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Professional screen writing is a craft that takes years to develop, but anyone with a computer and an imagination can learn to write scripts. It takes practice and patience to develop and write a script, but it is well worth the effort. Difficulty: Challenging
Things You'll Need:
Basic writing ability Understanding of a script format Understand the strict industry-standard script format. This includes writing everything in 12-point courier font, exact margin settings for the various elements, such as dialogue, character names, scene headings, general direction and personal direction, and additional elements, such as writing sound cues in all caps. See Resources for specific guidelines. 2. Step 2
1. Step 1
Pick a formatting program. Two popular programs are Final Draft and Movie Magic (see Resources).There are also freeware screen-writing programs available for download, but these are usually of questionable quality. 3. Step 3 Sketch a rough outline of events in progressive order for the script. One page of screenplay is equal to one minute of movie. An average length for a first-time screenplay should be from 90 to 100 pages. Scripts are typically broken into three acts. The first act should familiarize the audience with the main characters and introduce the conflict. The second act should expand the conflict and will include the bulk of the story. The third act should resolve the conflict. 4. Step 4 Focus on characters. Characters must grow and experience conflicting motivations to interest the audience. Character dialogue must sound natural and distinct. Practice saying the dialogue aloud as you write. 5. Step 5 Write the first draft. The writing process can take anywhere from two weeks to several months, depending on your experience and the amount of time you devote to writing. 6. Step 6 Ask for feedback after the draft is complete. Some writers join writing circles, while others get feedback from friends. You might also consider an online writing circle, such as http://www.critters.org or http://screenwriter.gather.com. 7. Step 7 Register your completed script for copyright protection. This can be done through the Writers Guild of America (see Resources). A more formal and costly option is to register a script with the U.S. copyright office (http://www.copyright.gov). Ads by Google Do you Script Stories? That get the Audiences Imagination! Register & we'll give you a chance www.Hoonur.com
The left margin is between 1. East Chapter 3 Spec Screenplay Page Properties The Rules: Screenplays are traditionally written on 8 1/2" x 11" white 3-hole punched paper.5" and 1". West Writers Guild of America.NetBizLabs. Avoid the following script pitfalls: too much exposition. No page number is printed on the first page.Movie Script Writers Get Your First Break in The Film Industry. The right margin is between . Do not deviate from standard structure guidelines for your first screenplay. Try not to show your script to others until you complete it to avoid negative feedback that might discourage you from finishing the screenplay. scenes that don’t “go” anywhere or predictable endings. Each scene must contribute to the progress of the plot and the development of the characters. Resources Screenwriting Basics Final Draft Movie Magic Writers Guild of America.6".quikr. Start Earning Now! www. Post Your Profile Today! www. .com Freelance Writing Job Make a full time income writing Up to $20/page. A page number appears in the upper right hand corner (in the header). yet still imparts a feeling of vertical balance of the text on the page.5" and 1".com/Contest Tips & Warnings • • • • • • • • • • Pacing and arrangement of the scenes must be concise to keep a screenplay at a good length. The type style used is the Courier 12 font.2" and 1. The extra inch of white space on the left of a script page allows for binding with brads.academia-research. Avoid dialogue that repeats itself or has characters stating the obvious. The top and bottom margins are between .com Audtions for Young Actors MTV invites all Young Girls & Boys Upload your Photo to be on MTV Now! Cornetto.
