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SmartCities:

AnOverviewoftheTechnology
TrendsDrivingSmartCities
RodgerLea
March2017

ThisworkislicensedunderaCreativeCommonsAttributionNonCommercial3.0UnitedStatesLicense.


Technologytrendpapersaimtohighlightkeytechnologiesthatareshapingtheworld
aroundusandimpactingthedailyworkinglifeofIEEEMembers.Theyofferahighlevel
overviewofatechnologyareaandsufficientinformationforIEEEMemberstobeawareof
upcomingtechnologies.Thispaperisapartoftheseriesandfocusedonsmartcities
highlightingseveralkeytechnologytrendsdrivingtheirgrowth.

Background

AccordingtotheUnitedNationsPopulationFund,in2014,54%oftheworldspopulationlivedin
urbanareas,approximately3.3billionpeople.By2030,roughly66%,or5billionpeoplewilllivein
urbanareas1.Thisnotonlyrepresentsamassivechallengeinhowwebuildandmanagecitiesbuta
significantopportunitytoimprovethelivesofbillionsofpeople.Risingtothatchallenge,engineers
worldwideareturningtonewtechnologysuchastheCyberPhysicalSystems,5Ganddataanalytics
searchingfornewapproachesandsolutionsthatwillimprovecitytransportation,waterandwaste
management,energyusage,andahostofotherinfrastructureissuesthatunderpintheoperationof
citiesandthelifestyleofurbancitizens.

Therearemanydefinitionsforsmartcities,rangingfromthosethatfocusexclusivelyonthe
infrastructuretothosethatfocusmoreonenablingcitizensandcommunitiestoactsmarter.
Whilenoonedefinitionsuitsallcities,ausefuldefinition2weuseinthisseriesisfromtheITU:

Asmartsustainablecityisaninnovativecitythatusesinformationandcommunication
technologies(ICTs)andothermeanstoimprovequalityoflife,efficiencyofurbanoperation
andservices,andcompetitiveness,whileensuringthatitmeetstheneedsofpresentand
futuregenerationswithrespecttoeconomic,socialandenvironmentalaspects.


1
http://www.unfpa.org/urbanization
2
http://www.itu.int/en/ITUT/focusgroups/ssc/Pages/default.aspx


Thisdefinition,emphasizesthatasmartcityisnotjustacitythatleveragesnewtechnologies,butis
acomplexecosystem(Figure1)madeupofmanystakeholdersincludingcitizens,cityauthorities,
localcompaniesandindustryandcommunitygroups.Itshouldbeemphasizedthatthegeographical
boundariesofwhatiscalledasmartcitymaybewiderthanthecityitself,gatheringmultiple
governancebodiesandmunicipalitiestodefineservicesatthemetropolitanorregionalscale.

Technologyaspects

Sensing/Actuating
Networking
Dataanalytics
.

Educationand Urbanplanning
Governance Communities
SocialCapital Governance
Lifestyle ...
..

Humanaspects Institutionalaspects

Figure1.Smartcitiesascomplexecosystems.

Inthisreport,wefocusontechnologytrendsthatareshapinghowsmartcitiesareevolving.
However,itisimportanttoensurethat,whenconsideringtheapplicationoftechnologiestosolve
problems,thehumanandinstitutionalaspectsaretakenintoconsideration.Inessence,acardinal
goalofthesmartcityistocreatevalueforitsentireecosystem,whetherthisvalueisfinancial,
qualityoflife,health,education,ortime.Thevaluecreatedbyasmartcitycanbeassessedusing
bothquantitativeandqualitativemetrics.


SmartCityTechnologicalEcosystems

Fromatechnologicalperspective,thesmartcityecosystemisacomplexonecomprisingmany
technologyareas.Majorplayersoperateinseveralareas,providingsolutionsthatcomplement
(andsometimesoverlap)otherplayers.Thosecompaniesthatareable,areworkingtowarda
convergencepointwheretheycanprovideendtoendsolutionsforcitytechnologyneeds.
However,mostplayerslackthescaletoachievethisandmustworkincollaborationwithpartners
fromothertechnologysegments.Tovisualizethetechnologyecosystem,wecanidentifyfivekey
technologygroupings(basedlooselyonaFrostandSullivanreport3)asshowninFigure2.

ITPlayers
IPnetworks Techintegration
Software Security
Analysis
Telecom Energy&Infrastructure
Broadband&Internettech ITPlayers Powerelectronics
Mobiletelephony Renewable
NetworkedITservices Smart&microgrid
Telecom Energy&
Monitoring&sensing Substationautomation
Players Infrastructure
Security T&Dtech

Governance Automation&
Governance Players BuildingControl Buildingautomation
Egovernment Buildingautomation
Opendata Energymanagement
Citizenengagement Deviceconnectivity
Privacy&security Monitoring&sensing
Security


Figure2.Thetechnologicalecosysteminsmartcities.


