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buildings

K. Suresh Kumar 1

Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, FAGO, Postbus 513, Technical University of Eindhoven, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The

Netherlands

Received 30 September 1998; accepted 10 March 1999

Abstract

This paper presents an analytical approach for the prediction of wind-induced fatigue on claddings of low

buildings. The method uses digitally simulated wind pressure data, long-term wind climate of the region and

experimental fatigue characteristics data of claddings. The wind pressure data is analyzed using rainow technique

to establish the fatigue characteristics of pressure data. For low buildings located in temperate regions, the

accumulation of wind load cycles during the design life of cladding is estimated using a probabilistic approach by

integrating the long-term wind climate of the region with the fatigue characteristics of pressures. Finally, the wind-

induced fatigue damage is calculated utilizing Miner's rule and Goodman's method. Analytical predictions for the

case of roof claddings are validated by experimental measurements in a boundary layer wind tunnel. This approach

seems promising for a parametric investigation of wind-induced fatigue. # 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights

reserved.

during storms are still common. Continuing research

Low buildings have generally been designed for sta- eorts would be useful in reducing wind-induced fati-

tic wind loading. However, the failure at relatively low gue damages.

wind speeds of building components, which are actu- Several studies in the past showed that it is

ally rated to sustain high wind speeds by static design, reasonable to assume the pressure uctuations on

has received wider attention more recently. Fatigue building envelopes as stationary random processes.

due to repetitive sequences of high pressure uctu- Therefore, the theory of stochastic processes can be

ations has been identied as the main reason for the used to quantify such loadings. For instance, the

extensive damage to building components in many vio- power spectra of the pressure uctuations may help

lent storms [1]. Despite the allowance provided in in the simulation of representative sample time his-

some codes and standards for proof-testing of building tories. Thereafter, an appropriate cycle counting

technique such as the rainow algorithm, and a

damage accumulation hypothesis such as Miner's

E-mail address: s.kumar@bwk.tue.nl (K. Suresh Kumar). rule can be used to obtain fatigue damage estimates

1

Formerly, Doctoral Student at School for Building, Con- [2]. Goodman's method can be employed to ap-

cordia University, Montreal, Canada. proximately account for the eect of mean load.

0045-7949/00/$ - see front matter # 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 0 4 5 - 7 9 4 9 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 8 1 - 4

32 K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144

Nomenclature

b width of building mean hourly wind velocity at building

cj Weibull constant height

Cprmax maximum pressure cycle range [NT] total load cycle distribution

D damage index pj probability of wind coming from a particu-

Dg damage due to Gaussian time series lar direction

Dng damage due to non-Gaussian time series Sk skewness

Et exponential random variable Smi mean pressure

hl lower eave height Sri pressure range associated with Smi

[H]

p cycle histogram Sth threshold pressure

Ik Fourier amplitude Su ultimate pressure of roong component

K intercept of the SN curve plotted on a T design life of cladding in hours

loglog graph T time

k total number of blocks t time (data points)

kj Weibull constant V mean hourly wind velocity at building

Ku kurtosis height

L geometric length Vi mean hourly wind velocity at building

l length of building height

m1 slope of the SN curve plotted on a loglog V design mean hourly wind velocity at build-

graph ing height corresponding to a specic return

N number of cycles period

n time series length DV small interval of velocity

Ni number of cycles to failure under Sri Yt skeleton signal

ni total number of cycles in the ith block of Zt simulated time series

constant pressure range, Sri fk Fourier phase

Nm number of pressure cycles in model scale s2 variance

Np number of pressure cycles in full-scale

Note that the conventional damage hypothesis can- ern the design of cladding as well as fasteners. The

not take into account the sequence eects present in evaluation of fatigue damage estimates using this simu-

actual wind pressure uctuations; ideally, the simu- lation scheme has been rst attempted in the frame-

lated wind pressure uctuations can be applied work of the present study.

directly on a cladding with the help of facilities like The main objective of this paper is, therefore, to

BRERWULF [3] in order to reproduce the actual address the application of the simulated pressure uc-

eects of wind pressure uctuations on cladding el- tuations in predicting the fatigue behavior of cladding

ements. using rainow algorithm, Miner's rule and Goodman's

Though the above mentioned procedure is simple, it method. The rate of fatigue damage accumulation

may have limitations which must be addressed before both under Gaussian and non-Gaussian wind pressure

it can successfully be used. For instance, the conven- loadings has been investigated. Furthermore, the long-

tional simulation of a time history based on power term wind climate is integrated with the simulated fati-

spectra assumes that the process is Gaussian. However, gue characteristics of cladding pressures to evaluate

both Gaussian and non-Gaussian wind pressures have total fatigue loading on cladding of low buildings

been observed depending on tap location and wind located in temperate climate regions. A few prelimi-

direction; mostly, non-Gaussian wind pressures are nary results were reported in Refs. [9,10].

