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American

Student Book
Clive O xenden
C hristina Latham -Koenig

OXFORD

American
English File
Student Book 4
Clive Oxenden
Christina Latham-Koenig

OXJFORD
U N IV E R S IT Y PRESS

Paul Seligson and Clive Oxenden are the
original co-authors of English File 1 (pub. 1996)
and English File 2 (pub. 1997).

Grammar Vocabulary Pronunciation

4 Q QandA review: question formation guessing meaning intonation, stress, and rhythm
from context in questions

8 Q Do you believe it? auxiliary verbs; personality using a dictionary to check word stress;
the... the...* comparatives intonation and sentence rhythm

12 Q You're the doctor! present perfect (simple and illness and treatment consonant and vowel sounds
continuous)

16 C o llo q u ial English What does the future hold?
17 W ritin g An informal e-mail / letter

18 R e vie w s Check What do you remember? What can you do?

20 O National stereotypes: adjectives as nouns, clothes and fashion vowel sounds
truth or myth? adjective order

24 Q Air travel: the inside story narrative tenses, past perfect continuous; air travel irregular past forms
so/ such... that

28 Q Incredibly short stories adverbs and adverbial phrases confusing adverbs and word and sentence stress
adverbial phrases

32 C o llo q uial E n g lish Flying high

33 W r it in g A short story

34 Review & Check What do you remember? What can you do?

36 Q Theoneplacea passive (all forms),/fMsc/df/iof..., crime and punishment the letter u
burglar won't look he is thought to..., etc.

40 □ Stormy weather future perfect and future continuous weather vowel sounds

44 Q Taking a risk conditionals and future time clauses; expressions with M e sentence stress and rhythm
likely and probably

48 Co llo q uial E n g lish High risk?

49 W ritin g Expressing your opinion
50 R e vie w s Check What do you remember? What can you do?

52 Q Would you get out alive? unreal conditionals feelings sentence rhythm

56 □ How 1trained my husband pastmodals; verbs often confused reduced form of have
would rather, had better

60 Q Let your body do the verbs of the senses the body silent letters
talking

64 C o llo q u ia l English Stage and screen
65 W ritin g An article

66 R e vie w s Check What do you remember? What can you do?

big city uncountable.! structures after wish -ed/ -ing adjectives and related sentence rhythm verbs. etc 108 Q Tingo relative clauses prefixes word stress 112 C o llo q u ia l English Words 113 W ritin g "For and against" 114 R e v ie w s Check What do you remember? What can you do? . expressions with go 104 □ A test of honesty clauses of contrast and purpose... get used to sleep linking words 76 Q Breaking news reporting verbs. cities and towns word stress in multisyllable words have something done 92 G Eureka! quantifiers: all / every. plural. etc. the media word stress as 80 C o llo q u ia l English Music festivals 81 W ritin g Aformal letter 82 R e vie w s Check What do you remember? What can you do? 84 Q Speaking to the world articles collocation: word pairs sentence stress 88 Q Bright lights. be used to. whenever. science changing stress in word families 96 C o llo q u ia l English Great cities 97 W ritin g A report 98 Review S Check What do you remember? What can you do? 100 □ 1wish you w ou ld n 't. business and advertising changing stress in nouns and verbs whatever. and collective nouns. Grammar Vocabulary Pronunciation 68 Q The psychology of music gerunds and infinitives music ch and y 72 Q Counting sheep used to.

Come » person you don’t know very well. I am 5 feet. and b Put an X next to the questions above that you wouldn’t ask a I her debut album. f O p.132 Grammar Bank 1A. garlic. where would you go? 5 a question where the usual subject + auxiliary verb order Summer camp in Michigan. just the hours. A song will keep going around in my brain and keep me awake. 4 __________ do you prefer. W hich question is . Probably a housekeeper. that was so bad. A waitressing job where I had the breakfast shift..? I am too short. old star or an auxiliary verb.. 2 What do you most dislike about your appearance? W ho. make the question. 8 Who would you invite to your dream dinner party? 1 a question where an auxiliary verb has been added to All my friends and Keith Richards . Are there any questions that you Away with Me. It wasn't the job 3 a question that ends with a preposition. 1 inch (155 centimeters). and rhythm in questions 1 Q and A 1 GRAMMAR review: question formation a Complete the following questions with one or two question words Young star. 1 never has enough time for what he / she wants to do __ 3 Who would play you in the movie of your life? 2 has happy childhood memories ___ Maybe Christina Ricci. C review: question formation V guessing meaning from context P intonation. age 14. 5 probably doesn’t like waking up early s What's your favorite word? 6 is very proud of something __ "No. I had to go in at five in the morning." 7 says he / she is an insecure person ___ 6 Which living person do you most despise and why? 8 needs help in his / her daily life ___ No comment! 7 What single thing would improve the quality of your life? e In pairs. Find an example o f . look at questions 8-12 in the Lionel Richie interview. 4 a negative question. sold more would not even ask a good friend? W hich questions would you than 20 million copies expect to find in a magazine interview with a famous person? worldwide and won her c Read the two interviews.. the most personal the most boring the most original 1 Where would you like to live? Barcelona. 10 If you could go back in time. Every week the newspaper The Guardian chooses people 1 How much do you earn? who have been in the news recently and publishes a short 2 Are you married? interview with them called Q&A.. 11 How do you relax? A hot bath. 3 avoids answering one of the questions __ 4 What's your favorite smell? 4 feels guilty about something __ Onion. has been inverted to make the question. Her 11 __________ you ever said “I love you” and not meant it? half-sister is the musician 12 __________ did you vote for in the last election? Anoushka Shankar.? five Grammy Awards. The questionnaire often 3 __________ have you been studying English? includes fairly personal questions. stress. Read the rules and do the exercises... Norah is a singer-songwriter. 12 What keeps you awake at night? Music. d Read the interviews again and write N (Norah) or L (Lionel).1think he'd be great at a dinner party. and butter cooking in a pan. 9 What's the worst job you've ever had? 2 a question where there is no auxiliary verb. . small towns or big cities? 5 __________ do you go to the theater in a year? Q&A N orah Jo n e s Norah lones was born 6 __________ tall are you? in New York and is the 7 __________ religion are you? daughter of the Indian sitar 8 __________ you want to have children? player and composer Ravi 9 __________ of music do you listen to? Shankar and the concert 10 __________ advice do you listen to most? promoter Sue Jones.

9 What makes you depressed? That there are 24 hours in a day and I need 36. Then ask each other the questions. actor Pamela Anderson. Stressing the right words in a sentence helps you speak with a good rhythm. real estate developer Commodores. d [ . 4 If you could edit your past. All Night Long. In pairs. never seen that many children in my whole life. for which he won an Oscar. stress.. 6 What words or phrases do you most overuse? "I'll call you back" or "I'll see you soon. actress and model Donald Trump. musician and actor David Schwimmer. 1 ___ 2 __ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ____ 7_ 8 ___ b 12 Listen and underline the stressed words in these questions. US. no phone calls. trust the actions. 8 What don't you like about your personality? I'm an egotistical maniac with an inferiority complex. 3 What's your most treasured possession? My Oscar. I was terrified. actor Furgelling the lyricb to my new single on a TVshow. 2 PRONUNCIATION intonation. and Say You (Say Me). s What has been your most embarrassing moment? Donna Karan. n Who would you most like to say "I’m sorry" to? b Now choose six questions from the interviews to ask a partner. I'd Near the ocean. He is best remembered for songs like Three Times a Lady. solo singer. He 4 Do you know what’s on TV tonight? 8 What do you do to relax? became famous in the 1970s as lead singer with c Listen again and repeat the questions in b. som e o f the questions in the questionnaires on pages 4 and 5." 7 What's the most important lesson life has Lower taxes. Jr. Try to sound as friendly as The Commodores and then in the 1980s as a possible. fashion designer Harry Connick. 3 SPEAKING a Look at the answers other celebrities gave to some o f the questions in 1 What's your idea of perfect happiness? The Guardian interview series. was three. We just broke up and disappeared. one day. 12 What song would you like to be played at your funeral? All Night Long and Stevie Wonder's I Just Called to Say I Love You. 1 What’s your favorite kind of music? 5 How long have you been 2 Have you ever been to a health club? living here? 3 How often do you go away on 6 What are you thinking about? Q&A Lionel Richie weekends? 7 Are you a vegetarian? Lionel Richie was born in Alabama. Intonation + stress = the music and rhythm of English. and rhythm in questions Using the right intonation or tone helps you sound friendly and interested when you speak English. 2 what's your earliest memory? Playing piano when I My first day at preschool. questions that you would be comfortable answering yourself. In which one does the speaker sound m ore friendly and interested? W rite a or b. what would you change? The Commodores never did a farewell tour. a '-1 Listen to questions 1-8. m atch the answers below to Sunday by the pool. Ask only To my kids for not being there more. taught you? Don't trust the smile. 10 When did you last cry and why? At the funeral of Milan Williams of The Bruce Willis.

and they will e Read the second half of the article again m ore carefully. gentle courtship have a quicker way to find a partner: speed dating. this is 2 if the journalist thinks speed dating is a good idea. 1 According to the writer." and the organizers will send you the other person's e-mail address a couple of days later. and you can eliminate them if you see right away that they're not your type.. If you like the person d Now read the second h alf o f the article on page 7 and find o u t . called a "match.. who runs a speed dating company. After three minutes 4 Why do you think the journalist pretended to be a lawyer? a bell rings and. even if you are in mid-sentence.. or whether it is similar to a word in your language. or Ms. together people for an evening of frenzied. where single people have exactly b Read the first half of the article again carefully. W ith a be sent yours. Right. unmarried aunt) to dancing in a club with deafening music If you still can’t figure out what the word or phrase means. "quick-fire" dating. T hen to could be Mr." says Adele Testani. Guessing meaning from context has always been a complicated in d in g a p a r t n e r When you are reading and you find a word or phrase you don’t know. from a man taking food to a prospective partner in the Stone Age to young couples having tea a verb. The idea involves bringing check w ith G lossary 1. F process. answer questions 1-4 with a partner. how did people use to get to know Small tables are placed in a line and the women sit down a prospective partner? at the one assigned to them. This is how it works.). or to find out how speed dating works. Journalist Anushka Asthana tried it out. for a slow. It is a ritual that has evolved over the centuries.g. partner. it is time for the man to move to the next table. They stay at their table all 2 What kind of people is speed dating designed for? evening. I pretended to be a single 24- year-old lawyer. "Three minutes is enough time to talk to someone. W ith a partner. If the other person chooses you too. three minutes to decide if the person they are talking say o r guess what the highlighted words and phrases m ean." One of the largest-ever speed dating evenings took place this week at the Hydro Bar. "because you can get an idea of what a person is like in that time. c Using your own words. you have just spoken to. on a scorecard. either in the 21st century. an adjective.. The men take turns sitting next to each woman 3 Why does Adele Testani think three minutes is enough? and having a very quick conversation. . article to check.. etc. try to guess the meaning from the context (the other words around it). you put a check in the "yes" box 1 the advantages of speed dating (according to the participants). whether it is similar to another English together in Victorian times (under the watchful eye of an word you know. say or guess what the highlighted words and phrases mean. too.SPEED DATING SPEED DATING SPEED DATING SPEED DATING SPEED DATING SPEED DATING SPEED DATING SPEED DATINl Three minutes to get to know the love of your life 4 READING & VOCABULARY In recent years speed dating has become a D o you know what “speed dating” is? Read the first half o f the popular all around the world. Think also about what part of speech the unknown word is (e. ignore it and continue reading or use a good dictionary (or glossary But now busy men and women who don't have the time if there is one) to help you. so I decided to go along and see what it was all about.

plastic. the women. e. 1 Why did the journalist feel a little uncomfortable at first? 2 What kind of men went to this speed dating evening? 3 What kind of signs did she make to the woman next to her? What for? 4 What kind of questions did she think worked best? h Do you think speed dating is a good way o f m eeting people? If you were looking for a partner. There's a good 8 realized on a date that his / her first impression was wrong □ atmosphere. who A m an and a w om an who have both tried it talk about W were wearing fashionable dresses and stylish suits." said another.g.." said one man.” you have three m inutes to talk or cloth w ith a nam e o r som e identification on it to the person next to you. a photographer. I made eye contact with the woman next to feel m ore or less positive about speed dating? me so we could compare our opinions of the men." c Does hearing about Emily and Alex’s experiences m ake you Then it started. Me neither. T hen answer the questions with E (Emily)..? spoke to said they had doubled the number of dates they had 1 preferred to ask usual questions in a year with just one night of speed dating. it's safe and it's really good. it is a newspaper you do?" or "Where are you from?" so I tried to think of more usual to show interest by saying expressions like Really?. their experiences.DATING SPEED DATING SPEED DATING SPEED DATING f Com plete G lossary 2 with the correct highlighted word or phrase. and a novelist. thought I chatted with other people while we waited. Use the base form o f the verbs. h en l a r r iv e d at the Hydro Bar. 28. what animal would you be and why?" or by asking for more information. Why? When?. a management 3 was asked the same question over and over □ consultant. me too. Before you start. g Using your own words. would you try it? W hat questions w ould you ask? 5 LISTENING a l-3 Listen to a radio program about speed dating. inform al w ay . b W hen your teacher says “Start. answer questions 1-4 w ith a partner. think o f five questions to ask. G lo ssa ry 2 1________________ a sm all piece of paper. Ask and answer each o th er’s 2________________ a n ex p ressio n on y o u r face th at questions and ask for m ore inform ation. a banker. A couple of days later. It's like being at a 9 says he / she isn’t planning to go speed dating again party with lots of single women. I was question word. Yes. etc. Adapted told that four of the men had checked me. The men included 2 was asked an unusual question □ a chef. And what happened then? or simply with a from In the end I checked six boxes. e.g. and made o grimacc if he made three 6 SPEAKING minutes feel like three hours. "After doing this once I got several dates. 5 had a disastrous date because he / she wasn’t feeling well "It's so hard to meet women. 3________________ lau g h in a silly w ay b ecau se you are am u sed o r n erv o u s c W hich questions were the best for finding out about 4________________ m o v e th e lin e o f h a ir above y o u r o ther students? eye u p w ard s 5________________ p o lite co nversation about u n im p o rtan t things 6________________ talk in a friendly. How successful was it for them ? were giggling nervously as they each put on a b Listen again. 7 had a good date in spite of hearing bad news that day LJ said. a You are going to do “speed questioning” with other people in the class. People I Who . Matt..” stop and go and talk to another student. Is interesting and imaginative questions to ask. exchanged a smile if the man was good-looking. "Maybe my jeans are a bad idea. W hen the teacher sh o w s y ou are in p ain says “Change. m etal. I know what you mean. either with another question. an engineer. be an animal. "You 6 was invited on a date that never took place can't talk to women in salsa classes. like "If you could that right?." I A (Alex).. GET IT RIGHT reacting and asking for more information I thought it was boring just to ask questions like "What do W hen you ask someone a question and they answer. or B (both). tag with a number on it. we raised our eyebrows for a possibility. They were just pleased they could 4 got fewer matches stop having to try to make small talk with strangers in bars. Pretty good for 66 minutes. too. Four new dates. With speed dating you meet 20 or 30 single women in one night.

or initials and a last name. A horizontal signature suggests an emotionally stable person who is well-balanced and generally satisfied with the way their life is going. Read the first paragraph of an extract from a book about graphology. On a piece of paper. which of the people A -F . you are in control and ambitious. will work to overcome them. If your last name is more prominent. and is / was not very assertive 5 keeps / kept their public and private life separate. A rising signature means that you are the kind of person who. this implies that you have positive feelings about your childhood and that your “private” self is more important to you than your “public” self. Usually optimistic. which suggests they are arrogant rather than self-confident. According to the extract. Did you agree with your partner’s interpretation? Do you think graphology is a serious science? W hy (not)? . when faced with problems. and keeps / kept it and without much self-confidence very separate from their public life Try to guess the m eaning of the highlighted words and phrases from the context. Size If the letters in your signature are bigger than the letters in the rest of the text you have written. for example. The more illegible your signature is. which shows that they are going through a hard time or an illness. and your last name represents your public self —how you are socially and at work. and then sign your name under the sentence. A descending signature means that you have a tendency to get depressed and give up when faced with problems and lack self-confidence. a first name and initials.. Your formal signature A signature usually contains either a first name and a last name. less frequently. write the sentence I look forward to hearing from you. either for your first or last name in your signature. It is common for your a Look at the signatures. People whose signature is smaller than the rest of the text may be insecure and have low self-esteem. If you use only initials. that means that you arc self-confident and have a high opinion of yourself Some people actually sign in capital letters.. Check with your dictionary or the teacher. Some people’s signatures go through a temporary phase when they go down. and the more you tend to avoid conflict. Angle Most signatures are horizontal. Legibility A legible signature. the. this means that your “public” self is more important to you. It is also common identify any of the people? to have several signatures. + comparatives V personality P using a dictionary to check word stress. Now look at your p artners piece of paper with his / her signature. The more space there is between your first and last name. is / was 2 is / was more identified with their public self.. and explain what it means. the less assertive you are as a person. and has / had positive feelings about their optimistic. as your signature reflects how you evolve as a person. with names that can he clearly read.. rising. Now read the rest o f the extract and answer the questions.. Your first name represents your private or family self.? 1 has / had no separation between their public and 4 is / was probably rather arrogant private self. If your first name is more prominent in your signature. 6 is / was secretive about their private life. G auxiliary verbs. intonation and sentence rhythm 1 Do you believe it? 1 READING & SPEAKING What your s i g f l d t U V e says about you Your signature is the part of your handwriting that says the most about your personality. or. Can you signature to change during your life. the. ambitious. and ambitious childhood 3 is / was more identified with their private self. a more formal signature (first and last name) when you sign a credit card or passport and an informal signature (just your first name) when you sign a birthday card. implies that you are a person with clear ideas and objectives.. or descending. the more you wish to keep your public and private self separate. this means that you are more secretivc about this part of your personality (your private or public persona).

? to be late. im agine 7 People say he’s _ . The . Are the negative prefixes stressed? com parative adjective or adverb. b O P-146 Vocabulary Bank Personality. the. good-looking /.g.she behaves like a child. th e.he never gets stressed. He tends to. 2 If we leave soon.. you learn more. + comparatives The more illegible your signature is. 1 arrogant /'oeragant/ 7 possessive /ps'zssiv/ Use the + comparative adjective or adverb to show 2 assertive /a'sartiv/ 8 loyal /'loiol/ that one thing depends on another.. you have more friends. 2 You’ll have a lively evening if Jane comes because she’s v ery___________ talk 3 You can’t trust John to help. but he won’t go. e. 3 If you are sociable. the sentence.. He’s totally Talk in small groups.the 5 i-s SO N G J 3 You gotta be ca 9 .. = How easy it 4 creative /kri'eitiv/ 10 impatient /im 'peijnt/ will be depends on when you do it.kanJYenJos/ 12 immature /. 4 If you are happy. the.. The .. 6 conscientious /. begin /bi'gin/..gud'lukir)/.. we’ll get there earlier. Secondary stress is shown by a MINI GRAMMAR low stress mark (..she always does her best in everything. e. 3 He’s very easygoing . the less a Use the phonetics to underline the main stressed syllable. honest 8 She’s s o _______ . + a b 14 Listen and check. consider • a bad roommate • a bad traveling companion 3 PR O N U N C IA T IO N using a dictionary to check • a bad boss word stress • a good teacher • a good friend In a dictionary. the c Practice saying the sentences below..g.im a'tju r/ Rewrite the sentences using th e. 2 She’s so conscientious .g. have a primary (or main stress) and a secondary stress. A n 's o o j a b l / The colder it is... W here you can. Some words. 5 She’s so immature . use a phrase like She’s the kind of person who. -able or -fu l) o r a prefix (e.2 VOCABULARY personality 4 S P E A K IN G a W ithout looking at the text. 5 considerate /ksn'sidorot/ 11 u n s o c i a b l e / .. The . He’s completely _____________ rely 4 You look very ________ Have you had some good news? cheer 5 He’s kind o f ______ He said he liked my sister. for example: 3 irritable /'irotobl/ 9 s t u b b o r n / 's t A b a r n / The sooner you do it. assertive you are as a person. the __________ .or dis-) or b oth to the b o ld words to m ake an adjective that fits i k Remember the third person s. give unsociable .. It is not as strong as primary stress.the 4 His mother’s really possessive ... the easier it'll be..you need to be careful with him. especially compound words..).! She never calls when she’s going What kind of person makes. word stress is shown by this mark (') before the • a good politician stressed syllable. Are the suffixes stressed? 1 If you study more. the more clothes you need to wear.. 1 You can invite him to the party. The ______________. social examples of people you know or have known. but he obviously doesn’t. un. You can’t trust him with money. you are nicer to other people. how m any o f the ten highlighted adjectives / phrases can you remember? GET IT RIGHT paraphrasing If you don’t know the exact adjective you need. c Add either a suffix (e.she doesn’t want him to get married.g. 1 He’s terribly irritable . sincere 6 She’s not v ery ___________ She never has any good ideas.

So I was really looking forward to my 1 What was Jane’s first impression of the room and first visit to a psychic. a neither Jane’s son nor her daughter b neither Jane’s ex-husband nor her daughter c neither Jane’s ex-husband nor her son 3 What Sally says about Jane’s children makes Jane feel___ a convinced that Sally is a genuine psychic b less skeptical about Sally being a psychic c sure that Sally is not a genuine psychic c Read about some typical techniques used by psychics. tatistics confirm that a headache is the most common female health W hich techniques did Sally use? problem. to a psychic. "Does the letter s mean anything to you?" is a frequent strategy. D Identifying common medical problems actually. in the future.6 LISTENING & READING a Read the beginning of a magazine article. Part 3 '-8 Choose a. b. preferably something positive. Do you know what a psychic is? Do you believe psychics Can psychics have special powers or are you skeptical? b You’re now going to listen to Jane describing her visit see the future. 4 Sally thinks Jane will be attracted to the man by his looks. The usual method is to li psychic? W hat happened? the client figure out who it might be. Jane___ a will have the same health problems as her mother b will live longer than her mother c should have plastic surgery 2 According to Sally. An all-time favorite is "You're ■C The flattering statem ent intelligent with a great sense of humor. or c. It's difficult to avoid answering if you want results because went to see Sally? saying nothing is like going to the doctor and refusing to discuss your symptoms. questions with a partner. e '-9 Now listen to Jane talking a few weeks later. "Well. discuss the Jane Dickson investigates. Part 1 16 Everyone I asked had a story about how key events in their lives had Answer the questions. and most of them psychic abilities? W hat has happened since she ask direct questions. After each part. 2 The psychic says Jane will meet someone new. and almost 50 percent of men have a scar on their leg.. . I'm really stupid and have no sense of humor at all"? d Listen to Jane talking about h er visit again. f Do you know anyone who has ever been to a ■ ifeoming up with a few names is always impressive. been predicted in some way. Match the titles with the paragraphs. W hat was her final opinion about Sally’s ■ R psychic can deduce a lot from your age and appearance. 3 Jane is above average height. 1 Sally says that. of Sally? 2 What are the first questions Sally asked her? 3 Why is Jane surprised by two things Sally mentions? Part 2 1-7 True or False? 1 Jane lived in Ireland when she was a child. is good at reading and writing. so it's not really surprising when a psychic "sees" these problems." Who is going to answer. I'm not. Sally. 5 Jane thinks she knows who the man is.. I am almost the only person I know who has never been to a psychic. Tricks of the trade? These are some of the techniques used by psychic A Getting inform ation from the client mething psychics always do is say something that's true of almost anyone B Using a name on the planet.

