in the body cavity (Figure 10) and the
resulting perimortem crushing injuries to the In addition to Entierro 9, some of the other
body (Figure 11). In other words, the way the sacrifice victims found at Santa Rita B demon-
body bends as a result of the weight of the rocks strate evidence of harvesting. Included among
suggests the bone was moist when the rocks these is Entierro 5. Although there was a mod-
were put in place. This, along with an articu- ern looters pit present near the head of this
lated skeleton, as was the case with Entierro 9, subadult,1 the lower body was undisturbed, and
indicates a primary interment, which occurred yet, all of the bones of the left ankle and both
shortly after death. The lack of insect puparia feet were missing. This suggests the possibility
also supports the hypothesis of a rapid burial that both feet and the left ankle were har-
postmortem. The question becomes, how can vested. This individual also demonstrated peri-
we explain the missing skeletal elements? mortem cut marks on the ribs, one of which

The same aging indicators were used to estimate the age
There are at least two possibilities that might of this individual as were used for Entierro 9, the
explain these findings. The first is the possibility indicators for which can be seen in Table 1. These are
that the remains were disturbed in antiquity by standard aging indicators as per Buikstra and Ubelaker
(1994), Ubelaker (1999) and Gaither (2004).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 182

completely severed the tip of the rib. There is practices from this, or any, time period in the
also evidence of ritual re-interment at Santa Andean region. In other words, principal per-
Rita B. This includes the articulated remains of sonages are not found buried in these positions,
body parts. Entierro 10 is one example. This which supports our interpretation that these are
individual is represented exclusively by the sacrifice victims.
lower legs and there was no evidence for the
presence of the upper body, nor was there Verano (1986, 2000) and Bourget (2001)
evidence of any cultural or natural transforma- have described similar treatment of sacrifice
tion processes that might have disturbed the victims at the sites of Huaca de la Luna and
remains. Additionally, there was an articulated Pacatnam. Those skeletons also demonstrated
partial left foot with no other associated body atypical body positions and mutilation including
parts present. Entierro 1 was also a partial missing body parts. What differentiates the
skeleton consisting of the cranium of a subadult. Santa Rita B remains, however, is the fact that
The cranium demonstrated two areas of peri- these sacrifices were excavated from a funerary
mortem blunt force trauma indicating possible context that included no fewer than two princi-
sacrifice, but only a few other scattered bones pal personages. In contrast, the sacrifices of
were found and those could not be positively Pacatnam and those of Huaca de la Luna
associated with the cranium. Another sacrifice, (Plazas 3A and 3C) involve mass graves of
an adult male, is complete. This individual mutilated remains or ceremonial areas where
demonstrates injuries consistent with peri- mutilated bodies were left exposed (Verano
mortem trauma and interpersonal violence in 1986, 2000). At neither site were the bodies
the form of superficial cut marks to the sternum included with principal personages in a funerary
and an unhealed parry fracture. context. Veranos (1986, 2000) interpretation of
those remains as war prisoners or criminals who
When considering the bigger picture that is faced severe punishment is consistent for those
emerging at this site, it appears that the area contexts, but does not appear appropriate for
known as CA3 was an important area for ritual the finds at Santa Rita B.
activity. There are two principal burials, and
there is evidence that these individuals were of It is important in understanding the behav-
a high social status, including Spondylus caches ior of sacrifice to distinguish between the types
found near the body of one of these and associ- of sacrifice illustrated by the examples above.
ated camelid offerings found with both. Addi- Benson and Cook (2001:ix) define sacrifice as
tionally, one of these bodies, Entierro 4, demon- either giving without receiving or giving up
strates symmetrical cranial modification and something valuable that may benefit others. Of
there is evidence the other one, Entierro 8, also course, the most valuable thing that can be
had an intentionally modified cranium. Thus, given up is human life. The distinction between
the overall picture that emerges in this area of the sacrifices found in contexts similar to those
Santa Rita B is the presence of two principal of Huaca de la Luna or Pacatnam as compared
personages (Entierros 4 and 8) accompanied by to contexts such as that at Santa Rita B lies in
sacrifice victims and re-interred body parts from the reasons behind the behavior. While the
other contexts. The sacrifice victims are identi- behaviors seen at ceremonial centers like Huaca
fied by injuries suggestive of perimortem trauma de la Luna may have played a role in establish-
(Entierros 5 and 10), and/or haphazard atypical ing the authority of one group over another, or
body positions (Entierros 2, 3, 5, 9 and 10) that had symbolic meaning beyond warfare, such as
are not consistent with any identified funerary the possibility of ritual cannibalism in the Plaza
183 - Gaither et al.: North Coast Sacrifice

3B materials at Huaca de la Luna (Verano Andean region and persisted throughout time in
2001), we argue the sacrifices at Santa Rita B this part of the world. The practice is certainly
are more likely to have either been offerings in well described for the Moche culture (Hecker
and of themselves as part of a funeral rite, or and Hecker 1992; Millaire 2004; Nelson 1998;
what we, and others, have referred to as retainer Verano 1997), but the finds at Santa Rita B in
sacrifices (Gaither et al. 2008; Verano 2001). conjunction with the finds from other sites
These are individuals who were to serve the (Dulanto 2002; Klaus and Tam 2009) extend
dead in the afterlife. In both cases, an offering in the practice temporally as well. Describing the
and of itself, and a retainer sacrifice, the individ- patterns seen, and defining the temporal and
uals sacrificed can be seen as something valuable spatial parameters, is but the first step in the
that is given up in order to benefit others, in this process of understanding the behavior.
case the deceased principal personages. The
harvesting of body parts, however, suggests a There are at least two hypotheses that may
level of ritual that goes beyond the idea of a explain the behavior. Ancestor worship is the
retainer sacrifice. first possibility. While the role of the ancestor
cult is not heavily described in all mortuary
Also present at the site of Santa Rita B are analyses, numerous workers indicate that sec-
isolated, and often articulated body parts, in- ondary deposits of disarticulated and incomplete
cluding a skull demonstrating perimortem blunt skeletal remains are quite common in the Andes
force trauma (Entierro 1), articulated limbs (Buikstra 1995; Carmichael 1995; Dulanto
(Entierro 10), an articulated foot (SRB-05 -24 - 2002; Klaus and Tam 2009; Millaire 2004;
FS 4), and several other isolated bones. These Nelson 1998; Verano 1995, 1997). Although
finds support the hypothesis of ritual re-inter- such deposits are sometimes only loosely con-
ment of body parts from other contexts, and nected with the importance of ancestors, Brown
Entierro 9 is consistent with a body that has (1995) argues that such inferences are entirely
been harvested for parts, the location and probable. For example, Larson (2001) notes that
purpose of these parts being unknown. The secondary burials and the presence of incom-
dating of these finds and the funerary pattern plete skeletal remains in primary interments in
seen at Santa Rita B and at other sites (Dulanto Highland Madagascar are the result of multiple
2002; Klaus and Tam 2009; Millaire 2004; intrusions into a family tomb. Newly deceased
Nelson 1998; Verano 1997) support the hypoth- individuals are placed in the tomb and wound
esis that ritual re-interment is another together with previously deceased family mem-
pan-Andean mortuary practice. We have argued bers in order to combine them into one great
before that child sacrifice, retainer sacrifice, and ancestor (razambe) . Thus, it is entirely
the practice of including elements or sacrifice possible, and indeed probable, that one might
victims that are metaphorically similar to the find the remains of individuals wound together
deceased are funerary practices evident at Santa as part of the great ancestor who were not, in
Rita B and other sites throughout the Andes, fact, anyones ancestor in life. Salomon (1995)
both geographically and temporally (Gaither et notes that the physical manifestation of the
al. 2008). We believe, given the evidence emer- ancestors remains are often critical in rituals
ging here and in other contexts (Dulanto 2002; where living relatives called upon the ancestors
Hecker and Hecker 1992; Klaus and Tam 2009; to provide various kinds of favors for typical
Millaire 2004; Nelson 1998; Verano 1997), that day-to-day tasks. Such practices help enhance
ritual re-interment is another of those funerary collective relationships and legitimize which
practices that occurred in numerous areas in the resources a particular community controls
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 184

(Dillehay 1995; Salomon 1995). Given this, it clearer picture of why these behaviors occurred
might not be a requirement that an individual should emerge.
was an actual ancestor in life; rather simply that
he or she lived and died before other members ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
of the community.
We acknowledge the following people and
institutions for their invaluable assistance in helping us to
The pattern seen at Santa Rita B, however, produce this paper: The students of the 2004, 2005, and
is not entirely consistent with ancestor worship. 2006 field seasons; Metropolitan State College of Denver;
The harvested remains are subadults, as are The University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Cartographic
most of the secondary interments, and thus, Services Laboratory; Haagen Klaus; the California Insti-
these individuals would not have been the tute for Peruvian Studies; and the Institute for Andean
ancestors of anyone. Additionally, unlike
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and Collection. Cook, pp. 165-184. Austin: University of Texas
1997 Human Skeletal Remains from Tomb 1, Sipan Press.
(Lambayeque River Valley, Peru); and their Weiss-Krejci, Estella
Social Implications. Antiquity 71(273):670-683. 2001 Excarnation, Evisceration, and Exhumation in
2000 Paleontological Analysis of Sacrificial Victims at Medieval and Post Medieval Europe. In Interact-
the Pyramid of the Moon, Moche River Valley, ing with the Dead: Perspectives on Mortuary Ar-
Northern Peru. Chungar 32(1):61-70. chaeology for the New Millennium, edited by
Gordon F.M. Rakita, Jane E. Buikstra, Lane A.
Beck, and Sloan R. Williams, pp. 155-172.
Gainesville: University of Florida Press.
White, Tim D. and Pieter Folkens
2005 The Human Bone Manual. San Diego: Elsevier
Academic Press.
187 - Gaither et al.: North Coast Sacrifice

Figure 1: Map showing the location of Santa Rita B (after Donnan 1997, figure 1).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 188

Figure 2: Plan view of CA3 showing the locations of the sacrifices and burials.
189 - Gaither et al.: North Coast Sacrifice

Figure 3: Drawing demonstrating missing bones (in black) from Entierro 9.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 190

Figure 4: Cut marks on rib, Entierro 9 (arrows).