3
http://www.egr.msu.edu/~aesc310web/resources/SmartCities/Smart%20City%20Market%20Report%202.pdf


Inmuchthesamewaythatsmartcitiesareinfactcomplexecosystemscomprisingarangeof
stakeholders,developinganddeployingnewservicesintosmartcitiesgenerallyrequireaholistic
approachtotechnologydeployment.Sincethecitiesarebuiltwithanumberofsubsystems,
forexampletransportation,health,andenergy,asystemofsystemsapproachisneededtoreason
andaddresstheneedsofthecityanditscitizens.

Whilesomelargecompaniesareabletodevelopanddeployeffectivesmartcityservicesby
themselves,thisisnotthenorm.Rather,itismorelikelythatsuccessfulsmartcitydeployments
requireanumberofcompaniestoworktogethertocombinesolutionsandtechnologiesranging
fromthelowlevelsensors/actuators,effectivedatacommunications,datagathering,andanalysis,
anddomainspecificapplicationssuchashealthcare,energy,andtransportation.

KeyTechnologyChallengesandEnablers

UnderpinningthegrowingsmartcitymarketareanumberofbroadICTtrendsthatareenablingkey
segments,suchasenergy,transportation,andurbanplanning,toexploitnewtechnologiestodeliver
smartsolutionstocitiesandcitizens.Inthefollowingsectionwehighlightanumberofthesekey
trendsandtheirimpactonsmartcities.

Networkingandcommunications
Criticaltomanyofthetechnologytrendsrelatedtosmartcitiesistheunderlyingcommunications
infrastructurethatenablessmartcitiestoconnectinfrastructure,devices,andpeople,andgather
dataanddeliverservicestomyriadendpoints.Thecomplexityofsmartcitytechnologicalandservice
ecosystemsrequiresaholisticapproachtonetworkingandcommunicationsthatofferssupportfora
rangeofneeds,frominfrastructuremonitoringtobackbonesfordigitalmediaenterprisesandfrom
householdsecuritytocitywidetransportationmonitoring.Thesediverseneedsdictatethatany
smartcitywillencompassarangeoftechnologiesfromlowbandwidthwirelesstechnologiessuchas
BluetoothLEandZigBee,todedicatedfiberopticsforbackboneneeds.Somecriticaltechnology
trendsthatwillaffectfuturesmartcitydevelopmentsincludethefollowing:

LowPowerWANtechnologies
Fittinganicheinthetechnologicallandscapebetweenpersonal/localareanetworkingtechnologies
suchasBluetoothLE,ZigBeeandWiFi;licensedcellularnetworkingsuchasexisting3/4G,andthe
evolutionto5G;sittechnologiessuchasLoRaWANandtheevolving802.11ah.Thesetechnologies
useunlicensedspectrumandfocusonlowpowerandcost.Whilesomearguetheyareastopgap
measurebeforethedeploymentof5Gnetworks,theyarethesubjectofmuchinterestanda
numberoftrialsincludingthosebyNTTinJapan,SigFoxinFranceandAustralia,andComcastinthe
UnitedStates.Onemajorappealdrivingcityadoptionistheabilitytoofferacitywideservice,
forfree,atarelativelylowcapitalcost.Anapproachtaken,forexample,bythenonprofit
organizationThingsNetwork4.


4
https://www.thethingsnetwork.org/


3/4Gevolution
Whilethereissignificantactivityaroundthedevelopmentof5Gstandards,theyarenotexpectedto
havefulldeploymentuntil2020.Inthemeantime,anumberofimportantinitiativesarefocusedon
themidtermevolutionofexistingcellulartechnologies.The3GPPconsortiumisworkingonseveral
activitiesincludingworkonCAT1(andCat0)aswellastheupcomingCATM1andthenarrowband
longtermevolution(NBLTE).ThesestandardsfocusonIoTscenariosandincludebetterenergy
efficiencies,costreductions,andbetterpenetration/density,allcriticalforIoTsituationsin
smartcities.

5Gnetworking
Nextgenerationnetworking(5G)isthesubjectofintensetechnological(andbusiness)activitywith
anumberofmajorinitiativesunderway.5Gaimstoaddresssomeofthekeyfutureneedsofsmart
citieswithhigherbandwidth,deliveryandperformanceguarantees,adaptability,energyefficiency,
andrealtimecapabilities.5Gisstillanevolvingspace,withconsiderablediscussiononitslongterm
goalsandtechnologies5.Thiscomplexityandrapidrateofchangeinthe5Gspacemakesitdifficult
toprovidemorethanabriefoverview.Forafullerexplorationof5GpleaseseetheIEEEindustry
trendpaperon5Gpublishedaspartofthisseries.

