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A CASE STUDY OF MTPS, DVC

OPTIMUM CONDENSER PRESSURE FOR


BETTER TURBINE OPERATION AND
PERFORMANCE WITH REDUCTION IN GHG

Damodar Valley Corporation


Presented by :
1. Dr. Jagannath Munda, Sr. Divisional Engineer (Mechanical)
2. Mr. Arjunlal Mandal, Sr. Divisional Engineer (Mechanical)
3. Ms. Kalyani Pyne, Executive Engineer (Electrical)
4. Mr. Sumit Anand, Executive Engineer (Mechanical)
POWER GENERATING INSTALLATIONS
THERMAL POWER STATIONS & HYDEL POWER STATIONS
Bokaro TPS-A
Koderma TPS
BokaroB TPS Maithon DAM
MPL, JV

Tilaiya DAM
Durgapur TPS

KONAR DAM Durgapur STPS

BPSCL, JV

Chandrapura TPS Panchet DAM

Mejia TPS

Raghunathpur TPS Ph-I &


II
GENERATION CAPACITY:COMMISSIONED
Type of Power Station Capacity (MW)
Thermal Power Mejia TPS 2340 (4X210+2X250+2x500)
(DVC)
Bokaro TPS B 630 (3X210)
(Commissioned
Units) Chandrapura TPS 890 (3X130+2x250)
Durgapur TPS 350 (1X140+1X210)
DSTPS 1000 (2x 500)
KTPS 1000 (2x 500)
Total Thermal 6210
Hydel Power Maithon Hydel Station 63.2 (2X20 + 1x23.2)
(DVC)
Panchet Hydel Station 80 (2X40)
Tilaiya Hydel Station 4 (2X2)
Total Hydel 147.2
Total DVC Generation Capacity 6357.2
Thermal(JV) BPSCL 338

MPL 1050 (2x 525)

Total DVC Generation Capacity including JV 7745.2


GENERATION CAPACITY:COMMISSIONED
Name of Thermal Power Station Dt. Of Unit
Station commission Capacity (MW)

Unit # 1 Dec.1997 210

Mejia Thermal Power Unit # 2 Mar.1999 210


Station
Unit # 3 Sep.1999 210
Durlavpur, Bankura, West
Bengal
Unit # 4 Feb.2005 210
2340 = (4X210+2X250+2x500)
MW Unit # 5 Feb.2008 250

Unit # 6 Sep.2008 250

Unit # 7 Aug.2011 500

Unit # 8 Aug.2012 500


INTRODUCTION
The electricity generated from TPP constitutes 68.14 % of total generation. Indias
present total installed capacity is 308834.28MW out of which 214003.90MW is
thermal and majority of which 187802.88MW is coal fired.
Modified Rankine Cycle is used in thermal power
plant.

Inefficient cyclic operation produce more


greenhouse gases

India ranks fourth among the top emitter of greenhouse gases and contributes
6.96% of the total emission.

By adopting best practices in operation through energy and exergy analysis


specific coal consumption can be reduced.
This study is being carried out by analysing the data of 500MW Mejia Thermal
Power Plant, DVC at different condenser pressures .
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF 500MW TPP

CV
Theory
The control volumes on which analyses have been done are clearly marked by dotted line
in schematic diagram. In the present analysis, the turbine heat rate and total exergy at
turbine inlet in a control volume is evaluated as below.

STEAM I/L TO
CONTROL VOLUME (TURBINE + GEN OUT PUT
TURBINE
GENERATOR) (MW)
(HP+IP)
TURBINE HEAT RATE CALCULATION

Turbine Heat rate (THR) is commonly used to measure the turbine efficiency in a
steam power plant. It is defined as "the energy input to turbine (in Kcal) divided by the
electricity power generated, (in kW). Heat rate is simply the inverse of efficiency.

Turbine Heat Rate (THR)

= (Heat Added to Feed Water + Heat added to SH Attemperation + Heat Added


CRH + Heat added to RH Attemperation) /(Unit load)

mfw (h1 h11) + msh_spray (h1-h11)+m2 (h3 - h2 )+ mrh_spray(h3-h18)


= -------------------------------------------------------------------- Eqn1
Unit Load