Figure 5: Cut mark on sternebra, Entierro 9 (arrow).

191 - Gaither et al.: North Coast Sacrifice

Figure 6: Drawing showing the location of cut marks on the ribs (arrows).

Figure 7: Photo of perimortem fracture of the femur, Entierro 9.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 192

Figure 8: Photo of radiating fracture on the cranium, Entierro 9 (arrow).

193 - Gaither et al.: North Coast Sacrifice

Figure 9: Photo of the rocks covering the body of Entierro 9.

Figure 10: Photo of large rock nestled into the body cavity of Entierro 9.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 194

Figure 11: photo of Entierro 9 after the rocks have been removed. Note the crushing injuries to the
thorax as demonstrated by the depression of the rib cage relative to the neck and head.

Compaa Operadora de LNG del Per S.A.C.

INTRODUCTION Andean archaeologists have long utilized

comparisons of the artistic styles of contempo-
Museum displays and coffee table books on rary societies to evaluate their level of interac-
the ceramics of complex ancient societies are tion. In fact, such comparisons led early Andean
dominated throughout the world by whole pots. archaeologists to formulate the concept of
The vast majority of ceramics recovered from horizons, which are time periods of widespread
archaeological excavations, however, are sherds. interaction as indicated by similar artistic styles,
Although the complete artistic composition of including ceramic designs, across a large region
many decorated sherds cannot be determined, of the Andes (Rowe 1960, 1962; Willey 1948).
the designs on sherds still have the potential to The horizon concept has been incorporated into
shed light on a wide range of cultural issues of the chronological framework that is still used by
interest to archaeologists. For this reason, it is archaeologists today for the prehistory of the
essential that archaeologists develop and utilize entire Andean culture area. The utility of com-
techniques that allow for the analysis of designs paring the ceramic designs of different societies
on sherds. Design analyses of sherds generally is therefore well established in Andean archae-
focus on the identification of design motifs ology, although formal ceramic design analyses
and/or elements, and the comparison of the are still rare. Less common still are comparisons
frequencies of these motifs and/or elements in between individual sites within the same society
distinct samples. These analyses focus on motifs based on formal design analyses. Such compari-
and elements because they are often easily sons, however, have the potential to provide
identifiable on sherds. Motifs can frequently valuable information concerning the level of
even be identified on very small sherds, when interaction that existed between contemporane-
the motif has first been identified on larger ous sites, which is the first step in establishing
sherds. Through this kind of analysis, a variety their political, cultural, and trade relationships.
of different sherd samples can be compared, Establishing such relationships can in turn lead
including samples from different regions, poli- to a reconstruction of the history of the societies
ties, or sites. Such comparisons can elucidate a of which they were a part, which is one of the
number of issues of interest to archaeologists, principal goals of archaeology.
most notably interaction (Friedrich 1970; Plog
1980; Redman 1977; Watson 1977). In the case The following paper is divided into three
of stylistic similarities, interaction can take the main sections. The first provides an introduc-
form of trade, open lines of communication, or tion to the Moche culture, including a brief
copying from a distance (Watson 1977). description of the site of Galindo and the Phase
V/Late Moche world, as well as a definition of
Moche fineline ceramics. The second section

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009): 195-228.

ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 196

presents a design analysis of Moche fineline by preceding Gallinazo and especially Salinar
sherds from the site of Galindo. The analysis is traditions (Kaulicke 1992).
laid out in detail in the hope that it will serve as
a model for future design analyses. The final The most significant difference between the
section presents a review of published examples Moche and other north coast cultures is in their
of Galindos dominant painting tradition at political ideology and the symbols of power used
contemporary sites throughout the north coast. to communicate this ideology (Bawden 1995,
I argue that the proportion of Moche fineline 1996). Archaeologists first defined the Moche
vessels decorated within this tradition reflects culture by the presence of these symbols of
the level of interaction that existed between power, and have continued to use their presence
these sites and Galindo. to identify Moche sites. Moche symbols of power
include a number of architectural features and
THE MOCHE artifacts that survive in the archaeological
record. The latter include portable objects made
In most ways, the Moche culture (c. A.D. of gold, silver, copper, stone, shell, wood, and
100-800) of the north coast of Peru represents a ceramic materials. Ceramic symbols of power
continuation of earlier cultural traditions. With include figurines and vessels with sculpted,
regard to subsistence, the Moche continued to relief, and/or painted designs that communicate
expand upon, and maintain, the irrigation canal ideological messages. The most complex mes-
networks built by their ancestors (Billman 1996; sages are conveyed by painted designs on ce-
Willey 1953: passim). They also continued to ramic vessels, especially those known as Moche
exploit and consume the same maritime re- finelines (Alva and Donnan 1993; DeMarrais et
sources and domesticated plants as their prede- al. 1996; Donnan 1975; Donnan and Castillo
cessors, although they did rely more heavily on 1992, 1994). As we shall see, however, not all
domesticated camelids (especially llamas) and Moche fineline ceramics communicated ideolog-
maize (Pozorski 1979). The Moche tended to ical messages (e.g., Donnan 1978; Donnan and
have a more dispersed settlement pattern than McClelland 1999; Hocquenghem 1987).
preceding populations (Billman 1996; Willey
1953). The vast majority of the Moche popula- The Archaeological Site of Galindo
tion, however, continued to live in small houses
similar to those of their immediate ancestors, Galindo is a large urban settlement in the
and continued to live in small rural settlements. Moche Valley (Figure 1). Topography and
Although the construction of monumental cultural features (i.e., walls and ditches) divide
architecture increased substantially during the site into at least six distinct zones (Bawden
Moche times, Moche monuments were similar 1977, 1982a). Architectural remains within
in form and construction technique, if not each of these zones are relatively homogenous
function, to those of earlier Gallinazo popula- and functionally differentiated from those of
tions (Moseley 1992:165-166). The Moche also other areas of the site. One of the zones, desig-
continued to produce many of the same crafts as nated Plain B, is dominated by two major plat-
their ancestors. Earlier Gallinazo domestic form mounds, the Huaca de las Abejas and the
ceramics are, in fact, virtually indistinguishable Huaca de las Lagartijas, and two smaller
from those of the Moche (Billman 1996:293). civic/ceremonial monuments (Bawden 1977;
With regard to fine-ware ceramics, it has been Conrad 1974:641-740; Lockard 2005). Another
argued that the Moche were strongly influenced zone, Plain A1, is dominated by three large
administrative structures (Cercaduras A-C) and
197 - Lockard: Moche fineline sherds from Galindo

associated elite residences (Bawden 1977). The color of the dark slip paint is usually red or
remaining zones are dominated by storage maroon, but can also be gray or black, especially
structures and residences, which are differenti- during Phase V. The light slip paint is usually
ated by status (Bawden 1982b). cream, but can also be grayish white (especially
during Phase V) or have a yellowish tint (Don-
THE PHASE V/LATE MOCHE WORLD nan and McClelland 1999:162). Moche fineline
painting is most commonly associated with
Radiocarbon dates from civic/ceremonial stirrup spout bottles, but also appears on a
and residential contexts indicate that Galindo number of other vessel forms, including spout
was largely occupied during the eighth century and handle bottles, jars, dippers, and flaring
A.D. (Lockard 2009), which falls within Phase bowls (i.e., floreros) (Donnan 1992). Phase I and
V of Larcos (1948) Moche ceramic sequence. II fineline ceramics are generally decorated with
Recent research in the Jequetepeque Valley has geometric motifs or simple depictions of animals
led some archaeologists to conclude that the or supernatural beings. During Phases III and
Moche world was divided into two major regions IV, geometric designs become progressively less
at this time: one to the north and one to the common, and depictions of plants, animals,
south of the Pampa de Paijan between the humans, and supernatural beings become more
Jequetepeque and Chicama Valleys (Figure 1; complex. During Phase III and especially Phase
Castillo 2001, 2003; Castillo and Donnan IV, the iconography of Moche fineline ceramics
1994). Due to perceived differences in the style focuses heavily on the activities of elites, includ-
and sequence of Moche fine-ware ceramics, ing deer hunting, ritual running, combat, and
these archaeologists now refer to this time as the the bleeding, parading, and sacrifice of prison-
Late Moche Period, rather than Phase V, in the ers (Donnan 2001: 129; see also Donnan and
northern Moche region. The northern Moche McClelland 1999). The artistic canons of Phase
region is considered to have been politically V will be discussed in detail below.
independent from the south, and may itself have
been divided into multiple polities. The Late The majority of the complete Moche fine-
Moche Period is contemporaneous with Phase V line ceramics housed in museums throughout
in the south, and may also include the later half the world have been recovered from burials.
of Phase IV. During Phase IV, the southern Unfortunately, few of these burials have been
Moche region extended as far south as the excavated archaeologically. Those that have,
Huarmey Valley. By Phase V, however, the however, demonstrate that Moche fineline
Moche sphere of interaction is believed to have ceramics occur in graves of both males and
included only the two northernmost of these femalesalmost exclusively those of high status
valleys (i.e., the Moche and Chicama Valleys). individuals (Donnan and McClelland 1999:
19). Usually, only one or two vessels are present.
A DESIGN ANALYSIS OF MOCHE FINELINE This suggests that Moche fineline ceramics
SHERDS FROM GALINDO were not produced in great numbers and were
seldom available to the common people (ibid.).
Moche Fineline Ceramics Archaeologists have excavated ceramic work-
shops at several major Moche sites, including
Moche fineline ceramics are characterized the Huacas de Moche (Uceda and Armas
by dark ochre slip paint applied with fine brush 1997), Cerro Mayal (Russell et al. 1994a,
strokes to a light slip background (Donnan 1994b), Pampa Grande (Shimada 1994:195-
1992:66) or, less commonly, vice versa. The 200), and Galindo (Bawden 1977:202-207). No
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 198