. □ C to check information. D d O p. A W hat’s your sister like? B Well.119. She’s a journalist. T hen read them to your partner. B] B to add emphasis. I see what you mean. copying the intonation and rhythm . (town / country) My favorite season i s ____________ e O Communication You're psychic. / 1 don’t. that’s true. And your sister works in a bank.” “Another place that is very important in your life is Ireland.. I’m very _______ . I like it. Read the rules and do the exercises. I hate ______(a food) You do? So do I.132 Grammar Bank 1B. I don’t ____very often. □ E to avoid repeating a verb or phrase. A as a short answer.” “Well. You are? You didn’t ?..” b i-io Listen and check. but I forgot. A She is? So is my brother! B Isn’t your brother a doctor? A That’s right. she 4is / does / has.” “Yes. B You do? But if my sister doesn’t talk much and neither does your brother. / 1 am. D to show surprise. I’m not very good at (activity) You aren’t? Neither am I. and so 5is / does / will your mother. c In pairs. for example. doesn’t she? B No. aren't you ?A p . d Com plete the sentences on the left so that they are true for you. I think they’d probably get along well. Then practice it in pairs.3doesn't / isn’t / does she?” “Yes. Underline the auxiliaries that are stressed. you’ll need to watch out for headaches. etc." “Let’s see.. (adjective) You are? So am I. decide which auxiliary is used . c I-'2 Listen and respond to the sentences you hear with an echo question.” “It lis / isn’t / was? I’ve never been to Australia. she doesn’t. you did tell me.H 6 B p. Ireland2is / does / has play a big role in my life. Use a rising intonation. “Australia is very important in your life. Your mother suffers from headaches. (verb) Don’t you? I’ve been to . 7 GRAMMAR auxiliary verbs a Look at some extracts from the listening. Circle the correct auxiliary verb.. who will respond with an echo question and then say w hether he / she is the sam e as you or different. that’s right. *£ a m HI vL1 I IF . A Oh. as a matter of fact.. A Yeah. We probably shouldn’t introduce them. 8 PRONUNCIATION intonation and sentence rhythm a Listen to the conversation and circle the auxiliary verbs that are stressed. she’s kind of shy and quiet. / I’m not. Make guesses about your partner and then check if they are true. b Listen and repeat the conversation.

? e an allergic reaction a pour cold water on the hand and then cover it with a plastic bag f food poisoning b cover the burn with sunscreen 2 What should you do if you have the illnesses or c break the blisters and put on antiseptic cream injuries above? b © Communication You're the doc! p.. d a heart attack D O Y O U .. Practice saying the words.dara’ria/ bHow do you pronounce the sounds below? Write the words from the list in the correct column. tell him to put it in his nose. T hen decide which you th in k is the correct answer for each situation. 1 What are the main symptoms of. D O Y O U . e Ask and answer the questions below with a partner.? a get some ice from the freezer and put it on his nose b get some toilet paper.. and suggest that he go to the doctor to check his blood pressure c tell him to pinch the soft part of his nose for five minutes c 1-14 Listen and check. c © p.160 Sound Bank. 1 cough /kof/ 4 bruise /bruz/ 2 heart /h art/ 5 blood /bl/\d/ 3 asthma / ‘aszma/ 6 diarrhea /.. one of your friends suddenly starts having a nosebleed.. G present perfect (simple and continuous) V illness and treatment P consonant and vowel sounds You're the doctor! 1 SPEAKING & VOCABULARY illness and treatment 2 PRONUNCIATION consonant and a Read about the two situations and try to figure out the vowel sounds m eaning o f the highlighted words. Check your answers.? a a cold You're having a barbecue with some friends on the beach. .147 Vocabulary Bank Illness and treatment.. and she has blisters on her skin. b the flu One of your friends accidentally picks up a very hot piece of wood c a twisted ankle and bums her hand. The phonetic symbols in a dictionary help you check the pronunciation of words that have an irregular sound-spelling relationship. d © p. Look at the typical spellings for these sounds. It hurts a lot.116. You’re the doc! a 1)3 Use the phonetic symbols to help you pronounce these words. T hen listen and check. In the excitement. ache allergy ankle bandage checkup choking GP infection injection pressure rash specialist stomach temperature unconscious You're at home with some friends watching a game on TV.

upw ard three tim e s. A read the first article and B read the second. and Mrs.. but it’s .. 1 what the situation was. She stood behind Mrs. b someone loses consciousness a c someone accidentally takes too many painkillers . Mom. Johnson in the end? Did the presenter do the right thing? Mrs. “Excuse can anyone help my friend? She’s choking. 3 READING & LISTENING b Take turns telling each other your story. help. mother do the right thing? They were all having steak..” giggled my three-year-old son.. found themselves involved in life or death situations. don’t freeze! Paraphrase (use other She was starting to panic. this happens. I was desperate. was having dinner 2 What happened to Peter in the end? Did his w ith friends in a restaurant. Have you ever had to give first aid? —* YES The day my little boy o who? W hy? swallowed a tomato “Look at me. He tried to cough. happening and rushed over to try to She had a sort o f I kind of. but the piece of steak exact word or phrase for what you want to say If remained stuck in her throat. I could hardly understand him because his mouth was full of cherry to give you first aid? tomatoes.. d '-is 1. you may find that you don’t know the back. a library assistant. a newspaper I ran outside. Help! My friend is choking! 1 What happened to Mrs. Johnson had just 4 SPEAKIN G swallowed a piece of meat w hen she suddenly found G ET IT R IG H T keep going! that she couldn’t breathe. screaming for help. Peter tried to laugh too. I hit Peter on the back. and then pulled hard inward and Talk to a partner. one of the tomatoes got stuck in his throat. Johnson and put her arms around her waist... and as he did. a You are going to read an article about two people who 2 what the person who was giving first aid did. Explain . “Oh. Work in pairs. but the street was completely deserted. don’t be silly.” I laughed. Peter began to turn blue. Peter. talk show presenter saw what was I can’t remember / 1 don’t know the word. but nothing happened. Her Even when you know a lot of vocabulary connected friends hit her hard on the with a topic. but the tomato d idn’t move. He had taken them out of the refrigerator while I was making lunch. That was a big mistake....? Adapted pushed my fingers as far as a someone is stung by a bee I could down his throat.” At Useful language table in the restaurant. c Discuss w hether you th in k they did the right thing or not.. Johnson... One words to say what you mean) and keep going! of her friends shouted out desperately.16 Now listen to what happened next and answer the questions. He was choking. I put my whole from hand in his mouth and What do you think you should do if.. a famous TV What I mean is.

She’s very good. D octor I see.. Patient Doctor. Listen and check. Patient Have they sent / Have they been sending you the results of my tests yet? D octor Yes. d In pairs.. Patient How long do I have to live. Patient I can’t! D octor Why not? Patient I’m not allowed on the furniture. doctor. seven. my son has swallowed / has been swallowing my pen. Right (V ) or wrong (X )? Correct the wrong highlighted phrases. D octor OK. Patient Ten WHAT? Months? Weeks? Doctor Nine. 3 You haven’t taken your medicine yet. I've run / I’ve been running after a cat. I’m afraid. I think I’m a dog.132 Grammar Bank 1C. How long has this gone on / has this been going on? Patient Since I was a little puppy. Just lie down here on the couch.l 1 b '-. I’ve broken my leg two years ago. their anniversary. B Because I have gone to bed early last night. D octor You look exhausted! Patient Yes.5 GRAMMAR present perfect (simple and continuous) a Check what you know: present perfect / simple past. eight. 2 A How long was your uncle in the hospital? 5 They were married for 50 years! Today is B Since last Tuesday. 1 A Have you ever had an operation? 4 A Why did you get up so early this morning? B Yes. Any problems? O Workbook p. doctor? D octor Ten.. and we’ll talk about it. What should I do? D octor Use a pencil until I get there. c © p. He’s coming home tomorrow. use the prom pts to ask and answer the questions.7 New grammar. Read the jokes and use your instinct to cross out the wrong form (present perfect simple or continuous). D octor After a cat? Patient Yes. Read the rules and do the exercises. The news isn’t good. six.. Is there anything you could do to improve your health? 1 / drink enough water? How many glasses / drink today? 2 / get any physical exercise? What kind? How long / do it? 3 / eat a lot of fruits and vegetables? How many servings / have today? 4 / walk to school/work? How far / walk today? 5 / smoke? How long / smoke? How many cigarettes / have today? 6 / take any vitamins right now? How long / take them? 7 How many hours / sleep a night? / sleep well recently? 8 / allergic anything? / ever have a serious allergic reaction? D . 6 I know my doctor for ten years.

shopping for 1 Do you agree with what you have read in this article? Why (not)? a dinner party during your lunch break. Something that is good for us is b _________ (2) "As the body gets older. we d _____ them. However. the stress damages the cells 4 a We need some stress to exercise our cells’ self-repair mechanism. b Some people think that not all kinds of stress are bad for us. This means having a certain amount of stress 8 Something that is bad for us is h .6 READING Get stressed. or moderate stress. this self-repair mechanism of the The verb to make something stronger is s __________(2) cells starts to slow down. that is. Adapted her desk in 45 minutes. Then put a check (✓) next to the even live longer. low. Kyriazis. □ Shopping on your lunch break.(3) in our lives. of someone with a chronic illness." which will have benefits for your long-term health! O . in the same way you would Another word for illness is d __________(3) exercise your muscles to keep them strong. arthritis. an anti-aging expert. some medical experts □ Running for a bus or train. packing your suitcase in a hurry g Discuss these questions w ith a partner. or stressful □ Packing for a trip at the last minute. But then the cells' own repair mechanism "switches on" and produces c Packing your suitcase in a hurry is an example of good stress. 3 a Situations that produce good stress are always short-term. According to Dr. and they start to b Getting physical exercise makes us feel less stressed. so it actually makes the cells c_________ illness. proteins that help repair the body's cells. The stress usually c Good stress can stop us from getting sick. Marios Kyriazis. makes us react quickly and efficiently. the body's d __________(paragraph 1) response is greater than needed to repair 2 An illness that you have for a very long time is called a the damage. proteins that repair the damaged cells e C om plete the sentences using words from the article. possible. b Alzheimer’s is one of the illnesses many old people suffer from. is bad for □ Writing a report for your boss when you don’t have much our health and should be avoided whenever time to finish it. and remove harmful chemicals that can 1 When we try to do less of something. now believe that certain kinds of stress □ Taking care of a family member who has a chronic illness. which protect us article say about the others? from illnesses common among older people. to reach the airport on time. and gives us a sense of achievement - b Some stress can make our cells stronger. Dr. and heart problems. W hat does the can strengthen our natural defenses. In fact. (3) is to 'exercise' it." 2 a Young people suffer more from stress than older people. help us stay young and attractive and c Read the article once quickly. (1) stronger than they were before. (4) Kyriazis recommends as good stress include Use your dictionary to check the pronunciation of the words in e. ' redecorating a room in your house over a weekend. stay young a W hat symptoms do people have when they feel stressed? For decades doctors have warned us about the dangers of stress and have given us advice about b W hich three o f these things do you think are the m ost how to cut down our stress levels." says Dr. may actually be good for us." Other stressful activities that 9 Exercising helps make our m _________ bigger and stronger. Circle the correct main that "good stress" can increase the production of the idea for each paragraph. Kyriazis says that "good stress" activities above that are bad for your health. running for a bus or having c Doctors don’t agree on how we can reduce our levels of stress. situations where there is nothing we can do. He believes d Read the article again m ore slowly. Kyriazis. "The Our bodies are made up of millions of c ___ (2 ) best way to keep the process working efficiently When we treat our bodies badly. we did it! However. what he calls "good stress" is beneficial to our health and may. situations. in our body or brain. to work to a deadline are examples of "good stress. just think of it as "good stress. claims that □ Programing a DVD player using the instruction manual. such as having to take care com pare with a partner. in both these c Too much protein can make us sick. □ Being stuck in a traffic jam when you have an appointment such as being stuck in a traffic jam. or 2 What kinds of “good stress” do you have in your life? programing your DVD player by following 3 What other health stories have you heard about recently? the instruction manual. brain cells. including 1 a Being in traffic jams is bad for our health. situations with short-term. break down. Everyone agrees stressful? N um ber them 1-3 (1 = the m ost stressful) and that long-term stress. Dr. a m Do you pay much attention to them? Do you believe them? So next time your boss tells you that from she wants to see that report finished and on O P-157 Phrasal verbs in context File 1. don't panic. we try to c ________ gradually cause disease. such as Alzheimer's. in fact.

.. read the glossary and look at how the words are pronounced to help you understand what she says. another subject . pv Gemini /^ e m a n a i/ Libra/'libra/ Aquarius /a'kwerias/ 4 .. I wouldn’t scare them. T hen answ er the sam e questions with a partner. but they’d g e t. W hat do you think they mean? COMMON PHRASES 1 I think it’s what y o u _____into it. from their birth charts? 4 “You might want to spend more time with your mother. G lo ssa ry body of knowledge /'b ad i ov n a lid y a large co llectio n o f inform ation rapport /ra'pDr/ a frien d ly re la tio n sh ip betw een peo p le counseling /'kaonsolnj/ professional ad v ice given to p eo p le w ith problem s birth chart /bsrO ifarl/ a diagram that sh o w s the position o f th e p lan ets w h e n a p erso n w as born temperament /'t3m pram ant/ th e em otional sid e of a p e rso n ’s character range /'re m d y th e lim its w ith in w h ic h things can vary d 1-2® Listen and com plete the phrases. what we do is go over what that means.. W ould you like Joyce Levine to do your 4 how she warns people about bad news birth chart? W hy (not)? 5 predicting her own future ON THE STREET □ 3 reads their own horoscope almost every day 1. W ho ..... probably where you grow up and the people you talk Taurus /'tores/ Virgo /'vargoo/ Capricorn /'kseprikam/ to have a bigger influence on how y o u out. they might apply to several other people a s ___ b Listen again and write the nam e o f the person.” 5 How much can a persons birth chart tell about their future? or that. y o u ___________ it! What does she say a b o u t.. pv Duey Dennis Fern Curt Tiffany 2 I do every once in a _____. Answer the questions with a partner. 1 What does the future hold? C o l l o q u ia l E n g l is h THE INTERVIEW □ You are going to listen to an interview with Joyce Levine. 3 What does Joyce do when someone comes to see her? 2 .B Listen to part 1.. 5 Ideally. Before you listen. 6 O f course. an astrologer. 4 What kinds of things does an astrologer learn about people 3 The clients I have really are a ___________ of people ...21 4 thinks star signs influence people only when they read Listen to five people talking about horoscopes. W ho believes that star signs can definitely influence star signs som eone’s personality? c 1-22 Listen and com plete the phrases with one word.? 1 doesn’t like to admit they really believe in astrology d Listen to the interviews again with the audioscript on page 2 learned something about astrology while studying 122. COMMON PHRASES 1 What does an astrologer need to know about the planets? 1 . c '-.. you have to know the meanings of the planets 2 What are some of the skills an astrologer should have? ___________of how they affect human nature. Aries /'eriz/ Leo/'liou/ Sagittarius /sa ^ a 'tsria s/ 3 ..9 Listen to part 2... Answer the questions with a partner. W hat do you fate /fen / th e p o w er th at is b eliev ed to control ev ery th in g that h ap p e n s think they mean? free will /fri w il/ th e p o w er to m ake y o u r ow n choices b 1-... I don’t go out of m y every day to find my Cancer/'kaensar/ Scorpio /'skorpioo/ Pisces/'paisiz/ horoscope and read i t . about them too often W rite the n um ber o f the speakers next to their star 5 thinks that people and places have more influence than sign. 5 However.? 1 why people come to see her 2 the kinds of people who go to see her e Listen to the interview again with the audioscript on 3 the questions businesses want answered page 121.

I’m going to a conference in 2 Underline other parts of the e-mail that you your town in mav. Take care. from the 16th to the 20th. add after your signature) Please send me the How are you? What have you been doinq? Anvthinq photos you promised. Sorry that I havent been in touch for a while but I’ve been 11 my regards (love) t o . so I’ve been catching up on my e-mails. / Well. he’s really enjoying it. Say hello to your family from me. Ie». I hope to hear from you soon. recomend a hotel where I could stay downtown? It needs to 3 Think about how to respond to each of the be somewhere not too expensive because the university is things you underlined.. I’m feeling a little better of) love from . Please give my regards to your family. it is usual to start with Hi.. Chris wants you to answer. four punctuation. that’s all9 now. From: j Chris Good luck7 the new job. Do you think you’ll can show me around? That would be great. An informal e-mail / letter W ritin g n If you are writing an informal e-mail.I think I told you about it when I last wrote . paying... Opening expressions Thanks 1 your e-mail / letter. Sorry fo r3 writing earlier / that I haven’t I’ve been reading and replying to my e-mails. today. Could you think you need to respond to. W RITE 120-180 words. Hope to hear from you soon. Use inform al language (contractions. paragraphs.except for me and my flu! My brother Ian just started his new job with a music- companv . I got the flu last week and I had a temprature of 102°F. It was great2______ hear from you. I’ll have a half day free for siteseeinq. I haven’t written or called. Hi Eva. and spelling). a Read the e-mail from Chris. To: Eva Hope y o u 8 better soon. p u n ctu atio n . and expressions from Useful language.. 0 0 0 New Message CD Responding to news O <J T ) S orry5 hear about your exam results. Here everyone are fine .). I have a good news . . PLAN the content. that’s all for now. c You’re going to answer C hris’s e-mail. / Looking 10_____ to hearing from you soon. and four spelling mistakes. It has 12 mistakes: four gram m ar. 14 you and your family are well. conversational expressions. Take 12_____ / 13 wishes / Regards / (Lots so I’ve been in bed since four days.. e.g. Scnc Chat Attach Address Fonts Colors Save As Draft G lad 6 hear that you’re all well. been in touch for a while. you should start with Dear. Chris CHECK your e-mail for mistakes (grammar. exciting.. sick. I’ve been sick. Subject: News Closing expressions Anyway. W ith a partner. Useful language correct the mistakes. anyway. b Read Chris’s e-mail again and find phrases that m ean . at the Useful language expressions and try to complete them. etc. How is your family? I hope 1 Underline the questions in the e-mail that they’re well. in two or three Well. Lucklv my H (= something you forgot and want to classes at the university don’t start until next week. Look If you are writing an informal letter..

I want to go far in my profession. 5 What are you waiting ? c C om plete the sentences with an adjective m ade from the word in bold. 5 What have y o u doing since d W rite words for the definitions. What do you remember? GRAMMAR VOCABULARY a Complete the sentences with one word.happy one moment and sad the next. 4 She’s allergic milk. 1 What were you and Sarah talking __ 1 vain stubborn possessive wise 2 You didn’t like the movie. 5 Michi is very It’s very easy to hurt her feelings. ambition 3 My father loves opera. you? 2 cheerful loyal insincere conscientious 3 flu blister cold asthma 4 GP ER specialist doctor b C om plete the sentences with a preposition. arrogant immature injection allergic specialist 18 . 4 Luke is very . U nderline the word that is different. _ you’ll finish. 1 Daniel is v e ry . 3 Sam is a real p a in the neck. c did come 3 at least three books so far 1 cheerful headache choking stitches this month. I last saw you? 1 b (verb) when blood comes out of. and s o ____ 3 My sister is v e r y I can always depend on her for anything. He never remembers our anniversary. a. forget 2 I’m . for example. especially because of an injury b Circle the right answer. jd r heart scorecard earache arm a sooner b the sooner c the sooner than b U nderline the stressed syllable. sense B You ? I’d love to go. mood 4 A I’ve been to Peru twice. Say why. b. a I’ve been reading b I’m reading sociable unconscious pressure bossy c I’ve read 4 That was the best m ovie ! funny impulsive blood flu a I’ve ever seen II b I’ve never seen cough open swollen throat c I’ve ever been seeing 5 The sooner you start. or infection 1 Could you tell me what tim e _____ 3 b (noun) a piece of cloth used to tie around a part of the body a the bus leaves that has been hurt b leaves the bus 4 i (adj) (a person who) gets angry easily c does the bus leave 5 b (adj) (a person who is) always telling other people what to do 2 How many people usually______ 6 a (adj) (a person who) thinks he / she is superior to other people to this class? a do come PRONUNCIATION b come a U nderline the word with a different sound. your finger 2 s (adj) bigger than normal. rely my mother. or c. a W ord groups. 1 Who were you talking on the phone? 2 She’s very g o o d listening to people.

numerals. c are likely to be an animal lover Petrie identifies three main password "genres. professor of human / computer 2 If your password is “family oriented.What can you do? R e v i e w & C hec k CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? a Read the article and choose a. the name of a child. spouse.. your e-mail account. b Look at the highlighted w ords and phrases." says Petrie. b i-24 You will hear two w om en who visited psychics b Through a friend." Petrie says cryptics are the most security-conscious group. you're likely to write down something guess w hat they mean? that comes to mind quickly. but least interesting. 1 How did the woman meet her current partner? a By speed dating. or pet or a b watch a lot of TV birth date as their password. b. to remember CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? your password. according to a psychologist. a.200 a probably have a large family people who participated in a survey funded by CentralNic. choices." says Petrie. They b we choose words that we will remember easily tend to make the safest. singers." using the names of athletes. 0 describe your personality and your friends’ / family’s b That the player twisted his ankle.. talking to a m an from the Psychic Association about their c On an Internet dating site.” y o u ___ interaction at City University in London." "Family-oriented" 3 If your password is “Brad Pitt. Passwords reveal your personality he w o rd or ph rase that you use to open your e-mail account may 1 The survey was paid for b y ___ a Dr.? 5 What do the two sports commentators agree about? 0 ask questions with or without auxiliaries and with a That the player won’t be playing in the game prepositions next Sunday. c Stay in bed. First because they are invented on the spot "Since you are focused on getting into a system.” you probably___ respondents numbered nearly half of those surveyed. The third because ___ main group of participants are "cryptics" because they pick unintelligible a we think for a long time before choosing one passwords or a random string of letters. movie stars. you pick something that will stick in your mind. Helen Petrie. experiences. personalities c That the player won’t be able to play again for 0 talk about health problems and describe symptoms to two months. C an y o u . or c. "They choose passwords that symbolize 4 People who belong to the “cryptic” group probably people or events with emotional value. analyzed the responses of 1. Strong to do? a Take antibiotics. an Internet b probably don’t use a computer very often domain-name company. 7 How did the psychic’s advice help Alice? c By train and bus. or c. a doctor 19 . One third of a worry about other people reading their e-mails respondents were "fans. and symbols such as "Jxa+157. 2 How does the man describe the woman he met? 1 Why did Mara go to a psychic? a shy 2 What did the psychic tell her? b outgoing 3 Was it good advice? c hardworking 4 What is the man’s opinion of the psychic Mara saw? 3 How will the man be traveling? 5 Why doesn’t Alice agree with Mara? a By train and taxi. 6 What did the psychic tell Alice? b By bus and taxi. b don’t spend much time trying to invent a password fictional characters. Petrie says fans are young and want c can’t think of an interesting password to associate themselves with the lifestyle represented by a celebrity. These people use a want to identify yourself with a famous person their own name or nickname. Can you for example. They tend to be occasional computer users c go to the movies very often and have strong family ties." a 1-23 Listen and circle the correct answer. Also. Answer the questions. "In this sense passwords tap into things that are just below the surface of consciousness. c we choose something without thinking about it consciously Passwords are revealing for two reasons. Two 5 Passwords say something about our personalities of the most popular names were Madonna and Homer Simpson. Petrie b City University c CentralNic T provide a key to your personality as well as your correspondence. 8 What advice does the man give Alice? 4 What does the doctor tell Mr. You may unconsciously choose something of particular emotional significance. or sports teams. CAN YOU SAY THIS IN ENGLISH? b Drink a lot. b.

compared to other cultures 2 were less outgoing than they thought that might have more touching o r or kissing. and everything is organized by the Does each person think he / she is typical or not? W hy (not)? d «n2'2 Now listen to two extracts from each speaker. work with a partner and try to predict what do the same for The worst place in the world. W hat do you think The w orst place in the world they mean? is w here . friendly the police are and . the mechanics are 2 a We think that if we work hard. Canadian □ English □ the police are____ . but they weren’t your nationality? d After reading the article. Try to write in the missing words. to learn foreign languages! c Read the article again. and the US). Australian □ American □ the cooks are ____ ... b We believe in working hard. Before you place in the world with five different nationalities. Compare positive and negative characteristics the speakers your version of the joke with another pair. 3 were more hardworking than they thought 4 knew themselves the best e In pairs or small groups.? 4 a We try to accept everyone’s culture and welcome 1 were friendlier than they thought th e ir .. we c a n _____ and everything is organized by the anything. is where . Australia. do you think any o f the 2 What are the weaknesses? strengths and weaknesses o f your nationality you 3 In what way would you say you are typical? m entioned before (in le) may not be completely true? . b V2-1 Listen and try to m atch the speakers 1-4 with The best place in the world th eir nationality. their food. adjective order V clothes and fashion P vowel sounds National stereotypes: truth or myth? 1 LISTENING & SPEAKING GRAMMAR adjectives as nouns a You’re going to listen to four people talking about the In many parts o f the world there is a joke based on typical characteristics of people from their country national stereotypes. answer the questions.. but we really enjoy our time. W hich nationality / nationalities . Then listen. Use their accent and w hat they say about people from their country to help you. discuss the questions. or o u r . their traditions. 1 a I’d say we’re a down-to-earth people. G adjectives as nouns.. two positive characteristics about each nationality. England. especially as our big cities now have such 1 How was the research done? a population. b Read the article Do we see ourselves as we really are? and 3 a It’s difficult to generalize about us as a people. W rite dow n at least one negative and the mechanics are . the cooks a re .. b We’re physically reserved. W ith a partner. might mention. c Listen again. b I think I’v e ______ the typical optimism an d drive. 2 What does it tell us about national stereotypes? b fust think of our inability. complete The best (Canada. 5 knew themselves the least 1 What do you think are the strengths of 6 thought they were calm and reasonable.

