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FAILURE OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 2014

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled FAILURE OF


FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT is being submitted by

NaveenRai(0609CE123D09),
SandeepPachouri(0609CE123D11)

for the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of


minor project in CIVIL Engineering to Swami Vivekanand
Institute of Technology, SAGAR (M.P.) is record of bonafide
work done by them under my guidance.

Thesis Super wiser

Mr. Abhinav Tiwari


. H.O.D :- Miss. Ragini Mishra

Department of Civil Engineering

Swami Vivekanand Institute Of Technology,


Sagar (M.P.)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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It is with
great reverence that we express out
gratitude to our guide " Mr.ABHINAV
TIWARI" Department of Civil
Engineering, Swami Vivekanad Inst. Of
Technology, Sagar (M.P.) for guidance
help keep interest timing guidance,
valuable suggestion in this project
work.
We own regard to
"Ms. RAGINI MISHRA" Head of
Department of Civil Engineering for
his persistent encouragement and
blessing, which were bestowed upon
us.
We express our
sincere thanks to hon'ble Principal
"Dr. B.V.TIWARI " for his kind
support, which he rendered us in
the envisagement for the great
success of our project.
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Declaration

We hereby declare that the


following documented minor project report
on FAILURE OF FLEXIBLE PAVMENT is an
authentic work done by us . We undertake
the project as a part of the course
curriculum of "Bachelor of Engineering "
from CIVIL ENGINEERING of Swami
Vivekanad Inst. Of Technology affiliated to
Rajiv Gandhi Praudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya,
Bhopal (M.P.)

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CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

1) INTRODUCTION 6-16

1.1) meaning of pavement 6

1.2) requirement of pavement 6

1.3) types of pavement structure 6-8

1.4) rigid pavement 8-16

flexible pavement 17-20

2.1) types of flexible pavement 17

2.2) flexible pavement features 17

2.3) introduction of pavement design 17

2.4) surface course 18-19


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2.5) binder course 20

3) base course 21-37

3.1) sub base cours 21

3.2) sub grade 21-23

3.3) types of failure

4) cracking 38-39

4.1) deformation 38

4.2) detoriation 38

4.3) mat problem 38

4.4) problem associate with seal coat 39

5) causes of pavement detoriation 40-48

5.1) flexible pavement maintenance & 40-42

5.2) rehabilitation 42-48

6) routine maintenance 49-56

6.1) periodic maintenance 49-52

6.2) rehabilition 52-56

7) flexible pavement maintenance techniques 57-67

Crack seal

Fog seal

rejuvenators

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slurry seal

bituminous surface treatment

non structur overlay

patches

flexible pavement rehabilitation

hot in place recycling

cold in recycling

pavement evoluation

method of evoluation

equipment required

8) CONCLUSION 68

referance

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INTRODUCTION :-

A pavement is a structure interposed between the wheel and soil, since the soil
itself cannot support the repeated the application of wheel load without
undergoing deformation.

Pavement is made of higher quality materials and includes surfacing course,


base course and sub base, and protects the sub grade from traffic and variations
in climate. The wearing course or surfacing is of the highest quality in pavement
structure and the base course is the major structural element.

A highway pavement is a structure consisting of superimposed layers of


processed materials above the natural soil sub-grade, whose primary function is
to distribute the applied vehicle loads to the sub-grade. The pavement structure
should be able to provide a surface of acceptable riding quality, adequate skid
resistance, favorable light reflecting characteristics, and low noise pollution. The
ultimate aim is to ensure that the transmitted stresses due to wheel load are
sufficiently reduced, so that they will not exceed bearing capacity of the sub
grade. Two types of pavements are generally recognized as serving this purpose,
namely flexible pavements and rigid pavements. This chapter gives an overview
of pavement types, layers and their functions, and pavement failures. Improper
design of pavements leads to early failure of pavements acting the riding quality
also.
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Meaning of pavement :- That with which anything is paved; a floor or


covering of solid material, laid so as to make a hard and convenient surface for
travel; a paved road or sidewalk; a decorative interior floor of tiles colored
bricks.