There are. but will take 45 seconds of film time. naturally. Films under two hours mean more showings per day in a theater. the very first thing s/he will do is fan through the pages and look at the last page to see how long it is. you could come up with a short script in total pages. Here's an example: Cpl. 125 page scripts are considered on the long side for a screenplay. Once you are accustomed to them you'll be able to tell your story the way an industry reader is accustomed to seeing it. until he reaches the church bell tower. the screenwriter.. You could be writing an action-packed film where your description takes only 10 seconds to read. It just depends on the writing style of the individual writer. When you realize your script is long and have to start cutting your work. and position attributes that give feature film script text the format and consistency expected by all participants. if it's too long they may refuse to read it. The Industry's aversion to long scripts is due to economic considerations. By the same token. dramas longer. and possibly even you. EVERY SCENE should not only move the story along to its conclusion. One script page in Courier 12 roughly averages 1 minute of onscreen film time. traditionally. Length is a very important component of the script. Owens sheds his pack and picks up the machine gun. but that doesn't mean when it is filmed it would be short. Writing Tip: If you had a script full of scenes like this. that scene wasn't necessary. dodging enemy fire while shooting back. variations. Script Length The average feature screenplay. which means more revenue for the exhibitor.. is between 95 and 125 pages long. another writer could write the same scene and have it take up half a page. it should be an integral part of the path to the climax. Writing Tip: Script writing software is pre-programmed with all these rules right out of the box. Experienced readers can detect a long script by merely weighing the stack of paper in their hand. Chapter 4 Script Elements These are the unique margin.The Courier 12 font is used for timing purposes. The elements for a script are: • • • Scene Heading Action Character Name . case. In Hollywood these days scripts generally don't run longer than 114 pages. distributor. filmmaker. keep in mind that if a scene can be removed and the story continues to work. Comedy scripts are typically shorter. He runs from doorway to doorway. It doesn't matter if you've written the most incredible screenplay ever. When you turn in a script to a producer.
Here is a sample in Scene Heading sample in script form: FADE IN: EXT.ESTABLISHING We have 'established' that we're in a marina at dawn. EXT. Here are examples of Scene Headings: INT. .DAWN . Are we indoors (INT. information to "set the scene" in the reader's mind. ever. tells the reader of the script where the scene takes place. The Scene Heading.MORNING LAS VEGAS STRIP .) or outdoors (EXT.OUTER SPACE RAIN FOREST .5" from the edge of the paper) and are rarely long enough to reach the page margin.NIGHT . The Scene Heading is written in ALL CAPS.ESTABLISHING PASADENA . The Slugline can also include production information like CONTINUOUS ACTION. sometimes called Slugline. inside a CAR? And lastly it might include the time of day . LIVING ROOM. KEY WEST MARINA . DAWN. . This alleviates the need to retype the same text again and again..DAWN . or ESTABLISHING SHOT or STOCK SHOT.NIGHT and two pages later: EXT. INT.NIGHT. at the BASEBALL FIELD. a hyphen between the other elements of the Slugline.• • • • • Dialogue Parenthetical Extensions Transition Shot Scene Heading Writing Tip: Scene Heading are aligned flush left (which we learned is about 1. or EXT. DAY.CONTINUOUS ACTION KEY WEST MARINA . There is nothing more distracting to the reader than to see one Scene Heading read: EXT. . and it also helps you keep your script consistent.. EXT.OUTER SPACE JUNGLE . BEDROOM .)? Next name the location: BEDROOM.ROSE PARADE . EXT. Use a period after the INT..STOCK FOOTAGE Software Tip: Script writing software will automatically file each new Scene Heading you use. DUSK.NIGHT Keeping Scene Headings consistent allows your reader to recognize locations and places and not have to figure out if this is a new set (location). You don't want to take the reader's mind off your story.SUNSET OFFICE .
If you must emphasize some shot. we have some idea about their physical appearance. Angles and shots are the domain of the director an will likely be added in the Shooting Script. FrameForge Previz Studio 3 Core Academic by Innoventive Software. LLC Site Navigation • • • Home Previous Next • • The reader begins to form an idea about the setting and the action taking place. LLC Power Writer Novel and Fiction Writing Software (Download) by ScriptPerfection Enterprises. two characters have been introduced to us. And we have a clue to their relationship. write it on a single line. Here are some examples of shots: • • • • ANGLE ON -EXTREME CLOSE UP -PAN TO -FRANKIE'S POV -- . Chapter 11 Shots The Rules: Shots are formatted like Scene Headings. We know we're on a boat. flush left margin. A SHOT tells the reader the focal point within a scene has changed.Books I'm Reading • • • Punch Drunk Love by Paul Thomas Anderson The Well-Fed Writer: Back for Seconds by Peter Bowerman Making Movies by Sidney Lumet Software I'm Using • • • FrameForge Previz Studio 3 Stereographic 3D (Download) by Innoventive Software. Blank line before and after. Avoid a compulsion to write camera angles and shots. Inc. all uppercase.