Regardlessoftheevolutionof4Gandtheeventualtransitionto5G,twocriticaltechnologytrends
thataddresstheneedcombinemultipleevolvingtechnologiesaresoftwaredefinednetworking
(SDN)andnetworkfunctionvirtualization(NFV).Obviously,thiscomplexnetworkinglandscape
posesachallengeasoperatorsandusersgrapplewithneedsthatspanmultipletechnologies.
OnesolutiontothisistheadoptionofSDNandNFVtechnologiesthatallownetworkoperators
tomixandmatchservicesusingSDNandtopushmoreintelligenceintotheirnetworks(edge
processing)usingNFV6,7.

CyberphysicalsystemsandtheIoT
CyberphysicalsystemsandtheIoT,definedgenerallyastheconnectionandvirtualrepresentation
ofphysicaldevicestotheInternet,arecriticaltothegrowthofsmartcities.Whilemanypartsofthe
traditionalcityinfrastructurehavebeenmonitoredformanyyears,suchasfortraffic,water,and
electricity,thismonitoringwasoftenusingproprietarytechnologiesandmaintainedasindividual
silos.TheIoTischangingthatsituationradically.Cityinfrastructure,someofwhichmayhavebeen
traditionallymonitored,isnowbeingconnectedusingopenstandardprotocolssuchasIPandHTTP,
andmadeaccessiblethroughwebtechnologiessuchasREST.Lowerhookupcostsareallowingthe
sensingtoexpandtomorepartsofthecityinfrastructureandenablinghigherfidelitysensing.
Agoodexampleisenergymanagement.Thoughtraditionally,manycitieshavebeenableto
measureandmonitorsomecityenergyusage(viapublicorlocalutilities),increasinglyprivateand
commercialbuildingsarebeinghookedup,viasmartmetersthatinturn,enablestheadoptionof
microgridtechnologies.


5
http://www.gsma.com/network2020/wpcontent/uploads/2015/01/Understanding5GPerspectivesonfuturetechnological
advancementsinmobile.pdf
6
https://www.opennetworking.org/images/stories/downloads/sdnresources/whitepapers/wpsdnnewnorm.pdf
7
http://www.cio.com/article/2379216/businessanalytics/understandinghowsdnandnfvcanworktogether.html


Thistrendtowardbettersensing(andactuation)isnotjustaboutsensingcityinfrastructuresuchas
roadsandsewers.ThecostsandaccessibilityofIoTtechnologiesisallowingprivatecompaniesto
instrumentphysicalinfrastructureandtousedevices,includingthesmartphonesthatmanycitizens
nowcarry.Forexample,automanufacturersareincreasinglysensingnotonlythecaritselfbutits
surroundings,trafficconditions,andevenprovidingsenseddatainthecaseofaccidents.Civil
engineeringfirmsaredeployingsensorstomonitorstressinstructuressuchastunnelsandbridges
orthequalityofroadsurfaces8.Citizensaregettinginvolvedbydeployinglowcostsensorstotrack
airpollution9andnoiselevelsorjustemployingtheirsmartphonesasmobilesensorplatforms.

Obviously,thisgrowthinsensingisunderpinnedbywiredandwirelesscommunications,withlow
powermeshnetworkingandtheeventualmoveto5Gaskeytechnologytrends.

WhiletheIoTisdrivingarevolutioninhowweareabletosenseandcontroltheworldaroundus,in
thesmartcityenvironmentthereareseveraltechnologytrends,andissues,thataredrivingtheway
wecanharnesstheIoT.

Thesheervolumeofdatabeinggeneratedisdrivingitsownneedsbothintheplatformsneededto
captureandstorethedataandinthetoolsandtechniquesneedstoanalyzetherealtimedata.
Wewillexplorecloudtechnologiesinsupportofsmartcityplatformsaswellastrendsinbigdata
technologiesnext.

Cloudandedgecomputing
Cloudcomputinghashadasignificantinfluenceonthedevelopmentofsmartcities,affectingthe
waycitiesmanageanddeliverservicesandenablingabroadersetofplayerstoenterthesmartcity
market.Cloudcomputing,definedgenerallyasthedeliveryofcomputingasaservice,hasoffered
organizationssuchascitieswaystoreducecostsandincreaseefficiency.Duetolegalandprivacy
concerns,citieshavebeenreluctanttoexploitthefullbenefitsofpubliccloudservicesforcore
services,butmanyhaveusedprivatecloudservicesandsomehaveexperimentedwith
public/privateorahybridcloudinfrastructure10.Whenpubliccloudhasbeenexploited,ithas
oftenbeenfornoncoreornewerservices.Forexample,Barcelona,Spain,hasusedpubliccloud
infrastructuretodeliveridentityservicesanddevicemanagementforitsfieldbasedworkforce11,
fordataanalytics,andtoimproveitscustomerrecordsmanagement(CRM)systemsformanaging
citizeninteractions.