REQUIREMENTS OF A PAVEMENT:-

The pavement should meet the following requirements:

Sufficient thickness to distribute the wheel load stresses


to a safe value on the sub-grade soil.
Structurally strong to withstand all types of stresses
imposed
upon it
Adequate coefficient of friction to prevent skidding of
vehicles
Smooth surface to provide comfort to road users even at
high
speed
Produce least noise from moving vehicles
Dust proof surface so that track safety is not impaired by
reducing visibility.
Impervious surface, so that sub-grade soil is well
protected
Long design life with low maintenance cost

TYPE OF PAVEMENT STRUCTURE:-


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Based on the structural behavior, pavements are generally classified into three
categories.

(a) Flexible Pavements


(b) Rigid Pavements
(c) Composite Pavements

Flexible pavements are those, which on the whole have low or negligible
flexural strength and are rather flexible in their structural action under the loads.

FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS :-

Flexible pavements will transmit wheel load stresses to the


lower layers by grain-to-grain transfer through the points of
contact in the granular structure . The wheel load acting on the
pavement will be
distributed to a wider area, and the stress decreases with the
depth. Taking advantage of this stress distribution
characteristic,flexible pavements normally has many layers.
Hence, the design of flexible pavement uses the concept of
layered system. Based on this, flexible pavement may be
constructed in a number of layers and the top layer has to be of
best quality to sustain maximum compressive stress, in addition
to wear and tear. The lower layers will experience lesser
magnitude of stress and less quality material can be used.
Flexible
pavements are constructed using bituminous materials. These
can be either in the form of surface treatments (such as
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bituminous surface treatments generally found on low


volume roads) or, asphalt concrete surface courses (generally
used on high volume roads such as national highways). Flexible
pavement layers reect the deformation of the lower layers on to
the surface layer (e.g., if there is any undulation in sub-grade
then it will be transferred to the surface layer). In the case of
flexible pavement, the design is based on overall performance
of flexible pavement, and the stresses produced should be kept
well below the allowable stresses of each pavement layer.

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TYPES OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS:-

The following types of construction have been used in flexible


pavement:

Conventional layered flexible pavement,


Full - depth asphalt pavement, and
Contained rock asphalt mat (CRAM).

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Conventional flexible pavements are layered


systems with high quality expensive materials are placed
in the top where stresses are high, and low quality cheap
materials are placed in lower layers.

Full - depth asphalt pavements are constructed by placing


bituminous layers directly on the soil sub grade. This is
more suitable when there is high track and local materials
are not available.

Contained rock asphalt mats are constructed by placing


dense/open graded aggregate layers in between two
asphalt layers. Modified dense graded asphalt concrete is
placed above the sub-grade will significantly reduce the
vertical compressive strain on soil sub-grade and protect
from surface water.

FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT FEATURES:-

The layers will be able to withstand the higher stresses under


loadings and transmit only relatively smaller stresses to the sub
grade.

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The strength of materials of different layers differ and


with depth the quality decreases.

The combination of materials and their layer thickness should be


so chosen that they should not only be structurally adequate but
also are cheaply available.

Pavement design is the process of developing the most


economical combination of pavement layers, in relation to both
thickness and type of materials to suit the soil sub grade, design
traffic and environmental conditions.

INTRODUCTION OF PAVEMENT DESIGN :-

Surface course
Surface course is the layer directly in contact with tra_c loads
and generally contains superior quality materials.
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They are usually constructed with dense graded


asphalt concrete(AC). The functions and requirements of this
layer are:

It provides characteristics such as friction, smoothness,


drainage, etc. Also it will prevent the entrance of excessive
quantities of surface water into the underlying base, sub-
base and sub-grade.

It must be tough to resist the distortion under traffic and


provide a smooth and skid- resistant riding surface.

It must be water proof to protect the entire base and sub-


grade from the weakening effect of water.

The pavement carries the wheel loads and transfers the load
stresses through a wider area and hence considerably lower
stresses than the contact pressure or compressive stresses under
the wheel load on the pavement surface are transferred to the soil
below.

The reduction in the wheel load stress due to the pavement


depends both on the thickness and the characteristics of the
pavement layers.

A pavement layer is considered more effective or superior, if it is


able to distribute the wheel load stress through a larger area per
unit depth of the layer.

Binder course

This layer provides the bulk of the asphalt concrete structure.


It's chief purpose is to distribute load to the base course The
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binder course generally consists of aggregates having


less asphalt and doesn't require quality as high as the surface
course, so replacing a part of the surface course by the binder
course results in more economical design.