observed on corner zones as well as on other separated

ow regions [4,5]. Therefore, the new simulation

scheme that can generate both Gaussian as well as 2. Methodology: prediction of wind-induced fatigue on

non-Gaussian pressure uctuations [68] and whose claddings

eciency has been veried for a number of cases can

be used. This simulation scheme is basically developed Fig. 1 shows the schematic of the prediction of

to generate only local pressure uctuations which gov- wind-induced fatigue. The methodology consists of

K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144 33

four major steps: (1) simulation of wind loading, (2) part of the Gaussian time series, represented by inde-

estimation of wind load cycles, (3) estimation of total pendent uniformly distributed random numbers

fatigue loading, and (4) estimation of wind-induced between p and p, can be easily generated using com-

fatigue damage. Note that the long-term climate of the monly available algorithms [6]. However, in the case of

location is an input in this approach to estimate total non-Gaussian time series, the phase part cannot be

fatigue loading. Another input that is required to com- replaced by independent uniform random numbers. A

pute the damage caused by the total fatigue loading is simple Exponential Peak Generation (EPG) model is

the constant amplitude test results (SN curve) of the proposed for the generation of skeleton signal from

cladding material. which the required phase can be drawn [68]. The

EPG model takes the form,

2.1. Simulation of wind loading

Yt 0, with probability b

Time histories of Gaussian and non-Gaussian press-

ures on claddings can be generated with the help of Et , with probability 1 b, 0RbR1 2

the following discrete Fourier transform equation [68]

where, Yt corresponds to skeleton signal, b is the prob-

X

n1 p ability parameter that controls the intensity as well as

1

Zt n Ik eifk ei2pkt=n , t 0,1, . . . ,n 1 1 the frequency of spikes in the skeleton signal, and Et is

k0

the exponential random variable. The model parameter

where, Zt corresponds b has been estimated by minimizing the sum of the

p to time series, n corresponds to squared errors in skewness and kurtosis. Many success-

time series length, Ik corresponds to Fourier ampli-

tude, fk corresponds to Fourier phase and the term ful simulations have been performed at various roof lo-

2pk=n is the integer multiple of the fundamental fre- cations of many low buildings by using synthetic

quency 2p=n known as Fourier frequency. Through spectra derived from several wind tunnel measurements

out this paper, the measured and simulated wind press- [6,11,12]. The same procedure has been adopted in this

ure uctuations are conveniently shown as the time study to simulate wind pressure uctuations on clad-

varying pressure coecients after dividing them by the dings for fatigue evaluation.

reference dynamic pressure at mean roof height. The

above simulation procedure, which is developed based

on several wind tunnel measurements, requires the 2.2. Estimation of wind load cycles

knowledge of both Fourier amplitude and phase in

order to simulate a time series. The amplitude part of One of the major tasks of fatigue analysis is to

the time series can be constructed from measured establish a proper expression for the load and its re-

pressure spectra or tted empirical expressions for sub- lationship with time or frequency. Generally, the loads

sequent simulations in a synthetic manner [6,7,11,12]. can be classied as random process or a single-ampli-

Unlike the amplitude part, the phase part of uctu- tude sine wave or a set of discrete amplitude sine

ations cannot be modelled empirically or deterministi- waves. For the latter two cases, the denition of cycle

cally; however, stochastic models might be more is clear and the number of cycles can be determined by

appropriate to represent its random nature. The phase simple counting based on the type of events to be

counted such as peaks, level crossings etc. However,

the wind pressure uctuations are random in nature

for which the term cycle is rather confusing and count-

ing of cycles is complex. The wind pressure uctu-

ations acting on claddings of low buildings are broad-

banded and sometimes non-Gaussian too [46]; there-

fore, the description as well as counting of load cycles

are not easy as in the case of a narrowband Gaussian

process. Common cycle counting techniques in use

today are peak, range, range-pair and rainow [13]. Of

these various methods, rainow has been shown to be

superior and yields the best fatigue life estimates, es-

pecially in the case of broadband non-Gaussian pro-

cess [13]. The rainow method can identify cycles as

closed hysteresis loops and can provide range and

mean values for each cycle. This method was recently

Fig. 1. Schematic of the prediction of wind-induced fatigue. used by Xu [14] and Jancauskas et al. [15] to count

34 K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144

cycles of wind-induced pressures. Moreover, the recent gram, [H ] displaying the distribution of pressure cycles

standardization of this methodology by Amzallag et al. over both cycle ranges and mean levels as a ratio of

[16] eliminates the presence of half cycles appearing in the total number of cycles. The MATLAB functions

the conventional rainow method. Therefore, this used for all the numerical applications in this paper

method has been adopted in this study to count the can be found in Ref. [6].

number of cycles present in pressure uctuations.