Brazilians were 4 Chinese and Japanese have different cuisines. The elderly are best taken care of in nursing homes. In the largest survey of its kind. all much more alike than we think we are! O l . saw themselves as reserved and closed. They then interviewed thousands of people from these same groups and asked them to describe typical members of their own nationality. showed them to be among the most outgoing and open-minded of the groups studied. outgoing.the opposite of their own view of themselves. e Right (✓) or wrong (X)? C orrect the sentences that are For example. Brazilians are lively and fun-loving. The British are usually less friendly than the Americans. but also as rather lazy. Dr. Robert McCrae and Antonio Terracciano. saw themselves as they really are was the Poles . have investigated the subject. but the personality tests showed them 1 English talk about the weather a lot.The English are cold and reserved.we're they last longer than cheap ones. Terracciano hope that their research will Small towns are better places to live than big ones. McCrae's research g In pairs. The only nationality group in the whole study where people The Italians dress better than any other nationality. While they as nouns. show that national stereotypes are inaccurate and unproductive It’s better to buy expensive clothes if you can afford to because and that this might improve international understanding . Dr. and slightly anxious. themselves as very outgoing. outgoing and sociable. but that these characteristics are often very different from the stereotype. Italians and Russians thought of themselves as grammatically wrong. In fact. 5 I know an Italian who doesn’t like spaghetti. In most cases the stereotype (how nationalities saw themselves) was very different from the results of the personality tests (the reality). But how much truth is there in such stereotypes? Two psychologists. a team of psychologists used personality tests to establish shared characteristics among 49 different nationalities around the world. rather anxious . say if you agree or disagree with the sentences below. The English were the nationality f O P-134 Grammar Bank 2A. and the Japanese are shy and hardworking - these are examples of national stereotypes that are widely believed. The unemployed should not receive government benefits. Read the rules for adjectives whose own stereotype was the furthest from reality. and the results of their research are surprising. irritable and unfriendly. The Czechs and the Argentinians thought of themselves as 6 My sister married a Polish. They found that people from a particular country do share some general characteristics. The Spanish saw 2 English people often travel abroad. X The English to be much more shy than they imagined. the research showed them to be only moderately outgoing and 3 The Spanishs enjoy eating out. and do exercise a. not only by other nationalities but also by many people among the nationality themselves. but they turned out to be among the friendliest of all nationalities. McCrae and Dr.not especially The rich are always stingier than the poor. much more conscientious than they thought.

We may not be individually eccentric. 5 The English person with the best fashion sense is the queen. and spiky black hair. he En g lish have a difficult and. However. they often have a sense of humor about it. □ 4 Punks and Goths wear a kind of uniform. W hat “tribe” o f young people does he are "in uniform." he answered. generally speaking. □ an extract from her book W atching the English. often imitated by young people all over the world. culture in order to try to discover the "defining 1 The English dress badly. sort of collective eccentricity. "It's in case you don't realize that I'm a Goth. way. apart from the queen. The Goths. and the more outrageous they are. spent you read the first part.with a white face. at themselves.” □ why they have an international reputation for dressing in general very badly. ceremonial costume. 3 English people need rules to dress well. 4 VOCABULARY clothes and fashion n o ther a r ea s of resea r c h another "rule" of behavior I a Look at the photos on page 23 again. of young people be able to laugh at the way they dress? I decided to find out and went straight to a group whose Adapted from Watching the English by Kate Fox identity is very closely linked to the way they dress. 22 . Their main 6 Young people around the world copy “street fashion” problem is that they have a desperate need for rules invented by the English. I saw that he was also wearing a T-shirt with "Goth" printed on it in large letters. deep purple lipstick. but we have a C The English love wearing uniforms. Check with your dictionary or eccentric. Surely the parrot-haired punks or the Victorian vampire Goths are being original. do you think it is true? fashion and continues to wear what she likes. who pays no attention to about English people." belong to? Read the second part o f the text and find out why the You may be surprised that I am including "innovative street anthropologist spoke to this person and what she discovered. Do you think the people are typically English in the way they dress? W ho do you think is dressed in the most eccentric way? b You are going to read an article about how the English dress. "Why are you wearing that?” I asked. From what you know dresser in this country is the queen. The only truly eccentric f C hoose the best sum m ary o f the article. the Goths. an English anthropologist. Write T or F in the box." The following is 2 The English wear very good suits. I discovered to my surprise that they too had a sense of humor. such c Now read the first part o f the text and find out if the writer as high-class men's suits. the better. But when I got into conversation with them. certainly look as if they are taking themselves seriously. e Look at the highlighted adjectives and try to figure out the not following rules? It's true that they all look different and m eaning from the context. it is to wear. Before Kate Fox. with no regard for anyone else's opinion. However. I was chatting at a bus stop with a Goth who was in the full vampire costume . Q characteristics of Englishness. However. □ and are unable to cope without them. 3 READING a Look at the photos on page 23. discuss with a partner whether you think 12 years researching various aspects of English the following statements are true or false. but with specific areas of excellence. Would a "tribe" c O Communication Clothes quiz A p. pretending to be serious. had discovered was that it is very important for the English W hat are the people wearing? not to take themselves too seriously.119. □ dysfunctional relationship with clothes. a kind of 1950s A The English often dress badly because they are insecure about what fashion. The queen and the Goths are good examples of this. This helps to explain 7 The English don’t like people who dress “differently. We both looked at his highly conspicuous clothes and burst out laughing.l 16 Bp. street fashion. true that the styles invented by young English people are much more outrageous than any other nation's street fashion and are B The English are a nation of individuals. but in fact they all look eccentric in exactly the same the teacher. fashion" in the category of uniform. and innovative agrees with your answers. in their macabre black costumes. In other words. They are wearing a uniform. to be able to laugh b O P-148 Vocabulary Bank Clothes and fashion. who each dress in a rather eccentric way. and we appreciate originality in dress even if we do not individually have it. it is well known that most teenagers tend to take themselves a bit too seriously. we English dress best when we d Look at the photo below.

a 23 Look at the pairs o f sound pictures below. Complete each sentence with the bold words in the right order.5 PRONUNCIATION vowel sounds Some English vowel sounds are fairly similar and might be confusing. m aking them sound as attractive as possible. Look at the typical spellings for these sounds. awful checked cotton high-heeled hooded leather linen long loose patterned sandals sleeveless slippers polka-dot suit wool b Practice saying the phrases. the auction website. or vice versa? Are people generally very fashion conscious? What is in fashion right now for men and women? What are the current “tribes” of young people? What do they wear? Do you like the way they dress? Are there any celebrities in your country who dress in a very eccentric way? What do you think of them? Do people tend to judge others by the way they dress? Do you think you dress like a typical person from your country? Why (not)? 7 GRAMMAR adjective order a Use your instinct. d Now tell other students about your two items. You have decided to sell them on eBay™. 1 The Goth in the photo h a s_______________ hair black spiky 2 For the wedding I’m wearing a _______________ suit linen beige 3 I want to buy a _______________ bag black big leather 4 I’m looking for som e_______________ shorts running nylon white b © p. 2 The Goths wear / dress a lot of black clothes. 1 The English don’t wear / dress very stylishly. 6 SPEAKING GET IT RIGHT wear and dress Circle the right word.134 Grammar Bank 2A. How your nationality dresses Do people in your country have a reputation for dressing well or badly? Do you think women pay more attention to their appearance than men. Talk in small groups. Read the rules for adjective order and do exercise b.159 Sound Bank. a loose wool suit red leather sandals a polka-dot cotton top pink silk slippers green high-heeled shoes a long hooded sweater c © p. c Im agine you were given two item s o f clothing for your birthday that you don’t like. Listen and check. Try to find som eone who wants to buy them and agree on a price. 8 24 SONG Englishman in New York (3 1 . P ut two words from the list in each colum n. W rite a detailed description. Practice distinguishing them.

so / such . she shouts. but worse still. but Heathrow loses 80 per thousand. which means that we are not probably lose their luggage? supposed to serve passengers if they start getting noisy. to each other via simultaneous e-mail. Heathrow Airport has a poor reputation .usually about you or about KfllfgSMPllllIBi someone in the line behind you. Did you guess correctly? 4 □ Not only is there always a shortage of them for the people who really need them. past perfect continuous. all. F And. why we like to Why can you sometimes smell roast chicken in turn the heat up halfway through a flight. which it always is. which means for every 500 people who check in. they will eventually fall problem with wheelchairs? asleep and give you no trouble at all.. £(= he walks again!" The passenger is usually so embarrassed that he O (and it's usually a he) disappears as quickly as he can. but some cabin crew Why do airport employees sometimes have a members think that if you give them enough to eat and drink. C I’ll never forget the last time it i happened to me. times between the terminals are can do some damage. "Ladies and gentlemen! I give you A Wheelchairs are a big problem for us. there * is often such a strong smell of roast bird that E a snoring plane is a happy plane. and gotten a porter to pick up their o f the sentences below. there is so much baggage being transported between the terminals and so little time to do it that a lot of the transferred luggage gets left behind. E bird can easily cause an accident. Can you guess the answers to any o f the questions? Depending on what computer system the airline uses. I they are just roasted. totally destroying itself and the machinery. a plane when they are serving you fish? Some airports are notorious for losing passengers' luggage. their coworkers a message . Com plete each paragraph with one taken them through customs and passport control.000 passengers. they are probably sending one of these questions and many more. check-in agents can talk Air Babylon is a best-selling book. 2 □ That's the reason. These messages range from "Have you seen this doing when they type at their con incredibly good-looking woman / man?" to "I've got a really difficult passenger here Why is the heat often suddenly turned up . but more often than not so tight. and then seen the person jump up in Arrivals and sprint toward their waiting there is one sentence you do not relatives. Be careful: luggage. courtesy of the airline industry! After decades in a chair. A swan or any large \ i be nice to the person at the counter. When this happens. of course. 5 □ Smaller E This is mainly because the transport £ birds are less of a problem. cowritten by Imogen Edwards-Jones and anonymous airline employees whose So when they seem to be taking a very identities must remain secret.. C narrative tenses. Now quickly read the extract from Air Babylon.. Birds are one of the major problems for any airport when r D So you can see. One flight attendant I know gets so annoyed when this happens that as soon need to use.most airports lose about two in every thousand bags. B It flies into the engine.. In some cases they r ’A .. another miracle. I've lost count of the number of times I've pushed someone through the airport. how many will There is a sensible drinking policy on all airlines. 0 5 * 5 ? V their bags or suitcases at the other end! 3 □ When the airport is busy. £ passengers on the plane think that chicken is Do you believe everything you read ■S being cooked. as every flight attendant knows. and they're often surprised when 1 in the extract? 3 they are given a choice of fish or beef for dinner! 24 . some of the people who request them often don't need them at Now read the extract again. it really does pay to planes are taking off and landing. as the passenger gets out of the chair.does anyone have a seat next to a screaming child?" 1 □ halfWay through a flight? Out of 1. that V air travel P irregular past forms Air travel: the inside story 1 READING a Read the back cover of a book about air travel. It tells the long time to type your rather short name into "inside story" about flying and answers all the computer. 40 won't get 9 b7 80593.

At the airport 1 Most big airports have several different buildings called . 6 We were served terrible food that I couldn’t eat a thing. terminals 2 Passengers leave from Departures and arrive at . it is 16 When a plane is coming down from the air. you go to baggage claim to your luggage. “Do you have anything to declare?” __________ 8 A person whose job is to carry your bags for you is called a . They were such beautiful shoes (that) I bought them. 1 The flight was long that I got really bored. C an you rem em ber all the words and pronounce them correctly? MINI GRAMMAR s o / such . 3 There was long delay because of fog that we had to sleep at the airport. Use such + adjective + uncountable or plural noun They played such awful music (that) nobody wanted to dance. C om plete the sentences with so. Use so + adjective / adverb The movie was so good (that) we went to see it again. Use such a / an + adjective + single countable noun It was such a good movie (that) we went to see it again. When this happens. ___________ 5 Before you take an international flight. __________ 7 When you go through H L you may be asked. __________ On the plane 10 The people who work on the plane are the (cabin) 11 The people who pay to travel on a plane are 12 The person who serves you during a flight is the 13 You can usually ask for a window or aisle 14 The noun from the verb fly is 15 When a plane is going up into the sky. 4 My suitcase was _____heavy that I had to pay for excess baggage. We often use so / such . 8 We h a d heavy suitcases that we had to ask for a porter.. __________ 9 JetBlue and easyjet are two discount B.2 VOCABULARY air travel a Complete the colum n on the right with a word or phrase. ___________ 6 After you arrive. (that) to express a consequence. such. 2 I had noisy child sitting beside me that I couldn’t sleep at all.. that The passenger is usually so embarrassed that he disappears as quickly as possible. He drives so dangerously (that) nobody wants to go with him. ___________ /____________ 4 When you arrive at the airport. . 5 I slept ___ badly on the plane that it took me two days to recover. it is b W hich o f the w ords in a can also be used if you are traveling by bus or train? c Cover the w ords on the right and read the definitions again. you go to to get your boarding pass. 7 There were many people at check-in that we had to stand in line for an hour.. or such a. there is often such a strong smell of roast bird that passengers on the plane think that chicken is being cooked. (All the words come from the Air Babylon extract). Use so much / so many + noun There was so much traffic (that) wc nearly missed our flight. you have to show identification at and go through security. __________ 3 Two general words for bags and suitcases are and ..

look at the sentences and circle the m ore logical verb form. I knew the city very well.. There was no advance warning.5 Listen and check. We hadn’t known about G lo ssa ry the bad weather. 5 □ She read for a while before she fell asleep in her bed. "I'd been reading my book and my boyfriend had been taking a nap. so a number of passengers were out of their seats or were not wearing seat a M atch the sentences 1-8 with the correct sounds A -H belts when the plane started dropping violently. according to the pronunciation o f the vowel sound. passengers desperately clung to their seats as drinks and magazines flew around the cabin. 6 □ We chose a bad day to travel. 3 they finished / had finished lunch. I was totally convinced that we were about to die.. off the plane in a state of shock. one of the flight attendants screamed. 2 1 couldn’t sleep last night because . be about to be going to do sth very soon stagger w alk as if you are about to fall b 2. People started crying and throwing up. cling (dung. The 451 passengers were relaxing after lunch when the plane hit some turbulence over 4 PRONUNCIATION irregular past forms Greenland. . W hat happened? past continuous________ D o you think the flight attendant should lose her job? past perfect________ past perfect continuous________ We're going to crash! c In pairs. When the plane hit turbulence . . 4 they had flown / had been flying for two hours. "Until then the flight had been fine. b Copy the highlighted verbs into the chart. In the 30 minutes of c z S ) chaos. After we landed. e In pairs or groups. Suddenly. Be ready to say why.134 Grammar Bank 2B. 1 the passengers screamed / were screaming. Another passenger said." 4 □ I flew to Mexico City. but break (broke. from shouldn't be a flight attendant. she was joking 3 □ The company has become successful since it won Adapted and laughing as if nothing had happened. "It was unreal. "We're going A B c D \i/ to crash!" Panic immediately broke out. clung) h o ld on tightly to sb / sth 8 □ She said she’d paid for the tickets with money she’d nap a sh o rt sle ep ." 1 □ I thought he’d caught that flight. The date was written a movie. 26 m . Everything was going smoothly on Virgin Atlantic flight VS043 from London Gatwick to Las Vegas. the flight & i 1 attendant screamed every time the plane dropped.. E F G H Businesswoman Angela Marshall was traveling with her boyfriend." she said afterward. try to complete each o f the two sentences in four different ways using the four causes panic narrative tenses. That woman above the door. 3 GRAMMAR narrative tenses. past perfect continuous simple past: regular________ a Read a new spaper story about an incident during a simple past: irregular________ recent flight. Then practice saying the sentences. like something from 2 □ The hotel was built in 1950. turbulence su d d e n and vio len t changes in w in d direction 7 □ I heard that they’d been hurt in the accident. but we all staggered the prize for Best Airline. d o p. esp ecially d u rin g th e day taken from my wallet. on transatlantic flight 1 The police stopped the driver because he .. 2 the passengers relaxed / were relaxing. broken) out pv start su d d e n ly they weren’t. Read the rules and do the exercises. Amid the terror. But when the flight attendant started a newspaper screaming. I saw him checking in.

Talk about a tim e when you (or som eone you know) . T he story can eith er be tru e o r invented. A tell B your story. W hat three questions do they answer? e Listen again and try to rem em ber the anecdotes. 1 What weather conditions are the most • arrived home from a trip and had a surprise.5 LISTENING 6 SPEAKING GET IT RIGHT active listening W hen someone tells us a story or anecdote. f Do you th in k you w ould like to work as a pilot? W hat are the m ain advantages and disadvantages? c In pairs. O ' . taking off or landing? 3 Is it really worthwhile for passengers to wear Story plan seat belts? 4 Is it worth listening to the safety instructions? 5 Are some airports more dangerous than others? 6 How important is it for pilots to speak English well? b 2.119. Read a newspaper story to retell to your partner. Before you listen. That’s too bad.. dangerous when flying a plane? 2 Which is more dangerous. try to tell it in such a convincing way that your p artn e r thinks it’s true. which caused serious complications. and ask your teacher for any words you need. T hen. If it is invented. try to rem em ber as m uch as possible about the pilots’ answers. • missed a bus / train / flight. C hoose one o f the topics below and plan w hat you are going to say.6 Listen to the first part o f the interview. pilots. we normally interact with the person who is telling the story. Useful language ASKING FOR SHOWING SHOWING SHOWING MORE INFORMATION SURPRISE APPROVAL SYMPATHY What happened next? Really? Wow! Oh no! Then what happened? You’re joking! That’s great / That’s awful! How did you feel? No! I don’t fantastic! What a shame! What was it like? believe it. T hen change roles. • had a frightening / funny / unusual experience when traveling a You are going to listen to an interview with two by plane / bus / train. answer them. How m any o f the questions did you answer correctly? c Listen again for m ore detail. B ask A for m ore details and decide w hether the story is tru e or not. d 2 7 Now listen to the second part.l 16 B p. a © Communication Flight stories A p. discuss questions 1-6 with a p artn e r and guess how the pilots will • got sick or had an accident while traveling. with a partner.. b You are going to tell an anecdote. Look at the Story plan below.

. as the latest return time from nightclubs.. She recognized the writing on the envelope immediately.g.” “When will I meet the master?” the maid asked. sometimes) each story in your own words. Key to Organizing Your Life. maid fem ale servant I started cleaning the bookcase. h ouse as servants I'd bought the same book last year. W rite them in the correct place in the chart. e. luckily) 28 .g.he goes to bed early. with the titles below. He prepared himself for confrontation as the door opened.. W hich Degree (describing / modifying an adjective. “Dad!” she shouted angrily. now) immediately____________________ Read the mini sagas again. his teenage daughter had becomc increasingly difficult. It was now 3:30. “You already have. “No beef.five lonely years after their last meeting. e. She felt unbelievably happy as she stepped on board the Titanic. In pairs.. since his wife’s death. He was worried. and the story is not Manner (how you do something. You don’t need to use T hink about w hat they m ean and notice their position in the sentence. You’re late again.” she told the maid. They had agreed 2:00 a.g. Five minutes later I couldn’t believe master m an w h o h a s p eo p le w o rk in g in h is my eyes. explain Frequency (how often sth happens. The Gypsy had warned her that she had no future with this man. e. begging her lo join him in New York. slowly) im m ediately obvious.” cr i “He always has dinner at six.g.g. Since I’m terrible at confrontation a situ atio n w h ere th ere is angry disagreem ent organizing. very) story do you like m ost / least? Comment (giving an opinion about a phrase..” laughed the housekeeper. The original idea came from science fiction writer Brian Aldiss. e. C adverbs and adverbial phrases V confusing adverbs and adverbial phrases P word and sentence stress Incredibly short stories Mini sagas A mini saga is a story that is told in exactly 50 words.m. I felt frantic very w orried so proud. beg ask sb very strongly or an x io u sly for sth My house looks as if it’s been hit by a bomb. He has dessert in the garden. “I’ve been frantic. poodle a sm all dog w ith very cu rly hair housekeeper w om an em ployee in charge of FromMini Sagas a h o u se a n d its servants 1 GRAMMAR adverbs and adverbial phrases a Read the four m ini sagas and m atch them Look at the highlighted adverbs or adverbial phrases in the stories. Unfortunately. one of the titles. e. I bought a new book. Fill the bath at eight . Glossary Dl I --------------------------------------------------------------------. as she tripped over a sleeping poodle. Some o f them are fairly cryptic. Generation gap The last laugh Good intentions Types of adverbs In the cards Meeting the boss Time (when things happen. yet here he was .

but he’s looking for a job. Match each pair o f adverbs with a pair of sentences. hardly c 2 >o Now underline the stressed words 5 The driver couldn’t see where he was going because .d Use your instinct. 2 a My boss always arrives for meetings. 3 It’s incredibly easy . but. Adverb 6 I absolutely love Italian food. T hen use unfortunately the adverb in b o ld to com plete the sentence. 8 a Have you been to Texas? b T hink of a plot.. Com pare with a partner. 1 When he got to the bus stop. hardly ever 3 My brother was in a car crash. fortunately a U nderline the main stressed syllable in 4 It’s often hot in New York in July and August. Try to d Read tw o o th er students’ stories. b He works very . fortunately ideally incredibly luckily f 28 Listen to som e sound effects or short dialogues. b I didn’t want to go.I’ve been to Alaska! without worrying about the num ber of words. remember the adverbs. I’d ) count as one word. 4 a I love all sports. but she’s two years older. a You are going to write a m ini saga. at least two adverbs. 6 The Chinese man couldn’t understand the other Practice saying the sentences..at least ten hours a day. especially pizza. She can say anything. luckily words. We’ll be able to leave soon. right away absolutely actually almost apparently definitely especially even extremely e O P-134 Grammar Bank 2C... just 2 They were having a party when .. First. Listen and check. one o f the titles below. but they persuaded me.even a child right now / actually El in the end / at the end □ could do it! especially / specially □ late / lately □ 4 I thought he was Portuguese. Your story m ust be exactly 50 words (not b All her clothes are made for her in Paris.. fluently word and sentence stress 2 I have breakfast during the week. we’re looking. in fa ct. c Cover the adverb column and look only at sentences 1-8. and say what you think the difference or add w ords until the story is the right is between the two adverbs. like other “information” 3 He thought he had lost his boarding pass. but he wasn’t hurt. everybody applauded. hard in each sentence. and unfortunately we arrived extremely late. the bus had j ust left... suddenly Remember: adverbs. C ontracted forms b He’s unemployed . but apparently they’re still here. W hich do you like best? O ! 29 . W rite your final version. Read the rules and do the exercises. 5 W hen I know the date. VOCABULARY confusing adverbs and adverbial phrases 2 We definitely want to go abroad this summer. Then write a first draft b I’ve been all over the US . choose 6 a It’s stopped raining. length. ideally somewhere hot. I’ll call you. 4 WRITING 3 a of the concert.. (e. but basketball. hard / hardly □ still / yet □ 5 You said they’d already gone. but ever / even □ near / nearly □ actually he’s Brazilian.. including the title) and you m ust include 5 a She looks younger than me.. b Now decide which adverb goes where and write it in the adverb c N ow count the words an d then try to cut column. man because ..g. incredibly 1 There was a lot of traffic. She’s been very busy. b u t . b 29 Listen and check. b Does your boyfriend live here? A summer romance Revenge is sweet 7 a Have you found an apartm ent ? The lie Never again b No. b We haven’t seen Mary . extremely these adverbs. 4 The woman thought Andrea and Tom were friends. are usually stressed in a sentence. W here should the adverb go in these sentences? 3 PRONUNCIATION 1 He speaks three languages. 1 a Her Spanish isn’t very good.