Asecondaryfactordrivingtheadoptionofcloudsolutionsforsmartcitiesisthemassiveincreasein
databeinggenerated,captured,andanalyzedbycitiesastheystarttodeployandexploitIoT
technologies.Newinfrastructuresensing,combinedwithprivatedatasourcesandcitizendata,
meansthatcitiesnowhaveaccesstoamultitudeofhighvolumerealtimedatasources.Whilethere


8
http://wwwsmartinfrastructure.eng.cam.ac.uk/news/futurecitiesforesightthoughtpiecerobertmair
9
https://www.fastcoexist.com/3026502/agrassrootsenvironmentalsensornetworksoyoudontneedthegovernmenttosay
theairis
10
http://images.newsletters.lighting.philips.com/Web/PhilipsLighting/%7Bddcf75e71e5140e69df288a2b59a902e%7D_Future
proofing_IT_for_Smart_City_services.pdf
11
https://customers.microsoft.com/Pages/CustomerStory.aspx?recid=1939


aremanyexamplesofthisuseofcloudinfrastructureincities,intelligenttransportationisalead
usecase.Taiwanhasexploitedcloudcomputingtohandlethehighdatavolumefromitsintelligent
transportationsystems(ITS)12.

Whilecloudcomputingisanestablishedpartofsmartcitysolutions,anemergingtrendisthe
augmentationofcloudcomputingwithedge(alsoknownasfog)computing.Edgecomputingisa
termusedtodescribethedeploymentanduseofprocessingwithinandattheedgeofthe
network13.ThistrendleveragestherolloutofanIoTinfrastructure,whichoftenincludespowerful
processingandgatewaydevicestogatherandcommunicatesenseddata.Theedgecomputing
modelofferscitieswaystomanageandmonitordistributedinfrastructure,forexample,ITS,where
processingisoftenbesthandledclosetotheinfrastructureforperformanceandtimelinessreasons
orbuildingmanagementsystemsfocusedonenergyefficiency14.

Opendata
we need policy to focus on Anothersignificanttrendinsmartcitiesistheadoptionandexploitationofopendata.Opendatain
this -->
thecontextofsmartcitiesreferstopublicpolicythatrequiresorencouragespublicagenciesto
releasedatasetsandmakethemfreelyaccessible.Typicalexamplesarecitywidecrimestatistics,
cityservicelevels,andinfrastructuredata.Manygovernmentsandleadingcitiesnowrunopendata
portals,e.g.,theUKandCanadiandataportals,(data.gov.ukandopen.canada.ca)andcityportals
suchasSanFrancisco(dataSF.org)andLondon(data.london.gov.uk).

Whileopendataisnotatechnologytrendinitself,itleveragesanumberoftheunderlying
technologiesdiscussedheresuchascloudcomputingandtheIoT,andisasourceofbigcitydata.
Opendataisdrivingtheuseofthesetechnologiesascitiesdevelopopendataportalsandothercity
stakeholdersbegintoexploitaccesstothisopendata.Someofthechallengesassociatedwithbig
dataincludingdatasecurityandinparticularissuesofprivacy.

Theevolutionofopendatarepresentsabroadeningoftheinformationavailablerelatedtocity
operations.Itsprimarygoalistransparency,butasignificantsubsidiarygoalistomakeinformation
availabletothirdpartiesthatcanbeexploitedtoimprovecityservicesandfosterinnovationaround
newservices.SanFranciscoandLondonhaveledeffortstoexploitopendatawithlocalcompanies
creatingmobileapplicationsbasedonparkdata15,tourism,parking,andtransportation16.Similar
approachesareappearingincitiesacrosstheworld.Itisclearthat,increasingly,citieswillmake
moredataavailableasopendata.However,itisalsolikelythattheecosystemofopendata
providersandoperatorswillevolvewithcitiestakingonlessofaroleasopendataoperatorsandan


12
http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/connectedtransportationlogistics/taiwanfetcimprovestrafficmodernizestaiwans
transportationindustry.html
13
https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/solutions/trends/iot/docs/computingsolutions.pdf
14
http://blogs.cisco.com/perspectives/iotfromcloudtofogcomputing
15
https://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2013/01/16/howsanfranciscotapsopendatacityapps
16
http://data.london.gov.uk/casestudies/


increasingnumberofthirdpartiestakingcitydataandcuratingitforbothcitizenandbusiness
needs.AninterestingearlyexampleofthisisthecitydataexchangeoperatedinCopenhagen17.