The rainow procedure applied in this investigation

consists of four major steps: (1) extraction of extrema, 2.3. Estimation of total fatigue loading

(2) extraction of cycles, (3) treatment of residue and

(4) storing cycles. A basic treatment of the loading, Claddings are exposed to a spectrum of wind speeds

namely extraction of extrema, is required before the during their life time. Corresponding to the variation

rainow procedure can be applied. In step (1), peaks of wind speed, the number of cycles presents in press-

as well as valleys of a pressure time series are identied ure uctuations vary as well. On the other hand, the

and stored as a sequence of extrema (S ). In step (2), fatigue damage of cladding usually accumulates

the cycles are extracted from the sequence of extrema throughout its life time depending on the material

based on the rules explained in Ref. [16]. The cycle type. Therefore, for the design of cladding correspond-

extraction procedure starts with the rst four succes- ing to a particular wind return period and specic life

sive points (1, 2, 3, and 4) in a sequence of extrema time, such uctuations in wind speed have to be taken

(S ). Thereafter, three consecutive ranges are deter- into account. In this study, it is assumed that the

mined: DS1 jS2 S1 j, DS2 jS3 S2 j and DS3 buildings are located in temperate climate regions

jS4 S3 j: If DS2 RDS1 and DS2 RDS3 , then: (1) the where the predominant source of high wind speeds is

cycle represented by its extreme values S2 and S3 is large-scale and frequently occurring non-tropical

extracted; (2) the two points S2 and S3 are discarded; cyclone systems. The long-term wind climate of the

(3) the two remaining parts are connected to each corresponding location is integrated with the simulated

other. If not, the following point is considered and the fatigue characteristics of the pressure uctuations to

same procedure is applied using points 2, 3, 4 and the obtain the total fatigue loading using a probabilistic

new point, 5. The procedure is repeated until the last approach similar to that of Xu [14]. The eect of wind

point of the sequence is reached. The leftover points direction on the pressure cycle distribution is not con-

(points that are not included in cycle extraction) con- sidered in the present approach.

stitute the residue. Further, the cycles can be extracted The probability that the mean hourly wind velocity

from a residue by adding the residue to itself and Vi at a particular location is in a small interval of

applying the previous rainow technique to the specied velocity DV is

sequence composed of two residues, which is carried

out in step (3). The residue left out of this procedure is DV DV

P Vi RVi RVi 1PVi DV 3

identical to the rst one. In this way, the sequence can 2 2

be decomposed into cycles completely. Note that care

Consequently, for a given mean hourly wind velocity

should be taken while joining the two residues.

at building height Vi ), the number of cycles at a tap

Depending on their initial and nal relative values and

location Nvi has been estimated using

slopes, AFNOR A03-406 [17] provides some special

way of joining two residues. Note that the application Nvi n Vi PVi DV T 4

of rainow method will result in number of cycles cor-

responding to various mean and range values of press- where, n number of cycles per hour per one m/s of

ures. It may be further necessary to quantify these mean hourly wind velocity at building height; and T

established cycles in a more comprehensive and sim- design life of cladding in hours. The distribution of the

plistic way so that it can be applied in practice, which cycles Nvi over all cycle ranges and mean levels can be

is carried out in step (4). Within this context, the mean estimated by

and range values of cycles are divided into certain

number of classes of constant width interval, and all Nvi Nvi H 5

values (mean and range) located in a given class are where, H cycle histogram. Thereafter, the follow-

replaced by a representative value of this class (the ing equation gives the total load cycle distribution of

mean value is usually chosen). Finally, the number of the designated tap:

cycles corresponding to representative mean and range

of each class is stored in a matrix format for further X

NT Nvi 6

analysis. The outputs of this exercise are (1) maximum i

pressure cycle range, Cprmax, (2) the total number of

cycles, N, and (3) the three-dimensional cycle histo- where, the mean level and range of NT are expressed

K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144 35

2

as the ratio of design wind pressure, 12 r V Cprmax the various models including Miner's rule that

(Cprmax is the maximum pressure cycle range and V is designers use to predict fatigue under variable ampli-

the design mean hourly wind velocity at building tude and random loading are provided elsewhere [18].

height corresponding to a specic return period). This The number of cycles to failure Ni can be obtained

shows that the above summation is not straightforward from the constant amplitude SN curve of the corre-

since each Nvi is a function of velocity, i.e., the cycle sponding cladding material [19]. By applying Good-

mean levels and ranges are a function of velocity. man's simplication to estimate the pressure range

Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a proper sum- equivalent to nonzero mean pressure [2], the conven-

mation according to the mean levels and ranges of tional SN relationship becomes

each Nvi ], which is pictorially shown in Fig. 2. In this 2 3m1

summation, each Nvi should be rearranged depending Sri

Ni K4 , Sri rSth 8

on the mean level and range of each cell in this matrix Smi 5

1

compared to the mean level and range of NT ]. For Su

instance, in case of low Vi , mean level and range of

where, Sri pressure range associated with mean press-

the cells of Nvi may lie in the lower classes of the

ure Smi , Su ultimate pressure of cladding com-

mean level and ranges of NT ]. Therefore, all the cycles

ponents, Sth threshold pressure below which there is

in rearranged Nvi will be concentrated at few cells

no damage to cladding, and K and m1 are constants

and as a result the modied Nvi becomes smaller.

representing intercept and slope, respectively of the

This is shown in Fig. 2, where the matrix (modied

constant amplitude SN curve plotted on a loglog

Nvi ]) corresponding to lower Vi is smaller.

graph. The parameters Su, K and m1 for any particular

cladding material can be established by carrying out

2.4. Estimation of wind-induced fatigue damage

conventional constant amplitude tests [19].