Peter was so excited that he ran up and gave Little reading only if it’s holding you up or Brother™ a big hug around the neck.5 SPEAKING O Communication Reading habits p. e. and lots ap art. clo th and lots of wooden blocks. as lifeless as any ordinary doll." lap th e to p part o f y o u r legs th at form s a flat She put Little Brother™ down on the floor. Mommy explained. sat him in her lap. "Why don't you let him help open your other presents?" bounce m ove (sb o r sth) u p an d d o w n . e. He didn't cry after all. can help to pause from time to time and look back. and keep going. The other toys were a fire engine.. Peter's hand pushed against something cold on Little Brother's neck." Mommy said. a wagon. you really want to know what it means. 3 What happened when Peter hugged Little Brother™? Mommy picked up Little Brother™. Little swat /s w a t/ h it. e. babbling baby talk. pap er. 6 READING & LISTENING Little Brother Reading for pleasure by Bruce Holland Rogers When you read a longer text. That was how he found out about the button. keep up pv to m ove at the sam e sp e ed as sb o r sth a siren. However.11 1 What kind of toy is Little Brother™? What does the ™ mean? a Read and listen to a short story. some talking books.g. and he took tottering baby steps toward su rface w h e n you are sitting d ow n Peter. You read. The fire engine was the second-best present. perhaps at a slightly Little Brother'1* to do all the things that he could already do himself. you usually don’t read Peter had wanted a Little Brother™ for three Christmases in a row. Until this year. just to check you are clear about what is happening. It had lights. and pressed the black button at the back of his neck. Look up a word while you are packages with his fat little hand. or even sitting up. Answer 2 What do you think “babbling” means? the questions 1-13 in pairs. because Little Brother™ was expensive.. It is also especially This year when Peter ran into the living room.12 wad into balls /w a d / m ake (e.g. howl /h a u l/ m ake a long loud cry. Suddenly. paper) in to tight b alls 4 I low did Peter’s mother stop Little Brother™ from crying? let drop allo w sth to fall 5 What do you think “wrinkled up” means? 6 What does the last line make you think? iD . but Mommy bounced him on her knee and told him what a good in a row /ro o / o n e after th e other boy he was. there sat Little Brother™ among all the important to try to guess words from wrapped presents. That was okay. tom) to dam age s th by p u llin g it the boxes. Peter. "You have to be extra limp not firm or strong careful with him. smiling his happy smile. an insect) u sin g y o u r h a n d Brother™ was the best present ever! Well. nearly falling over So that's what Peter did. wrapped (up) covered w ith p ap er pat h it ligh tly w ith y o u r h an d "Little Brother™ isn't like your other toys. a ball tottering w alk in g like a baby. 2. and suddenly Looking up words frequently may get in Little Brother™ wasn't babbling anymore. on following the story. He showed Little Brother11' how to tear the paper and open tear /ter/ (tore. focusing Mommy had said that Peter wasn't ready for a Little Brother™.. a short story. and hoses just like the real thing.g. and it wrinkled up as if he Glossary were about to cry. (esp. like a dog or w olf calm down pv becom e quiet an d calm 2. Little Brother™ the way of your enjoyment.g. slower speed. as if he were a real baby.117. that's what Peter thought at first. But every year. His favorite TV once quickly for gist and then read it commercials were the ones that showed just how much fun he would have teaching again. There weren't as many presents as last stacked up p laced one on top of an o th e r year. Little Brother's face came alive.. it was limp on the floor. and patting one of the context.

while Mommy went to the kitchen to cook breakfast. and she hadn't said thank you." 2 How did his mother react? Little Brother™ howled. to have them? O p. Peter put all the torn wrapping paper in the wagon. the best tower he had ever made. "Don't cry. Peter had built a tower that was taller than he was. Little Brother™ swatted the tower with his hand and laughed." Peter said too quietly for Mommy to hear. Little Brother™ wasn't interested in seeing a really tall tower. "That's what it's like to have a baby brother. He grabbed hold of Little Brother. c Listen again with the audioscript Mommy told Peter to clean up the wrapping paper. and the second. The tower was only a few blocks tall when he knocked it down. W ere you right? kitchen.M's arm. I'm going to make it really big. and Little Brother'" took it out again and threw it on the floor. "Look!" he said." 1 What did Peter do to Little Brother™ after he broke the fire engine? "Babies do things like that. Peter started to read a talking book. But then. but he can still see and hear. "I le was knocking down my blocks. put him on her lap. I'm building another one! Watch me build it!" Little Brother™ watched. "Peter!" She picked up Little Brother™.13 7 What funny things did Little Brother™ do at first? 8 What do you think “grabbed hold o f” means? 9 What do you think Peters idea was? When Mommy came into the living room again. But when Little Brother™ had 4 How did Peter’s mother punish calmed down. he can’t move." But Little Brother™ didn't watch. and pressed the button to turn him back on. and she went back into the on page 123. I told you! He's not like your other toys.15 Listen to the end of the story. "Now watch this time. She hadn't even noticed. That's when Little Brother™ broke the fire engine. Peter had already picked up the wrapping paper once. When you turn him off.157 Phrasal verbs in context File 2. Peter had an idea. for the first time. Then he knocked the tower down. Little Brother™ started to scream. In pairs. 2. and Peter let him toddle over and him for his behavior? knock down the tower. "I didn't mean to!" 2. Peter looked toward the kitchen and let go.14 > 10 Why didn’t Peter’s mother even look at the tower? 11 What makes Little Brother™ a different kind of toy? 12 Why did Peter feel annoyed with his mother? 13 What do you think is going to happen next? O ." he said. He was getting ready to cry. 3 What did Peter threaten to do? "He's mine.At first. Mommy put him back on the floor. He can still feel. And it scares him. Peter tried to show Little Brother™ how to build a very tall tower out of blocks. "Don't!" Little Brother's face wrinkled. 2." discuss what you think happened. As soon as he was on. Peter laughed. too. W hy do you think people might want Peter turned just in time to see him lift the engine up over his head and let it drop. But then he said. "Peter. everything that Little Brother™ did was funny and wonderful. "Look. and Little Brother™ came and turned the pages too fast for the book to keep up. "No!" Peter said. But Mommy didn't even look at the tower." Mommy said. Every time Peter had a few blocks stacked up. His face turned red. d Do you think Little Brother™ or Peter wadded the paper into angry balls and threw them one at a time into the Little Sister™ may exist in the future? wagon until it was almost full.

a flight attendant with JetBlue Airways.si pi 'a r/ c a rd io p u lm o n a ry resu scitatio n .20 Listen and com plete the phrases. M ultiROM .. 2 ... a p ro c e d u re u sed to rescu e an u n c o n sc io u s p erso n by b reath in g a ir in to th e m o u th an d pressing on th e ch est defibrillator /difibro’leitor/ a dev ice th at gives e lectric sh o c k s to so m e o n e’s h eart to m ake it beat again after a h eart attack cranky /'k n eg k i/ b ad -tem p ered go the extra mile to m ake a sp ecial effort to ach iev e sth after you have alread y m ad e a g reat effort take a toll to h av e a very bad effect red-eye flight /'redat flait/ late night or o v ernight flight sleep in /slip in/ to sle ep late in th e m orning clenching their fists sq u e ezin g th e ir clo sed h an d s tightly d 2. G lo ssa ry safety drill /'scifti dril/ p ractice for an em ergency CPR / . off the top of m y that’s pretty hard. 1 Why did Heidi apply for a job as a flight attendant? COMMON PHRASES 2 What are some of the things she learned during training? 1 We learn how t o _____ with many different situations ..17 Listen to part 2. 2 was once terrified during a flight M atch the speakers to what they m ost dislike about air 3 thinks its exciting to fly travel.19 Listen to four people talking about air travel. W hich speakers are afraid o f flying? 4 experienced an overnight delay c 2. 3 What kind of person makes a good flight attendant? 2 . thankfully. 4 What are the good sides of being a flight attendant? 3 You____________ travel for free . 5 What are the bad sides? 4 It takes a toll on your body.. W hat do you think they mean? b 2. W hat do you think they mean? COMMON PHRASES 1 Taking off and landing is sometimes a little nerve-wracking.? ground people to make an emergency landing.. 3 how she deals with passengers who are afraid of flying 4 how to identify passengers who are scared e Listen to the interview again with the audioscript on page 123..18 Listen and com plete the phrases. landing 3 I can’t think of anything .. Answer the questions with a partner. c ' 2. someone who i s _____ to work with other people. so y o u ____________ sleep the rest of the day when you get home. the big guy. Shelly Sophie Tiffany Juan but . the oldest in the family.. W ho . T hen answer the sam e questions with a partner. feeling bored □ d Listen to the interviews again with the audioscript on page 123. nobody got hurt. Before you listen.. waiting in long lines crying m y out.16 Listen to part 1. Answer the questions with a partner. 1 what to do before you go on a long flight 6 Everyone worked together.2 ^ \ Flying high C o l l o q u ia l E n g l is h THE INTERVIEW □ a You are going to listen to an interview with Heidi Evans. 2 what to do during a long flight and th a t___________ . read the glossary and look at how the words are pronounced to help you understand what she says. fine.. turbulence 4 And here I am. 5 a time when she smelled smoke in the cabin Does Heidi make her job sound attractive to you? Why? ON THE STREET □ b Listen again.? 1 sometimes feels sick on a plane a 2.. I don’t know... 5 And a t ____________ he got on the phone with the What does she say a b o u t.

. his wife glaring at the computer screen. a n d spelling). job . and makes it m ore enjoyable to read.. e. One afternoon Mrs. Useful language Time expressions 1 In that moment. an e-mail from Mr. W hat was the “small m istake”? W hat happened? It was only a b Using adverbs and adjectives helps m ake a story com e alive small mistake. I saw CHECK your short story for mistakes (gram m ar. Linda.” paragraphs. 50 words. A short story W r it in g a Read the story. Simpson asking me to come to his office 9 When I opened the door.10_______ I was packing my things. 1 Invent a plot and write what happened simply. at the office and start criticizing us for no reason. garden furniture. what I had done. I knew something was wrong. what significant events 6 pink shirt that I w as7 fond of. c You may want to write som e dialogue as part o f your story. Rewrite the following with the correct punctuation. organized in two or three old witch is on the warpath!” and pressed “send. 7As soon than I saw him. Arthur Simpson. Simpson came in while I was 2 Then think about how you could improve your story by finishing writing a report. She looked at me and adding more details. but not with his wife. but it changed aggressive an hour later extremely family-run immediately new fairly quick well frequently my life. Use the dialogue in the story to help you. 5Ten minutes after. with adjectives and adverbs. and I p u n ctu atio n .g. how to set the scene. to my horror. realized.4 woman. her comment really annoyed me. Look at the u n derlined tim e expressions in Useful language and correct one word in each. She was a loud. who s used to turn up PLAN the content. I got to work early.” I was wearing a story. in about Everyone disliked her. I had been fired! 33 . e. I wouldn’t wear that color. 3 Think about what tenses you need for each part of the It doesn’t look good on you at all. Use a variety of narrative tenses and A couple of minutes later I was surprised to receive adverbs and adjectives to make your story m ore vivid. sit down mr. simpson said coldly i want to talk to you about an e-mail you sent JSif_____________________________ d You are going to write a story beginning with the sentence It was three o’clock in the morning when the phone rang.g. ‘‘If I were you. “Watch out! The W RITE 120-180 words. C om plete the story with an adjective or adverb from the list below. said. I typed a 8______ e-mail to Alan Simmonds in Sales. the door opened. I had been working at JB Simpson’s for ten years.I got along3_______ with the owner. and happened before the story starts. It was a small 1 company that exported 4A morning in September. I went back to sleep. I had clicked on Simpson instead of Simmonds. I w as2 happy with my We got to the station 3just on time to catch the train.

___ a I’m nearly finished b Nearly I’m finished c I’m finished nearly 9 The driver______ in the accident. o r c. 4 We for about five hours when 6 My new jeans fit a glove . 5 When we got to Terminal 2.long dresses and suits.2Y What do you remember? GRAMMAR VOCABULARY Circle the right answer. b had already been landing 5 How much suitcases / luggage do you have? c has already landed 6 I love all pasta. a were driving b had been driving c Circle the right word. 1 Some people think th a t don’t 1 striped checked hooded patterned pay enough in taxes. 2 silk cotton fur stylish a the rich 3 station flight terminal pilot b the rich people 4 backpack scarf undershirt cardigan c rich 5 get dressed match get undressed change clothes 2 A Which shoes do you like best? 6 lately slowly nearly friendly B I lik e______ a the reds b Com plete the sentences with one word. a speaks very fluently English b speaks English very fluently c speaks English very fluent 8 I just need another five m i n u t e s . the end of this street. a beautiful leather Italian 3 You’d better walk a little faster if you don’t want to get left b Italian leather beautiful 4 People here get dressed a lot for weddings . c beautiful Italian leather 5 We checked as soon as we got to the airport. U nderline the w ord that is different. we _ a had checked in PRONUNCIATION b were checking in c checked in 7 Her father . a seriously was injured b was injured seriously c was seriously injured 10 It w a s ______ boring movie that we left in the middle. a W ord groups. c have driven 1 We haven’t seen each other much late / lately. c the red ones 2 I just fo u n d that my boss is going to work for another 3 I got a bag for my birthday. a a so b U nderline the stressed syllable.they’re so comfortable. a. from Santiago______ 3 The car is small. 7 I live near here. There isn’t even / ever a back seat! a had already landed 4 I’ve been working so hard / hardly that I think I need a vacation. b such a stylish undressed arrivals passenger actually c a such . especially / specially lasagna. company. the flight 2 The skirt doesn’t fit / match me. 6 As soon as we arrived at the airport. 7 Can I go in jeans? I don’t feel like getting dressed / changing clothes. we decided to stop and rest. Say why. b. It’s a little too big. b the red 1 The plane to o k at 7:15.

'□ My job has taken me to 2 How did the man feel? dangerous places such as Afghanistan and Iraq. b Look at the highlighted words and phrases. I agreed to take the flight to end a It’s too long. 4 What three other aspects of the Swedes does he mention? they focused on what lay beneath my fear. do not fall out of the sky like rotten apples. Answer the questions. To make matters worse.” he smiled. going-to-die-any-second kind of fear. talks about his irrational phobia of flying. b It’s boring. I had to experience things for myself before 1 What does he think is the stereotype of the Swedes? I was able to convince myself of the truth. but a real. a. B Apparently. b A blue jacket. 1 What did the woman buy at the sale? Journalist and documentary maker Sean Langan a A black sweater. all fears. oh-no-l'm- c A black jacket. □ describe a trip you have taken by train or plane 35 . or rather the terrifyingly realistic flight simulator. to 5 The man is stressed because____ my needs. My fear of flying is not just a mild case. By showing me just how b 222 Listen to a Swede talking about people from his far you can push a plane and still keep it safely within its limits. b. a few weeks later. from □ describe the strengths and weaknesses of people from 5D But by facing my worst fear. but I'm far more a angry worried about flying planes than flying bullets. took his hands off the controls and b Gate P 50 turned to face me. J D And they were right. The plane was going almost vertically upward before moving c It’s complicated. But Susie focused on my heightened sense of CAN YOU SAY THIS IN E N G L IS H ? movement as my main problem. 2d In fact. my seat was shaking 4 The flight to Taipei will leave fro m ____ violently because of severe turbulence. And fellow Adapted your country sufferers will be glad to know that I got through my next real □ describe what someone in the room is wearing flight safe and sound.. 4D Something moving 5 What does he say about Swedish men? in an overhead compartment could sound to me like an engine a newspaper about to fall off. D Like many fearful fliers. sensing my fear. I'd overcome it. 3 What is the man’s criticism of the book? Which is why. I decided I would either c confused have to stop flying altogether or I could try to overcome my fears. E Which is unfortunate because as a foreign journalist. Captain Keith Godfrey had designed c Gate B 15 the flight. noticing small changes in noises and amplifying them dramatically in my mind. a Gate B 50 The captain.What can you do? R e v i e w & C hec k CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? a Read the article and fill in the blanks with a sentence A-E. which is why during the flight the C an you . they allayed my fears. they thought that was what would work best for me. country. or c. Can you guess what they mean? CAN YOU U N D E R S T A N D T H E S E P E O P L E ? How I conquered my fear of flying a 221 Listen and circle the correct answer. I can’t exactly stay at home. generally 2 How much of the stereotype does he think is true? speaking. I often experienced a heightened sense of hearing.. After an awful b offended flight earlier this year on a small plane. My stomach was turning. 3 Why does he mention the Swedish army? In their careful preflight questioning with a therapist named Susie. sharply to the left. That planes. C It was an experience I would rather not go through again. they had never put the plane through such extreme flying before. a his friends have a problem with their luggage b his friends may think he isn’t there In the two years Virtual Aviation has been offering the course at c his friends’ flight was late the airport. A “You see how safe it is.? captain flipped the plane over like a pancake.

That’s what I was thinking. Read the answers to the quiz .. b There is no one at home... ? I don’t think that’s true. etc.. Do you agree with that? Exactly! Don’t you think . it is said that. etc. V crime and punishment P the letter u The one place a burglar won't look 1 SPEAKING & LISTENING c Look at the photos. Have you seen the movie Oliver Twist o r read the book by Charles Dickens? W hat do you think GET IT RIGHT agreeing and disagreeing the old m an is teaching the boys to do? Use a variety of expressions for agreeing and disagreeing: 1 think it must be .. e They have burglarized the home before. p. b paintings and antiques c money and jewelry □ Which of these is more likely to stop a burglar from coming into your house? a a dog b a burglar alarm □ Which three of these would most influence a burglar to choose a particular house or apartment? a It looks expensive.. D How long do you think a burglar usually takes to search someone's house? a 10 minutes b 20 minutes c 30 minutes □ Which of these are the most common things burglars steal? a TVs. □ How are burglars more likely to get into a house? a through an open door or window b by breaking a door or window □ What is the best place to hide your valuables? Number these rooms in the order that burglars usually search them.l 17. d There are good places to hide around the house.. he is thought to ... digital cameras. c There aren't many other neighbors nearby.provided by ex-burglars themselves! 36 .. Give reasons for your answers. a Take the quiz in pairs. □ the living room the main bedroom □ the kitchen a child's bedroom the dining room 1the office b O Communication There's only one place burglars won't look. C passive (all forms)...

2 Why are tourists particularly at 4 A _____________ is someone who steals from you on the street..? • whose home has been burglarized • who has been mugged • whose car has been stolen • who has been unfairly accused of shoplifting • who has been stopped by the police while driving • who has been robbed while on vacation • who has been offered a bribe • who has been kidnapped m . U nderline the stressed syllable. 1 What is the main trick 2 A ___________ is someone who breaks in and steals from. e. it was manslaughter....? a to protect your home b if you are on vacation in a big city b 33 Listen and check.d 3-1 Listen to a radio 2 VOCABULARY crime and punishment interview with an ex-magician a M atch the words for people who steal with the definitions in the list.. What does he say a b o u t. d Talk to a partner. 2 “Murderers must be punished.149 Vocabulary Bank Crime and punishment. 2 Prague 3 the director’s watch 4 Fagin 3 PRONUNCIATION the letter u 5 “misdirection” a Look at the words in the list. Answer the questions. who w orked as the “pickpocket consultant” for an Oliver Twist pickpocket mugger burglar robber shoplifter thief movie. 7 the journalist’s wallet and pen 8 a map accuse burglar caught community drugs fraud guilty 9 subway stations and tall judge jury manslaughter mugger murderer punishment smuggling buildings 10 “Watch out for pickpockets!” posters 1 ^ c^O /yu/ | f W hat have you learned to do or not to do . w hich all have the letter u in them . Then answer with a partner. 5 The jury said he was guilty of fraud. 5 A ___________ is someone who uses violence to steal from you on the street. steal from someone? 3 A ___________ is someone who steals something when he / she is in a store.. What are the most common crimes in your town or city? What crimes have been in the news recently? Do you have trial by jury in your country? Do you think it’s a good system? Do you know anyone . 6 The mugger was caught by the police. 4 It wasn’t murder.” said the judge. a bank pickpockets use when they or business. 1 He was accused of smuggling drugs. 3 The burglar is doing community service. Put them 6 some keys in the correct colum n below according to how the vowel sound is pronounced. Find out as m uch inform ation as possible. e Listen again for m ore detail. 1 A ___________ is someone who breaks in and steals from a private home.? b 32 Listen and check. often without risk from pickpockets? you noticing. 6 A ___________ is the general word for someone who steals. 1 training boys c O p.. W hat happens to the pronunciation o f u in guilty? c Practice saying the sentences.g.

but there is nothing polite about no memory of handing over the cash. He wears a mask and rubber gloves during robberies.25 World Cup thief s own goal Parrot held in prison A thief who 1 (steal) a World Cup ticket from a A parrot has spent five days 1interrogating / being w om an’s handbag 2 (catch) after he sat down to interrogated by the police in a prison in Argentina. eye contact with customers after a series of robberies. his owner. active or passive. has robbed at least three banks in the last month. over tens of thousands of dollars' worth of bills. and we 7support / are officers on duty at the stadium 8 (inform) of the supported the same soccer team. The world’s most polite armed robber Police are looking for a man who 1___________ Bank clerks in Moldova have been told by the police not to make (believe / be) the world’s most polite armed robber. Jorge Machado and Rafael Vega. When he sat down next to his victim ’s husband. e Complete the newspaper crime story using the words in parentheses. circle the correct form.” b New gram m ar. let me down.4 GRAMMAR passive (all forms). Two and Australia. The robber The robber. Machado said. who always says “please” and “thank you” when he orders store employees to give him the money is believed to be a trained hypnotist from Russia. he 6 (meet) by her husband. 4fo hold / to be held in custody to the M unich stadium for the game between Brazil until he told the police who his real owner was. Pepo said Jorge’s name and A M unich police spokesperson said. “The thief 7_____ also sang the anthem of his favorite soccer team. After five days. disputing who the bird 5belonged / was belonged to. 4_____ neighbors. A police officer said. in the cash register. A judge 2ordered / was ordered the parrot.2 (say / be) a tall man He is said to put cashiers into a trance before making them hand in his early forties. which Eva Standmann. He is a real friend. watch the game next to the victim ’s husband. 42. San (find) the ticket in the bag and decided to watch the Lorenzo. 3 (mug) as she was going Jcalls / is called Pepo.” situation and the thief 9 (arrest). But when he 5 (take) the w om an’s seat in the Judge Osvaldo Carlos decided the parrot should stadium. Read the rules and do the exercises. Any problems? O W o r k b o o k p. complete the article with the verb in parentheses in the simple past. It is believed that the man armed robbery.” . Berndt. In World Cup thief’s own goal. They were terrified. Then in Parrot held in prison. After getting them to give him money. a Check w hat you know. “H e 4___________ (report / be) he then brings them back out of the trance and leaves them with polite to his victims. Do people know hypnotist rob banks? this information for sure about the robber or do they only suspect it ? How is the structure different after he and after ir? Hypnotic bank robber d O P-136 Grammar Bank 3A. Last week this man used a knife to threaten employees in a store. You are going to read two true crime stories. Mr. gradually hypnotizes them. “I knew he w asn’t going to game. How does the c Look at the highlighted phrases in b. It3 (think I he I rob) at least four stores in It is thought that the criminal begins talking to bank tellers and recent weeks. The thief. were (discover) the ticket in her bag and decided to use it. 43. Saying ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ cannot change that. Read another true story. a 34-year-old man. it is said t h a t h e is thought to etc. Bsenc? / be sent to prison until he said the name of who immediately called the police on his cell phone.