Bigdataanddataanalytics
Smartcities,bytheirverynature,generatesignificantamountsofdataintheirdailyoperations.
Thetrendsidentifiedearlier,forexample,IoTandOpenDataaredrivingcitiestocollectandmake
availableadditionalsignificantamountsofdata;someofitisstaticbutincreasinglylargepartsare
realtime.Thisdataexhibitstheclassiccharacteristicsofbigdata;highvolume,realtime(velocity);
andextremelyheterogeneousinitssources,formats,andcharacteristics(variability).

Thisbigdatacan,ifmanagedandanalyzedwell,offerinsightsandeconomicvaluethatcitiesand
citystakeholderscanusetoimproveefficiencyandleadtoinnovatenewservicesthatimprovethe
livesofcitizens.

Theevolvingtechnologythatcaptures,manages,andanalysesthisbigdataleveragestechnology
trendssuchascloudcomputing.Citiesarenowabletoaccessandusemassivecomputingresources
thatweretooexpensivetoownandmanageonlyafewyearsago.Coupledwithtechnologieslike
Hadoop/HDFS,Spark,Hive,andaplethoraofproprietarytools,itisnowpossibleforcitiestoharness
bigdataandanalyticaltoolstoimprovetheefficiencyofcityoperationsandservices.

Forexample,BostonintheUnitedStatesisusingbigdatatobettertrackcityperformanceagainsta
rangeofindicatorsbutalsotoidentifypotholesincitystreetsandimprovetheefficiencyofgarbage
collectionbyswitchingtoademanddrivenapproach18.NewYorkhasdevelopedasystem(FireCast)
thatanalyzesdatafromsixcitydepartmentstoidentifybuildingswithahighfirerisk19.Londonuses
awidevarietyofcitydataandadvancedanalyticstomapindividualneighborhoodstobetter
understandresourceallocationandplanning,whichismadeavailablethroughtheWhereabouts
service20.Singaporetracksrealtimetransportationandrunsademanddrivenroadpricingscheme
tooptimizeroadusageacrosstheisland21.

Citizenengagement
Citizenengagementrepresentsacomplementaryaspectofsmartcitiesandalthoughnotstrictlya
technicalconsideration,reliesonthedatagatheringandmanagementdiscussedintheopendata
andbigdatasections.Essentially,itaimstoharnesstechnologyinsupportofgreaterengagement
withcitizens,partlyinanattempttotapintothecollectiveintelligenceofcities,andpartlyto
betterunderstandwhatcitizensdoandneedintheirdailylives.Inthiscontext,engagementisnot
justwithcitizensbutwiththeentireecosystems,cityworkers,businesses,tourists,etc.Whileitmay
beobviousthatcitiesneedtoengageandlistentotheircitizens,itissurprisinghowfewchannels
existformeaningfuldialoguebetweencitiesandtheircitizens.Toaddressthis,atrendoverthelast

17
http://www.vinnova.se/PageFiles/751333230/Copenhagen%20smart%20city%20opl%C3%A6g%20i%20Stockholm2.pdf
18
http://www.economist.com/news/specialreport/21695194betterusedatacouldmakecitiesmoreefficientandmoredemocratic
howcitiesscore
19
http://www.govtech.com/publicsafety/NewYorkCityFightsFirewithData.html
20
http://whereaboutslondon.org/#/
21
https://www.lta.gov.sg/content/ltaweb/en/roadsandmotoring/managingtrafficandcongestion/electronicroadpricingerp.html


fiveyearsinleadingsmartcitiesistheexploitationoftechnologytoengageandcommunicatewith
citizens.Thishastakenavarietyofformsincludingthefollowing:

Phoneorwebapplicationstoallowcitizenstoreportcityissuessuchasgraffitioraccidents
ortodirectlyengagewithcityservices(oftenreferredtoas311servicesinNorthAmerica).
OriginatingfromworkinWashington,D.C.,detailsofactivitiesincitiessuchasBoston,
Helsinki,Londoncanbefoundontheopen311organizationswebsite22.
Hackathonsandotherdevelopereventstoengagethetechnicalcommunitywithopendata
andnewserviceinitiatives.SuccessfulexamplesincludetheCodeforAmericaprogram23and
othertechfocusedroutesadoptedinEurope24.
Codesignandusercentricdesignprocessestoengagecitizensintheideation,design,and
deliveryofnewservices.Thiscitizencentricapproachhasbetriedinavarietyofformsin
manycities,withearlyadopterssuchasMiltonKeynes25intheUnitedKingdomandthe
EuropeanUnionscitizencityproject26,developingbestpractices.
Crowdsourcingcitydatafromcitizenstobetterunderstandtheactivitiesandactionsofthe
urbanpopulationorusecitizenstohelpgatherdatathatotherwisearehardtoobtain.
ExamplesincludecrowdsourcingfloodinformationinJakartausingtweets27andusingcitizen
inputtocreatewheelchairaccessibilitymapsinBblingen,Germany28.