Wind-induced fatigue damage, D, can be estimated

using the well-known damage accumulation hypothesis

of Miner's rule:

3. Numerical examples: fatigue analysis of roof

X

k

ni claddings

D 7

i1

Ni

In the past two decades, several researchers have

where, ni total number of wind load cycles in the ith investigated wind-induced fatigue using either wind

block of constant pressure range, Sri ; Ni number of tunnel or full-scale measurementssee Refs. [14,20].

cycles to failure under Sri ; and k total number of Regarding analytical studies, Davenport [21] proposed

blocks. Failure occurs when D 1: More details about a method to estimate wind-induced fatigue damage by

assuming the wind loading as a broadband Gaussian

process. Lynn and Stathopoulos [22] improved the pre-

dictions by including the eect of non-normality by

using a mixed GaussianWeibull extremum model.

Later, Winterstein [23] derived Hermite moment

models to predict fatigue damage rates; these models

use moments (skewness and kurtosis) to form non-

Gaussian contributions. The developed ratio of actual

non-Gaussian to Gaussian damage rate g is

p m1

E Dng pM m1 VR !

g 9

E Dg 2VR ! m1

!

2

where,

s

1=2

4 1 h4 h~4 p 2 2

VR ; M 1 2h~3 6h~4

p

p

Ku 3 1 1:5Ku 3 1

h4 ; h~4 ;

Fig. 2. Pictorial representation of the summation in Eq. (6) 24 18

36 K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144

Sk

h~3 p details are provided in Table 1. The simulations have

4 2 1 1:5Ku 3 been carried out as previously discussed in Section 2.1

using the synthetic normalized spectra, SFNG1 [6,11,12];

where, Sk and Ku represent skewness and kurtosis this synthetic spectra is developed based on many wind

values of the time series and m1 corresponds to the tunnel measured spectra over a at roof non-Gaussian

slope of the SN curve of the material under consider- region and the details can be found in Refs. [6,11,12].

ation. The three inputs required to compute Eq. (9) The values of probability parameter b that induce non-

are Sk, Ku and m1. This model is based on the normality are also provided. Statistics of the simulated

assumption that the process is narrow-banded; how- uctuations provided in Table 1 shows that both

ever, according to Winterstein [23], the damage ratio is samples are non-Gaussian and sample S50 is highly

not aected much by the bandwidth eects and, there- non-Gaussian compared to S64. The importance of the

fore, is usually conservative with respect to the rain- inherent non-normality of the samples in fatigue

ow counting assumption. Note that the previously damage accumulation can be demonstrated by compar-

suggested analytical models are based on the peak ing the damage caused by the actual non-Gaussian

cycle counting method; this method is not suited for loading with that of the corresponding simulated load-

counting cycles in the case of wind pressure uctu- ing based on Gaussian assumption. Within this con-

ations on low building roofs that are broad-banded text, Gaussian counterparts for both cases are also

and non-Gaussian [5,6]. On the other hand, the use of simulated using their corresponding spectra.

more accurate cycle counting method makes the pre-

sent approach promising for the prediction of wind-

3.2. Fatigue characteristics of roof pressures

induced fatigue with reasonable accuracy. This

approach also includes the eect of long-term wind cli-

mate of the location. Further, the present approach is The number of data in each record of the wind-tun-

very useful to carry out an extensive parametric study. nel measured and the corresponding simulated pressure

time histories is 8192, corresponding to a duration of

16.384 s in model scale. The results of rainow method

3.1. Simulation of roof pressure uctuations in terms of the maximum pressure cycle range

(Cprmax), the number of load cycles in model scale

Fatigue characteristics of pressure uctuations have (Nm), and full-scale (Np) of the corresponding time his-

been investigated at few locations over at and mono- tories are listed in Table 2. While applying rainow al-

slope roof buildings although only two representative gorithm, no hysteresis threshold limit has been used to

examples have been provided. Pressure taps have been eliminate small cycles since it was decided to use such

selected in zones of very high energetic fatigue loading threshold in the estimation of total fatigue loading and

of a 15 m high at roof building and the simulation corresponding damage. Note that each sample of