only had to spend three hours in the woods. people will say that my punishments are cruel or unusual. "Some small town. He was the oldest of nine children and had to work part-time collecting garbage to pay his way through college.. 4 The judge also sent a man who was caught with a loaded gun to the 6 SPEAKING morgue to view dead bodies and ordered teenagers who let the air out of tires on school buses to organize a picnic for elementary GET IT RIGHT giving your opinion school children. many of which later died." • A 15-year-old who is caught drinking and smoking. last month. you have people fulfilling these sentences. decide on creative punishm ents for these studied law at night school. background. 5 Cicconetti attributes his unusual approach to his tough family I don’t think they should be allowed to ." crim es or offenses. dark need to re-read the article to clarify in your mind information forest In the end. but Judge Mike Cicconetti had c Read through the questions below. a judge with a difference b Read the first four paragraphs o f the article." are the best solutions. only two people who have been sentenced to alternative b C om pare with other groups and decide which you think punishments and who have reoffended. she expected to get a fine or a short prison Sometimes when you read a newspaper article for detail. What was his early life like? How successful has he been professionally? 2 Judge Cicconetti's unusual ruling was 2 The punishments just the latest example of his unique Which three creative punishments get the offenders to learn brand of "creative justice. we often use should + passive infinitive: I think they should be made to . What inspired the judges system of creative punishments? Why does he think they are better than conventional 3 Cicconetti allows offenders to choose between jail and an alternative.. punishments? "creative" sentence. old Ohio housewife to feel the same pain and suffering as the animals she had 1 The judge abandoned. she was sentenced to information is not given in chronological order. "I didn't go to a prestigious law firm. He has ordered noisy neighbors to spend a day of W hen we are giving our opinion about the best way silence in the woods or to listen to classical music instead of rock. Then read the whole made his point He wanted the 26-year- article to find the information." which has from a personal experience? won him national acclaim.5 READING a What do you tliink would be an appropriate punishment for. And above all.Mike Cicconetti. 6 A drawer in his cramped office in the Painesville Municipal Courthouse • A group of teenagers who paint graffiti all over walls in a is full of thank-you letters from both victims and criminals. The judge says that offenders d W hat do you th in k o f his system? W ould you like to have who spend a day helping school children cross the street never a judge like Cicconetti in your town? appear in his courtroom for speeding again. it was so cold that she Judge Cicconetti about people and events. ? Making the 1 a woman who abandoned some kittens in a forest 2 people caught speeding in a residential area punishment 3 a man who was caught carrying a loaded gun illegally 4 some teenagers who vandalized a school bus fit the crime 5 noisy neighbors who play rock music very loudly at aU hours . It makes you understand what the working man has to go through and why some • An arsonist who sets fire to a local scenic area. you are doing it for them • A young person who creates a computer virus that infects and the victims and the community. and this year he won the 3 The reasons behind his system presidency of the American Judges Association. of them commit crimes." the judge • A couple whose dogs bark incessandy and bother the said. I want to give people a positive lesson. causing major traffic delays. For example. to punish someone. "I had to get to where I am the hard way. Instead. for example. He a In groups. Ohio. "OK. it's a little bit of embarrassment and humiliation. not a forest. I can remember thousands of computers. • Someone who parks illegally. people accused of speeding are What evidence does he have that the punishments are offered a choice between having their license suspended for 90 days successful? or having it suspended for a shorter period and spending one day working as a school crossing guard. a negative one. W hat sentences did Judge Cicconetti give these people? Why? Do you think 1 When Michelle Murray was arrested for his sentences would be m ore effective than yours? abandoning 35 kittens in a forest.... He was Michelle Murray Which two punishments get them to do something for elected unopposed to serve another six other people? years in Lake County. the sentence. 3A | 39 .. he says. You may spend the night in the same cold. But when neighbors.

there is no Internet connection. the damage is already done. it's snowing!" She just couldn't believe it . 6 describe how surprised people are by the weather□□□ The main problem is that people here don't seem to understand the need for air-conditioning during the summer. interview downtown. but the coolest room in the apartment is the bathroom. It was chaos. though. which people had living abroad □ D D obviously thought they would be able to use and then couldn’t.. Though we were warned there was going to be extracts from three blogs. so I can’t work there! c Look at the highlighted words in Comments El the blogs and discuss w hat they m ean with a partner. Last Wednesday was the hottest day with transportation □□□ ever in this country The roads were melting in some areas. caused by the weather □□□ thank you.some of them got blown over.. You kind of feel it's the work of a skillful set decorator for a high-budget movie... so I had to go out. Even going for an ice-cold drink can be uncomfortable 9 complain that people if the pub isn't at least equipped with a large fan. I saw some crazy people on the correct box(es). What a mess! 3 have fun in spite of the C o m m en ts B B weather □ □ □ 4 complain about how the weather makes Posted: Sunday July 22nd him / her feel □□□ Yet another scorching.they're all frozen. no one really expected or could possibly have visualized hurricane-force winds destroying bus stops and ripping trees out of the wet guess which country / city the people soil. 1 2 3 The canals were full of trash cans that 1 go out in spite of a had gotten blown in. Posted: Thursday November 8th d W ould any o f these three types of I got woken up today by my daughter screaming. b Read the blogs again and check {%/) Thank goodness I did manage to get there.? one even seemed to be going backward. and we had a great time . it's w eather be surprising where you snowing. doing something □□n you have to be willing to sweat and learn to enjoy your task 8 talk about the damage sweating. and the underground was a total nightmare . are not well prepared So I Sit. Please tell me. People are so amazed by the "totally awesome" weather that I've seen some people just standing there staring as if they were in a trance.not live? Have you had any surprising surprising as they said on the news that it hasn't snowed here for w eather where you live recently? nearly 50 years! We decided not to send her to school.. There is no 7 criticize some people for escaping the heat. And it's been very bad news for the citrus trees . G future perfect and future continuous V weather P vowel sounds Stormy weather 1 READING Posted: Tuesday September 4th a Look at the three photos and read Yesterday was unbelievable. We used dried cranberries for the eyes and a baby carrot for the nose because it was a baby snowman. and sadly. and does so m eo n e. They told us not to cycle anywhere and to stay indoors. how do you shop? Try on clothes? No.Interstate 5 was closed in some parts. In which blog(s) bikes . and there were severe weather warning □ D D piles of bikes in the streets and broken 2 seem to be a foreigner umbrellas everywhere.. a terrible storm. and a whole load of trucks were stuck in the snow.we even made a snowman in the backyard. here sw eating in my living room. The French windows are to cope with the weather □ □ □ open. Even if it thaws tomorrow. and if you actually want to go anywhere.. So I'm afraid we won't be eating any local oranges this year! Comments U J] . 5 talk about problems I never knew this kind of heat was possible here.. for people going to work . In pairs. "Dad. but I had a job are writing from. sunny day. but I had to grab hold of traffic lights so I w ouldn’t be blown into the street.it was like being slowly cooked in an oven.

affected what you have been doing. can be pronounced in more than one way.6 You’re going to listen to M artin Cinert from Prague talking about the has been like recently. b 34 Listen and check.7 SO N G It's raining men 5 He looked out the window and saw that his parking lot was starting to flood. Put a 1 What kind of weather do you What cities or countries check (✓) next to the sentences if think is good or bad for . Then practice from the weather? saying them. 3 He went back to the apartment because he was excited by the situation. 4 Martin went to a place near his apartment to watch the water level rising. What were you doing at the time? What did you do to protect yourself c 3. 2 He took his wife and child to his parents’ house.. b Listen again. 9 Martin’s car broke down as he drove through the water.. talk about a time If you are unsure what the vowel sound is in a new word. 7 thunder sunny uncomfortable humid 8 scorching force world storm • you were caught outside in a thunderstorm. 5 flood cool monsoon loose • there was a gale or hurricane. or combinations of vowels. 7 All of the roads he tried were flooded now.. a In small groups. correct the false sentences. • there was a flood. 6 He was the last person to leave his apartment building.5 Dictation.. a Look at the groups o f words below. Did you ever feel scared or in danger? 4 LISTENING b Write a short blog (like the ones in 1 on page 40) describing what the weather a 3. M ark the sentences T (true) or F (false). • it was very foggy or there was 1 blow snow showers below a lot of smog. 10 All the apartments in his building were seriously damaged. check with your dictionary. Circle the word with a different sound..? both are correct. when you were somewhere and . Write about how night the River Vltava flooded. 3 drizzle blizzard chilly mild • it was pouring rain for days 4 hard warm yard farm on end. but he was at risk at his apartment. 2 weather sweat heavy heat • it was unbearably cold. it has made you feel and how it has 1 He wasn’t at risk at his office. Cross out the wrong form.2 VOCABULARY weather 5 SPEAKIN G & W RIT IN G a O p. Then in pairs.? do you associate with . 6 3. a camping a typhoons 1 It’s very cold! / It’s very freezing! b going for a walk in the mountains b smog 2 It’s really windy! / It’s incredibly windy! c running a marathon c heavy snow 3 It’s really boiling today! / It’s incredibly d sailing d floods boiling today! e sightseeing e hurricanes 4 I was absolutely frightened! / 1 was absolutely terrified! 3 PRONUNCIATION vowel sounds Most vowels. 8 He decided to follow another car through the water. Listen and write down five sentences.. c W hat do you th in k you would have done in M artin’s situation? . 6 fought ought drought brought • there was a terrible heat wave.150 Vocabulary Bank Weather. GET IT RIGHT modifiers b Talk to a partner.

. for example.. set) 5 A What time ... . (take) 4 A Let’s have lunch on the patio. and half the world will be 10 moderate droughts. And I’m sure there too much traffic. • One third of the world will be9 _ from extreme droughts. become closed down doubled having (x2) melted risen (x3) suffering c Read the predictions again. (be. Many glaciers. Hundreds of millions of people will be displaced. • The ice in the Arctic Sea will melt every summer. . Sometimes more than one form is possible. Mid term: by the year 2100 • Sea levels will have4 by 6-27 inches (16-69 centimeters). I’ve already put it in my suitcase.„7 . you. . (be) 3 A Do you think while we’re in Seoul? (rain) B I don’t know. going to. causing the extinction of polar bears. Read some o f the predictions scientists are m aking about climate change and com plete them with a word from the list below.. such as New York. It’s very foggy... W hich ones worry you most? Have you noticed the effects o f climate change in your country? Storm clouds on the horizon Climate change is now something that we cannot close our eyes to. This means that low-lying islands like the Maldives will no longer be habitable. in about ten minutes.28 b New grammar. Paris and London. 1 promise. • Sea levels will have8 by more than 36 feet (11 meters). I P . but I my umbrella just in case. flooding large areas of Bangladesh. I ___________ the window. and governments all over the world have finally realized that they have to sit up and take notice. or present continuous). • Fifty percent of the world's ski resorts will have3. (drive. • The number of serious coastal storms and tsunamis will have5 • Northern European cities.g. Future forms 1 A It’s freezing in here! B OK. GRAMMAR future perfect and future continuous Check what you know. and many low-lying cities. . Tens of millions of Africans will have to emigrate. will b e6_____ 50 days a year of heat waves when temperatures are over 86°F (30°C) (there are currently 6-9 days). due to lack of snow. on Mount Kilimanjaro. (close) 2 The sky is really clear! I’m sure i t a beautiful day tomorrow. Long term: by the year 3000 • Temperatures will have 7 by about 59°F (15°C). but don’t worry. not be) Any problems? © W o r k b o o k p. I _________ really slowly. Short term: by the year 2050 • More than a third of the world's plant and animal species will have 1 extinct.I __ the table outside. B i t ______ ___ L_ warm enough? (be) A I think it fine. OK. _? (leave) B Soon. These are some of the things that many scientists predict w ill happen if we keep on polluting the atmosphere with C02 emissions. will have2 completely.. Put the verb in parentheses in the correct future form (will + base form. e.

not baths. a car with an extra electric motor that charges up If you use air-conditioning. If possible. I think we'll we’ll have stopped using gas. glass. W hat are the alternatives? Talk to a partner. and household waste. Friends of the Earth or Greenpeace. opinion on combatting climate change.? a do you already do b are you willing to try to do c are you not willing to try What can YOU do to help? The top tips 1 Fly less. and use a If you have to fly. people won’t be going on skiing vacations anymore. that we won't need any heat. A At this time tomorrow it will be snowing. 1 What was Barbara’s dilemma? Why? 2 What changes has she made to her lifestyle over the last six years? Why? 3 How did Barbara travel? Through which countries? 4 How was she able to take such a long vacation? c 39 Listen to the second part and complete the information in the chart. UK TO AUSTRALIA ONE-WAY Cost Distance Time C 02 emissions Barbara $______ miles days metric tons plane $_____ miles hours metric tons d W hat do you th in k o f Barbara’s trip? e Read What can you do to help? about what you can do to help prevent climate change. 5 Unplug electrical appliances when they're not in use. transportation. 12 Call or write to government officials to let them know your they use electricity even in "standby" mode. everyone will be using public transportation to get to work. 2 Drive as little as possible. © p. I disagree. 11 Regularly recycle paper. In 20 years . be using nuclear power.. And if you need to drive.136 Grammar B an k 3B. . 9 Take showers. Two or three dozen trees can absorb a whole household's emissions of C02. Use bikes or public Take your own bags when you go to supermarkets. try to buy organic food that has been grown locally. we’ll all be using solar power to heat our homes. Use buses or trains instead where possible. C It will snow tomorrow. buy a hybrid. Turn your heat down and wear a sweater if you're cold.. plastic. 8 LISTENING & SPEAKING a 38 Listen to the first part o f a news story about a woman nam ed Barbara Haddrill. You could also carpool with a friend. give money to an organization like short-wash cycle on your dishwasher. 3 Use only energy-saving lightbulbs. private swimming pools and golf courses will have been banned. Which of the tips below . 10 Support an environmental organization. W hat did she do? Why? b Listen to the first part again and answer the questions. Talk to a partner or in small groups. W hat do you think? Explain why (not). which uses less energy Carbon Footprints to compensate for the C02 emissions and water than handwashing dishes. 4 Plant trees. of your flight. when you stop. M atch the sentences A -C with pictures 1-3. Read the rules and do the exercises. don't set it lower than 78°F (26°C). for example.. Use the cold water wash on your washing machine. B By tomorrow evening it will have snowed. and tickets will be extremely expensive.. and we will be using electric cars. I think it will have become so warm discount airlines will have disappeared.

You may think this is the the questions. how horrific we about danger. When the hazard is low and the outrage is high. generally. c flying is more dangerous.. Peter Sandman. Every year. driving.000 private swimming pools is drowned in the United States. New Jersey. take danger very seriously. “ Risks that you can control are much less worrisome than risks you can’t c we are too worried about mad control. so Molly’s parents decide that she is not allowed to play there. Instead. However. the second is extremely rare. A gun horrifies us. heart disease. from driving i . factors. but according to the statistics. a risk consultant in Princeton. but it b we can keep our kitchen clean. “ But a terrorist attack happens now. The probability of someone being killed in a terrorist attack is infinitely c are less worried about dangers in smaller than the probability that this same person will eat too much fatty food and die of the near future. is a distant. right choice.” Which is why so many parents will do more to protect their children from a gun accident than from a swimming pool accident. Molly’s parents are not unique. Terrorist acts lie beyond our control . So flying and driving carry a very similar risk. . 11. “When the hazard is high but the terror is low. terrifies us. I am the one a on a plane. to die in a swimming accident than because of playing with a gun. b shouldn’t worry so much about Levitt also says that people tend to be much more scared of short-term dangers than heart disease. keep a gun in their house. It is just our lack of a believe that terrorism is more of control when we are flying that makes it seem more scary.French fries do not.” Her parents know that the parents of one of her friends in a is riskier. Parents. but they often worry Read the article once fa irly q u ick ly about completely the wrong things. but for some reason not very frightening. disease.” 3 People are more afraid of flying than This “control factor” probably explains why flying tends to scare people more than driving because . people overreact. This is because. says. people spend far less time flying than driving.. clean our kitchen is. but for some reason we are not horrified by the thought of death from heart with danger. a threat than heart disease. “ Death from heart disease 5 People tend . but there is a swimming pool. whereas we can control how cow disease..” a to worry too much Finally. to stop accidents.. according to Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner in their best-selling book Freakonomics.” He compares the doesn’t worry us because .” says Sandman.. one child per 1 Molly’s parents . dangerous bacteria in our kitchen and diseases such as mad cow disease: the first is very a it isn’t really dangerous. they feel that Molly would be much safer spending time at another friend’s Read the article again and answ er house. quiet catastrophe. but a swimming pool does not. you would be wrong. statistically. common. We are horrified by the thought of being killed in a terrorist b to confuse terror attack. Levitt argues. where there are no guns. the number of deaths for each hour of driving compared with each hour of 4 People . C conditionals and future time clauses. Generally. The authors give as an example the fictitious case and fin d out w h ich o f the things of a little girl they call “ Molly. “Their thinking goes like this: ‘since I control the car. In fact.’” Actually. “The risks that 2 Having bacteria in our kitchen scare people and the risks that kill people are very different things. each year in car accidents than in plane crashes. Sandman uses the following equation: for most people risk = hazard (or danger) c not to do enough + outrage (or horror). there is what Peter Sandman calls “the dread factor.. they are in a situation keeping myself safe. likely and probably V expressions with take P sentence stress and rhythm Taking a risk R E A D IN G W h ic h o f these things scares you m ore? The risk factor Our daily lives are full of dangers. only one child a worry too much about their is killed by a gun for every million guns.. This means that a child is 100 times more likely daughter. people are just not very good at assessing c don’t take danger seriously. consider something to be. long-term ones.. Statistics for the United States show that although many more people die than car crashes. flying is about the same.4 0 M"bO o 80 no 120 • being shot or drowning? — 30 130 our cars to eating cholesterol in our food. “We can’t tell if our meat is infected.” that is. But MHt 140 v • mad cow disease or bacteria in the kitchen? how good are we really at assessing these risks? • flying or driving? • terrorist attacks or heart disease? Not very good at all. b are scared of the wrong thing. people underreact." says Levitt.. the question of which is more dangerous is not as simple as many b more people die in plane crashes people think. driving isn’t necessarily more dangerous. they say.. risk. I am al the mercy ol external where they can’t do anything. since I have no control of the airplane.

b Friday afternoon c Saturday night This “control factor’’ probably explains why flying tends to scare 5 Most fatal accidents happen o n ______ people more than driving. He probably won’t come. e. so advantage after care credit easy notice we went out for a m eal______ part place seriously risks time up e Is there anything you are scared of? Do you think this is a real risk to you? The questionnaire _____ 2 LISTENING 1 Are you a cautious person or do you enjoy taking ? 2 Do you t a k e for your accomplishments. his wife is a strict vegetarian. O 45 .g. take turns asking and answering the questions.. 5 John loves meat. Use probably before the main verb in an [+J sentence. c fatal accidents Com plete the sentences with likely or probably. 3 VOCABULARY expressions with take 6 _____ the weather forecast is awful. She’s likely to be off work for a long time.. e. or do you a a pedestrian sometimes ignore them? b a driver 7 Do you worry about your health? Do you take of yourself? c a motorcyclist 8 Do you get up very quickly in the morning or do you take y o u r ? 2 Most accidents happen because drivers______ 9 Have you ever not taken of a good opportunity (and regretted it)? a fall asleep at the wheel 10 Have you ever taken in a demonstration? b are drunk c drive too fast 11 Have you taken a new sport or hobby recently? 3 Driving at night i s as dangerous as driving 12 Has any big sporting event ever taken in your city? during the day. b u t. the risk of an attack is rather small. Before you modest and shy? listen. do you relax and take it ? i s ______ 6 Do you always take of rules and regulations. should cancel the trip. a three times b In pairs. c under 25 4 I’l l be home late tonight. b between 25 and 34 3 That isn’t to happen in the near future. article and use them to complete these sentences. Ask for h four times m ore information. it rained a little bit. but likely is more b freeways frequently used as an adjective whereas probably is always an adverb. She'll a minor accidents probably be off work for a long time. e. women have m ore than men. a over 65 2 T h ey won’t be here before 6:00. 4 Are you like your father or your mother? Who do you take ? 1 The most dangerous thing to be on the road 5 When you're on vacation. c ten times 4 You’re most likely to have a nonfatal accident M IN I G RA M M A R likely and probably on a ______ A child is 100 times more likely to die in a swimming accident than a Tuesday morning because of playing with a gun. 7 There was nothing good playing at the movies.. 7 The age at which a driver is most at risk i s ______ 1 I don’t think the boss is v ery to agree. 6 Mile for mile. 3 Do you think punishments for dangerous driving should be more severe? 4 People worry about terrorists. c country roads Use be + likely + infinitive. . or are you overly a You are going to listen to a risk expert talking about the risks of driving in the US. but before the auxiliary verb b serious accidents in a . they are more dangerous. in pairs.g. a highways Likely and probably are very similar in meaning. d Talk to a partner.1sentence. 2 _____ doctors it isn’t a good idea to go swimming 1 Would these statistics probably be similar in your country? right after lunch. 1 Motorcycles are much cheaper than cars______ _ c Listen again for more information. predict which option you think 3 Do you take climate change ? What are you doing about it? is correct.g.d Look at the highlighted words and phrases in the b 3-l° Listen once and check your answers. I think we a Complete the questionnaire with the words in the list. 2 Do you often travel at dangerous times and on dangerous roads? 3 The open-air concert was a success.

46 . c A nsw er th e questions w ith a partner.. M ain clause O ther clause 1 D on’t throw your notes away □ A in case it’s raining when you finish work. 3 They’11 call us □ C if you’re having dinner now. 6 I’ll tell you when I hear / I ’ll hear from him. 4 If it rains tonight.. 6 Always keep medicine in a safe place in case . Listen an d w rite six future sentences to com plete the dialogues. a hairdryer) as soon as . Match the sentence halves..? 3 What does in case mean in sentences 1 and 7? d © p. 2 I don’t go / won’t go to work tomorrow unless I feel better. what tenses can be used in the main clause? What tenses can be used in the other clause after if. 5 PRONUNCIATION sentence stress and rhythm a D ictation. B ut_____________________ 2 A Do you think you’ll be able to repair them soon? 5 A W hat do you have in that bag? B ______________________________________________________B:' _____________________________________ 3 AHow will I know where to find you? 6 A Will it be a problem if they stay for lunch? B _____________________________________________ B ________________________________________________ b Listen again and underline the stressed words. 1 Don’t let children play near a swimming pool unless ... Circle the correct verb form.136 Grammar Bank 3C. 1 AIf we rent a summer house in June. 7 Take your umbrella □ G when you call me. 5 I’ 11 probably be driving □ E if you arrive at two. 4 You shouldn’t leave children alone in the house u n til.. 8 If you are frying something and the oil catches fire.31 b New grammar.. 4 You’re going to be late □ D if you’re finished cooking. 1 If 7 like / I ’ll like the car when I see it. 9 I’ 11 have already had lunch □ I as soon as they’ve landed. Any problems? O Workbook p. 2 Never leave a dog locked up in a car i f . 2 You are more likely to have an accident □ B if you don’t hurry up. I’ll buy it. we won’t have to / don’t have to water the lawn tomorrow. 8 Please put everything away □ H until everybody puts their seat belt on. in case. 4 GRAMMAR conditionals and future time clauses a Check what you know. 3 Keep a first aid kit in your house in case ... e In pairs. 7 Don’t allow strangers into your house unless . will you come and stay? 4 A What time did Mandy say she was coming? B I’ll tell you B At &00. when. 1 Which sentence is a zero conditional and refers to something that always happens.. not a future possibility? 2 In the other sentences.. 5 Always unplug electrical appliances (e.. 3 We’ll keep on playing until it gets / will get dark. c In pairs. com plete each sentence to m ake som e useful safety tips.g.... Read the rules and do the exercises. Try to say the sentences as fast as possible with the correct rhythm . etc.. so leave a message.. 5 I won’t make a decision until I have / I ’ll have all the information. 10 I’m not starting the car □ J if you drive too fast. 6 I’ 11 call back later □ F in case you need them later. practice the dialogues..

wheels of baby carriages are sprayed with an 2 I was allowed to / could play in the street. uniforms. Talk in small groups. When Ryosuke and Taemi Suzuki take their 6 She thinks that schools are obsessed with eliminating risk because if children 18-month-old daughter to Fantasy Kids Resort ___________ . its large sandpit contains sterilized sand that is cleaned daily to play in the street remove any potentially harmful objects. antibacterial solution. Most walk to school of the bigger toys are inflatable to reduce the go to a nearby park or playground alone or with friends risk of injury. Do you think it was safe? it puts absolute priority on safety. and more than a dozen security cameras are mounted on the ceiling. in Japan. 3 I used to / use to go to the park aione when I was a child / young. This is to protect the resort as use public transportation by yourself or with friends much as the children because parents of a stay at home alone child injured while at the playground might go swimming without an adult supervising easily sue the resort. children are watched over by about 4 Nowadays / ioday parents think this is too risky. 2 Children spend most of their tim e ___________ . use the Internet choose whatever TV programs you wanted to watch "We've been here before and we'll definitely travel in a car without a seat belt come again. 6 LISTENING a Look at the photo and read an extract from an article about a childrens playground in Japan. According to a O p i 57 Phrasal verbs in context File 3. recent government survey.. Check (✓) the sentences if both are correct. door because they carry germs. 'This place has a newspaper everything under one roof. even in th e ____________ 3 They learn about the world b y ____________." says Mr. Pets are Did you use to do the following things when you were younger? banned from the playground. director of a preschool in England. and Mrs. First-time visitors to the playground must provide proof of identification before they GET IT RIGHT comparing past and present enter. W hat are the m ain safety measures? W hat do you think of them? b <*3-12 Now listen to an interview with Sue Palmer. Ol 47 . such as disease and accidents. Suzuki? Listen again and complete the information about the school with a word or phrase. How is her attitude different from that of Mr. they are guaranteed total peace of Parents at her school a re ____________ about what the school is doing. Suzuki. mind.. 4 Sue thinks children today don’t have enough___________ . 5 They need to be allowed t o ___________ when they play. 20 staff members. dressed in bright yellow 5 They don’t let children go I to go on the bus by themselves. and Mrs. Fantasy Kids Resort is one of several similar playgrounds in Japan that provide for d Do you agree with Sue Palm ers philosophy about young children and risk? the growing number of parents who constantly worry about possible dangers threatening 7 SPEAKING their children. and shoes must be removed at the Cross out the wrong form. 1 The preschool is in a ___________ in southern England." Do you think it is safe for children to do them today? Mr. Even the 1 I must / had to walk to school by myself when I was little. their parents will sue the school. but most importantly. Suzuki are not alone in wanting Are there any other things you used to do as a child that you think from to remove just about every element of risk would be risky today? Adapted from their children's lives. Inside.