INSERT . You want the reader to see something not obvious in the scene or you want to achieve a particular emotion or build to a climax. Your "directing" runs the risk of interrupting the flow of your storytelling. page breaking will clinch it for you: If you've followed the program's simple directions while writing your script. If you are describing a prison riot. wait until it sells and try to negotiate a package deal with you on board as the director. Be vigilant of the flow of the story. This most often is a possibility after you've already had one of your screenplays filmed. PRISONER (trembling) I'll kill him! I mean it.) .RANSOM NOTE Writing Tip: A well-constructed action paragraph or a single line might achieve the same goal without distracting the reader.• REVERSE ANGLE -- Writing Tip: As the writer. dare we say magically?. This device allows you to achieve this goal. for reasons already mentioned you should be very judicious using a SHOT to redirect the reader's focus. while you are writing.to focus on something integral to the scene. PRISON GUARD Take him out! Now! Do it! ANGLE ON . you might use a shot like this: A PRISONER shoves a homemade shiv against the throat of a PRISON GUARD. selfexecute right in front of your eyes. finger poised on the trigger. Once in a while. and try not to interrupt it. PRISONER I want to talk to the Warden. (An example would be an Establishing shot and then an interior scene heading. INSERT is used solely as a direction .A PRISON GUARD SHARP-SHOOTER as he lines up the shot.. Chapter 12 Page Breaking Software Tip: If you still need convincing that script writing software is a useful tool for a screenwriter. with a prisoner holding a guard at knifepoint. then all of the following rules will automatically. often something that the audience needs to read or what would otherwise be too small to be clearly seen in a full. do yourself a favor and DON'T do it in a script you're trying to sell. and you want the audience to see a sharpshooter aiming at the prisoner.. wide scene. NOW! Another shot used from time to time is INSERT. calling a shot is necessary. The software will • Never end a page with a Scene Heading. If what you really want to do is direct films. The ONLY time this is acceptable is if another Scene Heading or Shot follows.
Don't give them a reason to put your script down by interjecting unclear scenes and dialogue. The CROWD in the bleachers taunts the pitcher: "You stink!" "Rubber arm!" "Ball!" "You throw like my sister!" The second choice is to do it is as a character and dialogue. but you should probably avoid this device unless absolutely necessary.• • • • • Never start a page with a Transition. If you have Dialogue. or simply using a script formatting software. There are two basic ways of writing this. Automatically place Continued: notations when it breaks an Action paragraph or a Dialogue. Writing Tip: Amateur screenwriters often do it in emulation of some old favorite scene." However. Never end a page with a Character Name line. Never end a page at a Parenthetical. break the page BEFORE the Parenthetical. if used) must follow. With these elements. Dialogue MUST follow. At least two lines of Dialogue if there are that many (including a Parenthetical. CROWD You stink! Rubber arm! Ball! You . that's called dual dialogue or side by side dialogue. Adlibs Sometimes in a script it's acceptable or even necessary to have a crowd scene with ad lib dialogue. and the reader will not automatically assume you are an amateur storyteller because you don't know basic screenwriting rules. a Parenthetical and then Dialogue again. It will look professional. Finer Points Now you are familiar with the basic elements and directions for writing a spec script. Dual Dialogue or Side-By-Side Dialogue When two of your characters speak simultaneously. you are more likely to distract the reader and disrupts the flow of the story. our characters might have this conversation: Frankie and Julie are in a heated argument. Now there are a few finer points we should discuss. you will write a standardly acceptable script. FRANKIE Get out of my life! I can't stand the sight of you any more!! JULIE Don't you yell at me! I'll when I'm when I'm good and ready! Tough!! leave Software Tip: All of the script writing programs let you write this style of dialogue with ease. In the script we've been following. The first way to do it is in an action line. or to try to interject "conflict.
O.O.C..2 (Download) by Final Draft. = background b. Julie takes money out of his wallet.5. V.0 by Ashleywilde. is used in an action paragraph. In the b.throw like my sister!! Books I'm Reading • • • Writing as Adventure: A Writer's Companion by Varda One Syd Field Revised Book Bundle by Syd Field Little Miss Sunshine by Michael Arndt Software I'm Using • • • Storybase 2. We've already discussed several -. Some readers find them distracting.O. CGI = computer generated image . Final Draft AV 2. Inc. b. Here are some others.S.g. It's up to you whether you use these abbreviations or not.info Chapter 13 Abbreviations The film industry uses several abbreviations as shortcuts in scripts. Inc.g.which are specific to scripts.g.. LLC Site Navigation • • • • • • Home Previous Next Home Previous Next Screenwriting. while others prefer the shorthand.. FrameForge Previz Studio 3 Pro Upgrade by Innoventive Software. Frankie sits on the bed tying his shoes. She also pockets his car keys. -.