Table 1

Simulation details of time series

K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144 37

non-Gaussian time series (NG), their Gaussian (G)

counterparts and the corresponding measured non-

Gaussian time series (M). As expected, the maximum

pressure cycle range of simulated non-Gaussian time

history is greater than its corresponding Gaussian

counterpart; however, the dierence between the two

depends on the intensity of non-normality. For

instance, the dierence between the maximum pressure

cycle range corresponding to the simulated non-Gaus-

sian time series and its Gaussian counterpart in case of

S64 is less than that of S50 since sample S64 is not

highly non-Gaussian (see Table 1). On the other hand,

the Cprmax of simulated non-Gaussian time series is

dierent from the corresponding measured non-Gaus-

sian time series. This is because the simulations are

based on generalized spectra of that zone and more-

over, Cprmax is sensitive to peaks which vary from Fig. 3. Cycle histogram of S50 (simulated).

sample to sample. Note that the total numbers of

cycles in model scale corresponding to both samples

are close, though they usually vary according to tap lo- is time, V is mean hourly wind velocity at building

cations. height, and the indices p and m stand for prototype

The number of cycles corresponding to model scale and model, respectively. The number of cycles per

has to be converted to full-scale for actual damage esti- hour per one m/s of hourly mean wind velocity at

mation. Additional information required for this con- is evaluated with the help of

building height, Np n,

version is the relationship between the wind speed and corresponding Nm's and by taking Lm =Lp 1=400,

the number of cycles. In the present study, the simi- Vp 1 m/s, Vm 5:5 m/s, Tp 3600 s, and Tm

larity equation associated with the Strouhal number 16:384 s; n corresponding to various cases is provided

which provides the linear relationship between number in Table 2. Later, the total pressure cycles in full-scale

of cycles and wind speed [14,15,22] has been used to corresponding to a particular wind velocity for a

evaluate the number of cycles per hour per one m/s of period of time in hours can be evaluated by multiply-

mean hourly wind velocity at building height in full- ing Np by the corresponding wind velocity and period.

scale (Np) provided in Table 2. The number of cycles Figs. 36 display typical cycle histograms of the

in both full-scale and model scale wind pressures, simulated and measured samples. The vertical axis

counted by the rainow method, are expected to ap- shows the ratios of the number of cycles in each cell to

proximately satisfy the similarity equation, the total number of cycles. The two horizontal axes

Lm Vp Tp

Np Nm 10

Lp Vm Tm

Table 2

Typical results of rainow counting method1

G 4.25 1882 188

M 4.40 1974 197

S64 NG 3.12 1817 181

G 3.01 1882 188

M 3.70 1983 198

1

NGsimulated (non-Gaussian), Gsimulated (Gaus-

sian), Mmeasured. Fig. 4. Cycle histogram of S50 (measured).

38 K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144

Fig. 5. Cycle histogram of S64 (simulated). Fig. 7. Cycle histogram of S50 (simulated, Gaussian).

refer to the range and mean level of cycles expressed pressure cycle range of a time series is consistently

as a ratio of the maximum pressure cycle range of the greater than the maximum pressure cycle mean level

corresponding simulated time history obtained from for the cases studied. In general, the cycle histogram of

rainow counting method. Low cycle ranges have been simulated pressure uctuations corresponding to S50

included. Clearly, the low level cycle ranges corre- and S64 are similar to those of the corresponding

sponding to low cycle mean levels are lled with more measured pressure uctuations. This similarity of cycle

cycles and this is typical for most cases; however, var- histograms and the number of cycles between the simu-

ious patterns of distribution of cycles have been noted lated and the measured cases indicate that simulated

depending on the location of the tap on the roof and pressure uctuations can be used to determine fatigue

the wind direction. For instance, compared with characteristics of wind pressures on roofs. The cycle

sample S64 (Figs. 5 and 6), the cycles corresponding to histogram and the number of cycles, together with the

sample S50 (Figs. 3 and 4) are more or less concen- information on long-term wind climate, can be used to

trated on the cells of lowest mean cycle levels. The determine the total fatigue loading on roof cladding.

cycles of S64 are more uniformly distributed compared Furthermore, the cycle histograms of the correspond-

with those of S50. It is also noted that the maximum ing simulated Gaussian time histories are shown in

Fig. 6. Cycle histogram of S64 (measured). Fig. 8. Cycle histogram of S64 (simulated, Gaussian).

K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144 39

Constant amplitude test results of typical roong sheets gue analysis is its exibility in carrying out a

parametric study. For instance, the eect of variance

Type of roong K m1 Su (kPa) s2 of pressure uctuations on fatigue mean life time

of the roof is shown in Fig. 10 with variance ranging

Trapezoidal roong 6:248 105 3.008 9.2

Ribbed roong 2:088 105 2.531 7.6 from 0.1 to 0.3. For all simulations, the normalized

spectrum SFNG1 was multiplied with dierent variance

to obtain the actual power spectrum. Clearly, when the

intensity of uctuations (variance) increases, the fati-

Figs. 7 and 8. The cycle histogram for both cases gue mean life time decreases. Further, note that as the

obtained using Gaussian assumption is certainly dier- wind velocity increases, the fatigue life time decreases.

ent from those of the actual non-Gaussian cases shown Overall, this section demonstrates the potential of the

in Figs. 3 and 5. Note that the cycles are more or less simulation methodology to represent fatigue character-

uniformly distributed under the Gaussian assumption. istics of roof pressures.