Write the num ber of each speaker next to the 1 . the risk element played a part.er)k/ th e area of L ondon on th e so u th sid e of th e R iver T h am es lamppost /'lam ip. so I would definitely love t o into white-water rafting. and climbing. 5 "^ High risk? C o l l o q u ia l E n g l is h THE INTERVIEW a You are going to listen to an interview w ith EZ.. 313 Listen to part 1. you start out very small scale ... Before you listen..? 1 wants to try out a sport with a family member a Look at this list o f high-risk sports. G lo ssa ry the South Bank /saoB b. and jumping out of a plane for me. Then answer the same questions with a partner.. D o you know 2 had a sports injury what they all are? 3 says they’re too nervous to try skydiving bungee jumping D O rock climbing □ □ 4 learned a high-risk sport as a child jet skiing □ □ scuba diving parachuting D Q skydiving □ □ 3. you could .. right aw ay COMMON PHRASES If you wanted to. ________do it anywhere..7 Listen and com plete the phrases... pv What kind of work do they do? A s_____ . Do you think free running is a good thing What does he say a b o u t. W hat do you think BMX a k in d o f m o u n ta in bike calluses /'kicbsiz/ areas o f th ick h ard sk in on a h a n d or foot they mean? straight away /strcit a'wei/ (B ritish E nglish) im m ediately. a “free runner” who started the organization Urban Freeflow.. W hich sports haven’t any o f the 2 I cannot myself doing any high-risk sports. someone leading______ _ and the rest following.5 Listen and complete the phrases. read the glossary and look at how the words are pronounced to help you understand what he says.. Answer the questions with a partner.. jum ping. 6 How is free running helping youth offenders and schoolchildren? Why do they like it? e Listen to the interview again with the audioscript on 314 Listen to part 2. Answer the questions with a partner. Free runners use obstacles in a town or city to create m ovement by running. and I never up on it with them.16 Listen to four people talking about high-risk COMMON PHRASES sports.. 3 What sports did he practice before free running? To___________ . e Listen to the interviews again with the audioscript on page 125.. 4 . speakers tried yet? 3 . 1 Can you do free running anywhere? I had to just change my life around and become sensible 2 Does EZ usually do it alone or with other people? all o f___________ . W hat do you race car driving Q Q white-water rafting □ dl th in k they mean? 3. Tim Duey Josh Christina Q t i r r m i i i i i MuitiRowi . W ho .. w h ic h you sta n d o n a n d rid e as a sport d 3 .poost/ a tall p o st w ith a lam p on top u sed to illu m in a te th e street scheme /sk im / (B ritish E nglish) a program or p la n for organizing sth PE p h y sic al ed u c a tio n . pv sport(s) they have tried. page 125. 4 Why did he take up free running? . does a bit of running a n d ____________up straight 5 How many athletes are there on the Urban Freeflow team? away. esp ecially as a sch o o l subject skateboard /'skeitbord/ a sh o rt n arro w board w ith sm all w h e e ls at each e n d .? for young people to do? W hy (not)? 1 being safety conscious 4 a tree 2 the sense of freedom 5 gymnastics 3 blisters and sprained ankles ON THE STREET Listen again.. .

We can also .. and this is a terrible example for young offenders. Ways of giving examples There are several things we can do.. who have more difficult lives than they do. which may tempt them to commit more conclusion). for example / for instance / such as . reasons. logically from the examples you have given. This should state i Nowadays ] when a young person commits a minor what the current situation is and why it is offense. 5_____________ ... . or important. who commit a minor offense.. Use capital letters where necessary.4_____________ summary of your opinion).2______________ I believe that community change are now in the world and in your country. So community 3 Think of how to express your conclusion (a service can be an educational experience. Use a formal style (avoid contractions crimes. 1 Think about the introduction. They do not usually have punctuation. spending time in prison results in young W RITE 120-180 words. 6_____________ . Useful language Ways of giving your opinion (Personally) I think / 1 believe . punishment for young people. 7_____________ ... finally first in addition in conclusion in most cases nowadays second so whereas c You’re going to write a com position titled There is nothing that we as individuals can do to prevent climate change.8______________it is often their parents who pay the fine for them. Do you agree or disagree? T hen quickly read the com position and see if the w riter’s opinion is the sam e as yours. This should follow going to prison or paying a fine is not. a fine. and spelling). he or she is usually sentenced to prison. in prisons many of the inmates take or informal expressions). Use the phrases in b and drugs. Another thing we can do is .. PLAN the content... organized in four or people meeting other criminals and learning more about the five paragraphs (introduction. in Useful Language. 1believe that community service has important advantages both for minor offenders and for the community. including person not to reoffend. service is the best option. I do not think that a fine is an appropriate CHECK your composition for mistakes (grammar. In my opinion . 9_____________ . Decide what the effects of climate community service. Expressing your opinion W r itin g f 3 a Read the title of the composition. Look at the Useful language expressions and m ake sure you know how to use them . Working with sick children or old examples of why you think the alternative point people makes young offenders realize that there are people of view is wrong. much money themselves. Community service is the best b C om plete the com position with a w ord or phrase punishment for young people from the list below. and criminal world. community service often persuades a young reasons to support your opinion. Try to think of at least two or three good 5_____________ . 2 Decide whether you agree or disagree with the title.

1 robber burglar pickpocket kidnapper 1 The accident happened when they were 2 fraud smuggler theft terrorism repairing the road. 5 ^ What do you remember? GRAMMAR VOCABULARY a C om plete the second sentence so that it a W ord groups. He probably__________________ 9 We had nearly three inches of snow when I woke up. found. 8 It p rain last night and we got soaked coming home. 4 They k _____ the politician’s son and asked for a million dollars ransom. finish weather theft thunder ‘haW V/ burned jury murder burglar f t f W l INOIA charge guilty changeable • S' ’a“ slip icy hijack steal dealer sweat heat b U nderline the stressed syllable. 1 Imagine! At this time tomorrow w e _________ on the beach. 4 Many people have problems sleeping if they_______ coffee in the afternoon. The murderer w ill_________________ b C om plete the sentences with a verb in the simple past. doesn’t pay. drink PRONUNCIATION 5 I want to spend a year traveling a U n d erline the w ord with a different sound. 3 evidence judge jury witness The accident happened when the road 4 chilly cool scorching freezing __________________ repaired. 5 hurricane mist blizzard flood 2 They’ll probably never find the murderer. U nderline the word that is different. __________________ teenager. Say why. 2 The police c the burglar at the scene of the crime. 5 He isn’t likely to come. b C om plete the sentence with the correct 10 We t advantage of the good weather and spent the day form o f the verb in bold. i t ________ 2 Are you planning to tak e a new sport when you go to college? already_________ start 3 Who do you take most. when I ________ college. time I get home. accuse blackmail community typhoon seriously . It is __________________ crime 6 The wind b so hard that two trees fell down. 7 I sw so much at the gym that my T-shirt was soaking wet. 1 They c _____ a terrible crime. Let’s move and sit the shade. By the 1 The woman was charged drug dealing. at the beach. but it m _____ during the morning. 3 People think the burglar is a teenager. 2 The game starts at 7:00. lie c Com plete the sentences with one word. until the plane_________ land 5 It’s very hot here. 4 They say that crime doesn’t pay. 5 Jack the Ripper m seven women in London in the 19th century. m eans the sam e as the first. your mother or your father? 3 You can’t use your cell phone 4 W atch ! You nearly hit that cyclist. The burglar is thought 3 The judge s her to five years in jail.

"at least three or four 6 “Assault” (line 23) m eans______ times. M atch each speaker with the people is Police cruised the neighborhood in a patrol car with the sketch in search A-F.______ and took my bicycle from the garden shed. 3 Avalanches are a climber’s worst enemy. Mr. assault.9 You will hear part of an interview with two 20 said that in the past some victims had used their cell phones to take m ountain clim bers.8 You will hear five people talking about remembering the man's face because he was so close to me. 82. photographs at crime scenes. "I knew right away who the burglar was. or c. a senior police officer." he said. CAN YOU SAY T H I S IN E N G L I S H ? 4 Climbing helps me do my job better. The burglar b a drawing can be better than a photo tried to cycle away.." said Mr. □ describe things we can do to reduce the effects of climate change 8 Accidents are usually a climber’s own fault. b. burglary. Green called the local police. and n either o f them says. but instead he c breaking into someone’s house io offered to draw them a picture.. The missing bike was later found on a nearby street 1 Climbing is safer than driving. □ talk about appropriate punishments for different crimes 7 People with young children shouldn’t go climbing. from M next to w hat M arion says." After the man fled. Mr. and N next to what Adapted A 34-year-old man is expected to be charged with theft. "I had no difficulty in a 3. of the alleged burglar and found him within half an hour. officers asked him to describe the man. "When Mr. T here is one person you don’t need. Green started drawing. "The cartoon A a journalist □ D a police officer O was a perfect likeness of the burglar. Green did not fight the burglar because a he was wearing his best clothes b he knew he would lose c the burglar was too quick 2 “Flat” (line 6) m ean s______ a broken b not round c without air 3 Mr. C an you . Phil Rushford. and c went at top speed suddenly I saw this guy running toward me. 2 I try to control the element of risk when 1 climb. B a lawyer □ E a teacher □ a newspaper C a parent □ F a victim of teenage crime PI The police believe that this is the first time they have ever caught a suspect by using a cartoon sketch.What can you do? R ev iew & C heck CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? Read the article and choose a. He pushed me out of the way 5 According to the police. but the tires on the bike were flat making it difficult to c cell phone photos cannot be used in court ride. Green used to b e ______ a an artist b a soccer player c a journalist 4 “Cruised” (line 15) means a drove around slowly il l ia m e l l is c r e e n . Green had worked for more than 20 years in daily newspapers CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? doing caricatures of Australian soccer players." said one of the police officers. "He kept falling off the bicycle." said another police officer. but they had not been as effective. b 3. teenage crim e. Creen. a attacking someone b stealing property When they arrived. |_| talk about whether life is riskier today than it was in the past 51 . was making his breakfast when he b looked everywhere heard somebody in his garden. "1 went out the back door. 6 My spouse is not happy that 1 go climbing. 1 Mr. W rite D next to what Dan says.? 5 My job is pretty boring. Creen did not resist as he a crime victims should take photos 5 knew he would end up second-best in a fight with the intruder." Mr." In fact.

person may not act quickly enough in a crisis 6 The Pan Am passengers had plenty of time to escape. she might not have reacted as she did. b Most people act coolly and calmly. 8 People don’t read safety information because they aren’t worried about crashing. "So when something bad happens." says 4 Why did Paul Heck survive? psychologist John Leach. in pairs. to how people might react . how could more lives havebeen saved? 10% to 15% remain calm and act quickly and efficiently. A read about a survivor o f the W orld Trade Center. and B read about a survivor from the Tenerife air crash. It also seems that personality is not a good guide 4 Experts say that some people who died in the World Trade Center could have survived. A 1 Where was Elia on September 11. 3 She took her time leaving because she didn’t know' where the exit was. I've heard it so many times! b I listen. c I pay attention and also read the safety information in the seat pocket. G unreal conditionals V feelings P sentence rhythm Would you get out alive? 1 SPEAKING & READING a Answer the questions with a partner. but I don't take it very seriously. 1977? and screaming and obstructing the evacuation. mark the sentences T (true) or F (false). in a crisis. 2 How did the accident happen? But the vast majority (70%) of people do very 3 According to experts. to me. c I wouldn't pay any attention.a normally decisive 5 The 1977 Tenerife air crash happened in bad weather conditions. b Read How humans behave when the worst thing happens and check your answer to question 1 above. T hen use the questions below to tell each other about w hat you read. 2001? W to me. 2 What do you do when you are on a plane and the flight attendant starts to explain the safety procedures? a I don't listen.' instead of taking action." but disasters can strike.. how could more passengers havesurvived? little." f W hat survival tips have you learned from this article? W hich were the best options in questions 2 and 3 in exercise a above? 52 . many people "freeze" 2 If her coworker hadn’t shouted. c Most people "freeze" and can’t do anything. our minds take much longer to process 1 Elia Zedeno’s first instinct was to run. stress. In pairs. just at the moment when they need to act quickly. and vice versa.. Then answer the questions below with a partner. 1 How do you think most people react in a life-or-death disaster situation? a Most people panic and become hysterical. This can't possibly be happening the m eaning o f the ones you didn’t know from the context. How humans behave when 1 What two reasons are given to explain why a lot of people freeze in a crisis? 2 Is it possible to predict how people will react in a crisis? the worst thing happens. people caught up in 4 How quickly did she leave? disasters tend to fall into three categories. at any time. which I had read when I arrived. Another 15% completely panic. information. I would think it was probably a fire drill. try to figure out they just think. anywhere . 3 What do you think you would do? E ALWAYS THINK "It will never happen c W ork in pairs. 3 What would you do if you were in a hotel on the fifth floor and the fire alarm went off in the middle of the night? a I would pick up essential things like my wallet and phone and find the quickest way down to the lobby. a professor at Texas A&M University. they are so shocked e Look at the highlighted words related to disasters.from hotel fires to train crashes to terrorist attacks. They are "stunned and confused. b I would follow the emergency instructions on the back of the door. About i> According to experts. So. lives without a disaster. would you cope if the unthinkable happened? 2 How did she react when the plane hit the World Trade Center? 3 What saved her life? According to experts." says Michael Lindell. crying B 1 Where was Paul Heck on March 27. 5 What previous experience influenced Paul? Why is this? Research suggests that under great d Read the whole article and. "Most people go their entire 7 Heck had always worried about how he would be able to escape from places.

One of the survivors was 65-year-old Paul Heck. 1977 a Pan Am 747. While he was waiting for the plane © p. collided with a Dutch KLM 747 that was taking off in the fog. Zedeno first shouted out "What's happening?" You might expect that her next instinct was to run. Experts say that many more 1 unable to think clearly or understand what’s would have survived if they had gotten off the plane immediately. Everyone on the KLM plane was killed. • furious • really fed up CQ[ . is that people think it's not "cool" to do so. she still thinks about that command. just 60 seconds 4 so surprised that you can’t move or react. So next time you fly or stay in a hotel or find yourself in any new environment forget about "being cool" and take a few seconds to find out where the nearest emergency exit is. I felt as if I were in a trance. Why don’t more people read safety information on airplanes and fire escape information in hotels? The answer. He looked for the nearest Look at the pictures.'" Luckily. he always checked for the exits when he was in an unfamiliar and an idiom to describe how each person feels. The accident led to research • exhausted • terrified into why people sometimes freeze when they need to flee. according to research. When the planes collided. Paul did something highly unusual. First she reached for her bag. which was waiting to take off from Tenerife airport. and they got out just before the plane caught fire. He could work "on automatic pilot" whereas other passengers froze. after the collision. happening______ 2 not excited or nervous. She heard an explosion and felt the building actually move. environment. He had been in a theater tire as a boy.151 Vocabulary Bank Feelings.. he studied the 747's safety diagram. the exit.? • amazed • grateful • delighted • homesick Tenerife air crash March 27.. "I was looking for something to take with me. B 2 VOCABULARY feelings O n m a r c h 27. happens on page 52 and find adjectives that m ean . But she had the opposite reaction. Why Paul Heck and not others? In the hours just before the crash. Try to rem em ber an adjcctivc exit and pointed it out to his wife. C hoose two adjectives from below and tell your p artn er why you felt like that. He screamed. and then she started walking in circles. Then I kept looking around for other stuff to take. 'Everything is OK! Don't worry. their minds paralyzed by a storm of new information. A W h en t h e p l a n e hit the World Trade Center on September 11. It may just save your life. I remember I took my book.1977. Years later. "Get out of the building!" she remembers now. Heck's brain had the data it needed. Elia Zedefio was working on the 73rd floor. but 62 passengers on the Pan Am plane survived. to take off. as if it might fall down. "What I really wanted was for someone to scream back. Experts have estimated that at least another 130 people would have gotten out of the World Trade Center alive if they had tried to leave the building sooner. at least one of Zedeno's coworkers responded differently. Can you remember a time when you fe lt. a Look at How humans behave when the worst thing It was the worst air crash in history. and ever since then." When she finally left she went slowly." But Zedeno made it to safety. He led his wife Floy toward 3 very surprised by something unpleasant. 2001. "It's strange because the sound of the explosion and the way the building shook should have made me go faster. "My question is what would I have done if that person had said nothing?" Even then Zedeno still did not immediately run.

3 GRAMMAR unreal conditionals 5 READING & LISTENING
If you were going to go backpacking in the A m azon rainforest,
1 What would you do if your school caught fire?
what do you think would be the biggest dangers?
2 What would you have done if you had been on
the Pan Am plane in Tenerife? Read the beginning o f a true survival story and then answer
the questions below.
a Look at questions 1 and 2 above. W hich one refers to
1 What was the three friends’ original plan? How did this change?
a hypothetical situation in the past? Which one refers
2 What caused tensions between ...?
to a hypothetical situation in the present or future?
a the three men and the guide
b Underline the verb form s in the box above. W hich b Kevin and Marcus
form s are they? 3 Why did they finally separate?
c W ithout looking back at pages 52 and 53, try to 4 Which pair would you have chosen to go with? Why?
com plete 1-4 below. 5 How would you have felt if you’d been in Marcus’s situation?
1 What would do if you______________(be) inahotel
and the fire alarm went off in the middle of the night?
2 Another 130 people____________ (get out) of the
World Trade Center alive if they had tried to leave
the building sooner.
3 Many more people would have survived if they
____________ (get off) the plane immediately.
4 If a fire alarm went off at work, I ___________
(not pay) any attention.

d © pl38 Grammar Bank 4A. Read the rules and do
the exercises.

4 PRONUNCIATION sentence rhythm
a 4-> Listen and write dow n the beginning of
six sentences. T hen m atch them with the sentence
endings A-F.
1 ________________________________________
2 _____________________________________________ : A m a zo n ia n ra in fo r est is roughly the size of Europe or Australia.
It is the home of more than half the plant and animal species known to man,
3 ____________________________________________
many of which are lethal.
4 ____________________________________________
5 ____________________________________________ In 1981 three friends went backpacking in a remote area of Bolivia: Yossi,
22, and his friends Kevin, 29, and Marcus, 29. They hired an experienced
6 _________________________________
guide, an Austrian named Karl, who promised that he could take them
A I would have died. [5] deep into the rainforest to an undiscovered indigenous village. Then they
B if my husband weren't afraid of flying. □ would raft nearly 200 kilometers down river before flying to the capital,
C if I were you. □ La Paz. Karl said that the journey to the village would take them seven
D I wouldn't have acted so quickly. Q or eight days. Before they entered the jungle, the three friends made a
E if I'd been in that situation. □ promise that they would "go in together and come out together."
F you wouldn’t believe me. The four men set out on their trip from the town of Apolo and soon they
had left civilization far behind. But after walking for more than a week,
b 4.2 Listen and check.
they saw no sign of the village, and tensions began to appear. The three
c Listen to sentences 1-6 again and underline the friends began to suspect that Karl, the guide, didn't really know where
stressed words. Practice saying the sentences. the indigenous village was. Yossi and Kevin began to get fed up with their
friend Marcus because he was complaining about everything, especially
d Write conditional chains. For each chain, write two
his feet, which had become infected and were hurting.
sentences in the third conditional.
Eventually they decided to abandon the search for the village and just to
If I hadn’t read the safety information, I wouldn’t hike back to Apolo, the way they had come. But Kevin was furious because
have known where the emergency exit was.
he thought that it was Marcus's fault that they had had to cut short their
If I hadn’t known where the emergency exit was,
adventure. So Kevin decided that he would raft down the river, and he
I wouldn’t have survived the crash.
asked Yossi to join him - he didn't want Marcus to come with them. Karl
1 If I hadn’t accepted the invitation,...
and Marcus agreed to go back to Apolo on foot. The three friends agreed
2 If I hadn’t gotten up so late,...
to meet in a hotel in La Paz one week later.
3 If I had remembered to turn my cell phone o n , ...
Early next morning the two pairs of travelers said good-bye and set out
4 If I had known we had a te s t,...
i their different journeys...
54 ID

Now listen to the docum entary. W hen the recording
stops, answer the questions with a partner.
4.3

1 What happened to Kevin and Yossi on the raft?
2 Why was Yossi really lucky?
Whose situation would you rather have been in?
4.4
3 How were Kevin and Yossi feeling?
4 What happened to Yossi on his first night alone
in the jungle?
W hat would you have done if you had been in
his situation?
4.5
5 Why did Yossis spirits change from desperate,
to optimistic, and then to desperate again?
Do you think you would have given up at this point?
W hat do you think had happened to Kevin?
4.6
6 What had Kevin been doing all this time?
7 Why was he incredibly lucky?
If you had been Kevin, would you have continued
to try to look for your friend?
4.7
8 How did Kevin first try to get help?
9 Why was it unsuccessful?
10 What was his last attempt to find his friend?
What do you think had happened to Yossi?
4.8
11 How long had Yossi been alone in the jungle?
12 What did he think the buzzing noise was? What was it?
W hat do you think might have happened to
Marcus and Karl?

d Listen again with the audioscript on page 125.
U nderline any words that were new for you, j
or words you knew but didn’t recognize.

e Do you think you would have survived if you
had been in Kevin or Yossis situation? Would
you have done anything differently?

6 4.9 SO N G J 3 I will survive

C past modals; would rather, had better
V verbs often confused
P reduced form of have

B How I trained my husband

1 GRAMMAR past modals e Look at the extracts in d again. In pairs, put A,
B, C, o r D in the box after each sentence. W hich
phrases (may have, couldn’t have, etc.) m ean ...?
A you are sure about something that happened
-x * or something that somebody did
B you think its possible that something
happened or somebody did something
C you think its impossible that something
happened or somebody did something
D you think somebody did something wrong

f © p.138 Grammar Bank 4B. Read the rules and
do the exercises.