evidence has been found for the production of sherd that he recovered (over 23,000), however,
Moche fineline ceramics, however, at any of and recorded, among other things, the proveni-
these workshops. Moche fineline sherds are ence and paint colors of each sherd. The Baw-
sometimes found in Moche middens, usually at den sub-sample in the present study includes all
important centers that have associated pyramid drawings that could be correlated with these
and palace complexes (Donnan and Mc data (i.e., their provenience and paint colors
Clelland 1999:19). At Galindo, Moche fineline could be determined from Bawdens notes) and
sherds have been recovered from both low which meet the color criteria for being Moche
status and elite residences. Fine-ware ceramics fineline ceramics as defined above. This sub-
have been found in increasingly greater num- sample includes the majority of the Moche
bers, however, in higher status residences (Baw- fineline sherds recovered by Bawden, although
den 1982b; see below).1 it is impossible to determine the exact propor-
tion represented. The sample is not biased to
THE GALINDO SAMPLE any particular proveniences or motifs, although
it may be slightly biased toward larger sherds.
Although iconographic analyses of Moche
fineline ceramics are common, these have During the G.A.P., every sherd recovered
almost exclusively been confined to whole or (4,296) was assigned a number that includes the
near-whole vessels. No complete Moche fineline sherds provenience designation (P.D.), field
ceramics, however, have yet been recovered sample (F.S.), and a consecutive sherd number
from Galindo. The sample of Moche fineline within the F.S. During Bawdens work at Galin-
ceramics analyzed in this study (the Galindo do, all of the sherds recovered were given a
sample) is therefore composed entirely of sherds. provenience code, which includes the excava-
The Galindo sample is actually composed of two tion unit (denoted by a capital letter), feature or
distinct sub-samples. The first sub-sample con- room number, and artifact bag number. For the
sists of 217 sherds recovered during the Galindo purposes of the present study, Moche fineline
Archaeological Project (G.A.P.), which was sherds from each sub-sample were sorted by
directed by the author (Lockard 2001, 2002, provenience and then consecutively assigned
2003, 2005). Of these, 47 were recovered in new sherd numbers. Fineline sherds recovered
2000, 84 in 2001, and 86 in 2002. The second during the G.A.P. were numbered from L1 to
sub-sample is composed of 153 sherds recovered L217. Sherds L1 through L47 were recovered in
from Galindo by Garth Bawden between 1971 2000, L48 through L131 in 2001, and L132
and 1973 (Bawden 1977). The actual sherds through L217 in 2002. Fineline sherds recovered
recovered by Bawden were not available for this by Bawden that were included in this study were
study. During his original ceramic analysis, numbered from B1 to B153.
however, Bawden made detailed drawings of
every painted sherd that he recovered. These The sherds in the Galindo sample come
drawings are black and white, and it is not from a variety of contexts, including residences,
possible to differentiate between Moche fineline civic/ceremonial and administrative structures,
ceramics and other types of painted pottery from and surface deposits. In all cases, sherds that
the drawings alone. Bawden analyzed every conjoin were counted as a single sherd, even if
they were found in different proveniences.
Sherds that do not conjoin were always counted
Unfortunately, Bawden did not differentiate between separately, even if their context, paste, surface
Moche fineline ceramics and other types of Moche fine- treatment, and designs suggest that they were
wares in his analysis.
199 - Lockard: Moche fineline sherds from Galindo

part of the same vessel. In this paper, drawings if they depicted: (1) animate objects (i.e., plants,
of select sherds in the Galindo sample are pro- animals, humans, or supernatural beings) or
vided. Each sherd is labeled with its new sherd clearly identifiable parts thereof (e.g., a mouth);
number and its original sherd number (G.A.P. (2) human artifacts (i.e., tools or accoutre-
sample) or provenience (Bawden sample). ments); or (3) complex, non-repetitive designs
without clearly definable geometric elements.
The majority of the Moche fineline Sherds were coded as geometric if they depicted:
sherds in this study are of the Phase V artistic (1) clearly identifiable, repetitive motifs com-
style (see Donnan and McClelland 1999:139- posed of simple geometric elements (i.e., lines
185). While some of the sherds have designs and shapes); or (2) geometric elements that are
similar to those of Phases III and IV (see below), not part of a larger, complex, non-repetitive
no diagnostic stirrup spout fragments character- design. Sherds in the latter category either
istic of these earlier phases have been recovered depict lines and/or solid areas only (often fram-
from the site. It should be noted that a number ing lines, see below), or are very small sherds
of the sherds analyzed herein were painted on that most likely depict only a small portion of a
both the interior and exterior of the vessel. larger, unidentifiable geometric motif.
When this is the case, fineline painting only
occurs on one side of the vessel. The other side It should be noted that sherds coded as
of the vessel is always painted using a different geometric do not necessarily bear designs devoid
technique, usually a white slip design painted of meaning. On the contrary, it is well estab-
directly on the paste. In the case of sherds that lished that in many societies, including the
are painted on both sides, only the side with Moche, simple geometric designs may symbolize
fineline painting is included in the analysis. complex concepts. It has been argued, for exam-
ple, that repeating wave motifs symbolize the
Results of the Analysis ocean and/or rivers, and step patterns represent
mountains and/or platform mounds in Moche
The results of the design analysis are pre- iconography (De Bock 2003). Such meanings
sented below in four sections. In the first sec- are not explicit, however, and therefore cannot
tion, the proportion of sherds with geometric be universally applied. In other words, such
versus figurative designs is presented. The shapes may have had different meanings to
second section presents the results of a design different artists, and for some artists may not
analysis of stirrup spout fragments, a unique type have had any meaning at all. For this reason,
of sherd decorated with distinctive artistic inanimate objects found in nature that can be
conventions. The third section presents the simply rendered (e.g., waves) are not by them-
analysis of sherds with geometric designs that selves deemed to be figurative in this analysis.
are not stirrup spout fragments, and the final
section presents a subject matter analysis of While there is obviously some degree of
sherds with figurative designs. subjectivity in any attempt to classify designs as
geometric or figurative, the criteria above are
Geometric Versus Figurative Designs easily applied and appear to follow the precepts
of previous studies in Moche iconography (e.g.,
The first stage in the design analysis was to Donnan and McClelland 1999; McClelland
separate sherds with figurative designs from 1997), although standards for differentiating
those with only geometric designs. For purposes between figurative and geometric designs are
of this analysis, sherds were coded as figurative never explicit in these studies.
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 200

Type/Subtype Count Percentage

Identifiable Motif 147 39.7%
Identifiable Motif (stirrup spouts) 38 10.3%
Framing lines, solid areas, and hatching 58 15.7%
Geometric elements (i.e., lines, triangles, etc.) only 17 4.6%
Subtotal 260 70.3%
Identifiable subject matter 30 8.1%
Identifiable subject matter (stirrup spouts) 2 0.5%
Unidentifiable subject matter 15 4.1%
Subtotal 47 12.7%
Identifiable geometric motif and figurative subject matter 5 1.4%
Identifiable geometric motif and unid. figurative subject matter 1 0.3%
Subtotal 6 1.6%
N/A (no positive design)
Non-Stirrup Spouts 11 3.0%
Stirrup Spouts 3 0.8%
Subtotal 14 3.8%
Indeterminate (too small or badly eroded)
Non-Stirrup Spouts 42 11.4%
Stirrup Spouts 1 0.3%
Subtotal 43 11.6%
TOTAL 370 100.0%

Table 1: Geometric versus figurative sherds (n=370)

As Table 1 demonstrates, 260 sherds in the contained both an identifiable geometric motif
Galindo sample contain only geometric designs, and a figurative design.
while only 47 contain only figurative designs. In
the case of 43 sherds, it could not be determined Stirrup Spout Motifs
whether the design was geometric or figurative
because the sherd was either badly corroded or Among the many vessel forms represented
too small. Fourteen sherds did not contain any in the Galindo sample is the stirrup spout bottle.
designs (i.e., they have only a light slip). These Stirrup spout bottles are characterized by the
sherds were included in the total sample because presence of a cylindrical, hollow arch and verti-
they were thought to be part of vessels that did cal upper spout that ascend from the body of the
contain positive painting. For example, seven of vessel (Donnan and McClelland 1999:20).
the sherds came from directly on top of a pre- Because of the distinctive form of the stirrup
pared floor located underneath a platform spout, the artistic conventions used in its deco-
mound (Platform B of the Huaca de las La- ration are unique in Moche art. For this reason,
gartijas). In this particular provenience, 20 stirrup spout fragments were analyzed separately
sherds were recovered. On the basis of paste, from all other sherds (i.e., body sherds and the
wall thickness, and surface treatment, all of the rim and base fragments of bowls, jars, and flore-
sherds appear to come from two Moche fineline ros). Of the 370 sherds in the Galindo sample,
vessels. No other type of sherd (e.g., plain- 44 are stirrup spout fragments. Eight distinct
wares) was recovered from the provenience. stirrup spout motifs were identified, three of
Although the sherds were clearly part of Moche which have at least one identifiable type (de-
fineline vessels, they could not be conjoined to fined on the basis of minor variations within the
any of the sherds that contained decoration. motif) (Table 2, Figure 2). In addition, two of
Their design content therefore could not be the stirrup spout fragments in the sample have
determined with certainty. Finally, six sherds no positive design, being covered only by a light
201 - Lockard: Moche fineline sherds from Galindo

slip, and one stirrup spout fragment is too cor-

roded to determine what if any motif it once
contained. By far the most common stirrup
spout motif in the Galindo sample is the single
line motif, and the second most common is
wavy lines. All other motifs occur on three
sherds or fewer.