Engagement,asdescribedabove,isactuallyaninitialsteptowardsempowerment.Theultimategoal
ofcitizenengagementistheempowermentofcitizenstotakeonandimprovetheirdailylives
throughcommunityleadership.

Thesixmajortrendsidentifiedherearecriticaltotherolloutofsmartcitiesandwillshapetheway
technologyisusedtoenrichthelivesofcitizens.Obviously,theyarenottheonlyfactorsandother
areassuchassecurity,privacy,environmentalsustainability,andahostofotherscutacrossthese
technologytrends,shapingtheirevolutionanddeployment.However,thesetrendsarecriticaland
areshapingthefutureofourcities.Inthenextsection,weexplorestandardsactivitiesthatrelateto
thesesixareasandtothemoregeneralsmartcitylandscape.


22
http://www.open311.org/
23
https://www.codeforamerica.org/
24
http://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/powerpeoplehowcitiescanusedigitaltechnologyengageandempowercitizens
25
http://www.mksmart.org/citizens/
26
https://eusmartcities.eu/content/citizencity
27
http://www.citymetric.com/horizons/makingsmartcitiesworkpeopleno1crowdsourcingfloodmapsjakarta1228
28
http://www.citymetric.com/horizons/makingsmartcitiesworkpeopleno5bblingenscrowdsourcedaccessibilitymaps1519

10


Standards

Standardsarecriticaltotheevolutionofsmartcitiestohelpsmooththeadoptionofnew
technologiesandprovideatrustedframeworkforcityauthoritiesandpractitioners.Allofthe
technologicalareasoutlinedpreviouslyaresubjecttointensestandardizationactivitieswith
significantongoingactivityininternationalorganizationssuchasISO,ETSI,andtheITUaswellas
nationalbodiesandofcoursetheIEEE.Ausefuloverviewofthemaininternationalactivitiesis
capturedbytheUnitedKingdomsnationalstandardsbodyinitssmartcityoverviewdocument29.


Figure3.Anoverviewofthemajorstandardsbodiesactivitiesinthesmartcitydomain.

Figure3,basedlooselyontheU.K.standardsdocuments,showsstandardsbodyactivitiesgrouped
intothreelevels,withstrategicfocusingonprovidingguidancetocityleadership,processlookingat
procuringandmanagingsmartcityprojectsandactivities,andtechnicallookingatthelowerlevel
detailsofthetechnologiesusedforsmartcityprojects;IEEEstandardstendtofocusonthelower
partofthediagram.


29
http://www.bsigroup.com/enGB/smartcities/SmartCitiesStandardsandPublication/PD8100smartcitiesoverview/

11


Atthestrategiclevel,animportantstandardistheISO37120Sustainabledevelopmentof
communitiesIndicatorsforcityservicesandqualityoflife.Thisstandard,partofasuitebyISOs
TechnicalCommittee268,identifiesonehundredindicatorsthatcitiesshouldtracktoallowthem
tobenchmarkprogress.Thereareanumberofcitiesmovingtoadoptthesestandardsandthe
WorldCouncilonCityData30hasledeffortstopromotethesebenchmarksandencouragecities
tousethem.TheBritishStandardsInstitutehasledsomeoftheearlythinkingonastrategic
approachtoSmartCitiesandhasrecentlycreatedtheSmartCityInstituteinconjunctionwith
theU.K.FutureCityCatapult31.

Atthemoretechnicallevel,theISOJTC1committeehasproducedusefulsurveydocuments
onsmartcitystandardsactivitiesandisshepherdingtwotechnicalstandardsthatarestill
underdevelopment(fromtheISO/IECJTC1group)butworthtracking.TheyareISO/IECAWI30145
InformationtechnologySmartcityICTreferenceframeworkandtheassociatedISO/IECAWI30146
InformationtechnologySmartcityICTindicatorswhicharebothlookingattheICTinfrastructure
neededforsmartcities.

TheIEEE,recognizingthattheIoTisacriticaltechnologytrend,hasledeffortstocreate
IEEEP2413,StandardforanArchitecturalFrameworkfortheInternetofThings(IoT).IEEEP2413
isindevelopmenttoproposeanarchitecturalframeworksupportingcrossdomaininteraction,
systeminteroperability,andfunctionalcompatibility,andtofuelthegrowthoftheIoTmarket.
Additionally,theITUhasanactivestandardsgroup(StudyGroup20)intheIoTarea32.