Though the similarity between the simulated and

measured cases have been shown in terms of distri- 3.3. Integrating long-term wind climate

bution of cycles, it may be of interest to show the com-

parison between the damage caused by simulated and For demonstration purposes, it is assumed that the

measured uctuations to a roof system. To demon- building is exposed to temperate climate of Montreal,

strate the fatigue damage caused by the pressure uc- Canada. The design mean hourly wind speed, corre-

tuations, two common roof types used in Australia sponding to a 50-year return period V is used for all

have been chosen from Xu [19]; their constant ampli- computations; the design mean hourly wind speed at

tude test results are provided in Table 3 The simulated building height in an open country terrain exposure is

as well as measured pressure uctuations have been estimated to be 26 m/s based on NBCC [24]. The Wei-

applied to the trapezoidal roong and the correspond- bull distribution has been adopted in this study for

ing fatigue mean life time of the roof cladding is esti- describing the probability density of mean hourly wind

mated. Fatigue mean life time refers to the expected velocity PVi ). Considering the mean hourly wind

life time until the damage reaches the failure criterion velocity at building site in Montreal from all 16 direc-

D 1; this is estimated simply by inverting the damage tions, the Weibull probability density function PVi

index calculated for a specic wind velocity blowing has been estimated using

for an hour. The results are provided in Fig. 9. Note

the reasonable similarity between the measured and X16

kj k 1 kj

simulated cases which is encouraging. One of the ad- PVi pj kj V i j eVi =cj 11

j1 cj

Fig. 9. Fatigue life time of trapezoidal roof under simulated Fig. 10. Eect of variance of pressure uctuations on fatigue

and measured wind loading. life time of trapezoidal roof.

40 K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144

where, pj probability of wind coming from a particu- number of cycles are concentrated at both low cycle

lar direction and constants cj and kj determine the ranges and low cycle mean levels. As cycle ranges

shape of the distribution; the corresponding values of or cycle mean levels become larger, the number of

the parameters shown in Table 4 are taken from Wu cycles becomes smaller. Another interesting feature

[25]. of the total load cycle distribution is that the maxi-

While estimating the total fatigue loading with mum number of load cycles for a given range is

respect to a given wind return period and design life, approximately located at a mean level which is

the threshold cycle range in all computations has been half of the cycle range; this was also observed by Xu

kept initially at 5% of the design wind pressure; this [14]. This property is discussed in detail in the next

was also done by Xu [14] to eliminate small cycles section.

which contribute little to fatigue damage. However, it

was later decided to use a 4% of the global maximum 3.3.1. Mean levels of load cycles

design wind pressure corresponding to the maximum As previously mentioned, the total cycles are jointly

pressure cycle range as the hysteresis threshold in distributed over both cycle ranges and mean levels.

order to have a reasonable comparison of number of Though it is ideal to directly use the total load cycle

cycles at various taps. The global maximum design distribution for fatigue tests, such an approach may be

2

wind pressure out of the cases considered is 12 r V expensive and inconvenient. Therefore, it may be

2

Cprmax 0:65 26 5:3=1000 2:37 kPa, which cor- necessary to simplify the total load cycle distributions

responds to the design mean hourly wind speed of 26 for practical applications. The typical nature of total

m/s at building height and the largest pressure cycle load cycle distributions noted in Figs. 11 and 12 indi-

range of 5.3 of simulated time series of S50see Table cate that there is a possibility for further simplication

2; the threshold used in all computations was 0.1 kPa. of the loading.

Admittedly, nding an appropriate threshold limit for An attempt has been made to clearly show the con-

fatigue design considerations is debatable, since such a centration of cycles in a given range. Figs. 13 and 14

limit is a function of the type of cladding material. display the concentration of cycles in the case of

Depending on the threshold limit, the number of cycles sample S50 for the Montreal design hourly mean wind

as well as the estimated damage can increase or speed of 26 m/s and a design life of 50 years. The hori-

decrease. zontal axis refers to the ratio of cycle range to the de-

Figs. 11 and 12 show the total load cycle distri- sign wind pressure, while the vertical axis refers to the

bution for S50 and S64. Both cycle ranges and cycle ratio of cycle mean level to the design wind pressure.