Name Description Count Pct.

Single Lines A single, thick line decorates two to four sides of the arch and/or upper spout 21 47.7%

Wavy Lines Wavy lines decorate the arch and/or upper spout; Type A is a negative design with perpendicular wavy lines 6 13.6%
(n=2), Type B is a positive design with perpendicular wavy lines (n=2), and Type C consists of a repeating
motif of parallel wavy lines (n=2)

Wave Motif Repeating wave motifs decorate the arch and/or upper spout; Two sherds (Type A) do not include 3 6.8%
interstitial elements, while one sherd (Other) does

Wavy Ovals Ovals created with wavy lines decorate the arch and/or upper spout; Two sherds (Type A) have parallel 3 6.8%
long wavy ovals, while one sherd (Other) has perpendicular short wavy ovals

Solid Thick bands of dark paint decorate large portions of the arch and/or upper spout 3 6.8%

Double Lines Two thin lines decorate two to four sides of the arch and/or upper spout 2 4.5%

Beans A repeating bean motif decorates the arch and/or upper spout; these stirrup spout fragments are considered 2 4.5%
to be figurative

Step A step pyramid decorates the base of both sides of the arch (where they meet the body) 1 2.3%

None No decoration 3 6.8%

Indet. Motif could not be determined due to corrosion 1 2.3%

Table 2: Distribution of stirrup spout motifs (n=44). Note: one sherd has two motifs.

Design Analysis of Geometric Sherds small. Another 11 sherds were excluded because
they did not contain any designs.
The goal of the third stage of the analysis
was the identification of repeating motifs on The remaining 228 sherds (the geometric
geometric sherds that are not stirrup spout sample) are not stirrup spout fragments and
fragments. Only those sherds containing designs have designs identified as geometric. Eight
that are clearly geometric were included in the recurrent motifs were identified in this sample.
analysis. Of the 326 sherds that were not identi- One or more of these recurrent motifs were
fied as stirrup spout fragments, 45 contained identified on 149 of the sherds in the geometric
only figurative designs and were thus excluded sample. Of the remaining 79 sherds, four con-
from this stage of the analysis. Six sherds con- tain a repeating motif unique to that sherd (clas-
tained an identifiable geometric motif and a sified as other repeating motif), 58 contain
figurative design and were included in this, as lines and/or solid areas only, and 17 could not
well as the next stage (figurative subject matter) be classified (due to corrosion or size; Figure 3).
of the analysis. An additional 42 sherds were
excluded from the analysis because they could Motif 1. By far the most common motif in the
not be classified as geometric or figurative, geometric sample is Motif 1, which occurs on 94
either because they were badly corroded or too sherds. Motif 1 is a band with a repeating square
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 202

panel. Each panel is divided into either two triangles and solid V elements (Figure 6). One
triangular halves or four triangular quarters by sherd classified as Motif 2 was unique and
single or multiple straight and/or wavy lines. therefore could not be typed (Figure 7f). This
Five Motif 1 types were identified on the basis of sherd has a negative design in which solid, light-
how the panels are divided (Table 3 and Figure colored waves appear on a dark background.
4). There were several cases, however, in which The waves on this sherd, more than any other
sherds were identified as containing Motif 1 but wave motif identified in the geometric sample,
not enough of the design was present (as a result appear to be an ocean locator (Donnan and
of corrosion or size) to assign it to a type. An- McClelland 1999:59). In Moche iconography
other characteristic of Motif 1 is the presence of studies, locators are objects used in figurative
solid or open interstitial elements within the designs to indicate the setting or location in
triangular halves or quarters of the panels. which the activity depicted takes place. If this is
Interstitial elements associated with Motif 1 are the case, the waves on this sherd indicate that
solid and open triangles, solid and open L the activity depicted on the vessel takes place
shapes, solid, open, and mixed step elements, on or near the ocean. The sherd was not classi-
solid and open serrated triangles, and circles fied as figurative, however, because only waves
(Figures 4 and 5). are visible. Unlike the wave motif on this sherd,
most of the designs identified as Motif 2, and
Type Description Count Pct. especially those with interstitial elements, are
The panel is divided into triangular halves by a highly stylized and occur in bands alongside
Type A 19 20.2%
single wavy line other repeating geometric motifs, and are thus
The panel is divided into four quarters by two
Type B
perpendicular wavy lines
16 17.0% clearly geometric as defined above.
The panel is divided into triangular halves by
Type C 17 18.1%
two parallel wavy lines Motif 3. Motif 3, a repeating circle that
The panel is divided into triangular halves by
Type D three parallel wavy lines or a central straight 13 13.8% forms a band around the vessel, was identified
line flanked on either side by parallel wavy lines
on 10 sherds. Three types were identified (Fig-
The panel is divided into triangular halves by
Type E two central, parallel straight lines flanked on 5 5.3% ure 8). In Type A, smaller circles are found
either side by parallel wavy lines along the edge of larger circles (Figure 9a). If
Type could not be determined due to size and/
or corrosion
24 25.5% the smaller circles are interpreted as holes, Type
A appears to depict medallions, reminiscent of
Table 3: Distribution of Motif 1 types (n=94) the gold (Alva and Donnan 1993: figures 33, 41,
62, 97, 169, 206, 219 and 226) and copper
Motif 2. The second most common motif in the (Uceda et al.1994: figure 8.25) medallions used
geometric sample is Motif 2, which occurs on 24 by the Moche to decorate clothing, earrings,
sherds. Motif 2 is a repeating wave that forms a headdresses, and other elite accoutrements.
band around the exterior or interior of the Type A is usually a negative design in which
vessel. Three Motif 2 types were identified (Fig- light-colored medallions appear with dark
ure 6). A single, continuous line forms the holes on a dark background. Type B is com-
repeating wave motif in Type A (Figure 7a-d), posed of repeating, plain circles. This type
and several, discontinuous lines form the motif occurs on only two sherds, both of which have
in Type B (Figure 7e). Types A and B are both light-colored circles on a dark background. In
associated with interstitial elements that, when both cases, the sherds are small and probably in
present, are at regular locations and intervals fact depict portions of Type A medallions in
along the repeating waves. Interstitial elements which the holes are absent (Figure 9b). One
associated with Motif 2 are solid and open sherd classified as Motif 3 was unique and
203 - Lockard: Moche fineline sherds from Galindo

therefore could not be typed (Figure 9c). It has ered major motifs in the fineline painting tradi-
plain circles located within the center of slightly tion at Galindo. Motif 7, which occurs on three
larger circles (i.e., donut-shapes). sherds, is composed of repeating principal and
secondary (or interstitial) elements (Figure 9j).
Motif 4. Motif 4, a repeating spiral motif The principal element consists of a subdivided
composed of straight lines at right angles, was triangular pattern attached to a series of rectan-
also identified on 10 sherds (Figure 9d). gles (containing dots) that form an L shape.
This element has the appearance of a spear or
Motif 5. Motif 5, of which two types were scepter. The secondary (or interstitial) element,
identified, occurs on 7 sherds (Figure 8). Type A which appears below each of the principal
is composed of repeating solid triangles (Figure elements, is a subdivided triangle that has the
9e) and Type B is composed of repeating open appearance of a shell. The design was classified
triangles (Figure 9f). as geometric because it is repetitive, stylized,
composed of simple geometric elements, and the
Motif 6. Motif 6 is a repeating step motif that intent of the artist to depict a spear and/or shell
occurs in a band. Motif 6 has three types (Figure is unclear.
8). Only in Type A, however, does the motif
form a major part of the overall design of the Motif 8. The final recurrent motif identified
vessel. In Type A, the upper (or outer) step of in the geometric sample is Motif 8, which occurs
the motif is everted and is usually larger than on two florero fragments. These fragments are
the other steps (Figure 9g). The step motifs are from the same provenience and may therefore
either solid or open, and their interiors are be parts of the same vessel. The sherds contain
decorated with open triangles. Type B is a a series of light-colored scallops on a dark back-
simple, open, repeating step. The motif forms a ground in a band around the interior of the
thin band around the vessel that divides the florero (Figure 9k). The design gives the vessel
overall design into separate areas, which often the appearance of a flower. Once again, how-
contain figurative designs (Figure 9h). Type B ever, the motif is stylized, repetitive, and the
therefore functions more like a framing line intent of the artist to depict a flower is unclear.
than a major part of the overall design of the
vessel (c.f. Donnan and McClelland 1999: figure Of the remaining sherds in which none of
1.15). Type C is equivalent to Type B in that it the above recurrent motifs were identified, four
is composed of simple repeating steps and func- contained identifiable repeating motifs not iden-
tions like a framing line. In Type C, however, tified on any other sherd (e.g., Figure 10a). Of
the step motif occurs along the rim of floreros the remaining sherds on which no repeating
(Figure 9i). Most floreros at Galindo have rims motif could be identified, 58 contained lines
that are notched in a step pattern. When the and/or solid areas only. Many of these sherds are
rim is smooth, however, the notched step pat- small fragments containing what appear to be
tern is often replaced by a painted version of the framing lines (lines that appear above, below, or
same pattern along the rim of the vessel (Motif between repeating panels and form the perime-
6C). Type C is therefore a rim decoration asso- ter of repeating panels; e.g., Figure 10b) and/or
ciated with a specific vessel form, the florero. solid areas (thick bands of solid dark paint; c.f.
Pimentel and Paredes 2003: figure 9.14c).
Motif 7. The remaining two recurrent motifs Others, however, are simple line decorations
identified in the geometric sample occur on very (e.g., Figure 10c).
few sherds, and therefore should not be consid-
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 204