then rolling over. Think of a baby being born.S. it was created by Russian director Sergei Eisenstein as a "montage of attractions" to elicit emotions on several levels.O. His mother joyously hugs him. Josh takes his first steps. Horses stampeding down Main Street. The doctors clean him and hand him over to his smiling mother. His features slowly melt like a wax figure. as used in films like The Matrix. SFX: The BLAST of a train whistle SPFX = special effects SPFX announces that a special effect is necessary (one that might not require the use of CGI).Frankie sits on the bed tying his shoes.O. then disappears entirely. 4) Clad in droopy diapers. SPFX: A beam of light illuminates Frankie's face. His mother applauds.g. Montages A MONTAGE is a cinematic device used to show a series of scenes. M. then taking its first steps. It is most commonly used to show impending impact of some kind. Josh runs gleefully through the sprinklers.g. is used in action the same as b. CGI: His mouth begins to melt. all related and building to some conclusion." a phrase which the crew found humorous and thus proliferated it. SFX = sound effects SFX tells the sound people an effect is needed. except the action takes place in the foreground. His .g. = without sound The story goes that a German-born director (perhaps Josef von Sternberg. Although a French word. who discovered Marlene Dietrich) wanted to shoot a scene without sound and told the crew to shoot "mit out sound. Most often it is used as a passage of time device. 3) Holding on to the coffee table. M. For example: MONTAGE 1) Josh is born. and finally running through the sprinklers. POV = point of view The camera 'sees' the action from a specific character's position JULIE'S POV . 2) Josh rolls over in his playpen..CGI denotes action that cannot be filmed normally and will require the use of computers to generate the full imagery.S. = foreground f. f.
A LOUD SHOT . WINGS FLUTTERING EN MASSE. A frightened child drops his ice cream cone and CRIES.. (Note that the mother's emotions change through the montage from joy to weariness. B) Hanging signs swing back and forth. the shot series are action paragraphs and may also be numbered 1) 2) 3). A LOUD SHOT rings out. and reaches for the diaper bag. Think of the movie Earthquake. D) People run for cover. C) if you prefer. A SERIES OF SHOTS is formatted as a SHOT.) The MONTAGE is formatted as a single shot. C) Bricks and shards of glass begin to fall onto the sidewalks. A woman SCREAMS. It isn't necessary. You can also number the scenes A). SERIES OF SHOTS A) Store windows start to rattle and shake. The action lines might be short. Heads turn in the direction of ANOTHER GUNSHOT. This generally contributes to a smoother flow of the action. Just like a Montage. descriptive sentences on separate lines.mother sighs. Either numbering format is correct. Another style for writing the sequence above is: THE PIAZZA DE PALMA is teaming with Saturday shoppers. B). Pigeons take flight. A MATTER OF STYLE Some writers will incorporate a series of shots into a script without noting it as such. once Josh is completely ambulant there should be some element of the story that a montage will illustrate. The Piazza de Palma is packed with Saturday shoppers. with the subsequent scenes action elements of the complete sequence. Chapter 14 A Series of Shots A SERIES OF SHOTS is similar to a Montage. but it usually takes place in one location and concerns the same action.. but some writers write END OF MONTAGE when the montage is completed.
