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of Liquids

Data & Results : 3

ρw = 1000Kg/m

Barometric Pressure: ……………………… mmHg ρl= Sl X ρw

Temperature: ………………………………. °C 3

Density of steel ρs = 7.8 g/cm

Measures Diameter of balls: …………….mm, ………….mm, …………mm

Density & Specific Gravity:

Liquid Scale reading = Liquid density , ρl

specific gravity, Sl

Water

Engine Oil

Glycerol

corn Oil

Viscosity :

Water

Time , T Travel Falling

Ball Distance , velocity µ(pa.sec) ʋ=µ/ ρl

Min sec 2

Diameter L (m) U= L/T (m /sec)

(m/sec)

Average

Viscosity

velocity µ(pa. T Travel Falling Ball Distance .sec) ʋ=µ/ ρl min sec 2 Diameter L (m) U= L/T (m /sec) (m/sec) Average Viscosity . velocity µ(pa.sec) ʋ=µ/ ρl Min sec 2 Diameter L (m) U= L/T (m /sec) (m/sec) Average Viscosity Glycerol Time . velocity µ(pa. T Travel Falling Ball Distance .sec) ʋ=µ/ ρl Min sec 2 Diameter L (m) U= L/T (m /sec) (m/sec) Average Viscosity Corn Oil Time . T Travel Falling Ball Distance . Engine Oil Time .

N 5 Absolute Difference between row 3 & row 4 6 Depth of center of Pressure (Ycp ) . N 4 Theoretical Force (FT) . gm 2 Depth of water (y) .Experiment #2 : Hydrostatic Force and center of Pressure on a Plane Surface : Data & Results : Case 1 :Partially Immersed : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Total weight on arm (m) . N 4 Theoretical Force (FT) . mm 3 Practical Force (FP) . mm 3 Practical Force (FP) . gm 2 Depth of water (y) . mm Case 2 :Fully Immersed : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Total weight on arm (m) . N 5 Absolute Difference between row 3 & row 4 6 Depth of center of Pressure (Ycp ) . mm .

. Does the derivation of equation of the static forces depend on whether the fluid is viscous or not ? Explain briefly. at what depth do you think your results become more accurate . answer the following Questions : 1.How this affects your Results ? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 5. 3... By examining the equation : Ycp = y + ∗ Which is deeper: the center of pressure or the center of area? …………………………………………………………………………………………. the water surface was inclined by x° from the horizontal . What is the effect of water depth on the distance between center of pressure and center of area? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………. What is the maximum and minimum deference between raw (3) & raw (4) in the calculation tables . why they are omitted from the calculations ? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… . If because there is an error in leveling the apparatus . 4.. and why ? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Even there are surfaces other than the torrid rectangular surface are affected by hydrostatic forces ... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.

y= Depth of water a= the distance between the Pivot and the top of Rectangular surface (100mm) b= Width of Rectangular Plane (70mm) d= depth of rectangular Plane (100mm) L = Distance between the balance pan and the Pivot. )+ 2 2 12(y − ) 2 mgL= Fp *Ycp .6.3 mgL= Fp *Ycp Fully Immersed: Ft= Ɣw * b *d *(y .5* Ɣw *b*y Ycp = a+d . the Arm (28. Write down any other comments not included in the previous question ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………….2 ) Ycp = (y .5cm) Partially immersed: 2 Ft= 0.

= ………. = ………. A = ………………. m 3 Weight (m) Time (t) Flow (Q) Gravitational Momentum 3 Force (Fa) Force (Fm) ( g) (sec) (m /sec) (N) (N) Hemispherical Impact Surface (β = 180 ˚ ) Vol. Density of water. m Weight (m) Time (t) Flow (Q) Gravitational Momentum 3 Force (Fa) Force (Fm) ( g) (sec) (m /sec) (N) (N) Conical Impact Surface (β = 120 ˚ ) Vol. D =………. ρw = 1000 kg / m3 Nozzle Area.Experiment #3 : Impact of a jet Data & Results : Nozzle diameter.. = ………. Flat Impact Surface (β = 90 ˚ ) 3 Vol. m 3 Weight (m) Time (t) Flow (Q) Gravitational Momentum 3 Force (Fa) Force (Fm) ( g) (sec) (m /sec) (N) (N) .

draw the curves which show the relation between the gravitational force (Fa) vs. the momentum force (Fm) for each plate .(All curves on the same graph) .