In summary, 19 types of eight recurrent Usually two different motifs were utilized,
motifs were identified in the geometric sample. which alternate when there are more than two
As argued above, however, some of these motifs bands or panels on the vessel. Sometimes,
appear to be either specialized or rare. Of the however, a single motif will occur in multiple
19, twelve types of six motifs occur on multiple bands or panels or more than two motifs will
sherds from different contexts, appear in large, occur on the same vessel. As Table 4 demon-
broad bands or panels, and co-occur with other strates, several of the many possible combina-
recurrent motifs. These are Motif 1, Types A-E; tions of motifs were identified on sherds in the
Motif 2, Types A and B; Motif 3, Type A; Motif Galindo sample.
4; Motif 5, Types A and B; and Motif 6, Type A.
These major motifs form the parts in a geomet-
ric painting tradition utilized at Galindo. This
tradition includes standards of design layout in
which major motifs were utilized together in
varying combinations, and appear in two to five
bands or panels around the exterior (stirrup
spout bottles and jars) or interior (floreros) of
fineline vessels.

Motif 1 Motif 2 Motif 3 Motif 4 Motif 5 Motif 6 Motif 7 Motif 8 Other Figur. TOTALS

Motif 1 3 5 1 1 10

Motif 2 3 1 1 2 7

Motif 3 5 1* 1* 1 7*

Motif 4 1 1

Motif 5 1 1 1 3

Motif 6 1 2 1* 1* 5 9*

Motif 7 1 1

Motif 8 0

Other 1* 1* 1*

Figurative 1 5 6


Table 4: Sherds with more than one motif (n=22). Note: one sherd (*) has three motifs.

Figurative Subject Matter Analysis Over half of the sherds in which a subject mat-
ter could be determined depict animals. Of
The final stage of the design analysis of the these, birds are the most commonly depicted.
Galindo sample consisted of an interpretation of Within the bird subcategory, two sherds depict
the subject matter of figurative sherds. First, the simply rendered bird heads (e.g., Figure 11a).
subject matter of each sherd was determined. Another two sherds depict elaborately rendered
Then, sherds depicting the same or similar birds, one of which is clearly depicted drinking
subjects were classified into three main catego- from a small bowl (Figure 11b). The other is also
ries (animals, plants, and human/ anthropo- most likely drinking from a bowl, although most
morphs) and various subcategories (Table 5). of this portion of the design is missing (Figure
205 - Lockard: Moche fineline sherds from Galindo

11c). All four of these sherds depict birds in a not pictured). The second depicts a deer sur-
naturalistic manner (i.e., they do not share the rounded by vegetation (Figure 11h). This vege-
attributes of other animals and are not tation is a locator, and indicates that the activity
anthropomorphized). There are also a large depicted on the vessel takes place in a scrub
number of sherds in the figurative sample that forest (Donnan and McClelland 1999:104). All
depict patterns used by Moche artists to repre- of these animals are naturalistic, with the excep-
sent bird feathers (e.g., Figure 11d). Feathers tion of the crayfish.
rendered in this manner are associated with
naturalistic and anthropomorphized birds, as Eight sherds in the figurative sample depict
well as with supernatural beings having bird plants. Beans are the most commonly depicted,
attributes. appearing on seven sherds (e.g., Figure 11i).
Based on morphology, the designs depict Lima
Subject matter Count beans (Phaseolus lunatus). The eighth sherd
depicts what appears to be a fruit (Figure 11j).
Feathers 9 Although only half of the fruit is visible, it
Bird head (simply rendered) 2
Bird (elaborately rendered, drinking from bowl) 1
appears to be the fruit known in Moche iconog-
Bird (elaborately rendered, drinking from bowl?) 1 raphy studies as the ulluchu. The ulluchu is
Fish 3
often associated with sacrificial themes in
Shell 2
Crayfish (supernatural) 1 Moche iconography (Alva and Donnan 1993:
Deer 2 134), and is clearly distinguishable from other
Animals Subtotal 21
objects. Nevertheless, the modern species that
Bean(s) 7 the ulluchu depicts has yet to be convincingly
Fruit (ulluchu?) 1 identified (Wassn 1989).
Plants Subtotal 8
Humans The remaining nine sherds on which a
Human hand 1 subject matter could be determined depict
Human wearing a a headdress (other accoutre-
ments are also visible) 1 humans, anthropomorphs, or objects related to
Human (ritual runner?) 1 humans and anthropomorphs (i.e., tools and
Nude male ritual runner (prisoner?) 1
Ritual runner (carrying bag) 1 accoutrements). Five of the sherds contain
Anthropomorphs naturalistic depictions of humans or human
Unidentified anthropomorph (part of torso and
neck visible) 1 body parts. One of these depicts the hand of a
Tools/Accoutrements human figure behind what may be the headdress
Headdress (with hand and leg) 1
or regalia of another figure (Figure 12a). The
Headdress (with leg) 1
Earspool 1 second depicts the head of a human figure
Human/Anthropomorphs Subtotal 9 wearing an elaborate headdress (Figure 12b).
Indeterminate 15
Other accoutrements are also visible on the
sherd. The third depicts both legs and the lower
Table 5: Subject matter of figurative sherds (n=53). torso of a human figure (Figure 12c). The fourth
depicts the face and right side of a human figure
Fish are depicted on three sherds in the (Figure 12d). This figure is nude, and can be
figurative sample (e.g., Figure 11e), shells are clearly identified as male. The man carries a
depicted on two sherds (e.g., Figure 11f), and a thin, straight object in his outstretched right
crayfish is depicted on one sherd (Figure 11g). hand. The last sherd depicts the face and left
Lastly, two sherds depict a deer. One is a small hand of a human figure (Figure 12e). This
fragment that only depicts the deers ear (B23, person carries a small bag in his or her out-
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 206

stretched hand. In front of the person is the human leg is visible on the second (Figure 12h).
hand of another individual and a flower or star- The last sherd depicts a round earspool (Figure
shaped object, which may be a locator. These 12i).
last three sherds all appear to depict ritual
runners. Ritual runners are generally portrayed The subject matter of the remaining 15
in long lines, and carry bags, branches, or in rare sherds in the figurative sample could not be
cases nothing, in their outstretched hands firmly identified. In most cases, the designs on
(Donnan and McClelland 1999:128). One of these sherds resemble figurative objects in
the ritual runners is clearly carrying a bag (Fig- Moche iconography. The sherds are very small,
ure 12e), while another may be carrying a however, and not enough of the design is there-
branch (Figure 12d). The last sherd is from the fore present to firmly establish what is depicted.
same provenience (and probably the same In some cases, objects could be partially identi-
vessel) as the ritual runner carrying the possible fied, but due to the small size of the sherds the
branch, and is therefore also likely a ritual objects context could not be determined. For
runner. This is uncertain, however, as the upper example, one sherd depicts the left side of a
half of the body is not present (Figure 12c). mouth and lower half of a left eye (B12, not
Ritual runners first appear, but are extremely pictured). It could not be determined, however,
rare, in Phase III (Donnan and Mc Clelland whether this face belongs to an animal, human,
1999: figure 3.13). They become one of the or anthropomorph.
most common themes in Moche fineline paint-
ing during Phase IV, and continue to be popular As the above analysis demonstrates, the
in Phase V (Donnan and McClelland 1999:128, majority of sherds in the figurative sample at
180). Based on the fact that he is nude, the Galindo contain naturalistic depictions of plants
person in Figure 12d may be a prisoner. If this is and animals. Nevertheless, several sherds depict
the case, this sherd depicts a scene in the War- themes, figures, and objects commonly depicted
rior Narrative, in which warriors were captured, during Phases III and IV that have ideological
stripped of their clothing, and ultimately sacri- connotations and/or are related to the activities
ficed in rituals such as the one depicted in the of elites. As mentioned above, at least one sherd
well-known Sacrifice Ceremony (Alva and Don- (Figure 11b) and probably a second (Figure 11c)
nan 1993:127-138; Donnan 1975, 1978:158- depict a bird drinking from a bowl. According to
173; Donnan and McClelland 1999:69, 130- Donnan and McClelland (1999:136), this
131). theme is related to the Warrior Narrative and
symbolizes the drinking of the captives blood
One sherd in the figurative sample was in sacrificial rituals. Another sherd with a design
classified as an anthropomorph. This sherd that may be related to sacrifice depicts what is
depicts a figure that cannot be identified be- most likely an ulluchu fruit (Figure 11j). Ritual
cause only its upper torso and neck are visible runners are also thought to communicate an
on the sherd (Figure 12f). Finally, three sherds ideological message, and appear on two sherds
in the figurative sample depict tools or accoutre- (Figures 12d-e) and possibly a third (Figure 12c)
ments, which were included in the human/ in the Galindo sample. According to Donnan
anthropomorph category because of their associ- and McClelland (1999:128), ritual runners are
ation with these figures (i.e., they are made and one of the most common themes during Phase
used by humans). Two sherds depict head- IV, appearing on 13 percent of the vessels from
dresses. A human hand and leg are also visible this phase in the Moche Archive. One of the
on one of these sherds (Figure 12g), and a ritual runners is a nude male, and may be a
207 - Lockard: Moche fineline sherds from Galindo