Base course

The base course is the layer of material immediately beneath


the surface of binder course and it provides additional load
distribution and contributes to the sub-surface drainage It may
be composed of crushed stone, crushed slag, and other
untreated or stabilized materials.

Sub-Base course

The sub-base course is the layer of material beneath the base


course and the primary functions are to provide structural
support, improve drainage and reduce the intrusion of fines
from the sub-grade in the pavement structure If the base course
is open graded, then the sub-base course with more fines can
serve as a filler between sub-grade and the base course A sub-
base course is not always needed or used. For example, a
pavement constructed over a high quality, stiff sub-grade may
not need the additional features offered by a sub-base course.
In such situations, sub-base course may not be provided.

Sub-grade

The top soil or sub-grade is a layer of natural soil prepared to


receive the stresses from the layers above It is essential that at
no time soil sub-grade is overstressed It should be compacted
to the desirable density, near the optimum moisture content.

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DESIGN FACTORS AFFECTING STRUCTURAL CONDITION AND


PERFORMANCE OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS:-

Pavement design consists predominantly two requirements:

i) Structural design for the thickness of component pavement layers


ii) Mix design of the paving materials

Above two steps must be considered as compliment to each other.

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TYPES OF FAILURES :-

Common Flexible Pavement Distresses

A. Cracking
B. Deformation
C. Deterioration
D. Mat problems
E. Problems associated with seal coats

Category Distress Type

Cracking Longitudinal, fatigue, transverse, reflective, block, edge

Deformation Rutting, corrugation, shoving, depression, overlay bumps

Deterioration Delamination, potholes, patching, raveling, stripping,


polished aggregate, pumping

Mat problem Segregation, checking, bleeding

Seal Coats Rock loss, segregation, bleeding/fat spots, Delamination

A. Cracking: The most common types of cracking are:


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1. Fatigue cracking
2. Longitudinal cracking
3. Transverse cracking
4. Block cracking
5. Slippage cracking
6. Reflective cracking
7. Edge cracking

1. FATIGUE CRACKING :-Cracks in asphalt layers that are caused


by repeated traffic loadings. The cracks indicate fatigue failure of
the asphalt layer. When cracking is characterized by
interconnected cracks, the cracking pattern resembles that of an
alligators skin or chicken wire. Therefore, it is also referred to as
alligator cracking.

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2. LONGITUDINAL CRACKING :- Cracks that are


approximately parallel to pavement centerline and are not in the
wheel path. Longitudinal cracks are non-load associated cracks.
Location within the lane (wheel path versus non-wheel path) is
significant. Longitudinal cracks in the wheel path are normally
rated as Alligator Acracking.

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3. TRANSVERSE CRACKING :- Cracks that are


predominately perpendicular to pavement centerline and are not
located over portlandcement concrete joints. Thermal cracking is
typically in this category.

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4. REFLECTION CRACKING :-Cracks in HMA overlay surfaces that


occur over joints in concrete or over cracks in HMA pavements.

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5. BLOCK CRACKING :- Pattern of cracks that divides the


pavement into approximately rectangular pieces. Rectangular
blocks range in size from approximately 0.1 square yard to 12
square yards.

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6. EDGE CRACKING :- Crescent-shaped cracks or fairly continuous


cracks that intersect the pavement edge and are located within 2
feet of the pavement edge, adjacent to the unpaved shoulder.
Includes longitudinal cracks outside of the wheel path and within 2
feet of the pavement edge.

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B. Surface deformation: Pavement deformation is the result of weakness in one


or more layers of the pavement that has experienced movement after
construction. The deformation may be accompanied by cracking. Surface
distortions can be a traffic hazard. The basic types of surface deformation are:
1. Rutting
2. Corrugations
3. Shoving
4. Depressions
5. Swell

RUTTING :- Longitudinal surface depression that develops in the wheel


paths of flexible pavement under traffic. It may have associated
transverse displacement.

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CORRUGTION :- Transverse undulations appear at regular intervals


due to the unstable surface course caused by stop-and-go traffic.

SHOVING :- A longitudinal displacement of a localized area of the


pavement surface. It is generally caused by braking or accelerating
vehicles, and is usually located on hills or curves, or at intersections. It
also may have vertical displacement.