mean levels are expressed as a ratio of the correspond- The number in a cell is a proportion of the cycles in

ing design wind pressure. The design life of roof (T ) is the cell to the total number of cycles in the same range

taken as 50 years. Figs. 11 and 12 show that a large in which the cell lies (i.e., the total number of cycles in

the column in which this cell lies). The plus sign in a

cell indicates that the proportion of this cell is less

Table 4 than 10% but more than zero. The solid oblique line

Weibull constants based on meteorological records for Mon- is a particular case in which the cycle mean level is

treal, after Wu [25] always half of the given cycle range. Surprisingly, for

a given cycle range, especially for cycle ranges of

i Sector pj (%) kj cj (m/s) high values, most of the cycles in the corresponding

range are concentrated in the cells around this solid

1 N 4.10 1.51 3.34

oblique line. This result shows the possibility of sim-

2 NNE 8.10 1.05 3.11

3 NE 7.46 1.30 4.47

plifying the fatigue wind loading matrix; however,

4 ENE 2.62 1.69 4.29 further work concerning this issue is required before

5 E 2.21 1.62 3.23 drawing any conclusions. The similarity between

6 ESE 2.42 1.79 3.69 simulated and measured cases shown in Figs. 13 and

7 SE 4.45 1.81 4.35 14, respectively demonstrates once again the suit-

8 SSE 5.07 1.76 4.33 ability of the proposed approach for wind-induced

9 S 3.39 1.57 3.14 fatigue life prediction.

10 SSW 5.39 1.62 3.80

11 SW 11.74 1.26 4.17

12 WSW 14.07 1.40 5.06 3.4. Fatigue damage accumulation

13 W 11.81 1.45 5.02

14 WNW 5.73 1.83 3.10

15 NW 3.59 1.67 3.97

Using Miner's rule and the constantamplitude SN

16 NNW 2.83 1.43 3.07 curves, damage D has been estimated using Eq. (7) as

follows: the estimated total cycles corresponding to

K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144 41

each mean and range values, ni 's, (Figs. 11 and 12) are after, the ratios corresponding to each mean and range

divided by the corresponding number of cycles to fail- level are summed up to obtain the damage index, D.

ure, Ni 's, obtained from the known behavior of roof The estimated damage indices are provided in Table 5

cladding under constant amplitude loading represented where Dng and Dg represent damage due to non-Gaus-

by Eq. (8). The ratio corresponding to each mean and sian process and Gaussian process, respectively. Based

range values represents an index of contribution of the on the calculations, the ribbed roof fails under the

corresponding pressure cycles towards damage. There- loading given in Fig. 11; however, the roof does not

42 K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144

Fig. 14. Concentration of cycles of S50 (measured).

evaluation of wind-induced fatigue on claddings of

lyzed, the damage indices corresponding to Gaussian

low buildings. This approach essentially consists of

assumption are smaller than those of the actual non-

(1) simulation of Gaussian or non-Gaussian pressure

Gaussian cases; this implies that the roof cladding

uctuations on claddings using the recently proposed

designed based on Gaussian assumption is expected to

simulation scheme, (2) reduction of time varying load-

fail prematurely. Since sample S50 is highly non-Gaus-

ing into pressure cycles using the standardized rain-

sian compared to sample S64, the corresponding indi-

ow technique, (3) integration of the long-term wind

ces are also higher for sample S50. Furthermore, the

climate with the simulated fatigue characteristics of

ratio Dng/Dg decreases as the non-normality

pressures to obtain total fatigue loading on claddings

(expressed, say by kurtosis) decreases; this ratio for

of buildings located in temperate climate regions,

sample S64 is consistently lower than that of sample

and (4) evaluation of fatigue damage using Miner's

S50 irrespective of the type of roof. The results of the

rule and Goodman's method. Numerical examples

earlier study also clearly indicated that the non-nor-

and the validation of the predictions using wind tun-

mality of the wind pressure uctuations can signi-

nel measurements are provided for the case of roof

cantly increase the rate of fatigue damage

claddings.

accumulation and can result in non-conservative fati-

The results clearly show that the fatigue character-

gue life estimates if its eects are not accounted for

istics of digitally simulated roof pressure uctuations

[10]. Moreover, for the same loading, this ratio for tra-

agree fairly well with those of the wind tunnel

pezoidal roong is always higher than that of ribbed

roong. It is clear from Eqs. (7) and (8) that the ratio

Dng/Dg is independent of the intercept of the SN

curve (K ), but depends on the slope of the SN curve Table 5

(m1) of the cladding. Note that as m1 increases, Dng/Dg Estimated damage indices

increases. Finally, Table 5 presents the ratio Dng/Dg

Dng Dg Dng/Dg

estimated using the analytical expression (Eq. (9))

suggested by Winterstein [23]. Interestingly, these esti-

Dng Dg Present study Winterstein [23]

mated ratios are closer to those predicted by the pre-

sent study. Trapezoidal roong

S50 0.25 0.14 1.78 1.91

S64 0.063 0.05 1.26 1.27

4. Conclusions Ribbed roong

S50 1.05 0.67 1.57 1.51

S64 0.33 0.27 1.20 1.17

This paper presents an analytical approach for the

K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144 43

measurements. This observation justies the employ- [7] Suresh Kumar K, Stathopoulos T. Computer simulation

ment of simulated pressure uctuations in this of uctuating wind pressures on low building roofs.

approach replacing the traditional measured pressure Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial

uctuations. Signicant inuences of long-term wind Aerodynamics 1997;6971:48595.