2 PRONUNCIATION reduced form of have
a 412 Listen to the extracts from the dialogues
in Id again. U nderline the stressed words. How
is have pronounced?
C heck w hat you know. Look at the photo and then answer the
questions using m ust be, might be, or can’t be. b 4 ,3 D ictation. Listen and write dow n
1 What time do you think it is? six sentences.
a 2:00 p.m. b 8:00 a.m. c 6:00 a.m. c In pairs, com plete B’s responses w ith your own
2 What day of the week do you think it is? ideas. T hen practice the dialogues.
a Friday b Saturday c Sunday
3 What do you think she is drinking? 1 A It was my birthday yesterday!
a tea b coffee c soda B You should have told me.
4 What do you think the man is looking for? 2 A I can’t find my glasses anywhere.
a his glasses b his car keys c his briefcase B You couldn’t have___________________
Any problems? © Workbook p.37 3 A I gave Peter a map, but he hasn’t arrived yet.
B He may have _____________
i 4-10 Listen to check your answers to a. W hat was the problem? 4 A I have a terrible stomachache.
^4.11 Now listen to two m ore conversations. W hat are they B You shouldn’t have________
arguing about? 5 A I thought the meeting was this morning, but
no one came.
New gram m ar. Listen again to all three conversations and B ____________________________
com plete the extracts with m ust have, may / might have, 6 A I failed my math test.
couldn’t have, or should have. B ______ _
Conversation 1 7 A I was in a restaurant with Jane and she
1 You left them in your jacket pocket. suddenly walked out.
2 I _put them there - I wasn’t wearing a jacket. Lj B __________________________
3 Someone moved them. □ 8 A Mary didn’t come to the party last night.
Conversation 2 B ________________________
4 W e_____ taken a wrong turn again. D 9 A We’re going to be late. There’s so much traffic.
5 W e_____ turned left at the last traffic light. ( I B _________ ____________________
6 OK, I ____________ said “right.” □
Conversation 3
7 Yes, but I think y o u used less sugar. U
8 You_____ read it correctly. □

I started spending my stop? How did he do it? How did she apply this days watching students do the seemingly impossible: teaching hyenas to pirouette on technique to her husband? command and chimps to skateboard. using the glossary to help you. Sutherland. 6 Professionals talk of animals that understand training so well they eventually use it back on the trainer. had already done the trick. my husband. at his heels. I started to walk Adapted away. Soon I'd done it: no more Scott worked hard (6) excruciating very painful hovering around me while I cooked. S. You can't expect a baboon to learn to flip on their relationship? Is there anyone you would command in one session. He'd begun to train me. I couldn't resist telling my husband what I was up to. just amused. My "animal" did the same. Scott.?" Silence. I was using what trainers call "approximations. where a dolphin trainer introduced me to (6) acknowledge my rant (3) hamper basket for dirty clothes show that he heard my "least reinforcing scenario" (L." a simple but brilliant concept. the American wife. e. Rather than teach the in looking for sth (i. How did she apply it to her husband? 4 What behavior did the bird trainer want to 2 For a book I was writing about a school for exotic animal trainers. I focus on the wet dish in my hands. it typically dies away. irritated. One morning.g. S. but results were immediate. They were not only humiliating. tossed one pair of shorts into the hamper. the trainer taught the birds something else.. a w riter who wanted to cure her husband o f som e irritating habits. He didn’t from say a word or acknowledge my rant in any way. If he threw in two. Then last fall. he explained. Now. "Have you seen my keys?" he 1 What did Amy use to do when her husband snarls and stomps from the room with our dog. I listened to a professional trainer describe how he had (1) faucet the th in g you tu rn to let (5) fuel (v) increase sth. 6 What sometimes happens when animals learn a technique? What technique did her husband After all. R. her fish husband's keys) cranes to stop landing on him. paces behind me. as I launched into yet another tirade about how uncomfortable I was. The use on her. Dixie. When a dolphin does something wrong. and I turned and asked. "Are you giving me an L.). then an even bigger hop. firmly in middle age. R. It took a lot of discipline to maintain my calm. The central lesson I learned is that I should reward behavior I like and ignore behavior I don't. I came up with incompatible behaviors for Scott to (2) reward give sth to sb because on the teeth to correct keep him from crowding me while I cooked. After each paragraph. and how? same goes for the American husband. (1) snarl make an angry noise. I'm using a technique I learned from a dolphin trainer. positive or negative. not even with a nod. Scott just looked at me blankly. "You are. With the would work best? baboon you first reward a hop. Eventually it hit me that the same How did she apply this to her husband? techniques might work on that stubborn but lovable species. I felt as if I should throw him a mackerel. I don't turn around. aren't you?" He finally smiled. the American husband. S. b ird s w ith very long legs fuels a behavior. He stands still for a few beats. just as you can't expect an American husband to begin regularly like to “train”? W hat technique do you think picking up his dirty socks by praising him once for picking up a single sock. stop and answer the questions with a partner. I began to praise every small act every time: if he drove just a mile an hour G lo ssa ry slower. W hat do you th in k they m ight have been? b Read the article paragraph by paragraph. When nagging failed. I would have turned off the faucet and joined the hunt 2 Why and how did she learn about animal while trying to soothe my husband. careful not to look at the (4) African crested cranes tall th in (6) do the trick succeed dolphin." rewarding the small steps changing her husbands behavior and improving toward learning a whole new behavior..e.. He did this by water come out sth stronger training the leggy birds to land on mats on the ground. I piled up parsley for him to chop or cheese they have done sth well. But that only made him angrier. I don't say 3 What is the technique called “approximations”? a word. then I realized what was happening. is what is ( 1) join the hunt take part (5) mackerel a kind of oily called an "incompatible behavior. and then returns to work. dental problems for him to grate at the other end of the kitchen island. He wasn't offended. At home. training? What idea occurred to her? What is and a simple case of missing keys soon would become a full-blown the main principle of animal training? drama starring the two of us and our poor nervous dog. 3 I began thanking Scott if he threw one dirty shirt into the hamper. If a behavior provokes no response. make taught African crested cranes to stop landing on his head and shoulders. the trainer (3) praise say sth positive about sb angry words doesn't respond in any way. c W hat do you think o f the author’s approach to I'd kiss him. With Scott the husband. (2) nag talk to sb continuously in (6) tirade a long angry speech a com plaining or critical way I followed the students to SeaWorld San Diego. at which point I said nothing and kept at what I was doing.. rapt. or was on time for anything. I listened. As I wash dishes at the kitchen sink. When the training techniques worked so a newspaper beautifully. then a bigger hop. G . 3 READING Amy Sutherland tried a You’re going to read an article by Amy new strategy. It was only a matter of time before Scott was again searching for his keys. couldn’t find his keys? What does she do now? In the past. you don't get a sea lion to balance a ball on the end of its nose by nagging. often secretly would make the undesirable behavior impossible. This. but also excruciating. The birds couldn't alight on the mats pay attention to anything else (6) braces metal wires worn and his head simultaneously. R. as professional trainers explained 5 What did she learn from the dolphin trainer? how they taught dolphins to flip and elephants to paint. The idea is that any response. like (4) parsley a herb commonly an animal does used in cooking 4 On a field trip with the students. but his L. a behavior that (6) be up to sth pv be doing (2) rapt so interested that you don’t sth. I learned that 1needed braces on my teeth.

4 Raising your voice will just make the other person their temper.120. 8 ____________ conflict is an important part of any relationship. b Listen again and. when you have both calmed down. 6 Don’t shout.4 W hat’s the difference between a discussion and an argum ent? You’re going to listen to a psychologist giving som e tips to help people w hen they disagree w ith som ebody about som ething. 1 Think carefully about what to say when you begin a discussion.117 B p. 7 There is much more chance that you will be able to an agreement. 8 Use another person to mediate. try to add m ore detail to the tips you selected in a. 5 Stop for a moment a n d a deep breath. too. 5 S P E A K IN G a © Communication Argument! A p. 4 L IST E N IN G a 4 . b Did you follow any o f the psychologist’s tips about how to argue? Was there anything you should / shouldn’t have done? 58 . e 4-!5 Listen and check. 6 It is also very important t o ____________ the point. 4 Never avoid an argument by refusing to talk. 1 But of course this is easier said ____________ 2 If you’re the person who i s ____________wrong. 10 It’s a bad thing for a couple to argue. Role-play two arguments with a partner. 9 Postpone the argument until later. 5 Don’t say things that aren’t completely true. Listen once and put a check {%/) next to the six things she suggests. decide which two of the psychologist’s tips you think are the m ost useful. just admit it! 3 It is important t o th ings control. d Look at these sentences and try to figure out what the missing words are. 3 Say you’re sorry if something really is your fault. 7 Don’t talk about things that aren’t relevant to the argument. c W ith a partner. with a partner. 2 Try to “win” the argument as quickly as you can.

3 You shouldn’t walk home. not August.g. prevent accidents. NOT I’d not rather. b Teenagers often argue / discuss with their parents. She had a bad experience once. Your train leaves in ten minutes. 2 I’d prefer to go out on Friday instead of Saturday. and try to explain 7 You shouldn’t leave your bag there . I’d rather not come to the meeting this afternoon. Then ask and answer a Circle the correct verb in each pair o f sentences. 6 Would you prefer not to go to the party if David is going to be there? b Com pare your answers with a partner. 9 a I woke up during the night because I heard I 1 I think I should go now. really busy. he seemed / looked very friendly. If the boss finds out. hoping to pass . listened to a noise.6 VOCABULARY verbs often confused c Complete the questions with the correct form of one of the verbs from the corresponding pair in a. 1 Do you usually what color eyes people have? 2 What would your boss do if you asked him / her to your salary? 3 Do you often with people in your family? With who? About what? 4 Do you usually going shopping when the stores are crowded? 5 Are you good a t people’s birthdays? 6 Are you to pass or fail your next English exam? 7 Do you think i t ______ if a wife earns more than her husband? 8 Has your car or bike ever b een ______? 9 Are women really better a t _______than men? 10 Who do you like in your family? 1 a When I saw my wife’s face. he’ll b When I spoke to him on the phone. I’d really A had better is stronger and m ore im m ediate than like to see her. he has the same eyes. It’s kind of dangerous you’d know what the problem was. with a partner. should and is often used as a warning. Which of the b Don’t raise / rise your voice when you are having highlighted phrases means should ? Which means would an argument.someone will what the difference is between the verbs in each pair. • Use had better with the base form. 8 a Oh no! Somebody stole / robbed my bike! b A 40-year-old man has been charged with robbing / c Rewrite the b o ld phrases using had better (not) or stealing a bank on Main Street. steal it. b My husband never notices / realizes when I’ve been MINI GRAMMAR would rather. prefer to? Do you know what ci refers to in each case? 3 a I think we need to argue / discuss our new I’d rather talk about this tom orrow after we’ve both marketing plan. You’d better not tell your parents . would rather (not). but I’m not expecting / • Use would rather with the base form. 6 a I expect / hope she’ll come to the party. you go out.g. I’d rather go on vacation in July this year. 2 a The water level in the river is raising / rising. e.. a Look at two sentences from the listening.they'll be furious. 8 My wife would prefer not to fly. but I don’t Would you rather stay in or go out tonight? mind / matter. here at night. I’m b It doesn’t mind / matter if we’re a little late. b If you had heard / listened to what I was saying. I thought fire him. calmed down. 10 a Your brother seems / looks exactly like your father . 5 a Please remember / remind to lock the door before You'd better hurry up. I think wed better lake another look at how we divide 4 a There is a new road safety campaign to avoid / up the housework. 5 Jaime should be careful. had better to the hairstylist. 7 a Mandy didn’t invite me to her party.I’ve only had a few lessons. 4 Ana said she’d prefer to meet on Thursday afternoon. in downtown traffic. b We took the freeway to avoid / prevent getting stuck b Now read the rules for using had better and would rather. It’s very late. . I noticed I realized that 1 had bought the wrong size. e.. b Remember / Remind me to call my mother later- it’s her birthday. b My driving test is next week.

and he then photographed them. □ . 2 He looks like . choose the best description o f the man." c O p-138 Grammar Bank 4C. 3 He looks as i f . H e invited actors into his studio and asked them to " b e " certain characters in certain situations. Read the rules and do the exercises. Use looks.. 1 You realize you have been betrayed by your best friend.. LI 5 You are a young driver telling a police officer that you haven’t had anything to drink. In pairs. I Who is the man in the photo? 2 What’s he doing? In character: actors acting The photographer How ard Schatz had a very unusual idea for a book. □ 4 You are a young child trying not to listen as your mother tells you off.. he told the actor Christopher Lloyd to be "a violin teacher w h o is listening to his student m assacre a M o zart piece. c he is listening to something that sounds awful. 1 He looks . □ 2 You are a four-year-old child letting the family’s pet parrot out of its cag< ^ii% □ 3 You are a young man begging your girlfriend to come with you to visit your parents. a angry. □ 6 You are a police officer leaning on the car door waiting for a driver to show his license.. and looks as if. For exam ple. a he just ate something horrible. b he just heard some bad news. e M atch the faces A -D w ith situations 1-4. a a teacher. [~] 8 You are a police officer looking into a car filled with teenagers. b a bank manager. looks like. c a chef. b Now read about a book called In Character: Actors acting and check your answers. c depressed. d Look at the photos o f Alan G um m ing and M ichael C um psty from the book and describe the actors.. b pained. G verbs of the senses V the body P silent letters Let your body do the talking 1 GRAMMAR verbs of the senses a Look at the photo.. □ 7 You are a young driver admitting that you’ve had maybe a small drink. and the faces E -H w ith situations 5-8.

g Make pairs o f opposites from the adjectives in the list. a mystery object.. a mystery drink. 1 __________ 2 ___________ 3 ___________ 4 ___________ b Listen again and complete the phrases. Mystery drink It sm ells__________________ It smells a little__________________ Mystery food It tastes a little b it__________________ It tastes fairly__________________ Mystery object It feels like__________________ It definitely feels__________________ Mystery sound It sounds like__________________ It sounds__________________ c Discuss your answers to a with a partner. where contestants have to identify a mystery food. to describe one of the objects below for your partner to guess. Then change roles. d 418 Now listen to the answers. W hat do you th in k is happening? Use It sounds as i f . etc. smells. Listen once and write what you think the answers are. Do they usually describe how som ething feels or how som ething tastes / smells? h a rd lo o s e r o u g h /rA f/ sm o o th /s m u 3 / s o ft s o u r / b itte r s tr o n g sw e e t tig h t w eak h Use feels.. or tastes + an adjective or + like + noun. or It sounds like . and a mystery sound. hair that has just been washed a lemon roses a baby after its bath overcooked steak a cat's tongue cabbage being cooked espresso coffee without sugar a full ashtray a two-day beard a marble statue Mexican food a silk scarf jeans that are too small for you 2 LISTENING a • 4 .7 You are going to listen to a radio quiz show called Use Your Senses. Were you right? .f 416 Listen to these sounds.

3 You can easily twist this when playing sports. Use the phonetic transcriptions to help you. a particular song (head) 4 when you think a friend is telling you something that isn’t true as a joke (leg) 5 when you memorize something (heart) 6 when you have saicLsomething that you shouldn’t have said because it is a secret or may cause embarrassment (foot) d 4 . 4 These are often red after you’ve been out in the cold or if you’re embarrassed.g. decide which they are and cross them out. Listen and write dow n six sentences. BODY QUIZ A W hich part of the body? 1 The place where you wear a watch. Match the words in the list with 1-8 in the photo.. asthma/'aezmo/ castle /'ktesl/ doubt /daot/ half/hsef/ honest /'anost/ island /'ailond/ knock/nak/ psychologist/sai'kalcxl3ist/ receipt/n'sit/ sign /sain/ whole /houl/ would /wud/ d 4-2i Listen and check. D feeling nervous □ H thinking hard □ c Take the Body quiz with a partner. B W hich idiom do you use . c Look at som e m ore com m on words w ith silent consonants. e. cheek chin eyebrow eyelashes A saying something important Q E feeling superior Q forehead/Tarheel/ lips neck wrinkles/'rnjklz/ B feeling attracted to someone Q F being honest C feeling defensive □ G lying □ b O P-152 V o cabu lary B a n k The body.. calf wrist palms wrinkles comb kneel thumb b 4-20 Listen and check. 5 You use these to breathe.9 Listen and m im e the action. e 4 22 D ictation. 5 READING a W hat do you understand by the phrase “body language”? a Look at a photograph of the actress Judi Dench. b In pairs. 6 Doctors sometimes listen to this to see if you have a breathing problem. look at the pictures below and try to m atch the body language with the feelings. c Read Let your body do the talking and check your answers.. 2 The two places where you might wear a belt.3 VOCABULARY the body 4 PRONUNCIATION silent letters a Cross out the “silent consonant” in these words.? 1 when you are very nervous (stomach) 2 when you can’t quite remember something (tongue) 3 when you can’t stop thinking about something. ID . In pairs.

It is often seen among strangers standing in lines or in elevators or anywhere where people feel slightly insecure. which describe m ore parts of the body or gestures. a pointing The woman . you are probably thinking about O P-157 Phrasal verbs in context File 4. Soccer players who have just committed a foul often use this gesture to try to convince the referee that they didn't do it. you would expect a person to show more than one. rubbing your eyes. especially when people are speaking in public. Describe your mouth. When painting for your partner to visualize.Let your body do the talking d Focus on the highlighted words. and in order to be sure. speculating. they sometimes play with one of their ear lobes. with the remaining fingers positioned below the b O Communication Two paintings A p. paragraph by paragraph. read the article again. also shows nervousness. Nervousness If you put your hand to your mouth.. look at the painting. and other professionals who feel they know more than you do. Feeling defensive Arms folded tightly over the chest is a classic gesture of defensiveness and indicates that you are protecting yourself. and so does holding a bag or briefcase very tightly in front of the body..120. pulling at your collar. whereas women will play with a lock of hair or continually tuck their hair behind their ears. with their hands clasped behind their heads. explain precisely what / who you are referring to: and. tapping the table with your fingers. Lying There are many gestures that indicate that someone is lying. Use her body language to help you. often shows that you are thinking deeply. Do you use any o f these gestures a lot? and the way we move them. Another gesture of superiority is to put your hands in your pockets with the thumbs protruding. and w hat is happening or has Thinking hard A hand-to-cheek gesture. Openness or honesty When people want to be open or honest. in the finger or a hand waving above the shoulders emphasizes an background I foreground.118 B p.. <3 . In pairs. Talk about where the w om an can simply mean that the person is cold! is. Hand and arm gestures are sometimes deliberate. this either indicates that you are hiding something. touching your ear. where you bring happened. use these expressions to chest height. something important or making a decision.. 6 SPEAKING Saying something important Open hands and arms.. etc. scratching your neck. they will often hold one or both of their palms out to the other person. This gesture is typical of lawyers.o n the right / left / in the center of the picture. However. However. you stroke your chin. accountants. but most often they occur unconsciously and naturally. research shows that people often Remember you can also use might be / may be / could be for find speakers who point their fingers a lot rather annoying. Attraction If men are attracted to someone. this gesture a In pairs. and try about how we feel are our hands and arms .. Fidgeting with your hands. how she is feeling. indicate that what you are saying is important. People also sometimes use this gesture when they are listening to someone. to do each o f the gestures described. to show that they disagree with what is being said. try to figure out w hat they m ean. or putting your finger or fingers in your mouth. GET IT RIGHT describing pictures especially extended and with palms up in front of the body at When you are describing the pictures. The parts of our body that convey most e In pairs. The chin Cape Cod Morning (1950) Edward Hopper and head is often held high. Superiority People who feel superior to you often appear relaxed. Gestures include putting your hand in front of your mouth. individual point. as well as looks. or that you are nervous. touching your nose. a hand to your face and extend your index finger along your cheek.. for example. looks as if.

2 You ju st___________ and you’re expected to know all your lines.... W ho . Before you listen. W hat do s p e n t p racticin g a p lay or piece o f m u sic h an d le an d a heavy m etal blade.oovar/ inform ation or Royal Shakespeare Company com m ents in a m ovie or TV program A B ritish dram a co m p an y that given by a person w h o you do not specializes in S h akespeare’s plays see o n th e screen C o rio la n u s /kana'leinas/ o n e of fringe theater /'fn n d 3 'Oistar/ plays. read the glossary and look at how the words are pronounced to help you understand what he says. n o t a props /praps/ objects u sed by actors d o cu m en tary d u rin g th e p erfo rm an ce of a p lay sword /sard/ a w eap o n w ith a long or m o v ie m etal blade rehearsal /ri’harsl/ tim e th a t is ax /seks/ a w eap o n w ith a w ooden d ‘--4. What does he say a b o u t. W hat do you n um ber o f the speaker next to w hat they appeared in..27 Listen and com plete the phrases. Answer the questions with a partner.___________ oftentimes /'of™ . i. and commercials a s as independent films . Answer the questions with a partner. I guess.... so I used to do lots of dancing when I w as up. G lo ssa ry voice-over /'vais. pv Rachel Josh Kerrie Shelly Juan 4 I was nervous.. _. commercials movies musicals school / college plays 5 .taimz/ often as acting goes. 5 What kind of lines are difficult to memorize? I gave the other guy three stitches on his fingers ___________ point when he parried in the c -A 24 ' Listen to part 2.? You get to do i t and again.? 1 names a musical they have been in d Listen to the interview s again with the audioscript on 2 found that acting helped them later on page 127.. pv Listen again. you th in k they mean? also a tool for c h o p p in g w ood Dictaphone /'dikta. S h ak esp eare’s lesser kn o w n often b y n e w w riters... W rite the c '. a t. wrong place. a C anadian actor... 3 did a lot of dancing as well as acting 4 enjoys pretending to be someone else 5 found it difficult to remember the lines MultiROM .. we ju s t up our own play . COMMON PHRASES sp e ak in g w ith y o u r arm or w ith a w eapon 1 There isn’t much I don’t do.. when I got on stage . pv 1 W hat kinds of acting does he do? 2 How did he become an actor? You do it a few times a n d ___________ .4 T Stage and screen C o l l o q u ia l E n g l is h THE INTERVIEW a You are going to listen to an interview with Trevor W hite. 1 Coriolanus 4 the good and bad 2 a sword and ax fight side about TV and e Listen to the interview again with the audioscript 3 the difference between film work on page 126.e.foun/ a sm all parry /'p a ri/ to defend y o u rself by m a c h in e u se d to record peo p le sto p p in g sb from h ittin g you.. 3 What does he find most difficult about preparing for a part? It’s amazing th e _________________ when the 4 How does he learn his lines? writing is good.. How think they mean? m any of them m ention feeling nervous? COMMON PHRASES 1 It made me feel that I really wasn’t to be an actor specifically. 4.25 Listen and com plete the phrases. T hen answer the sam e questions w ith a partner.g. th at are plays set in Rom an tim es u n u su a l an d q u estio n th e w ay feature film /'fitjar film/ a full-length p eo p le th in k m ovie w ith a story. . e. b Listen to part 1. Does Trevor m ake acting sound like theater acting and film acting 5 being on a red carpet an attractive job? ON THE STREET a <4-26' Listen to five people talking about acting. ..

1 Think of a good title and one or two introductory sentences.... of my niece and nephew w hile their parents go away for a short break. and make sure everything was OK. the kitchen. Then divide the tips into two or three groups and put them You probably think that your hom e is the one place into a logical order. This is the m ost dangerous room in the house. because it might . Everybody except us! Next was the bathroom. w here the children will sleep. Now I know our apartm ent is full of accidents W RITE 120-180 words... It’s not difficult. and spelling). Look at the Useful language expressions and m ake sure you know how to use them ... Reasons . b This article was originally w ritten in six short paragraphs. We asked them to come over CHECK your article for m istakes (gram m ar.g. Useful language Giving advice Don’t forget to . We started in the spare bedroom. So we have three weeks to make our house safe.... We keep our m edicines on a shelf above the sink. what to take with Make your home a safer place! you (see picture below for ideas). N ever. You should . Finally.. Never leave m edicines somewhere children can find them. c You’re going to write an article for a school m agazine about how to be safe if you go walking in the country or the m ountains. W hat do you think the child’s parents should / shouldn’t have done? Read the article and check.. M ark (/) where each new paragraph should begin. in case . / Next m onth w e’re taking care inform al style. / Remember to .. Everybody knows you shouldn’t put children’s beds under a window in case a child tries to climb out.. PLAN the content in pairs or small groups.. T hat’s w hat I thought u ntil last week. w here you are safe. A terrible idea. e. 2 Write down a few tips. once you know how.. .. surprises. Make sure you .. as my sister explained.. Knives should be kept in drawers that children can ’t reach.. Use a neutral or waiting to happen. We got a few punctuation.. so (that) . and all cleaning liquids in high cabinets. They might think they are candy. An article W r it in g a Look at the three pictures.

exhausted prevent expect kidney elbow . Shouting only makes things worse.000 from the bank. 1 The sky is very dark. so I can’t go to 5 Don’t argue / discuss with your father about it! He doesn’t listen. I it. 4 Please calm . birthday! 4 If you know the answer. devastated delighted offended desperate a feels b feels like blow homesick frown lonely c feels as if Mark is very late. angry. The backpackers__________________ lost. 5 nod wave clap point I’m sure you left your glasses in the restaurant. or c. Do you think he forgotten about the dinner? tongue lungs discuss comb a couldn’t have b could c might have astonished shrug chew brush b Underline the stressed syllable. eat out or stay in? 5 st_ to look at something / somebody for a long time a would you rather b had you rather PRONUNCIATION c do you rather a Underline the word with a different sound. 2 A I’m very sorry. I would be able to go to dance classes if I c C om plete with one word. 1 1 was jum ping joy when I heard I’d passed the exam! 5 I’m sure the backpackers haven’t gotten lost. They know the area well. You____________ left your glasses in the 1 Please remind / remember the children to do their homework. dance classes. I t there’s going to be a storm. a wouldn’t buy 1 miserable realize notice rise b hadn’t bought c wouldn’t have bought What gorgeous material! I t __ silk. 3 I really put my foot my mouth when I mentioned his ex-wife. 4 I don’t have much time. Underline the word that is different. m eans the same as the first. b Circle the right verb. 3 If I hadn’t really liked the jacket. more time. C hoose a. It doesn’t mind / matter. or worried expression 2 What do tonight. 1 ch to bite food into small pieces in your mouth a looks 2 y to open your mouth wide when you are tired or bored b looks like if 3 sc to rub your skin with your nails c looks as if 4 f_ to make a serious. don’t shout. 4 A What do you remember? GRAMMAR VOCABULARY a C om plete the second sentence so that it a W ord groups. 2 You look fe d Have you been waiting for a long time? They know the area well. You___________________ me it was your 3 The robbers stole / robbed $50. 3 palm calf wrist nail They wouldn’t have escaped from the jungle 4 kidney heart liver hip if they the river. 5 My car broke on the highway. restaurant. 1 upset disappointed relieved offended 1 They escaped from the jungle because they 2 amazed astonished surprised anxious found the river. 3 Why didn’t you tell me it was your birthday? B Don’t worry. d W rite the verbs for the definitions. raise / rise your hand. b. Say why.