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DEPRESSION :- Small, localized surface settlement that can cause a


rough, even hazardous ride to motorists.

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OVERLAY BUMPS :- In newly overlaid pavements, bumps occur where


cracks in old pavements were recently filled. This problem is most
prevalent on thin overlays.

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DELAMINATION :- Loss of a large area of pavement surface.


Usually there is a clear separation of the pavement surface from the
layer below. Slippage cracking may often occur as a result of poor
bonding or adhesion between layers.

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POTHOLES :- Bowl-shaped holes of various sizes in the pavement


surface.

PATCHING :- Portion of pavement surface, greater than 0.1 sq. meter,


that has been removed and replaced or additional material applied to the
pavement after original construction.

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RAVELING :- Wearing away of the pavement surface in high-quality hot


mix asphalt concrete that may be caused by the dislodging of aggregate
particles and loss of asphalt binder.

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STRIPPING :- The loss of the adhesive bond between


asphalt cement and aggregate, most often caused by the presence of
water in asphalt concrete, which may result in raveling, loss of stability,
and load carrying capacity of the HMA pavement or treated base.

POLISHED AGGREGATE :- Surface binder worn away to expose


coarse aggregate.

PUMPING :- Seeping or ejection of water and fines from beneath the


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pavement through cracks.

SEGREGATION :- Separation of coarse aggregate from fine aggregate


as a result of mishandling of the mix at several points during mix
production, hauling, and placing operations. Segregation leads to non-
uniform surface texture and non-uniform density.

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CHECKING :- Short transverse cracks, usually 1 to 3 inches in


length and 1 to 3 inches apart, which occur in the surface of the HMA
mat at some time during the compaction process. The cracks do not
extend completely through the depth of the course, but are only about
inch deep.

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BLEEDING/FLUSHING :- Excess bituminous binder


occurring on the pavement surface. May create a shiny, glass-like,
reflective surface that may be tacky to the touch. Usually found in the
wheel paths.

ROCK LOSS :- Wearing away of the pavement surface in seal coats.

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SEGREGATION :- Separation of coarse aggregate from fine


aggregate as a result of mishandling of the mix at several points
during mix production and placing operations. Segregation leads to
non-uniform surface texture.

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BLEEDING / FAT SPOTS :- Excess binder occurring on the surface


treated pavements. May create a shiny, glass-like, reflective appearance.
Fat spots are localized bleeding.

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CAUSES OF PAVEMENT DETERIORATION :-

(i)Sudden increase in traffic loading especially on new roads where the design
is based on lesser traffic is a major cause of cracking. After construction of good
road, traffic of other roads also shifts to that road. This accelerates the fatigue
failure (Alligator Cracking).
(ii)Temperature variation ranging from 50 C to below zero conditions in the
plain areas of North and Central India leads to bleeding and cracking.
(iii) Provision of poor shoulders leads to edge failures.
(iv) Provision of poor clayey subgrade results in corrugation at the surface and
increase in unevenness.
(v) Poor drainage conditions especially during rainy seasons, force the water to
enter the pavement from the sides as well as from the top surface. In case of
open graded bituminous layer, this phenomenon becomes more dangerous and
the top layer gets detached from the lower layers.
(vi) If the temperature of bitumen/bituminous mixes is not maintained properly,
then it also leads to pavement failure. Over heating of bitumen reduces the
binding property of bitumen. If the temperature of bituminous mix has been
lowered down then the compaction will not be proper leading to longitudinal
corrugations.

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FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION :-

Types of maintenance and rehabilitation activities

The maintenance and rehabilitation of flexible pavements involves a


range of activities which may be categorised as:
routine maintenance
periodic maintenance
rehabilitation.

Routine maintenance is concerned with minor activities required to slow


down or prevent
deterioration of a road pavement. It tends to be preventive as well as
corrective and includes such activities as:
crack-sealing
pothole repair
minor correction of surface texture deficiencies
minor shape correction.

Periodic maintenance primarily involves preservation of the asset using


thin surfacings to restore texture or ride quality, protect the surface
against entry of moisture, or prevent deterioration through ravelling and
weathering.

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Rehabilitation includes major work carried out to restore structural


service levels. As such, the treatments are corrective in nature and
include:
non-structural overlays
structural asphalt overlays
reconstruction or recycling of pavement materials, etc.

FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE TECHNIQUES :-

The maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) activities of pavement


structures become increasingly important as pavements deteriorate with
time and traffic. The combined effects of traffic loading and the
environment will cause every pavement, no matter how well-
designed/constructed to deteriorate over time. Maintenance and
rehabilitation are what we use to slow down or reset this deterioration
process. In fact, the emphasis in managing pavements is to preserve the
initial investment through the timely application of proper M&R
treatments to extend pavement life of particular interest to the manager is
the condition of the pavements surface as to when a particular M&R
treatment should be placed. M&R activities range from correcting surface
defects for improving ride quality to increasing structural capacity of the
pavement structure . Maintenance actions help slow the rate of
deterioration by identifying and addressing specific pavement
deficiencies that contribute to overall deterioration. Rehabilitation is the
act of repairing portions of an existing pavement to reset the
deterioration process .

Pavement maintenance describes all the methods and techniques used


to preserve pavement condition, safety, and ride quality, and therefore
aid a pavement in achieving its design life. The performance of a
pavement is directly tied to the timing, type and quality of the
maintenance it receives.

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Crack Seals
Crack seal products are used to fill individual pavement cracks to prevent
entry of water or other non-compressible substances such as sand, dirt,
rocks or weeds. Crack sealant is typically used on early stage
longitudinal cracks, transverse cracks, reflection cracks and block cracks.
Alligator cracks are most often too extensive to warrant filling with crack
sealer; they usually require an area treatment such as a patch or
reconstruction. Crack filler material is typically some form of rubberized
asphalt or sand slurry.
This technique is used for preventive maintenance. Crack filling to
prevent entry of water or other non-compressible substances into the
pavement.

Fog Seals
A fog seal is a light application of a diluted slow-setting asphalt emulsion
to the surface of an aged(oxidized) pavement surface. Fog seals are low-
cost and are used to restore flexibility to an existing HMA pavement
surface. They may be able to temporarily postpone the need for a
surface treatment or non-structural overlay. It is used for preventive
maintenance. Fog seals are used to restore or rejuvenate an HMA
surface. They may be able to postpone the need for a BST or non
structural overlay for a year or two.

Rejuvenators
Rejuvenators are products designed to restore original properties to
aged (oxidized) asphalt binders by restoring the original ratio of
asphalteness to malteness. Many rejuvenators are proprietary, making it
difficult to offer a good generic description. However, many rejuvenators
contain maltenes because their quantity is reduced by oxidation.
Rejuvenators will retard the loss of surface fines and reduce the
formation of additional cracks; however they will also reduce pavement
skid resistance for up to 1 year. Because of this, rejuvenators are
generally appropriate for low-volume, low-speed roads or parking lots.
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Rejuvenators are used in preventive maintenance, to restore


original

properties to aged asphalt binder. Rejuvenators may be able to postpone


the need for a BST for a year or two.

Slurry Seals
A slurry seal is a homogenous mixture of emulsified asphalt, water, well-
graded fine aggregate and mineral filler that has a creamy fluid-like
appearance when applied. Slurry seals are used to fill existing pavement
surface defects as either a preparatory treatment for other maintenance
treatments or as a wearing course. There are three basic aggregate
gradations used in slurry seals.
Micro surfacing is an advanced form of slurry seal that uses the same
basic ingredients (emulsified asphalt, water, fine aggregate and mineral
filler) and combines them with advanced polymer additives. This
technique is used to repair slight to moderate pavement surface defects,
improve skid resistance.

Bituminous Surface Treatments (BST)

A bituminous surface treatment, also known as a seal coat or chip seal,


is a thin protective wearing surface that is applied to a pavement or base
course. BSTs can provide all of the following:
A waterproof layer to protect the underlying pavement, increased skid
resistance, a fill for existing cracks or raveled surfaces, an anti-glare
surface during wet weather and an increased reflective surface for night
driving. BST is used for wearing course and waterproof covering for the
existing pavement.
Non-Structural Overlays

Non-structural overlays do not involve extensive structural design and


generally contribute little, if anything, to a pavement's structural
capacity. Non-structural overlays are generally thin surface overlays on
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the order of 12.5 mm (0.5 in.) to 37.5 mm (1.5 in.) that are
used to improve ride quality, correct minor surface defects, improve
safety characteristics such as skid resistance and drainage, enhance
appearance, reduce road-tire noise.