Italics. One example might be if your character is reciting poetry.. bold or underlining are not used for emphasis.rings out. JULIE (singing) ROW. an INTERCUT is used. Terry HOLDS HIS BREATH as a big. ROW. Why? Look at all the white space in the second example. at a different location. but it also is a faster read. . These scenes are occurring at the same time.NIGHT Sherri starts disrobing in front of her open bedroom window. MERRILY LIFE IS BUT A DREAM. Another style of writing has to do with EMPHASIS in the action element. JULIE Roses are red. it's necessary to write dialogue with a series of SHORT LINES. Short Lines/Poetry/Lyrics Once in a while. He hears the FLOOR SQUEAK in the outer office. Terry DROPS to the floor as a BEAM OF LIGHT sweeps across the room. A FRIGHTENED CHILD drops his ice cream cone and CRIES. MERRILY. Here's another example: INT. Instead of repeating the Scene Heading for each scene over and over. Here's an option of how to get the necessary points across. This gives the reader the sense that the scene is moving rapidly back and forth between locations.. the reader's eyes can read that passage very quickly. Violets are blue. Too often. How 'bout you? Song lyrics are typically written in all caps. bulky SECURITY GUARD enters. A SCREAM is heard. Pigeons take flight. you might want to cut back and forth between two or more scenes. ROW YOUR BOAT GENTLY DOWN THE STREAM MERRILY. readers will skim a script. SHERRI'S APARTMENT . Chapter 15 Intercuts Occasionally in a script. or singing a song. Writing Tip: This particular style of writing takes more space on the page. particularly if the action paragraphs are overly long. I'm writing a script. MERRILY. There is a great sequence of intercuts in The Deer Hunter of shots of hunters out in the woods with a wedding going on simultaneously. Heads turn in the direction of ANOTHER GUNSHOT.
Lenny sees Sherri and DROPS from her view. comfy on the couch. is reading a book when the phone rings.S.INT. LENNY Yep. and unless you have a very good reason for writing it in. watching her. He looks out his window and catches a glimpse of Sherri across the courtyard.. SHERRI Hello? EXT. you'll be here by morning. In older films it was common to use a split-screen to show such a conversation.NIGHT Lenny gets up to cross to the fridge to get a beer. She answers it. Screenwriting. INTERCUT BETWEEN LENNY AND SHERRI Sherri sits on the bed and unbuttons her double-breasted suit jacket. LIVING ROOM .REST AREA Lenny sips a Coke as he talks. Lenny moves closer to the window for a better vantage point. INTERCUT BETWEEN LENNY and SHERRI SHERRI Oh. He freezes. LENNY Ow! Sherri hears the yelp and looks in Lenny's direction. He slams his bare foot into a dumbbell on the floor. INT. LENNY'S APARTMENT . Another type of INTERCUT is used when two characters are on the phone and you don't want one half of the conversation to be O. hopping a few feet. that's great.you want to show them both. . I've got the pedal to the metal.NIGHT Sherri.. eyes glued to Sherri.. trying to step out of her skirt. It's not common these days. Honey. I'm in Barstow. it is best to INTERCUT..info . PHONE BOOTH . moves to keep her in view. LENNY Hey Honey. Sherri stands. Lenny.
"Daytona Beach.. Superimpose or Title When the notation SUPERIMPOSE or TITLE OVER is used. fall into this category.DAY Hundreds of young. Most of the time. It is not usually done in a spec script. Any text. perfect bodies of college age kids frolic on the sand and in the warm water. An example: FADE IN: EXT.DAY BEGIN TITLES as hundreds of young. 1966" would appear toward the bottom of the screen. EXT. it contains information the director thinks the audience needs to know. Spring Break.. perfect bodies of college age kids frolic during spring break. etc. It has been so overused. Chapter 19 . Do not use SUPERIMPOSE: unless there is a definite need for it. BEACH . yachts. SUPERIMPOSE: Daytona Beach. Spring Break. and cabin cruisers all bob up and down in the warm blue water. you'll see this notation: BEGIN TITLES or BEGIN OPENING TITLES followed by END TITLES or OVER OPENING CREDITS followed by END OPENING CREDITS. 1966 Only the text. the sequence of footage shot with the opening credits rolling over it. and you can't predict where the producer and director will want to insert the titles.DAWN . text or an image is placed on top of the film footage.ESTABLISHING Sailboats. the way director Ron Howard did in Splash. like subtitles or translations of foreign signs. BEACH . EXT. like the place or time of the next scene. KEY WEST MARINA .. Writing Tip: Don't bother putting in Beginning and Ending titles.• • • Home Previous Next Chapter 16 Titles or Opening Credits In some scripts you read. it is some times spoofed. Don't give yourself the extra work.
