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ANCIENT OLYMPIC GAMES

BACKGROUND

Ancient Greece was the birthplace of the Ancient Olympic Games.


A series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states
of Ancient Greece.
One of the Pan-hellenic games of Ancient Greece.
Held in honor of Zeus, King of the Gods.
Began in 776 BC in Olympia.
Celebrated every four (4) years until the emperor Theodosius I
opposed them as part of the movement Christianity being the state
religion of Rome in 394 AD.
An Olympic Truce was made so that athletes could travel from their
countries to the destined place of the games safely.
Prizes for the victors were olive leaf wreaths or crowns.
Can be used as a political tool used by city-states to assert
dominance over their rivals.
Ancient Olympic Games have fewer games than todays Modern
Olympic Games.
Only freeborn Greek men were allowed to participate.
Games were always held at Olympia.
The games were always held at Olympia rather than alternating to
different locations as is the tradition with the modern Olympic Games.
Victors at the Olympics were honored, and their feats chronicled for
future generations

OLIMPIA

CRADLE OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES


Sports competitions were organised at Olympia and were named
after their location, hence their name of Olympic Games. Nobody
knows exactly when they began, but the first written mention of the
competitions is dated to 776 BC.
This games were held every four years and this 4 year period system
was called OLYMPIAD
Ancient Olympics were based on a philosophy of balance between
physical/athletic and spiritual/moral development
Olympia is consisted of a sacred area called the ALTIS and a
SECULAR area
The sacred area contains the temple of Zeus where the statue of
zeus was located and the Treasuries where they keep the offerings
The secular area contains the gymnasium, palaestra, stadium, and
hippodrome

A sacred/Olympic truce was also proclaimed during the Panhellenic


games (Games for the Gods)

The Panhellic games


ORIGIN

The Olympic Games originated in ancient Greece. The Games were


a direct outgrowth of the values and beliefs of Greek society.
The Greeks idealized physical fitness and mental discipline, and they
believed that excellence in those areas honored Zeus, the greatest of
all their gods.

Myths:

According to the Greek historian, Pausanias, Herakles and four of


his brothers (Paeonaeus, Epimedes, Iasius and Idas) raced to
Olympia to entertain the newborn Zeus. Zeus would crown the
victor with an olive tree wreath (symbolizing peace). The other
Olympian Gods would also engage in wrestling, jumping, and
running contest

Pelops Myth

Pelops was a prince from Lydia in Asia Minor who sought the hand
of Hippodamia, the daughter of King Oinomaos of Pisa
King Oinomaos challenged pelops in a chariot race, if pelops wins
he can marry Hippodamia but if he loose he will be beheaded
Pelops devised a plan to beat Oinomaos and secretly change the
linch pins of the chariot of the king
When the king was about to win the linch pins melted and he
crushed and died
Pelops and Hippodamia instituted the olympic games in honor of
his victory and for the father of Hippodamia

Hercules Myth

On the fifth labor of hercules, had to clean the stables of King Augeas
of Elis
Hercules approached Augeas and promised to clean the stables for
the price of one-tenth of the king's cattle, but after finishing his labors
Augeas didnt fulfill his promise
So Hercules waged a war against Augeas and destroyed the city of
elis then he instituted the olympics in honor of his father zeus
It is said that hercules was the one that teach men how to wrestle,
measure the stadium ant the length of the footrace

Culture

The ancient Olympics were also religious as the same time athletic.
In the middle day of the games, 100 oxen were to be sacrificed to
Zeus.
Artistic competitions were also promoted on ancient Olympics.
Myrons Diskobolos or Discus Thrower were one of the famous
sculpture in ancient Olympics.
The aim of Diskobolos was to highlight natural human movement and
the shape of the muscles and the body.

Games During Ancient Olympic

The games were one of the two central rituals in ancient Greece, the
other being the much older religious festival, the Eleusinian
Mysteries.
The first games began as an annual foot race of young women in
competition for the position of the priestess for the Goddess Hera.
A second race was instituted for a consort for the priestess who
would participate in the religious traditions of the temple
The Heraea games were the first recorded competition for women.
The Heraea games were originally composed of foot races only.
To be in the games, the athletes had to qualify and have their names
written on the lists.
It seems though that only young men were allowed to participate.
Before participating, every participants should take an oath in front of
the status of Zeus, stating that he had been training for ten months.
The diaulos, or two-stade race, was introduced in 724 BC.
The dolichos, or three-stade race, was introcued in 720 BC.
The last running event to be added was the hoplitodromos or
hoplite race
Other events was added including boxing, wrestling, pankration,
chariot racing, pentathlon (consists of wrestling, stadion , long jump,
javelin throw, and discus throw.
MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES

Olympic Rings

The five rings that make up the Olympic symbol represent the union
of continents and the meeting of athletes from all over the world
during the Games. They symbolize the universality of the Olympic
Movement.

Torch Relay

The torch relay creates a link between the Ancient Olympic Games
and the modern Olympic Games.
Several months before the opening of the Games, the Olympic flame
is kindled in Olympia, in Greece.
The flame is then carried by the Olympic torch in a relay to the city
that is hosting the Games.

The Olympic Motto

The Olympic motto consists on three Latin words: CITIUS, ALTIUS,


FORTIUS
Which means: FASTER, HIGHER, STRONGER

Rewards

In the ancient Pan-hellenic Games, victors were rewarded with


wreaths of olive, celery, laurel or pine.
In the modern Olympic Games, the three best athletes in each event
are honored with medals of gold, silver or bronze.

Participating in Olympic Games

In order to participate in the Olympic Games, athletes must comply


with the Olympic Charter and follow the rules of the International
Federation.
Athletes Home

The majority of the athletes live in the Olympic Village.

The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st
centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games.
Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Games
for ice and winter sports.
The Paralympic Games for athletes with disability; and the
Youth Olympic Games for teenage athletes.