prisoner (Figure 12d). If so, this sherd depicts a not for the fact that many of the fineline sherds
scene in the Warrior Narrative, which culmi- are very small, making it difficult to determine
nates in the human sacrificial rituals that legiti- what is depicted on them. In some cases, multi-
mated the authority of Moche rulers. Finally, ple sherds appear to be from the same vessel.
there are at least four sherds in the Galindo Based on the color of the slip paints and the
sample that depict elite accoutrements (Figures designs on the sherds, however, at least several
12b, g-i). The presence of these designs in the different vessels are represented. No more than
Galindo sample demonstrates that, although one figurative sherd was encountered in any
considerably less common than in Phase IV, the other area excavated during the G.A.P., despite
depiction of elites and elite activities continued the fact that a significant number of fineline
into Phase V at Galindo. sherds were encountered from several of these
areas. It is unclear why such a high proportion
The Context: Moche Fineline and Figurative of fineline sherds and particularly figurative
Sherds Recovered During the G.A.P. sherds were encountered in Room 1 of Structure
52. What is clear, however, is that the propor-
The proportion of fineline sherds and fine- tion of fineline sherds with figurative designs
line sherds with figurative designs from G.A.P. varies considerably by context at Galindo.
contexts (before refits) is presented in Table 6
(see Bawden 1982b for a discussion of the Summary
proportion of Moche fine-ware ceramics in the
residential contexts he excavated). Not surpris- The design analysis of Moche fineline sherds
ingly, high and moderate status Moche resi- from Galindo has revealed that two basic paint-
dences had the highest proportion of fineline ing traditions were utilized in the decoration of
sherds. Fineline sherds were considerably less this ware. One of these is a figurative painting
common in low status Moche residences. This tradition in which themes and figures character-
indicates that although few of the fineline istic of Phases III and IV were depicted. The
ceramics at Galindo communicated traditional number of these themes and figures were greatly
Moche ideological messages, Galindo elites still reduced, and naturalistic depictions of plants
maintained tight control over their production and animals dominated. Some themes and
and distribution. figures thought to communicate ideological
messages were retained, however, most notably
The proportion of fineline sherds with ritual runners and birds drinking from bowls.
figurative designs was extremely low in all This Phase V painting tradition is hereafter
contexts but one, Room 1 of Structure 52 (Area referred to as the figurative painting tradition.
311). Structure 52 is a large, moderate status The vast majority of Moche fineline ceramics at
residence located on Plain A2. Four units were Galindo, however, were decorated with a geo-
excavated just inside the southern entrance. metric painting tradition in which a small num-
This area was utilized, presumably after the ber of major motifs were utilized. This tradition
residence was abandoned, as a midden. Within also included standard principles of design
the midden, 62 fineline sherds were encoun- layout in which the major motifs were combined
tered. This amounts to 25.2 percent of the total to form the overall design of the vessels.
number of fineline sherds that were recovered
during the G.A.P.. Of these, 50 percent were
classified as figurative. It is likely that this pro-
portion would have been even higher if it were
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 208

Fineline Sherds Figurative Sherds

Area Total Total Percentage of Percentage of Percentage of
Count Diagnostics Count Diagnostics Count Diagnostics Finelines
Area 101 (MLSR) 473 473 8 1.7% 0 0% 0%
Area 102 (MLSR) 452 452 28 6.2% 0 0% 0%
Area 103 (SC) 322 322 18 5.6% 0 0% 0%
Area 201 (HL) 100 100 32 32.0% 0 0% 0%
Area 202 (HL) 29 29 6 20.7% 1 3.4% 16.7%
Area 203 (MHSR) 318 318 44 13.8% 1 0.3% 2.3%
Area 204 (MHSR) 213 213 18 8.5% 1 0.5% 5.6%
Area 301 (HA) 58 58 0 0% 0 0% N/A
Area 302 (HA) 40 40 4 10.0% 0 0% 0%
Area 303 (O) 14 14 1 7.1% 0 0% 0%
Areas 304, 305 & 306 (HA) 30 30 2 6.7% 0 0% 0%
Area 307, SA 1 (MLSR) 716 283 10 3.5% 1 0.4% 10.0%
Area 307, SA 2 (CR) 203 203 1 0.5% 0 0% 0%
Area 307, SA 3 (CR) 164 164 2 1.2% 0 0% 0%
Area 307, SA 4-6 (CR) 901 901 0 0% 0 0% N/A
Area 308 (MLSR) 24 24 5 20.8% 0 0% 0%
Area 309 (O) 0 0 0 N/A 0 N/A N/A
Area 310 (MHSR) 78 78 5 6.4% 0 0% 0%
Area 311 (MHSR) 161 161 62 38.5% 31 19.3% 50.0%
TOTALS 4296 3863 246 6.4% 35 0.9% 14.2%

Stratigraphic Cut 101 (SC) 322 18 5.6% 0 0% 0%

Huaca de las Abejas (HA) 128 6 4.7% 0 0% 0%
Huaca de las Lagartijas (HL) 129 38 29.5% 1 0.8% 2.6%
Moche residential contexts
2002 180 9.0% 34 1.7% 18.9%
Chimu residential contexts (CR) 1268 3 0.2% 0 0% 0%
Other (O) 14 1 7.1% 0 0% 0%
TOTALS 3863 246 6.4% 35 0.9% 14.2%

Moche high and mod. status res. (MHSR) 770 129 16.8% 33 4.3% 25.6%
Moche low status residences (MLSR) 1232 51 4.1% 1 0.1% 2.0%
TOTALS 2002 180 9.0% 34 1.7% 18.9%

Table 6: Percentage of fineline and figurative sherds from Galindo contexts. Note: counts are before refits.

A COMPARISON OF THE PAINTING TRADI- Pimentel and Paredes (2003: figure 9.14)
TIONS USED AT GALINDO TO DECORATE have published two near complete (Table 7),
MOCHE FINELINE CERAMICS WITH THOSE and one partial, Phase V stirrup spout bottles
OF CONTEMPORANEOUS MOCHE SITES recovered from the site. The body of one of
the nearly complete vessels is decorated with
Pampa Colorada only thick bands of dark paint on the lower
third of the body and upper third of the arch
A review of design analyses and published and spout (Pimentel and Paredes 2003: figure
examples of ceramics from other Moche sites 9.14c). The other nearly complete bottle has
has revealed that the geometric painting more complex geometric designs (ibid.: figure
tradition was not unique to Galindo at this 9.14b). The decoration of the vessels body
time. On the contrary, ceramics with designs comprises two repeating motifs, both of which
of this tradition have been recovered from a are major motifs identified in the Galindo
number of Phase V/Late Moche sites through- sample. The stirrup spout is decorated with
out the north coast. Their presence is most thick bands of dark paint, a stirrup spout motif
striking at a small site (ISCH.206:3) associ- (solid) that was also identified in the Galindo
ated with several prehistoric roads on the sample.
Pampa Colorada, located between the Santa
and Chao Valleys in the southern Moche
209 - Lockard: Moche fineline sherds from Galindo

No. Reference Form Stirrup Spout Motif Body Motifs/IEs

Donnan 1973, Plate 7E; republished
Geometric Motif 1D with Double Open Triangle IEs (2 bands)
1 in McClelland et al. 2007, Figure Stirrup spout bottle
(shield and clubs) Motif 2A with Double Open Triangle IEs (1 band)
Shimada 1976, Figure 41; republished Motif 1D with Open Step IEs (1 band)
2 Florero N/A
in Shimada 1994, Figure 8.11 Repeating S Motif with Open Triangle IEs
Motif 1C with Open Step (1 band) and Open Triangle (1
Shimada 1976, Figure 51; republished
3 Stirrup spout bottle N/A band) IEs
in Shimada 1994, Figure 7.35a
Repeating Crescent Motif
4 Ubbelohde-Doering 1983, Plate 56.3 Stirrup spout bottle Solid Motif 1A with Solid Triangle IEs (2 bands)
5 Shimada 1994, Figure 8.12c Stirrup spout bottle Single Lines Motif 4 (1 band)
6 McClelland 1997, Figure 3 Stirrup spout bottle Wave Motif (Type A) Motif 1E with Open Step IEs (4 bands)
McClelland 1997, Figure 5; repub-
Motif 1C with Open Step IEs (2 bands) and
7 lished in Donnan and McClelland Stirrup spout bottle Wave Motif (Type A)
Motif 3A (2 bands)
1999, Figure 6.133
Motif 1D with Solid Step IEs (2 bands) and
8 McClelland 1997, Figure 6 Stirrup spout bottle Wavy Ovals (Type A)
Motif 5A (2 bands)
Donnan and McClelland 1999, Figure Motif 1A with Open Serrated Triangle IEs and
9 Florero N/A
1.8 Motif 2A with Open Triangle IEs
Donnan and McClelland 1999, Figure Motif 1A with Open Step IEs (2 bands) and
10 Stirrup spout bottle Wavy Lines (Type C)
6.132 Motif 3A (2 bands)
Motif 1E with Solid Triangle (2 bands) and Solid Step (1
Donnan and McClelland 1999, Figure
11 Stirrup spout bottle Wavy Ovals (Type A) band) IEs
Motif 3A (2 bands)
Donnan and McClelland 1999, Figure Motif 1E with Solid Step IEs (2 bands) and
12 Stirrup spout bottle Single Lines
6.135 Motif 3A (3 bands)
Pimentel and Paredes 2003, Figure Motif 1C with Serrated Triangle IEs (1 band) and
13 Stirrup spout bottle Solid
9.14b Motif 2A with Solid Triangle IEs (1 band)
Pimentel and Paredes 2003, Figure
14 Stirrup spout bottle Solid Solid Area Only (bottom third of vessel)
15 McClelland et al. 2007, Figure 3.169a Stirrup spout bottle None Motif 1C with Solid Triangle IEs (2 bands)