TheIEEEStandardsAssociationisknownfortakingasystemofsystemsperspectivein
standardization.Asanexample,intheareaofsmartgrids,IEEE2030,IEEEGuideforSmartGrid
InteroperabilityofEnergyTechnologyandInformationTechnologyOperationwiththeElectricPower
System(EPS),EndUseApplications,andLoads.AmorecomprehensivelistofIEEEstandardsrelated
tosmartcitiescanbefoundintheIEEEStandardsActivitiesforSmartCitiesdocument33.


30
http://www.dataforcities.org/wccd/
31
https://www.bsigroup.com/enGB/smartcities/TheCitiesStandardsInstitution/
32
http://www.itu.int/en/ITUT/studygroups/20132016/20/Pages/default.aspx
33
http://standards.ieee.org/develop/msp/smartcities.pdf

12


BusinessAspects

Althoughthistrendpaperfocusesontechnologicaltrends,asoutlinedintheintroduction,smart
citiesarecomplexecosystemsthatcutacrosstechnological,social,organizational,andbusiness
domains.Understandingtherolloutoftechnologiesandtheirrelativeimportanceintheecosystem
requiresunderstandingthebusinessdriversthataffecttheirdeploymentanduptake,andan
overviewofthesmartcitymarketplace.
Increasedurbanization,thedevelopmentandgrowthofnewercities,andthenaturalrenewalof
infrastructureinestablishedcitiesmeansthatthesmartcitymarketplaceisbothlargeandgrowing.
Whilethescopeandsizeofthemarketisdifficulttoaccuratelyquantifyandestimatesvary,allplace
thesizeofthemarketintheUS$300to700billionrange.Forexample,amarketscopingreport34by
theUnitedKingdomsDepartmentofTradeandIndustrysuggeststhatWeestimatetheglobal
marketforsmartcitysolutionsandtheadditionalservicesrequiredtodeploythemtobeUS$408
billionby2020.Breakingthisdownbyvertical,intransportforexample,PikeResearchestimatesa
globalmarketforsmarttransportsolutionsbasedondigitalinfrastructuretobeUS$4.5billionby
2018.ThesesolutionsareenablingsolutionsforawidermarketofUS$100billionby2018which
includesthephysicalanddigitalinfrastructureforparkingmanagementandguidance,smart
ticketingandtrafficmanagement.
AlsoincludedinthisUS$100billion
arethetraditionalandnewservices
suchasheavyengineering,road
designandbigdataanalyticswhich
arerequiredasaresultofinvestment
indigitalsmart
transportsolutions.

Similarly,areportbyFrost&
Sullivan35breaksdownthetotal
spendintomarketsegments,
identifyinggovernanceand
education,healthcare,and
energyasthreeofthelargest
businessopportunities. Figure4.Smartcitymarketsegments(global,20122020).


34
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/249423/bis131217smartcitymarketopportunties
uk.pdf
35
http://www.egr.msu.edu/~aesc310web/resources/SmartCities/Smart%20City%20Market%20Report%202.pdf

13


TrendsandRecommendations

Thisreporthashighlightedanumberoftechnologieswhoseevolutionanddeploymentis
contributingtothegrowthofsmartcities.Somehighlevelobservationsincludethefollowing:

Focusonpointsolutions:Whilemanymajorcitiesareawareof,andtosomeextent
pursuing,smartcitystrategies,itisclearthatrightnowmostsmartcitydeploymentsare
focusedonspecificinfrastructureneeds,forexample,reducingwaterlossthroughaging
pipeinfrastructure,orimprovingtransportationefficiencythroughmonitoring.Companies
needtofocusonthesetypesofprojectsandlookforincrementalwaystoconnectindividual
systems(silos)toprovideaggregateefficienciesandsupportnewservices.
InstrumentationandactuationfromIoT:Assensors/actuatorsarebeingreplacedinthe
system,anincreasingpercentageofcityinfrastructureisbecomingIoTconnected.Cities
thatrecognizethisandputinplacemiddlewareandcloudsystemstocaptureandusethis
datawillseesignificantadvantagesovertime.
Valuefromanalytics:Today,fewcitiesgatherandanalyzecitydatainacomprehensiveway.
Someleadexamplesdoexist,butmostcitiesarestilldevelopingthesecapabilities.Both
governmentandindustryneedtoadoptbigdatastrategiesaspartoftheircoreframework,
buildingsolutionsfromacloudcentricperspectivethatincorporatedataanalyticsascore
capabilities.Thegrowthofthisareaislikelytorapidlyincreaseoverthenextdecadewith
significantinvestmentbycitiesinanalyticcapabilities.
Differentregionshavedifferentneeds:ItisclearthattheneedsofasmartcityinIndiaare
differentthanthoseinEurope;differentregionsaregrapplingwithdifferentproblemsand
willneeddifferentsolutions.However,theunderlyingtechnologytrendsdonotdiffer,and
sotheproblembecomesthemostappropriateapplicationofatechnologytomeetacity's
needs.Companiesthatareabletoadoptaflexibleapproachtodeliveringsolutionwillreap
benefits.
Collaborationiscritical.Few,ifanycompaniescandeliverafullsmartcitysolution.
Therefore,companiesneedtoidentifytheirroleinthesmartcitysolutionecosystemand
worktodeveloppartnershipsthatallowthemtocollectivelyoffersolutionstocities.Major
playerswillbeabletousemergersandacquisitionstoplugcapabilitygaps.
Citizenengagementandactivismareshapingthethinkingofcities:Companiesthatcantap
intothisandcanshowhowtheirapproachesandsolutionsbenefitfromcitizenengagement
willaccrueadvantagethroughdifferentiation.Citiesthatdevelopcomprehensivecitizen
engagementstrategieswillalsobenefitfromcitizenswhoarefranchisedaswellasthe
collectivewisdomofthecommunity.

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Resources

IEEESmartCitiesinitiative:
http://smartcities.ieee.org/

TherehasbeenasignificantactivitybyIEEEtopromotesmartcitiesandtoengagecitiesinusing
technologiestodevelopnewservices.ExamplesarethecorecitiesofGuadalajarainMxico,Trento
inItaly,WuxiinChina,CasablancainMorocco,andKansasCityinUS.Additionally,thisinitiative
organizedthefirsttwointernationalconferencesonsmartcitiessuccessfullyheldinGuadalajara,
Mxico,in2015andTrento,Italy,in2016;thethirdbeingplannedforWuxiChinain2017.

IEEEIndustryactivity:
http://industry.ieee.org

AportalofIEEEresourcestargetedatindustryandpractitionersincludingcontentonprofessional
development,standards,andemergingtechnologiesandtrends.

BritishStandardsInstituteSmartCities:
http://www.bsigroup.com/enGB/smartcities/

AsetofstandardsfocusedresourcesfromtheBritishStandardsInstitutethatfocusesonthesmart
citydomain.

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Biography

Dr.RodgerLeaCurrentlyCEOofInternetofThingsstartup,SenseTecnic,
Dr.Leahasover25yearsofexperiencespanningacademic,largecorporations
andstartups.Forthelast10years,hehasstartedorhelpedstart4new
companieswhilemanaginganactiveresearchprogram(UniversityofBritish
Columbia,CanadaandLancasterUniversity,UK)intodistributedandubiquitous
computing.

Priortohisstartups,Dr.Leaspentover15yearsinindustrialresearch,mostrecentlyasVice
PresidentandDirectorofSonysUSdistributedsystemlab,locatedinSiliconValley,CA.Inthis
capacity,Dr.LeaaidedindevelopingadvancedtechnologiestosupportSonysbroadbandmedia
strategyincludingresearchanddevelopmentinareassuchasfuturemediapresentationformats,
mediadeliveryandcaching,digitalandinteractiveTV,homenetworkingandpeertopeer
infrastructuretechnologies.Thisresearchgeneratedover100internationalpatentsanddelivered
technologyintoanumberofmajorproductsrangingfromSonysinteractivesettopboxes,tothe
SonyPDAsandHighDefinitionTVsystems.

Beforethis,Dr.LeawaspartofSonysTokyobasedComputerScienceLaboratorywhereheled
developmentsintheareaofadaptiveoperatingsystems,andnetworkedvirtualrealitysystems.

BeforejoiningSony,Dr.LeaspenttimewithHewlettPackardsresearchlabswhereheledthe
definitionandimplementationofadistributedfaulttolerantinfrastructurefortelecomsystems.This
workgrewoutofhispreviousroleheadinguptheEuropeanresearchanddevelopmentprograms
forChorusSystems,aFrenchstartupcompanywhichspunoutoftheFrenchnationalresearchlabs.

Dr.LeaholdsaPh.DincomputersciencefromLancasterUniversityintheUKandhasnumerous
publicationsintheareaofdistributedsystems,operatingsystemsandhomenetworking.Heisthe
holderofseveralUSpatentsandhaspublishedbooksontheInternetofThings(IoT)webgraphics
(WebGL),homenetworkingand3Dgraphicsforvirtualrealitysystems.Hecurrentlysplitshistime
betweenBC,SiliconValleyandEurope

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