Page 110A or Page 110B. You've got to get up and outta here.DAY 1 2 OMITTED INT. BATHROOM scene would show us what Julie is doing. JULIE (sleepily) What? What time is it? 2A 2A* INT. 25. the pages must be LOCKED so that any changes made after this time are easily tracked. if you add more material to a page than will fit on that page. BATHROOM . while in the previously mentioned scene we only heard her O. MASTER SUITE . Once you lock a script. He pulls the comforter down and begins kissing Julie's naked body. If you add a scene to the script. Revisions will be automatically generated by script formatting software programs and marked with an asterisk in the right margin.MORNING The added INT. it remains in the script with the word OMITTED next to it. 1* 2 Expensive designer sheets and comforter covers the nude. Any new scene must have a letter next to the number to indicate that it was added after the original scenes were locked. i. scene numbers must also remain the same.e. though the number is retired. All of our script writing software is designed to break revised pages according to the rules listed above. only the REVISED PAGES will be printed and distributed. If any changes are made to the script after circulation. Locking Your Scenes In a published script. and they are capable of "locking the pages" before revisions are made. FRANKIE Hey. if a scene in OMITTED. the program will generate what's called an "A" page and the subsequent writing will be a "B" page. Baby. tan body of FRANKIE JONES. The REVISED PAGES must be easily incorporated into the script without displacing or rearranging the original pages. In other words. .S. Sunlight filters through portholes over the muscled. shapely body of drop dead gorgeous JULIE COOPER. the program will automatically generate an "A" scene number. as the camera remained on Frankie and the original room.Locking Your Script Pages Once the script is "published" and handed out to the department heads and talent in preparation for production. rise and shine. 38.
 Contents [hide] • 1 Categories of shots ○ 1.5 . search In film. Dils Software I'm Using • • • Dramatica Pro 4 by Write Brothers. defined as the continuous footage between two edits. clips. a shot is a continuous strip of motion picture film. A shot in production. Hand-cranked cameras operated similarly to the hand-cranked machine guns of that era. created of a series of frames. scenes. The etymology of the term "shot" derives from the early days of film production when camera were hand-cranked.Books I'm Reading • • • The Coffee Break Screenwriter: Writing Your Script Ten Minutes at a Time by Pilar Alessandra The Crime Writer's Reference Guide: 1001 Tips for Writing the Perfect Murder by Martin Roth You Can Write Children's Books by Tracey E.1 By field size . Therefore.1 Academic (Download) Montage 1. Movie Outline 3. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. one "shot" film the way one would "shoot" bullets from a machine gun. Frames. and sequences form a hierarchy of units fundamental to many tasks in the creation of moving-image works. Shots are generally filmed with a single camera and can be of any duration. shots. Inc. is equivalent to a clip in editing.Screenwriting Software for Macintosh OS X by Mariner Software Site Navigation • • • Home Previous Next From Wikipedia. that runs for an uninterrupted period of time. defined by the beginning and end of a capturing process.
perspective distortion and size differences change. and 55mm (normal lens) at identical field size achieved by different camerasubject distances. . The term shot is often incorrectly applied to the field size of an image which at times is also incorrectly referred to as framing. The field size defines how much of the subject and its surrounding area is visible within the camera's field of view. 34mm (wide-angle).3 By other criteria 2 Film editing 3 Duration 4 See also 5 References  Categories of shots  By field size How focal length affects perspective: 18mm (ultra wide-angle).○ ○ • • • • 1. Note that the shorter a lens's focal length. Notice that the shorter the focal length and the wider the angle of view.2 By camera placement 1. and is determined by two factors: Camera-to-subject distance and focal length of a lens.
Same angle of view does always give the same field size at the same camera-subject distance no matter what format you're using. An extreme long shot An American shot (3/4 shot) . same focal length does not. Field size differs from framing in that within professional environments where prime lenses are dominant. maintaining an identical field size at varying camera-subject distances and focal lengths must be handled with caution as it applies different amounts of perspective distortion to the image: Wide-angle lenses expand a perspective. is a vivid. see 35 mm equivalent focal length. not focal length. the focal length value differs with each film gauge and CCD size for optical reasons. and Digital photography: Sensor size and angle of view. Thus. (Caution: In this context. but the angle of view is the same for any of them. the latter applies only to camera placement (including camera angle). image sensor format. For in-depth informations behind the laws of optics regarding the influence that focal length and different formats have on field sizes. for instance. taken with a variable focal length lense. and at varied focal lengths by choosing a different camera-subject distance. it's more common in photography and cinematography to determine an image's field size by only changing one out of the two factors. so the same idea can also be expressed as that the lens's angle of view plus camera-subject distance is the camera's field of view.) An identical field size can be achieved at varied camera-subject distances by using a lens with a different focal length. intuitive demonstration of this effect). crop factor. which is "how much you see").the wider its angle of view (the 'angle' in wide-angle lens. while telephoto lenses compress a perspective (the famous dolly zoom. However. so it's easier comparing the angle of view with lenses for different formats than their focal lengths.