There are two provision of SH attemperation:


a) HPH out let,
b) Kicker stage of boiler feed pump.
Calculation of Reheat Steam Flow
CRH flow is calculated as follow:
CRH Flow (m2) = Steam Flow (m1) Extraction Steam Flow (m19) to HPH - HPT
Leak Off Steam flow ..Eqn2
a) Leak off steam flow derived from design leak off flow as per load from HBD.
b) Extraction flow to all HP Heaters having extraction from HP Turbine exhaust to be
considered for computing CRH Flow.
Calculation of Extraction Steam Flow in HPH#6A/6B
mfw (h11 h20) + m21h21
(m2) = ------------------------------ ..Eqn3
(h19 h21)

Exergy calculation at turbine inlet


The specific thermo-mechanical exergy (neglecting kinetic and potential energy) is
evaluated from the following equation:

ej=(hj h0) T0(sj s0) ..Eqn4

where, ej: specific exergy, hj: Enthalpy at jth state, h0: enthalpy at zero state or
atmospheric condition, T0: temperature enthalpy at zero state or atmospheric
condition, sj: Specific entropy at jth state,
s0:Entropy at zero state or atmospheric condition.
The total rate of exergy in a stream is obtained from its specific value as

Total exergy, E j = mj e j Eqn5


Where, mj: mass flow rate.
VARIATION OF TURBINE HEAT RATE WITH LOAD

Turbine heat rate decreases with increase in load. At lower load throttling loss
increases due to lesser steam flow into the turbine. Turbine inlet steam pressure
decreases at lower load, causes entropy generation or exergy destruction.
Four different sets of data at the maximum unit load in different
condenser pressure have been collected and tabulated in table 1.
Parameters Value Value Value Value
Condenser pr(ksc) 0.0640 0.0717 0.0810 0.1030
Load(MW) 502.60 500.35 500.51 502.00
Main Steam Pr -R (ksc) 174.9 174.6 174.16 175.8
Main Steam Pr -L (ksc) 174.9 174.6 174.16 175.8
Main Steam Temp -R (oC) 540.5 538.8 537.16 533.48
Main Steam Temp -L (oC) 540.5 538.8 537.16 533.48
Main Steam Flow (TPH) 1608 1604.3 1604.63 1632
Feedwater Flow(TPH) 1611 1602.2 1595.37 1653
FW Temp. HPH #5A inlet(oC) 168 168.1 168.7 168.09
FW Temp. HPH #5B inlet(oC) 168 168 168.56 168.5
FW Temp. HPH #5A Outlet(oC) 208.5 208.5 208.97 209
FW Temp. HPH #5B Outlet(oC) 209 209.1 209.63 209.6
FW Temp. HPH #6A Outlet(oC) 256 257.2 257.4 257
FW Temp.HPH #6B Outlet(oC) 259.2 259.5 259.77 259

FW Pr. HPH #5 Inlet(ksc) 203 201.5 201.65 204


FW Pr.HPH #6 Inlet(ksc) 202 199.5 200 204
HPH #5A drain Temp(oC) 176.2 176.3 176.58 176.4
HPH #5B drain Temp(oC) 176.2 176.7 177.13 177
HPH #6A drain Temp(oC) 215.5 216.1 216.26 217
HPH #6B drain Temp(oC) 216 216.4 216.52 217
HPH #5A Ext Steam Temp(oC) 404.6 403.7 410.01 401.4
HPH #5B Ext Steam Temp(oC) 404.6 403.6 409.97 401
HPH #6A Ext Steam Temp(oC) 351.8 350.2 353.5 346
HPH #6B Ext Steam Temp(oC) 351 349.5 352.73 345.6
HPH #5A Ext Steam Pr(ksc) 17.6 17.9 17.84 17.6
HPH #5B Ext Steam Pr(ksc) 17.8 18.1 18.08 17.8
HPH #6A Ext Steam Pr(ksc) 45.6 45.8 45.53 46.2
HPH #6B Ext Steam Pr(ksc) 45.5 45.9 45.48 46.15
CRH Steam pr.(R)(ksc) 46.18 46.9 46.22 47
CRH Steam pr.(L)(ksc) 46.18 46.9 46.22 47
CRH Steam Temp.(R) (oC) 359.2 357.7 361.29 353.7
CRH Steam Temp.(L) (oC) 359.2 357.7 361.29 353.7
HRH Steam pr.(R)(ksc) 45.03 45.3 44.99 45.76
HRH Steam pr.(L)(ksc) 45.03 45.3 44.99 45.76
HRH Steam Temp.(R)(oC) 529.3 526.3 534.16 523.4
HRH Steam Temp.(L)(oC) 528.6 526.8 534.13 523.86
SH spray water flow (TPH) 9.17 27.8 38 17
SH spray water Temp(oC) 240 250.5 251.8 251
SH spray water pr.(ksc) 198.7 198.3 197.37 200
EFFECT OF CONDENSER PRESSURE ON TURBINE HEAT RATE AT FULL LOAD

Turbine heat rate decreases with decrease in condenser pressure as cycle efficiency increases. It
became minimum at 0.078 kg/cm2. With further decrease in condenser pressure, exit turbine loss
increases, as steam from last stage of LP turbine is directly damped into the condenser without
doing any useful work.