Table 7: Published complete or near-complete Late Moche/Phase V fineline vessels with only geometric designs (n=15)

The partial vessel contains at least two other Moche sites, it is necessary to have com-
bands of Motif 1A with open serrated triangle parable samples from these sites. To be compa-
interstitial elements (ibid.: figure 9.14a). In rable, however, the sample must include all
addition to these vessels, Pimentel and Paredes Moche fineline sherds recovered from a site,
(ibid.: figure 9.12) provide a photo of several including those with geometric designs. A great
fineline sherds from the surface of the same site. deal of literature has been devoted to the study
In the photo, geometric motifs can be identified of Moche fineline iconography, but the vast
on the five largest sherds. All five depict Motif majority of this work focuses on figurative
2A, and at least three include solid triangle designs on complete or near complete vessels
interstitial elements. These sherds provide (e.g., Donnan 1975, 1978; Donnan and McClel-
evidence that Phase V fineline vessels decorated land 1979, 1999; Hill 1998; Hocquenghem
with the geometric painting tradition utilized at 1987; McClelland 1990). Unfortunately, very
Galindo were either traded or produced by little attention has been given to geometric
people living well to the south of the Moche designs, and even less to the design analysis of
Valley, an area previously thought to have been sherds. After an extensive review of the litera-
abandoned by the Moche at the end of Phase IV ture on the Moche, only a single design analysis
(Bawden 1996:263; Shimada 1994:118). was encountered in which all Moche fineline
sherds recovered during archaeological excava-
Pacatnamu tions were included. This analysis was performed
by Donna McClelland (1997) on a sample of all
In order to best evaluate the differences Moche fineline sherds recovered during excava-
between Galindo fineline ceramics and those of tions at the site of Pacatnamu in the Jequete-
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 210

peque Valley between 1983 and 1987 (Donnan Geometric sherds make up only 16.9 percent of
and Cock 1997). The sample is composed of 65 the sample, while figurative sherds comprise
sherds, the vast majority of which are of the 36.9 percent of the sample. I performed a chi-
Phase V style (McClelland 1997:277). The square analysis on the number of geometric
Pacatnamu sample is therefore composed of versus figurative sherds in the Galindo and
sherds that are roughly contemporaneous with Pacatnamu samples. I excluded undecorated
those of the Galindo sample. The Pacatnamu sherds from the Galindo sample, because
sample is also comparable to the Galindo sample McClelland did not include these sherds in her
in terms of context, with no sherds having been sample. I considered sherds with both geometric
directly recovered from burials. According to and figurative designs in the Galindo sample to
McClelland (ibid.:265), some of the sherds may be figurative, in order to make the test more
have been from vessels that were associated conservative. The test was performed twice, first
with burials that had been looted, but others on all remaining sherds (X2=78.3; p<.01) and
clearly were found in Moche refuse. The again on all remaining sherds excluding stirrup
following is a reporting of Mc Clellands analysis spout fragments, because the Pacatnamu sample
of the Pacatnamu sample, which is very similar had none (X2= 67.6; p<.01). Both analyses
to my analysis of the Galindo sample, and a demonstrate a statistically significant difference
comparison of her results to those reported between the samples at the .01 level.
above. The most significant difference between
McClellands analysis and the one presented In addition to a significantly greater percent-
above is that stirrup spout fragments were not age of figurative designs in the Pacatnamu
analyzed, because no sherds of this type were sample, the proportion of indeterminate sherds
found. (46.2%) is also significantly greater than in the
Galindo sample (11.6%). Although the reason
Geometric Versus Figurative Designs in the for this difference is uncertain, it appears to be
Pacatnamu Sample because of the nature of figurative versus geo-
metric designs. Figurative designs in Moche
In her analysis of Moche fineline sherds from iconography are often complex, and either cover
Pacatnamu, McClelland first divided her sample the entire surface of the vessel, or are repeated
into three categories: sherds with geometric only a few times around the vessels surface.
designs, sherds with figurative designs, and Moche geometric motifs, on the other hand, are
sherds with unidentified elements (mostly very often small, occurring numerous times as repeat-
small sherds, classified herein as indeterminate). ing panels or bands. Furthermore, Moche geo-
Table 8 presents the distribution of sherds in metric motifs appear to be highly standardized,
each of these categories in the Pacatnamu with only a few geometric motifs (with various
sample. types) occurring on numerous vessels. Moche
figurative designs, on the other hand, are more
Type Count Percentage varied. As a result, it is typically easier to iden-
Geometric 11 16.9% tify a geometric motif from a small sherd than to
Figurative 24 36.9%
Indeterminate 30 46.2%
determine the subject matter of a small sherd
Total 65 100% that was part of a large and complex figurative
design. The vast majority of McClellands inde-
Table 8: Geometric versus figurative sherds in the terminate sherds (McClelland 1997: figures 38
Pacatnamu sample (n=65) and 39) appear to be parts of complex figurative
designs. These sherds were not considered to be
211 - Lockard: Moche fineline sherds from Galindo

figurative, however, because the sherds are too triangles, and the interstitial elements of the
small to determine what is depicted. As a result, remaining three could not be determined. Motif
the proportion of sherds from vessels with 2A appears on two sherds, both with open
figurative designs is likely to be substantially triangle interstitial elements. Motifs 3A, 4, and
higher than the 36.9 percent of sherds in which 5A are also present, each appearing on a single
a figurative subject matter could be determined. sherd. Two of the sherds in the Pacatnamu
Under the standards I employed in the analysis sample contain two motifs. One contains Motif
of the Galindo sample, only one of the sherds in 1C and Motif 2A, and the other contains Motif
McClellands unidentified elements category 1 (type indeterminate) and Motif 3A. The
would have been classified as geometric (the geometric sherds in the Pacatnamu sample also
sherd depicts a spiral motif, see McClelland share the design layout characteristics of the
1997: figure 39), while several would have been geometric painting tradition utilized at Galindo.
classified as figurative with indeterminate sub- It is unclear at this time whether these ceramics
ject matter. were produced at Pacatnamu or are trade-wares
from Galindo or another Phase V/Late Moche
Design Analysis of Geometric Sherds in the site. In either case, the presence at both sites of
Pacatnamu Sample Moche fineline ceramics decorated with the
geometric painting tradition suggests that the
Despite the fact that the Galindo sample is two sites had some degree of interaction.
significantly different from the Pacatnamu
sample in terms of the proportion of geometric Figurative Subject Matter Analysis of the
versus figurative designs, a comparison of the Pacatnamu Sample
geometric motifs present in both samples sug-
gests that similar artistic conventions were As part of her analysis, McClelland identi-
employed at the two sites in the painting of fied the subject matter of the sherds with figura-
geometric designs. All 11 sherds classified by tive designs in the Pacatnamu sample. There
McClelland as geometric depict major motifs are two sections in the analysis. In the first, she
identified in the Galindo sample (Table 9). uses the Moche Archives at U.C.L.A. to match
sherds to specific themes and figures in Moche
Type Count Percentage fineline iconography. According to McClelland,
Motif 1 8 72.7% the Tule Boat theme is depicted on six sherds,
Motif 2 2 18.2% the Strombus Monster is depicted on four
Motif 3 1 9.1% sherds, and the Triangular Head and Running
Motif 4 1 9.1%
Figures are each depicted on one sherd. All of
Motif 5 1 9.1%
these sherds, which make up 18.5 percent of the
total sample, can be argued to depict ideological
Table 9: Distribution of geometric motifs in the
themes or figures, especially the Tule Boat
Pacatnamu sample (n=11). Note: two sherds
theme, Strombus Monster, and Running Figures
have two motifs
(see Donnan 1978; Donnan and McClelland
1999; McClelland 1990). McClelland classified
As is the case in the Galindo sample, Motif 1 is
an additional ten sherds as depicting nonspe-
by far the most common, appearing on eight
cific design elements. These sherds could not
sherds. Among these, one is Type C, three are
be correlated with specific Moche themes or
Type D, and the type of the remaining four
figures, but their content could be determined
could not be determined. Three have solid
to varying degrees. These sherds, according to
triangle interstitial elements, two have open
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 212