Patches

Patches are a common method of treating an area of localized distress.


Patches can be either fulldepth where they extend from the pavement
surface to the subgrade or partial where they do not extend through the
full depth of existing pavement.
Full-depth patches are necessary where the entire depth of pavement is
distressed. Often times, the underlying base, subbase or subgrade
material is the distresses root cause and will also need repair. Partial
depth patches are used for pavement distresses like raveling, rutting,
delamination and cracking where the depth of crack does not extend
through the entire pavement depth. Patching material can be just about
any HMA or cold mix asphalt material as well as certain types of slurries.
Typically some form of HMA is used for permanent patches, while cold
mix is often used for temporary emergency repairs.

Flexible Pavement Rehabilitation

The combined effects of traffic loading and the environment will cause
pavements to deteriorate over time. Although maintenance can slow the
rate of deterioration, it cannot stop it. Therefore eventually the effects of
deterioration need to be reversed by adding or replacing

material in the existing pavement structure. This is called rehabilitation.


Formally, rehabilitation can be defined as a structural or functional
enhancement of a pavement which produces a substantial extension in

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service life, by substantially improving pavement structurally


and functionally.

Flexible pavement rehabilitation options depend upon local conditions


and pavement distress types but typically include:
Hot in-place recycling (HIPR);
Cold in-place recycling (CIR);
HMA overlays;
PCC overlays.

Hot in-place recycling (HIPR)

Recycling is the process of recovering and reusing waste products and


thereby reducing their burden on the environment. "Reclaimed asphalt
pavement" (RAP) is typically generated by rehabilitation or
reconstruction projects and can be used in a variety of ways such as:
an addition to regular HMA.
an aggregate in cold-mix asphalt.
a granular base course when pulverized.
a fill or embankment material.

Hot in-place recycling (HIPR) is a less common form of hot asphalt


recycling. There are three basic HIPR construction processes in use, all
of which involve a specialized plant in a continuous train operation:

Heater scarification. This method uses a plant that heats the pavement
surface (typically using propane radiant heaters), scarifies the pavement
surface using a bank of nonrotating teeth, adds a rejuvenating agent to
improve the recycled asphalt binder viscosity, then mixes and levels the
recycled mix using a standard auger system. The recycled asphalt
pavement is then compacted using conventional compaction equipment.
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Heater scarification is limited in its ability to repair severely


rutted pavements, which are more easily rehabilitated with a
conventional HMA overlay. Repaving. This method removes (by heating
and scarification and/or grinding) the top 25 to 50 mm of the existing
HMA pavement, adds a rejuvenating agent to improve the recycled
asphalt binder viscosity, places the recycled material as a leveling course
using a primary screed, and simultaneously places a thin (usually less
than 25 mm) HMA overlay. Conventional equipment and procedures are
used immediately behind the train to compact both layers of material.
Remixing. This method is used when additional aggregate is required to
improve the strength or stability. Remixing is similar to repaving but
adds new virgin aggregate or new HMA to the recycled material before it
is leveled. The purpose of HIPR is to correct shallow-depth HMA surface
distress.

Cold in-place recycling (CIR)

Cold in-place recycling (CIR) is the processing and treatment with


bituminous and/or chemical additives of existing HMA pavements without
heating to produce a restored pavement layer. It involves the same
process of cold plant mix recycling, except that it is done in-place by a
train of equipment. The typical CIR process involves seven basic steps:
Milling. A milling machine pulverizes a thin surface layer of pavement,
usually from 50 to 100 mm deep. Gradation control. The pulverized
material is further crushed and graded to produce the desired gradation
and maximum particle size. On some jobs this step is omitted, however
on others a trailer mounted screening and crushing plant is used to
further crush and grade the pulverized pavement. If needed, virgin
aggregate can be added to the recycled material. Additive incorporation.
The graded pulverized material is mixed with a binding additive (usually
emulsified asphalt, lime, Portland cement or fly ash). On some jobs, this
is done by the milling machine; however on others a trailer mounted
pugmill mixer is used.
Mixture placement. The pulverized, graded pavement and additive
combination is placed back over the previously milled pavement and
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graded to the final elevation. Mixture placement is most often