the medium shot. There are a number of standardized field sizes. the American shot (also 3/4 shot).  By camera placement "Shots" referring to camera placement and angle rather than field size include: • Camera angles: . and terms for moving in (such as "lean-in") and moving out (such as "lean-out"). the names of which are commonly derived from varying camera-subject distances while not changing the lens. a slight variation of the medium shot to also include OWB handgun holsters in Western movies. Three rarer used field sizes (see bar on the right) are: • • the extreme long shot (used for epic views and panoramas). complete view. the close-up. the full shot (also figure shot. a characterization from French film criticism for a type of shot in certain American films of the 1930s and 1940s. • There are other variants. particularly the Dollars Trilogy by Sergio Leone. complete view. A medium shot medium long shot) A close-up The field size (along with the specific amount of perspective distortion) greatly affects the narrative power of a shot.An Italian shot A long shot A full shot (figure shot. the "Italian shot" or Extreme Close Up (ECU or XCU). such as the medium close up (between medium and close up). where only a person's eyes are visible. or medium long shot). The four basic kinds of field sizes (see gallery above) are: • • • • the long shot (often used as an establishing shot). that established this particular field size. named after the genre of Italo-Westerns.
the over the shoulder shot. with no editing. a series of different close-ups achieved by camera motion. The Mist has a length of 117 minutes and consists of 1292 shots. and is one of the central arts of filmmaking.760 seconds. and does so surreptitiously so that it seems as if the whole film is one take. the reverse shot is defined as a 180-degree camera turn to the preceding image. The purpose of editing any given scene is to create a representation of the way the scene might be perceived by the "story teller. For example. so the ASL is 5. the point of view shot. common in point of view and over the shoulder (in the latter. They are thus only occasionally used. the bird's eye shot (sometimes performed as a crane shot). •  By other criteria • the establishing shot is defined by giving an establishing "broad overview" over a scene. The average shot length (ASL) of a film is one of its cinemetrical measures. care must be applied to avoid a continuity error by violating the 180 degree rule). Shots with extremely long durations are difficult to do because any error in the shot would force the filmmaker to restart from scratch. a factor of 1.○ ○ ○ • • • the aerial shot. the insert shot is created in editing by replacing a picture with another while the audio stays the same (common in interviews to illustrate topics mentioned). the two shot where two people are in the picture. so an ASL of 96 minutes or about 5.000 difference. the low-angle shot. whether performed by a wide shot with a fixed camera.4 seconds. a zoom. the master shot is a scene done in one single take. Films famous for their long cuts include Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather in which the entire first scene is a long take featuring Bonasera describing the assault of his daughter." Shots with a longer duration can make a scene seem more relaxed and slower paced whereas shots with a shorter duration can make a scene seem urgent and faster paced. Orson Welles's Touch of Evil opens with a long tracking crane shot. A . and Alfred Hitchcock's Rope. which only cuts at the end of each reel. or a sequence of independent close-angle shots edited right after each other. while Russian Ark is a single 96-minute long take. the freeze frame shot is created in editing by displaying a single frame for an elongated duration of time. • • •  Film editing Main article: Film editing Cutting between shots taken at different times is known as film editing.  Duration The length of shots is an important consideration that can greatly affect a film.
Joss Whedon's feature film Serenity introduces the main characters with a long take.  See also • • • • Martini Shot Camera angle Film frame Filmmaking  References 1. Podcast.org/wiki/Shot_(filmmaking)" Categories: Film production | Film editing Personal tools • • New features Log in / create account Namespaces • • Article Discussion Variants Views • • • Read Edit View history Actions Search Top of Form Special:Search Search Bottom of Form . Another prominent examples known for its extremely long takes are Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. ^ "Movie Speak." 10 August 2009. Retrieved from "http://en.9 FM. and the works of Andrei Tarkovsky starting with Solaris.film that was actually a single take is the recent Russian Ark. "KCRW's The Business.wikipedia." KCRW 89. Scissorhands Revisited. 12 August 2009.
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