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ESP SYSTEM APPLICATIONS

High volume lift requirements (>300 BPD)


A variety of well types including highly deviated or non-
vertical wellbores
Waterfloods or high water-cut wells
With proper trim, can handle small quantities of H2S, CO2,
and abrasives
Well testing operations
Mature waterfloods
Abrasive, gassy, viscous fluids
Advantages
High volume and depth capacity
High efficiency over 1,000 BPD
Low maintenance
Minimal surface equipment requirements
High resistance to corrosive downhole
environments
Use in deviated wells and vertical wells
with doglegs
Adaptable to wells with 4 1/2" casing or
large

SUBMERSIBLE ELECTRIC MOTORS

The submersible electric motor is the prime mover for an electric


submersible pumping system. Weatherfords Submersible Electric Motor
is a two-pole, three-phase induction motor that operates at 3,500 rpm at
60 Hertz or 2,900 rpm at 50 Hertz. These rugged motors are offered in a
wide range of horsepower ratings, operating voltages, special insulating
materials for high temperature applications, and high efficiency motor
configurations. Available for installation in casing sizes 4-1/2 inch and
larger, Weatherford submersible electric motors have become an
industry standard to help provide solutions to unique applications.
The motor windings, laminations and rotor assemblies are enclosed in a carbon steel
tubular housing with carbon steel heads and bases. For extremely corrosive
environments, motor housings, head and bases are available in stainless steel materials.
In less severe conditions, an application of flame sprayed coatings on the outer surfaces
of the carbon steel is recommended. Every motor is subjected to a battery of tests to
confirm electrical integrity, idle performance, and bearing system performance.

Key Features
Rotors mounted on and keyed to a high strength steel shaft
High-grade bronze sleeves and bushings
High-strength 4130 alloy steel motor shafts
High-load/high-temperature thrust bearings available
Purest copper used for stator windings and rotor bars
Magnet wire insulated with two wraps of bonded Kapton tape

Key Benefits
Ability to increase horsepower by increasing the number of rotors or connecting
multiple motors in tandem
Minimal vibration from the dynamically balanced rotors
Continuous oil film lubrications due to lubricating grooves and oil holes in
bearings
Full flow of oil to internal bearings with hollow motor shaft
Secured winding package
Performance tests conducted in winding process
Confirmation testing of electrical integrity, idle performance and bearing system
performance on every motor
Dynamometer testing to confirm performance at full-rated load on request

MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


Weatherford Multistage Centrifugal Pumps consist of stages that house
rotating impellers and stationary diffusers constructed of corrosion-
resistant high-nickel iron. The impeller is mounted on a shaft made of
either Nitronic 50 or other high-strength corrosion-resistant nickel
based alloy or stainless steel.

Due to the limited well casing diameter, the lift or head developed by
an individual stage is relatively low. This requires stages to be stacked
together to meet the lift requirements for various applications.

A centrifugal pump should be operated within the recommended


capacity range. If operated outside its designed rate, the pump can go
into up or down thrust, which may result in excessive wear of the
thrust washers. These ranges vary with different pumps.

These multistage pumps may be assembled as a floater or fixed-impeller compression


pump design depending on how the axial thrust of the pump is handled.

Floater Pump Design - The impellers are free to move axially along the shaft. Thrust
washers installed on the impeller support the axial thrust of each impeller.

Compression Pump Design - The impeller position is fixed to prevent axial movement
along the shaft. Since the axial thrust of each impeller is transferred through the shaft to
the thrust bearing located in the seal section below the pump, no down thrust washers
are used. A thrust bearing in the seal section supports the weight of the shaft and the
down thrust generated by the pressure acting on the end of the shaft.

Radially Stabilized Pump - For severe duty applications such as abrasive fluids and
when extended run life is desired.

Key Features
Bolt-on or integral heads and bases available
Corrosion-resistant stainless steel available
Impellers and diffusers cast from high-nickel iron
Stainless steel or other high-strength corrosion-resistant nickel based alloy Shaft

Key Benefits
Ability to configure pump as a floater or fixed impeller compression pump
Wide variety of corrosion resistant materials to address varying wellbore criteria
Extended run life when utilizing the RS Pump
Ability to join several pump sections to support multiple head requirements

SEAL SECTION

Weatherford Seal Sections create a mechanical fluid-tight seal to protect


the ESP Motor and provide an oil reservoir and thrust-handling device for
thrust forces created by the pump.

In addition to the traditional labryinth-style seal, tandem configurations,


high-load, elastomeric bags, and radially stabilized options are available.
All seals are tested and vacuum filled with oil at the factory.

High-load Seal Sections are equipped with tilting pad, high-capacity


thrust bearings.

As a part of the Abrasion Resistant System, the AR Seal is specially


engineered and manufactured for radial stability; a key factor in
minimizing pump or intake induced vibrations that reduce seal and motor
life.