5cm ) 2. Calculate the actual jet velocity when it hits the hemispherical cup taking into account the effect of gravity (height between the nozzle and the cup is 1. If the experiment is carried out carefully by changing the flow rate very slowly down to zero . What is the slope of the experimental gravitational force (mg) versus momentum force curve? What is the corresponding theoretical slope for each plate? get expected reasons for the difference between theoretical and actual values . What would be the effect on the calculated force if the diameter of water jet is +/-1 mm different from nozzle diameter? Note : Make error Propagation analysis or plug +/-1 mm in to the calculation 5.1. . Write down any other comments not included in the previous questions . 4. will gravitational force versus moment force curve pass through the origin . give reasons justifying your answer 3.

D/ʋ Laminar Transition Turbulent ..Experiment #4 :Osborne Reynolds Apparatus Data & Results : Internal diameter of visualization Pipe = 10 mm Temperature of water = ………………. ˚C Kinematic viscosity of water = ……………… m2/ sec Visualized Regime Reading # Measured volume Measured Time ( m3) (sec) 1 Laminar 2 3 1 Transition 2 3 1 Turbulent 2 3 Velocity Reynolds Visualized Flow(Q)=V/T Number Re Reading # 3 (u) = Q/A Regime m /sec (Re) = Average (m/sec ) u.

................................................................................................... Draw a fully developed laminar and turbulent velocity profile (pipe flow). explain the reasons? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........ b) Flow in a rectangular duct of cross section a x b? ………………....... Why do we use Reynolds number? .............................................................................. Compare the results obtained through calculations and observations........... D? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………......... 5................................................ Explain why they are different............................... ......... 3......... ............................................................................................. 1...................................................................... If not........ How is Reynolds number designed for: a) Flow in a circular pipe of diameter........ ................ ........................................................ State whether or not the results are reasonable.............. Is the Reynolds number obtained dependent on tube size or shape? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4...................................... 2.....................................................................................

how does the Reynolds number change with the flow increase ? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. which of the three regimens is the most adequate one if we want to obtain a fluid as homogeneous as possible ? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..308 15 1... why does the turbulent flow appear ? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8.897 30 0.. why we use vegetable dye in the experiment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11.. 5..804 35 0...727 40 0.142 20 1. 7...661 50 0.write down any other comments ? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Temperature ˚C 2 -6 Kinematic Viscosity .52 10 1.556 .... 6.007 25 0.. ʋ (m /Sec) * 10 5 1.

Of Section. Kinetic Head Reading Probe Velocity (P/у).. section. (V /(2g)). Experiment #5 : Bernoulli Theorem Demonstration Unit: Data & Results : Case 1 : converging flow Average flow rate (Qav ) = …………. Pitot Dia. (m) (mm) (m/s) Head). 2 (Theoretical (V = Q/A). Tube cross Head distance A (Practical No. + Piez. (m) "Manometer (m) Level" 1 2 3 4 5 6 . (m) Total (mm) (m2) Total Head). Piezometric Mean Head Kin.

section. Reading Tube cross Head distance Area (Practical No. Kinetic Head Probe Velocity (P/у). (m) "Manometer (m) Level" 1 2 3 4 5 6 plot the graph between total head from Bernoulli equation Vs total head from Probe reading for each case . comment on results . Pitot Dia. + Piez. Piezometric Mean Head Kin. (m) Total (mm) 2 (m ) Total Head).. . Case 2 : Diverging flow Average flow rate (Qav ) = …………. (m) (mm) (m/s) Head). (V2/(2g)). (Theoretical (V = Q/A). Of Section. Plot the graph between probe distance and pressure head for each case .

Mention the source of errors in the experiment. 3 – What is the relation between the pressure head and the cross section for both cases: divergence and convergence. 2. Show it by figures? 4.Search about common modern day applications of Bernoulli's Principle in real life.Write down any other comments not included in the previous question . 5. Discussion and Conclusion: 1 – Discuss the validity of Bernoulli's theorem.

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