McClelland, depict an additional possible spout bottle with two bands of Motif 1C, one of
Strombus Monster, a lower leg, a flower, a which has open triangle and the other of which
possible runner, feline pelage markings, feathers has open step interstitial elements (ibid: figure
(on two sherds), fox-headed snakes, a human/ 7.35a). In between is another repeating motif,
anthropomorphic head, and a possible composed of repeating crescents, which has
anthropomorphized fish. If her interpretations of been identified at Galindo but is not in the
the subject matter of these sherds are correct, at Galindo sample (the drawing could not be
least five additional sherds could be argued to correlated with provenience and/ or paint color
depict ideological themes or figures (the possible data). The stirrup spout on the vessel does not
Strombus Monster, the possible runner, the fox- appear to have been decorated. The second
headed snakes, the anthropomorphic head, and vessel is a florero with a single band of Motif 1D
the possible anthropomorphized fish). with open step interstitial elements (ibid.: figure
McClelland classified an additional two sherds 8.11). A second band below depicts a repeating
as figurative with indeterminate subject matter. S motif (identified on only a single sherd in
the Galindo sample) with open triangle intersti-
The majority of the sherds in the Galindo tial elements. The final vessel is another stirrup
figurative sample depict naturalistic plants and spout bottle (ibid.: figure 8.12c). The stirrup
animals. The majority of the sherds in the spout is decorated with single lines, and the
Pacatnamu figurative sample, on the other body is decorated with only a single band of
hand, depict portions of complex supernatural Motif 4. It is unclear at this time what percent-
themes and figures. Some of these designs age of the geometric motifs that decorate Pampa
appear to be part of the traditional figurative Grande fineline ceramics are major motifs in the
painting tradition (e.g., a ritual runner; McClel- geometric painting tradition utilized at Galindo.
land 1997: figure 21). Other sherds in the The above analysis of the three vessels pub-
Pacatnamu figurative sample, however, are lished in Shimadas book on Pampa Grande does
characteristic of another Late Moche figurative demonstrate, however, that at least some geo-
painting tradition, known as the Moro Style, metric motifs were utilized at both sites. Galindo
which is unique to the northern Moche region and Pampa Grande therefore appear to have
(Castillo 2001:319-320, 2003:101-102; Donnan had at least some degree of interaction.
and McClelland 1999:139; see below).
San Jos de Moro
Pampa Grande
Interestingly, Moche fineline ceramics
The geometric painting tradition was also decorated with the geometric painting tradition
utilized in the decoration of ceramics recovered are almost completely absent at the Late Moche
from the site of Pampa Grande, although their site of San Jos de Moro. McClelland et al.
prevalence is still unclear. All of the geometric (2007) have recently analyzed a sample of 255
designs on Moche fineline ceramics from Pampa Moche fineline vessels or large sherds that are
Grande published by Shimada (1994) in his attributable to San Jos de Moro with varying
book on the site, however, are motifs that occur degrees of certainty.2 Of this sample, only two
on sherds from Galindo (Table 7). All but one
of the motifs in this admittedly small number of
ceramics are major motifs in the Galindo sam- 2
For 21 percent of the sample, the vessel or sherd was
ple. Only three vessels with geometric designs excavated at San Jos de Moro. For 43 percent of the
are published in the book. The first is a stirrup sample looters recall finding the vessel and could describe
its context and/or location at the site. For 5 percent of the
213 - Lockard: Moche fineline sherds from Galindo

stirrup spout bottles (less than one percent) an almost complete disappearance of human
contain solely geometric designs (ibid. 2007: beings in favor of supernatural beings. In addi-
151). Furthermore, only one of these bottles was tion, the scenes depicted are few and repeti-
recovered from San Jos de Moro. This bottle tive: the Burial Theme, the combat between
has two bands of repeating Motif 1C panels with supernatural beings, the navigation of the reed
solid triangle interstitial elements (ibid.: figure rafts, the Priestess on a crescent moon, and the
3.169a). The second bottle in the San Jos de anthropomorphized wave (Castillo 2001:320;
Moro sample, which was recovered from a grave see also Castillo 2003:101). None of the figura-
at the site of Cenicero in the Santa Valley, has tive sherds in the Galindo sample could be
two bands of repeating Motif 1D panels with identified as depicting any of these scenes. In
double open triangle interstitial elements on the Pacatnamu sample, on the other hand,
either side of a band of repeating Motif 2A McClelland identifies five sherds (1997: figure
designs with the same interstitial elements (ibid. 11) as being part of tule boat scenes (the reed
Figure 3.169b). The lack of Moche fineline raft of Castillo), and identifies another sherd
ceramics with designs of the geometric painting (ibid.: figure 13) as being part of a rayed cres-
tradition at San Jos de Moro may indicate that cent tule boat (the crescent moon of Cas-
Galindo did not have as much interaction with tillo). Both of these scenes are associated with
the site as it did with other sites on the north the Priestess in the fineline painting tradition at
coast. Alternatively, it may be the result of the San Jos de Moro (Castillo 2003:102).
fact that most, if not all, of the ceramics in the
San Jos de Moro sample were recovered from In addition, the Moro Style is characterized
tombs or caches (ibid.:7), whereas none of the by extremely elaborate decoration. Background
sherds in the Galindo sample are from these filler elements were often used to fill in the
sorts of contexts. empty spaces around the principal figurative
designs. In general, the figurative designs in the
Almost all of the fineline vessels recovered Galindo sample are not as elaborate as those of
both illegally and archaeologically from San Jos San Jos de Moro. The figurative designs in the
de Moro were decorated with the Moro Style of Pacatnamu sample are generally more elaborate
fineline painting. According to Luis Jaime than those of Galindo, but not as elaborate as
Castillo (2001:319-320; see also Castillo those of San Jos de Moro. Background filler
2003:101), the Moro Style differs from the elements are absent in the Galindo sample,
Phase IV figurative painting tradition in the present but rare in the Pacatnamu sample, and
southern Moche region in the following ways: common at San Jos de Moro.
(1) a reduction in the number of iconographic
themes; (2) a new emphasis on maritime theme- Non-provenienced Phase V/Late Moche Fineline
s; (3) a high frequency of depictions of the Vessels with Only Geometric Designs
Priestess or Supernatural Woman; and (4)
Despite the fact that hundreds of complete
or near complete Phase V/Late Moche fineline
sample the vessel was painted by an artist who had paint- vessels have been published to date, very few of
ed another vessel that was excavated at the site. For 7 these contain only geometric designs (Table 7).
percent of the sample the vessel was recorded in the hands
of a dealer or knowledgeable collector who was confident
In addition to the vessels described above
that it was from the site. For the remaining 23 percent of (McClelland et al. 2007: figures 3.169a and
the sample, no provenience was available, but the vessel 3.169b; Pimentel and Paredes 2003: figures
form and painting style are consistent with known vessels 9.14b and 9.14c; Shimada 1994: figures 7.35a,
from the site.(McClelland et al. 2007:7).
ANDEAN PAST 9 (2009) - 214

8.11 and 8.12c), a review of Moche literature CONCLUSION

found only three publications with such vessels.
In her design analysis of fineline sherds from The preceding literature review indicates
Pacatnamu, McClelland (1997) publishes, as that there were at least three painting traditions
comparatives, three complete Phase V stirrup utilized in the decoration of Phase V/Late
spout bottles with only geometric designs. As all Moche fineline vessels. Two of these, the geo-
of the geometric designs identified by Mc metric painting tradition and the traditional
Clelland in the Pacatnamu sample are major figurative painting tradition, were utilized at
motifs in the geometric painting tradition uti- Galindo. The Moro Style was not utilized at
lized at Galindo, it is not surprising that all of Galindo, and appears to be unique to the north-
the geometric designs on the comparative ern Moche region. The preceding literature
vessels are as well. In addition, however, the review also indicates that the geometric painting
stirrup spouts on these three vessels are all tradition was widespread, although never as
decorated with stirrup spout motifs identified in dominant at other sites as it was at Galindo,
the Galindo sample. An additional whole vessel with the possible exception of the small site
from Pacatnamu, which depicts two bands of (ISCH.206:3) on the Pampa Colorada. Because
Motif 1A with solid triangle interstitial ele- Moche fineline sherds are rarely analyzed or
ments, has been published by Ubbelohde- published, however, it is unclear exactly how far
Doering (1983: Plate 56.3). to the north and south the tradition extended,
and how extensive it was in these areas. Its
In their seminal work on Moche fineline frequency at most of the sites in which it has
painting, Donnan and McClelland (1999) been documented is also unknown. The pres-
publish five complete Phase V vessels with only ence of the geometric painting tradition in the
geometric designs, one of which (figure 6.133) is decoration of Moche fineline ceramics at sites
the same vessel as one of the comparatives in such as Pacatnamu and Pampa Grande, how-
McClellands (1997: figure 5) analysis of ever, indicate that there was at least some
Pacatnamu sherds. Four of these are stirrup degree of interaction between Galindo and these
spout bottles attributed to a single artist (the sites. As more data on the presence and preva-
Geometric Painter). All of the designs on the lence of the various painting traditions utilized
bodies of these bottles are major motifs identi- to decorate Moche fineline ceramics at different
fied in the Galindo sample. All four vessels also Phase V/Late Moche sites are obtained and
contain stirrup spout motifs utilized by Galindo published, the extent of this interaction will no
artists. In addition to these stirrup spout bottles, doubt become increasingly clear.
Donnan and McClelland (1999: figure 1.8) also
publish a complete florero with only geometric The form of interaction that existed be-
designs. Both of the motifs on this vessel are tween Moche sites with fineline ceramics deco-
major motifs identified in the Galindo sample. rated with the various Phase V/Late Moche
painting traditions also remains unclear at this
Unfortunately, the context of all but one of time. In order to address this issue, compo-
these vessels (Ubbelohde-Doering 1983: plate sitional analyses are required to first determine
56.3) is unknown. It is possible that all seven of whether sherds decorated with these traditions
these vessels came from Galindo itself. As a were produced at a single or multiple locations.
result, these vessels unfortunately provide little If the analyses indicate that ceramics decorated
information on the distribution of the geometric with a certain tradition were produced at a
painting tradition utilized at Galindo. single location, then trade is indicated. If trade
215 - Lockard: Moche fineline sherds from Galindo

is indicated, the preponderance of the geometric Project, and Travel grant awarded by the Office of Gradu-
painting tradition at Galindo relative to other ate Studies at the University of New Mexico. Finally, I
would like to thank my friends and family, and especially
major sites indicates that they were most likely my wife, Hannah D. Lockard, and our daughters Fiona
produced at or near Galindo. If compositional and Sarah, for their unwavering and all-encompassing
analyses indicate that fineline ceramics deco- support.
rated with a particular painting tradition were
produced at multiple locations, on the other REFERENCES CITED
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Buikstra, the late Robert Santley, and Luis Jaime Castillo, tional Gallery of Art.
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