Key Features
Carbon/ceramic and silicon carbide mechanical shaft seals with
either stainless steel or monel trim and spring
Viton, Aflas, and other special compounds available for seal
bellows, o-rings, and expansion bags
Seals can be used in tandem configurations for increased motor protection
Largest diameter shaft available in the industry (AR Seals)
Minimum unsupported shaft lengths on one-piece shafts (AR Seals)
All AR Seals are equipped with radially stabilized bearings

Key Benefits
Equalizes pressure inside the motor with the wellbore pressure
Eliminates the pressure differential across shaft seals
Provides compensation for the expansion and contraction of motor oil due to
heating and cooling of the motor when the unit is running or shut down

INTAKES/GAS SEPARATORS

Weatherford offers several intake configurations to provide operators the


flexibility to customize ESP systems to known well conditions. The Intake
Section emulates a suction manifold feeding the well fluid to the pump
impeller eye. Depending on well conditions, it can be in the form of a
simple adapter with inlet holes or a gas separator. Standard Intakes
perform satisfactorily in most wells, but for those wells with high gas/oil
ratio (GOR) and low bottomhole pressure, either a Rotary Gas Separator
or, for extreme conditions, an Extra-Capacity Gas Handling Separator to
replace the intake section is available.

The Rotary Gas Separator


The Rotary Gas Separator is based on the principle of the separation of
particles of different densities under the action of centrifugal forces. In
this design, a rotating field of centrifugal force is created. The separated
gas is vented through the gas port to the annular space while the
remaining fluid enters the pump impeller eye by way of the liquid port.

Extra-Capacity Gas Handling Separator


This Separator System consists of two Rotary Gas Separators operating
in tandem with the Extra-Capacity Gas Handling Separator Compressor.
The compressor is positioned between the separators and the pump. The compressor
reduces the amount of free gas by pressurizing the fluid and breaking large bubbles into
much smaller ones. This results in a mixture that does not permit excessive free gas to
collect in the electric submersible pump, eliminating the cause of gas locking. The Extra-
Capacity Gas Handling Separator may be used by itself for operations having lower
tandem gas separators.

Key Features
Abrasion-resistant RS bearings for extended bearing life
Stainless steel and dynamically balanced rotating assembly
Advanced gas compression chamber for Extra-Capacity Gas Handling Separator
Systems

Key Benefits
Superior shaft stability 3 bearing system
Tighter control of the finished product than is possible with older cast parts
Increased pump ability to handle excessive gas resulting in steadier and
significantly increased production in Extra-Capacity Gas Handling Separator
Systems
Prevention of gas locking and equipment cycling in Extra-Capacity Gas Handling
Separator Systems
Significantly increased equipment runtimes in Extra-Capacity Gas Handling
Separator Systems

WELL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SURFACE CONTROLLER

The Well Management System consists of a Well Management Surface


Controller, which incorporates a motor starter, a motor protection
system and a microprocessor. The microprocessor controls surface
actuators located in a customers' flow lines, therefore maximizing the
wells capabilities. The complete system offers a self contained
alternative to variable speed drives, without introducing harmonics.
Utilizing a wells natural conditions, combined with the capabilities of
the Well Management System, customers are offered a range of adaptations with any
form of artificial lift requiring surface controls. Simply put, this unit automatically
controls fluid levels, as set by an operator, and does not require a variable speed drive.

The Well Management System is compatible with any existing communication system,
and can be fully automated for either remote or wellsite operations.

VARIABLE FREQUENCY CONTROLLERS

Weatherford Variable Frequency Controllers (VFC) are available up to 1,000 KVA, 480
volt 60 Hertz/380 volt 50 Hertz primary power. During production, the variable
frequency drive controls flow rates from the well while avoiding pump-off and cycling
problems. By providing soft-start capability the Weatherford VFC prolongs the life of
drive components as opposed to "across the lines" startup used by other systems.
Programming and trouble shooting are simplified with easy access to all components
through the front of the drive.

The Variable Frequency Controller unit is transistorized, eliminating communication


circuits. The input MOV, input line filters, split bus choke design, output line filters, and
motor contactors are the standard components responsible for the built-in transient,
current protection and reduced harmonics.

Key Features
Output contactor provides positive disconnecting of the motor from drive
Microsecond response of the drive circuitry to fault conditions
Safe shutdown Inducers
A wave-form more suitable to long motor life with the provision of output
inductors
Output transistors that are more efficient than SCR designs

Key Benefits
Flexibility of pump range
Cleaner power downhole
Controls fluid levels and "free" gas at intake

SWITCHBOARD CONTROL PANELS

Switchboard control panels from Weatherford are designed to


protect the pumping system from malfunctions and premature
failures by shutting it down or preventing starts until it is safe.
Panels are weatherproof and available in a range of sizes and
accessories. Panels can be simple units with push button
magnetic contacts and overload protection to more complex
assemblies with fused disconnects, recording ammeters,
underload and overload protection signal lights, timer for
automatic restarts and instruments for automatic remote
control.