Sl. No. Unit load: 500MW


Condenser
Turbine Heat
Pressure
Rate (Kcal/kwh)
(Kg/cm2)
1. 0.0640 2028
2. 0.0717 2020
3. 0.0801 2015
4. 0.1030 2042
Table:2

Figure-4
EFFECT OF CONDENSER PRESSURE ON TOTAL EXERGY AT TURBINE INLET
TO GENERATE 500MW

At design condenser pressure, i.e., at 0.1033 kg/cm2 total exergy requirement at turbine inlet is
maximum and decreases with reduction in condenser pressure due to improvement in working
cycle efficiency. It became minimum at around 0.078 kg/cm2 and again increases with further
reduction in condenser pressure as exit steam loss increases.

Sl. Unit load: 500MW


N Unit Total
Condenser
load Exergy at
o. Pressure
Turbine
(Kg/cm2)
Inlet (Kcal)
1 500MW 0.0640 9453750.4
2 500MW 0.0717 9417284.9
3 500MW 0.0801 9401233.7
4 500MW 0.1030 9534858.2
Table:3

Fig.5
EFFECT OF CONDENSER PRESSURE ON THR WITH AT 380MW UNIT LOAD.
SL. NO. Unit load: 380MW
Turbine Heat
Condenser Pressure Rate
(kg/cm2) (Kcal/Kwh)
1 0.0465 2050
2 0.0563 2045
3 0.0669 2056
4 0.0853 2082
Tab.:4
2085
2080 THR decreases with increase
Turbine heat rate (Kcal/Kwh)

2075 in condenser pressure. THR


2070 became minimum at around
2065 0.055 kg/cm2 cond. Pr. THR
2060 increases with further
2055 reduction in condenser
2050 pressure as exit steam velocity
2045 increases and steam is
2040 damped into the condenser
0.04 0.06 0.08
Condenser pressure (kg/cm2 )
0.1 without doing any useful work.

Fig.:6
INFLUENCE OF CONDENSER PRESSURE ON TURBINE VIBRATION

Influence of condenser pressure on turbine Influence of condenser pressure on turbine


vibration (at unit load: 380MW) vibration (at unit load: 500MW)
GHG EMISSION REDUCTION
THR improvement by optimising condenser pressure is
directly related to reduction in greenhouse gas emission.
At 0.103 kg/cm2 cond. pressure THR was obtained
2042 Kcal/Kwh.
At 0.0801 kg/cm2 THR obtained 2015 kcal /kwh.

Deviation in HR=(2042-2015)= 27Kcal/kwh

Total Energy saved in a year if unit is considered to run 365*24 days in full load
with 34% plant efficiency,
=500*365*24*1000*27/0.34= 347823529411.76 Kcal

Average GCV of coal=3600 Kcal/Kg.


So total coal saving in a year =96617647.06 kg =96617.64706 ton, considering
42.8 % of carbon by weight in 1 kg of coal.

CO2 emitted by burning 1kg of coal=(mol wt. of CO2/mol wt of


Carbon)*percentage of carbon by wt in per kg of coal = (44/12)*0.428=1.498kg
So total CO2 emission reduction = 144733.24 ton/year.
CONCLUSION
The country is committed to the development of clean coal technology
applications to mitigate climate impacts in a way that is consistent with
sustainable development.
Power generators have wide latitude in designing their strategies to reduce
emissions. Viable means for substantially reducing specific CO2 emissions from
coal-fired power generations need to be developed and widely adopted by
implementing best practices in operation.
Through our study, by adopting best practices in operation at MTPS through
energy and exergy analysis at different condenser pressures, specific coal
consumption got reduced, and hence total CO2 emission reduced to
144733.24 ton/year.
This study also analyze the effect of condenser pressure on turbine health in
terms of TG vibration and optimum value has been found out for lower TG
vibration.
Exergy and energy analysis to be carried out at site to re-optimise the various
influential parameters for better efficiency and finally to mitigate global
climate change through reduction in GHG emission.