[8] Suresh Kumar K, Stathopoulos T. Synthesis of non-

climate on fatigue loading has been noted; the accumu-

Gaussian wind pressure time series on low building

lated fatigue cycles are quite high. It appears that the

roofs. Engineering Structures 1999, in press.

number of cycles increases as the wind return period [9] Suresh Kumar K, Stathopoulos T. Computer simulation

and the design life of cladding increase. It is also of wind-induced fatigue on roof cladding. In:

observed that for a given cycle range, the mean levels Proceedings of the Third Canadian Conference on

of cycles are mostly concentrated around half of the Computing in Civil and Building Engineering. CSCE,

corresponding cycles range. Furthermore, the inu- Montreal, Canada. 1996.

ences of non-normality as well as strength of cladding [10] Suresh Kumar K, Stathopoulos T. Fatigue analysis of

on fatigue damage accumulation are also demon- roof cladding under simulated wind loading. Journal of

strated. The results clearly indicate the signicant eect Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 1998;77

of non-normality of the wind pressure uctuations in 78:17183.

[11] Suresh Kumar K, Stathopoulos T. Spectra density

increasing the rate of fatigue damage accumulation.

functions of wind pressures on various low building

Overall, the prediction of wind-induced fatigue on

roof geometries. Wind and Structures 1998;1(3):20323.

claddings using the proposed approach is promising. [12] Suresh Kumar K, Stathopoulos T. Power spectra of

The eect of wind direction on the cycle distribution, wind pressures on low building roofs. Journal of Wind

the suitability of the Miner's rule in damage estimation Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 1998;74

and the total fatigue loading on claddings subjected to 76:66574.

both cyclonic and temperate climate wind should be [13] Dowling NE. Fatigue failure predictions for complicated

investigated further. stressstrain histories. Journal of Materials, JMLSA

1972;7(1):7187.

[14] Xu YL. Wind-induced fatigue loading on roof cladding

of low-rise buildings. Technical Report No. 41, Cyclone

Testing Station, Department of Civil and Systems

Acknowledgements Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville,

Australia, 1993.

[15] Jancauskas ED, Mahendran M, Walker GR. Computer

The author is grateful to Dr. T. Stathopoulos of

simulation of the fatigue behavior of roof cladding

Concordia University, Montreal, Canada for the gui- during the passage of a tropical cyclone. Journal of

dance and encouragement oered during the study on Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics

which the paper is based. 1994;51:21527.

[16] Amzallag C, Gerey JP, Bahuaud J. Standardization of

the rainow counting method for fatigue analysis.

Fatigue 1994;16:28793.

[17] AFNOR A03-406. Produits metalliquesFatigue sous

References sollicitations d'amplitude variableMethode rainow de

comptage des cycles. AFNOR, France, 1993.

[1] Assessment of damage to single-family homes caused by [18] Wirsching PH, Light MC. Fatigue under wide band ran-

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1432, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban 1980;106(7):1593607.

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[2] Fuchs HO, Stephens RI. Metal fatigue in engineering. gauge-steel roong sheets. Journal of Structural

New York: Wiley, 1980. Engineering, ASCE 1995;121(3):38998.

[3] Cook NJ, Keevil AP, Stobart RK. BRERWULFThe [20] Letchford CW, Norville HS. Wind pressure loading

big bad wolf. Journal of Wind Engineering and cycles for wall cladding during hurricanes. Journal of

Industrial Aerodynamics 1988;29:99107. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics

[4] Stathopoulos T. PDF of wind pressures on low-rise 1994;53:189206.

buildings. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE [21] Davenport AG. The estimation of load repetitions on

1980;106(5):97390. structures with application to wind induced fatigue and

[5] Suresh Kumar K, Stathopoulos T. Non-Gaussian wind overload. In: Proceedings of the International

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12th Engineering Mechanics Conference, San Diego, Materials and Structures. RILEM Instituto de Ingeneria,

California. 1998. Mexico City, Mexico. 1966.

[6] Suresh Kumar K. Simulation of uctuating wind press- [22] Lynn BA, Stathopoulos T. Wind-induced fatigue on low

ures on low building roofs. Ph.D. thesis, Concordia metal buildings. Journal of Structural Engineering,

University, Montreal, Canada, 1997. ASCE 1985;111(4):82639.

44 K. Suresh Kumar / Computers and Structures 75 (2000) 3144

[23] Winterstein SR. Nonlinear vibration models for extremes taries (part 4). National Research Council of Canada,

and fatigue. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE Ottawa, Canada, 1995.

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