The NEMA-type enclosure is welded 12-gage steel and provides motor protection, ease
of access and allows for the installation of accessories. Drip shields over the doors,
lifting lugs, vacuum contactors and an inside door that isolates the high-voltage and
low-voltage compartments are standard features. The inside door has a dual thickness
safety glass window for visual inspection without opening the high voltage door.

Several motor controller systems including the Vortex and Eliminator are available to
enhance overall performance.

Numerous protection and efficiency features are included with Variable Frequency
Controllers and Switchboard Control Panels.

Key Features
Output contactor provides positive disconnecting of the motor from drive
Microsecond response of the drive circuitry to fault conditions
Safe shutdown Inducers
A wave-form more suitable to long motor life with the provision of output
inductors
Output transistors that are more efficient than SCR designs

Key Benefits
Flexibility of pump range
Cleaner power downhole
Controls fluid levels and "free" gas at intake

TESTING TECHNOLOGY AND SERVICES

Weatherford offers an extensive ESP Testing Program


designed to reduce operator repair and replacement
expenditures. Test procedures and instruments conform to
the Hydraulic Institute Standards, IEEE 1017-1985
acceptance test, IEEE motor test standards, and API
recommended practices and standards. By employing the
latest in variable frequency controllers and downhole
pressure and fluid level devices. Weatherford can also test
your well to determine producitivity as well as economic
viability.

Computerized Cable Testing


During this test, high voltage is applied to each conductor while a computer accurately
monitors the leakage current to detect any defects or weakness in the insulation.
Conductor resistance is also measured. The electrical results of the tests are stored in
the computer database for future refernce. The condition of new, used or repaired cable
can be evaluated, and cable condition and history tracked from well to well. Many
expensive cable failures can be prevented by cable testing prior to use. Cable is tested
to IEEE 1017-1985 acceptance test for new cable.

Motor Testing
Testing the insulation and winding systems of submersible electric motors determines
the electrical integrity of the prime mover. Reductions in new motor start-up failures and
extended motor runlife are often the result of performance inspections of the electrical
and thrust-bearing assemblies. Dry-out service is performed for wet motors without
disassembling the motor. This process is designed to eliminate any possible defect in
reassembly. Minor repairs and maintenance services ensure integrity before returning to
the field. Motor tests conform to IEEE standards.

Pump Testing
Cleaning and testing services provide an inexpensive means of determining the condition
and performance of any brand of submersible pump. To validate pump performance
characteristics, all new pumps are tested to the original manufacturer's published data.
This process assists the operator in determining whether the pump should be re-run or
returned to the manufacturer for repair and exchange.

Seal Testing
Typically, seal sections are replaced after every use. By employing this testing
procedure, operators can make more accurate decisions on the true condition of the
piece of equipment. A seal that has passed this series of tests can be returned to service
with a high level of confidence. The cost of a test is minimal in comparision with the
expense of a repaired unit.

Well Testing
Whether defining the production characteristics of a new well or evaluating an old one,
custom-designed test programs provide an accurate test and proper equipment selection
to optimize the production potential of every well. A complete test unit is designed and
delivered to produce in a predetermined range of volumes. Static pressures and fluid
levels are recorded before startup. Production rates are recorded at several speeds or
frequencies, and an IPR curve is developed for the well. Economic evaluations are
provided to the operator upon request

ACCESSORIES

High-Voltage Junction Boxes


The weatherproof, vented junction box provides a convenient and safe method of
connecting the downhole cable to the surface cable from the switchboard. Venting the
power cable between the motor controller and wellhead prevents the possible ignition of
gas that may migrate up the cable.

Transformers
Weatherford provides single-phase transformers, three-phase transformers and three-
phase auto transformers to transform the required supply voltage to the motor. These
oil-filled self-cooled units have taps for voltage adjustment. They are equipped with
lightning arresters and capacitors that reduce the possibility of severe damage to the
motor from power surges caused by lightning or line switching.

Downhole Pressure Sensors


Weatherford offers pressure sensors that provide operators a
constant, reliable reading of the intake pressure and temperature at
the pump. Digital and hard copy printouts to capture this data are
available.

Wellheads and Connectors


Low-pressure and high-pressure wellheads with flange connectors
can be provided for any installation, meeting all safety and
environmental requirements.

Power Cables
Power is transmitted from the surface controller to the submersible
motor by electric cable, which is critical to the entire system
efficiency and reliability. Weatherford offers a complete portfolio of
cables in a wide range of conductor sizes to permit an efficient
match to motor requirements. Cables may be installed in wells with
temperatures in excess of 300F (150C) dependent upon the type of insulation being
used.

Both round cable, which is recommended under normal conditions, and flat cable when
clearance could be a potential problem are available. Cable clamps or bands secure the
cable along the pump and tubing. Flat Cable extensions or motor lead cables connect
the power cable to the motor.
Other accessories include check valves, bleeder valves and tubing hangers.