done with a traditional asphalt paver (either through windrow pickup or
by depositing the mixture directly into the paver hopper), however on
some very low traffic applications the mixture can be placed by a motor
grader. Because of the larger maximum aggregate sizes of the graded
mixture, the minimum lift thickness for placement is usually around 50
mm. Compaction. The placed mixture is compacted to the desired
density. Typical compaction efforts involve a large pneumatic tire roller
and a large vibratory steel wheel roller. If an emulsion additive is used
rolling is typically delayed until the emulsion begins to break. If a
Portland cement or fly ash additive is used, rolling should begin
immediately after placement.

Fog seal. If the newly placed material is to operate as a high quality


gravel road then a fog seal is usually applied over the top to delay
surface raveling of the cold recycled mix. A fog seal is necessary over
CIR using a Portland cement or fly ash additive not only to delay surface
raveling but also to provide a curing membrane for the additive to
properly set. Surface course construction. On higher volume roads, the
cold recycled mix is overlaid with either a BST or a thin HMA overlay. In
either case, a tack coat should be used to provide a good bond between
the cold recycled mix and the surface course.
CIR is used for Stabilized base courses or low volume roads granular
surface course.

HMA Overlays
Structural overlays are designed to add structural support to the existing
pavement. Because of this, they are structurally designed and are thicker
than non-structural overlays. Asphalt concrete structural overlay design
can be done using the following approaches:
Engineering Judgment. This classification of overlay design is the most
subjective of the four listed and can be heavily influenced by political and
budget constraints.
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FAILURE OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 2014

EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED

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MODERN PAVER

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Bitumen Batch Mix Plant Bitumen Plant

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SMOOTH WHEELED ROLLER

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PNEUMATIC-TYRED ROLLER

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WMM Plant

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WE BUILD GOOD & DURABLE ROAD WE PROVIDE TO ROAD


USERS

COMFORT & SAFE RIDING


LESS OPERATIONAL COST
IN REASONABLE TIME

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CONCLUSION

The flexible pavement has the advantage of being fairly quiet when driven on
and reflecting back light at night. The material content can be adjusted to
account for different traffic and weather patterns in different regions. The road
is examined first before rigid or flexible pavement is decided on. An engineer
determines how often the road is used, how much water comes into contact
with the road, how often repairs would need to be made in the future, and the
budget assumed to him. He then determines the type of pavement that gives
the best performance for the amount of money spent.

Fexible pavement is created from a mixture of materials that are pressed or


glued together to give them their strength. Paved roads are typically either
flexible or rigid depending on the conditions of the road and the area around it.
To understand a flexible pavement, it's important to understand how pavement
works.
When a road needs to be paved, it must be tested first to see what type of
materials will work the best. The surrounding area and environment is
examined to determine how strong or weak the ground is, how likely it is to
wash away during rain, and how it will react to the pressure of traffic. The
amount of traffic on the road is considered as well. A road with little traffic
doesn't need to be reinforced as much as a road with high levels of traffic.
Next, a pavement type is decided on. Pavement has a top layer which the cars
drive over and a base layer that supports the top layer and protects it from
wearing down. An additional layer may be added between the two for more
strength and protection. The top layer is either rigid or flexible.
To create a flexible pavement, small stone pieces are crushed up and either
pressed together or mixed with a glue-like material known as bitumen. The
bitumen is heated to about 300 degrees Fahrenheit (150 degrees Celsius)
before the stone is added. Machines then lay the mixture onto the road,
creating the pavement the cars drive on.

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FAILURE OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 2014

The cost of pavement maintenance is normally considered in direct terms the


indirect cost of inadequate maintenance is measured in terms of public
inconvenience, fuel usage, vehicle
maintenance, and road safety. These costs are not insignificant and add weight
to the need for timely and proper pavement maintenance.
Patching must be done promptly and properly it requires skill, close
supervision, and good quality patching materials.

In this way load transfer mechanism occurs. Almost 90% pavements are flexible
pavements. Therefore, flexible pavements are only placed where underlying
strata has good load bearing capacity properties. In case when underlying strata
lacks load-bearing capacity then we go for rigid pavement, because rigid
pavements not depend on the properties of underlying strata.

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