. □ must / couldn't have. Comet believes that the photography of self-delusion will 2 What is the main reason why the captain is talking? become hugely popular in the future. then at least a more respectably-proportioned figure b Where you camp. I am a size 16. b. But Ms. when friends flipped through the vacation pictures. 5 Who arc the people in the painting? Cranham is convinced that her friends won't realize. □ have done in certain situations 4 My friends and I didn’t always agree about what to do. 4Q b An ugly child with his grandfather. and some users of the camera might worry b Spend more time shopping today." she said. or c.” b Look at the highlighted words and phrases. is selling a new digital camera that will take pictures of you . F “It worked better than a four-week diet of raw vegetables. C “But it did just enough to hide some of the evidence of a few too many good restaurant meals. and criticize how someone acted in the past using should have / shouldn’t have □ talk about why body language is important and explain what certain gestures indicate 67 . a woman can lose as much as a dress size. 24. 3n 4 What doesn’t the man want the woman to do? People nowadays are used to the doctored images of celebrity a Spend a lot of money on a dress. In a culture obsessed with unrealistic ideas of the perfect body. a professional singer who tried out the camera. to show your friends vacation photographs in which you look b To explain the safety procedures. the answer seems to be a To introduce himself. healthily slim. □ □ speculate about someone’s past actions using may / 5 I slept in a tent.” D The only victim will be the truth. A The photographs are then put in a drawer and forgotten. E They don’t seem to notice that the lost weight seems to have mysteriously returned since the vacation. Cranham. "Like many women. for the vacation photograph album. a 4 28 Listen and circle the correct answer. magazines. "If the camera had made me look like a size 8. B next to w hat Ben says." she said. 2Q c To talk about what will happen during the flight. The HP Photosmart R727 contains a "slimcam" function that 1 What does the speaker think is the most important piece " squeezes" the object at the center of the frame without of advice to avoid being bitten by a snake? distorting the background.and make you look thinner. then no one would a A beautiful girl with a sick old man. a. and sometimes my 3 What does the man think happened to John? vacation photos are not as flattering as I would like. the manufacturers claim. flat stomach. '□ And a man can develop. T here is one sentence you don’t need. Can you guess what they mean? CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? A chain store. B At the flick of a switch. "The slimming button certainly trimmed off a little bit where it c He’ll arrive later.? 2 I had my credit card stolen. b He forgot. Comet. Q Can you . W rite C next to what Caroline says. counts.What can you do? R e v ie w & C h e c k CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? a C om plete the article with a sentence A-F. c Where you walk.. from A spokeswoman for Comet said that it brought technology that c A young boy with an old man. CAN YOU SAY THIS IN ENGLISH? 1 I didn’t think people’s English would be so good. that the truth of their "slimcam" photography would emerge a newspaper c Go shopping again the next day. 5C ] people. have believed it. if not a a What you wear. Adapted usually favored only the rich and famous within the grasp of b 4-29 You will hear an interview with two young ordinary people." said Sally a He might have had an accident. □ □ talk about what you would do and what you would 3 I enjoyed the freedom of choosing my route. and N next to w hat neither o f them says.

G gerunds and infinitives V music P ch and y A The psychology of music 1 LISTENING & SPEAKING c < 5. e.: This is especially exploited in.... try to write down key words or phrases because you won’t have time to write complete sentences.g.3 Now listen to John explaining how m usic can a *. T hen m ake you feel? W ould you like to keep on listening? compare with a partner and try to remember what he said. 2 Try to com plete the notes below by w riting key words 3 or phrases. e. try to rem em ber as m uch as you can o f w hat he said. you may want to expand your notes into 3 full sentences.: b < 5.g. __________ 2 angry. eg-: 68 . e..: Examples: 2 tohelpus. for Three important human emotions: example. 3 e. Music copies this. 5. talking about why we listen to music.2 Listen to John Sloboda.. to somebody giving a lecture. e.. a British music 7 happy .: 1 fast / high music sounds happy Why do we listen to music ? 2 7 to make us.. T hen with a partner. How we feel affects the way we speak. If you need to take notes when you are listening to someone speaking in 7 happiness English.speak faster! higher psychologist.. Com plete the notes below.g.g - 3 to intensify.: 3 sad.1 Listen to some short pieces o f music. Music that sounds &g.:________________ ____ 7 happy.g. e. How do they affect the way we feel. After 2 the lecture.g. Taking notes How does music affect our emotions? We often need to take notes when we are listening.

1 to music can change how we feel.140 Grammar Bank 5A.. . create) 4 Most people enjoy music in the car.? if you were feeling sad and you wanted to feel more cheerful if you were feeling depressed and you wanted to feel even worse if you were feeling furious about something (and you wanted to feel even angrier) if you were feeling nervous or stressed and wanted to calm down if you wanted to create a romantic atmosphere for a special dinner 2 GRAMMAR gerunds and infinitives a C heck w hat you know. c O p. Now look at the pairs o f sentences. Talk to a partner. you rem em ber doing when you were less than five years old. Tell your p artn er about som ething t h a t . 1 I remember to hear / hearing that song the first time we met. you tried to learn but couldn’t. (feel) 3 Movie score writers are experts a t ______m usic an atmosphere. 1 On a typical day. He already has it. you have to rem em ber to do before you go to bed. (play) 5 It’s difficult when there’s loud music playing on the radio. (use. (listen) 2 We play sad music when we w an t even sadder.. when and where do you listen to music? 2 Do you listen to different kinds of music at different times of day? 3 What music would you play .. 3 I need to exchange / exchanging the CD I bought Mark. you often forget to do before you go out.44 b New g ram m ar.. 2 Don’t forget to listen / listening to that song. you usually try doing when you can’t sleep at night. You’ll love it! I’ll never forget to go / going to my first live concert. you need to do this evening. Use your instinct to circle the correct form. needs doing in your house / apartment. (concentrate) Any problems? O Workbook p. This remote control doesn’t work. Read the rules and do the exercises. Put the verbs in parentheses in the infinitive or the gerund (-ing form). but I couldn’t. 4 A These headphones don’t work. I think the batteries need to change / changing. Please remember to buy / buying me those concert tickets. B Try to plug / plugging them in! I tried to hear / hearing all the words in the song. you’ll never forget seeing for the first time.

. etc.. e.. e. etc.. a choir singing. The letters ch • are usually pronounced /tJ7. 4 PRONUNCIATION ch and y 5 SPEAKING a Use your instinct to put these words in the correct colum ns: GET IT RIGHT the character. windy. e. a famous singer-songwriter. b O p. melody. b Read the rules below and check your answers. and words where the stress is on the last syllable. or in the to play an instrument? prefix psych-.g.6 Listen and check... a kind of music that has a very strong beat. chauffeur.. d o y o u like? • are very occasionally pronounced /J7. would like to learn to play? • is pronounced /ai/ in words ending -ify. T hen use them to put the words •Have you ever had lessons? in the correct colum ns. think o f . e. physics.? band solo artist c Use the rules to put som e m ore words in each colum n.g.g. especially in words of French origin. • the lead singer of a well-known band. symptoms.g. song piece of music (symphony.g. alternative music classical music country music dance music electronic music folk music funk gansta rap heavy metal apply country heavy lifestyle lyrics physical psychiatrist hip-hop jazz opera pop music reggae qualify rhythm shy symphony try type typical rock music salsa soul music 9 *o\ Have you ever..? • sung in a choir • been in a talent contest • performed in front of a lot of people f ( 5. . Don’t use the when you are talking in general about kinds of music. technology. . • a song that has incomprehensible lyrics.g. •a singer with a monotonous voice.g. c 5. terrify.153 Vocabulary Bank Music.g. • are sometimes pronounced /k/. •Is there an instrument you 2 at the end of a word . / love classical music NOT the-dassical music.... What's the best live conceit you've ever been to? m . •a classical composer. e. chef Do you have a favorite.g.. .. •a song with a catchy chorus. research. NO • is usually pronounced III when it is between consonants. deny. and in one-syllable words. the guitar.. psychoanalyst.g... e. e.. chef.. YES e Now read the rules for the letter y.? • is pronounced /i/ in all other words ending in y. especially in words of Greek origin. fly. e.. etc. byte.g. e. Use the when you are talking about instruments.4 Listen and say what instrum ents you can hear. W h a t k in d o f m usic e. check. sonata. a world-famous tenor..g. I play the violin. chemistry. d W ith a partner..) change cheerful choir choose chorus composer soloist conductor machine mustache orchestra psychologist Do you play a musical instrument? d 5. e.. What do you think o f.. Answer the questions with a partner.7 Listen and check... a song or piecc of music you find very moving.g.5 Listen and say what you can hear. .3 VOCABULARY music a 5. e. e. •Can you read music? •Have you ever played The letter y in a band / orchestra? 1 in the middle of a word . • Have you ever tried to leam • is pronounced /ai/ when y is followed by a consonant + e.

they typically enjoy 5 A person who does voluntary watching action movies. rhythm. risks and having thrilling experiences. music is a very important part of their lives. W rite A. psychologists say. curious about the world. They are the kind of people 4 Someone who watches who love going to parties and for whom friendship and social recognition is very important They subtitled movies. rock music. heavy metal. and rebellious.people with dramatic e Read the article again and underline personalities. or comedies. fans of this kind of music tend to be politically liberal. 6 Somebody who enjoys the simple C om plex and re fle c tiv e m u sic things in life. Do you agree promotes aggressive behavior in teenagers. They are typically f T hink about people you know w ho independent. war. and sociable kinds of people who enjoy helping others. They tend 7 A person who might have been to be creative and open to new experiences and lovers of dassic or foreign films. Their research has shown that knowing another person's musical tastes can provide remarkably accurate personality predictions. dance. outgoing. However. not influenced by it five new words or phrases th at you In te n s e and reb ellio u s m u sic w ould like to learn. younger with w hat the article says about their fans of gangsta rap or heavy metal are often quieter and shyer than other young people. B. "People who like country 2 Somebody who enjoys and pop try to avoid making their lives unnecessarily complex. They think that personality clues are conveyed in the music's tempo.. or D." dangerous sports. E n e rg e tic and rhyth m ic m u sic 3 A person who speaks their Hip-hop. They're the kind of people who are likely to enjoy watching action. They also enjoy watching major 1 Someone who is fairly vain. □ tend to see themselves as physically attractive. and horror movies. according to psychologists from the universities of Texas and Cambridge. and psychologists believe that their preferences reveal information about their character and their lifestyle. science fiction. It is the number one topic of conversation among young adults who are getting to know each other. rap. Fans of classical. funk. especially comedies. Parents often worry that this kind of music like each kind o f music. jazz. family and discipline are important life values. outgoing. In their free time they often enjoy playing or watching sports. whose moods go up and down a lot. are usually rather sophisticated. what k ind of conservative compared with fans of other genres. personalities? . When they go to the movies. and lyrics. work in the community. opera lovers are three times more likely to commit suitide. Hollywood movies. According to the psychologists. soul. U p b ea t and sim p le m u sic Fans of 'Top 40" pop. But don't blame Madame Butterfly . The question "W h at kind of music do you like?" is very revealing. like sports. country. but research has found no direct link. For most people. compared with other music fans. gangster movies. C. Do you agree with the psychologists? c Read the rest o f the article. 6 READING a Do you think W hat kind o f music do you like? is a good question w hen you are getting to know somebody? Why? b Read the introduction to the article. Regarding lifestyle. In fact. and electronic music attracts people who are talkative. and com pare Fans of alternative. fantasy. and gangsta rap tend to be people who enjoy taking with a partner. and other "complex" music typically have above-average intelligence. are attracted to opera. and soundtrack music tend to be more conventional and d According to the article. m usic w ould these people like best? They are also typically cheerful.. and often don't 8 Someone who is intellectual. W hich category(ies) do you fit into best? Your taste in music can reveal a lot about you. and romantic and who tend to express their thoughts impulsively. quiet as a child. They are usually physically active. mind without thinking.

I usually feel tired.. but I'm used to it. □ 2 How many hours do you usually sleep? 4 I ’m getting used to sleeping only 4or 5 hours a night. a K 5-9 D ictation. did you use to be frightened of the dark? a Never. what do you do? a I take short naps during the day.? B so its new and strange for me. in a hotel? 3 Do you ever find it difficult to Do you think you could get used to working at night stay awake. 1 How often do you take a nap on a weekday? When you were a child. Do you find it difficult to sleep when you’re in a bed d I’d love to. It's the only way I can get through the day. S How do you usually feel during the morning? b Practice saying the sentences quickly. It's not a problem. that you’re not used to. Try to separate the words in your head before you write. be used to. C used to.) What do you usually do as soon as you wake up in the morning? a at work or in class b on the sofa in the evening What’s the last thing you usually do before c at the movies going to bed? d when you are driving . Listen and write dow n six sentences. 2 PR O N U N C I A T I O N linking w ords b I sleep late on the weekend.. c I don't do anything. b Awake and able to concentrate. □ a less than 5 minutes b more than 5 minutes 3 I ’m not used to sleeping only 4 or 5hours a night. Read the results of the questionnaire and calculate your score. d I just get more and more tired. 5 If you don't sleep enough at night during the week. but not at my bpst. c Ask and answer the questions with a partner. b Always. do the exercises. a Wide awake and energetic. get used to a Take turns interviewing each other with the questionnaire Are you sleep deprived? Ask for and give as m uch inform ation as you can. I don't need one. I How do you feel about the amount of sleep you get? D or more if I can..140 Grammar Bank 5B. A n s w e r these q u e s t io n s a n d find Out. Circle the answer that best describes your partner. You get used to not sleeping enough. Then I always wake up refreshed. □ a fewer than 7 b 7-8 c more than 8 A but now I sleep less. Read the rules and c I definitely need to sleep more. but I never get the chance. trying to link the words. a I think it's OK. b I probably don't sleep enough. 1 I usually sleep 6 hours a night □ 1 How long does it usually take you to fall asleep at night? 2 I used to sleep 7 hours a night.. d O p. get used to V sleep P linking words B 1 GRAMMAR used to. J Did you use to sleep . be used to. c Half asleep and unable to concentrate well.118. for example. a more than now b the same amount c less than now C so it’s becoming less of a problem. Did you use to share a room with a brother or sister? c When I need one.? and sleeping during the day? (Circle all the ones that apply to you. b o Communication Sleep p. Are you sleep deprived? c M atch the sentence beginnings 1-4 with endings A-D.

What does a chronic lack of sleep do to us? As well as making us irritable and unhappy. and most people are woken up artificially by an alarm clock. it also reduces our motivation and ability to work. he describes a society that is just tpo people and SLEEP TIPS. World summit meetings called to deal 1 Do you agree with Paul Martin that we live in a with a crisis often result in decisions being made after marathon sessions when everyone sleep-deprived society? <> is severely sleep deprived. are often chronically sleep deprived. However. Politicians are often "jet-lagged" after crossing time zones. Hospital doctors (on call) 4.8 What’s the difference between driving when need eight or even eight and a half hours' sleep to feel Architects 7. for example. our daily cycle of sleep used to depend Chernobyl nuclear disaster? □ on the hours of daylight. In pairs. driving when drunk is 4 What do you think are the best three SLEEP TIPS? against the law while driving when exhausted isn't. Paul Martin says: "We might live longer and happier lives if we topk 1 How did the invention of the electric light ^ur^efo as seriously as our running shoes. giving as much Sleepy people inform ation as you can. judgment. sleep-deprived people. whereas research shows that most people Lawyers 7. it probably means you are "sleep deprived. Cell phones and e-mail allow us to stay in Why should politicians sleep more? touch around the clock.READING & SPEA K IN G Sleepy people . discuss these questions. In his book Counting Sheep. On our streets 3 Do you think it should be illegal to drive when and highways. A Don't use your bedroom as an office or for watching TV. in the early “night call” sleep so little? hours of the morning. . People would get up with the sun and go to bed at sundown.9 Do people sleep more or less than they to sleeping less than they need and live in an almost Teachers 6 used to? Why? □ permanent state of "sleep debt. Have a regular routine . Human error caused by tiredness contributed to the 2 Do you think it’s wrong that doctors who are on I worst nuclear accident in history in Chernobyl in 1986. lack of sleep kills thousands of people every year. When you fall asleep. When we need more time for work or pleasure. the world's most popular drug.2 hours a night during What is the world’s most popular drug? □ Hours slept a night the week. but we don't worry enough about sleeping questions that are answered in your paragraphs. symptoms of sleep deprivation. and ability to make dedsions. As Paul Martin says. Lie exactly is the test and w hat does it show? W hat down with one hand hanging over the bed and holding a spoon above the plate. Doctors." / > ' s ' change our sleep habits? D 2 Why is it probably better to have an operation during the day than at night? □ So much to do. so little time Are naps really useful? □ Modern society has invented reasons not to sleep. This is the theory of behavioral tim e and Going against nature. to see if your p artn er left anything out. helps keep us awake. If you feel tired."— W ork in pairs. Our world would be a much safer. made a series of mistakes with catastrophic results.the dangers of sleep deprivation Read the introduction o f the article. Then check (✓) the busy to sleep and does not give sleeping the importance it deserves. We all know th4 value of having a healthy diet and exercising. The average adult sleeps only 6. whatever their job. so little Wp live in a world of tired. Take a nap during the day (ideally after lunch). W hat Take this test tonight when you go to bed. up to a point masks the answer the questions in b. During the day caffeine. We are now a 24 / 7 society where How much does the average person sleep? Does it vary according to profession? I stores and services must be available at all hours. Make sure your bedroom isn't too hot. slept eight hours a night SLEEP TIPS Give sleep a high priority in your life." owing their bodies Politicians 5. happier place if everyone. Lack of In pairs or small groups. Research has shown that short naps are very effective in restoring our energy levels and mood. explain your answers. B read Sleepy biologist Paul Martin. th^ hours we need. read. when tired engineers. 12 How much sleep does the average But nowadays our hours of sleep are mainly determined by our working hours (or our person need? social life).2 10 What should your bedroom not be if perhaps 25-30 hours of sleep. which. We spend more time at work than we used to and longer getting to work.try to go to bed at roughly the same time every day. Tests show that a tired you are too tired? driver can be just as dangerous as a drunk driver. the spoon will fall on the plate and should wake you tiprl? you don't does the last sentence mean? wake up until the next day. A read So much to do. especially when they are on "night call'' and may get less than three hours' sleep. Nowadays many people have gotten used Social workers 6.5 you want to sleep well? □ Sleep survey Going against nature 11 How did lack of sleep cause the Until the invention of electric light in 1879. you probably need more sleep.5 you are drunk and when you are very tired? □ their best. the easy solution is to sleep less. This effect has serious implications for Now read the parts o f the article that you didn’t society in general. Listen to your body. 1/ sleep can seriously impair their mood. it is ironic that we admire people who function on very little sleep instead of criticizing them for being irresponsible. Seventy-five percent of Read your two paragraphs again so you can the world's population habitually consumes caffeine. Put a plate on the floor next to your bed. and late-night TV and the Internet tempt us away from our What is our “sleep debt”? □ beds. Pay off your "sleep debt" by going to bed half an hour earlier for a few weeks.

Cover the colum n of words and test yourself. or with 6 Soon they asleep. 2 They often open their mouth and 1. 4 They get into bed and put their head on the 5 They cover themselves up with a . you might 10 If you drink coffee in the evening. In pairs. 7 Some people make a loud noise when they breathe. SPEAKIN G Answer the questions in pairs. They 8 During the night people have or 9 If you don’t hear your alarm clock in the morning. it might 11 Some people can’t sleep because they suffer from 12 These people often have to take 13 Some people take a or after lunch. write the correct word in the colum n on the right. did it take you to recover? during a class? Have you ever sleepwalked or do you know anyone who sleepwalks? Do you usually have nightmares or recurring dreams? Do you sleep with a comforter or blankets? / ' How many pillows do you like to have? W V . getting to sleep? What do you do? Have you ever overslept and Have you ever missed something important? stayed up all night? r~v-.4 VOC ABULARY sleep comforter dreams fall kegf ie d ' o S oversleep pillow set sheet P ^ 3Wake insomnia »et' ' aggC *** sleeping pills sleepY 5 ° a V ocabulary race. — T ~ Do you remember a time Do you snore? Have you ever had to share a room or place where you with someone who snores? Was this a problem? slept very badly? Why? . 1 Most people start feeling around 11:00 at night. Do you sometimes have problems Ask for more information. Is there any food or drink that keeps you awake or that keeps you from sleeping well? Are you a light sleeper or Do you take or have you do you sleep like a log? ever taken sleeping pills? Did they work? Have you ever been jet-lagged? Have you ever fallen asleep at an Where were you going? How long embarrassing moment. 3 They go to bed and their clock. for example. 14 A person who sleeps well “sleeps like a 15 Someone who is tired after flying to another time zone is 59 Listen to the sentences and check.

Before you listen. they thought the girl was suicidal. Then the girl used her cell phone to call her parents. d You are going to listen to the second half o f the program . he realized she was drunk. The rescue took two hours. The firefighter crawled along the arm of the crane and carefully put a safety harness on the girl. □ 8 People usually sleepwalk for a short time. □ 5 Stress can cause people to sleepwalk. □ 4 Sleepwalking is most common among young boys. □ 7 Sleepwalkers cannot hurt themselves. Listen to the news program again and correct the mistakes. Why do you think the girl was asleep on the crane? How did she get there? b 5-'° Listen to the first part o f a radio news program and check your answers. but when a firefighter climbed up the crane. After talking to her parents. She had left her house during the night and had been able to get into the construction site because the security guard was asleep. Q 9 Sleepwalkers usually don’t remember anything afterward. □ 10 Sleepwalking is no excuse if you commit a crime. Then listen again and correct the false statements.6 LISTENING a Look at the photo and the headline. A passerby saw her in the early evening when he was walking past a construction site in the city and immediately called the fire department. 7 SONG I don't want to miss a thing 0 5. work with a partner and discuss whether you think the inform ation in sentences 1-10 is T (true) or F (false). At first.12 75 . who came quickly to the construction site. the police discovered that the girl had been sleepwalking. □ 3 Sleepwalking is not very common. W hat happened next? c Read a new spaper article about the sam e incident. Her parents said that it w asn’t the first time that she had sleepwalked and that she had left the house on several other occasions. □ e 5. 1 A sleepwalker can drive a car while asleep.11 Listen once to check your answers. □ 2 It is easy to know if someone is sleepwalking or not. □ 6 You should never wake up a sleepwalker. Police and firefighters arrived at 1:30 in the morning. and the girl was brought safely down from the crane on a ladder. 15-year-old girl found ° “ >< i asleep on crane Yesterday a 15-year-old girl was discovered lying on top of a 30-foot- high crane. The article got eight details wrong.

I am . W hat do you think of Mr.” gas station in Italy when he stopped to fill up with But Vose says. had had enough and locked him out of the house. and he said th a t____________ to make reservations for a rom antic dinner. and he told was hoping for a nice present. shed a sm all b u ild in g w here peo p le k eep tools. too. wasn’t there because she usually sat in the back seat. so I d idn’t notice that she w asn’t there. she decided she sentences in reported speech. his vacation before he noticed that he had forgotten says: “His garden is eight meters from the back of something . you can’t have your ball back! A British soccer team has threatened to sue a neighbor because he refused to give back their balls.” Mr. etc. Read the conversation between When Andy Barker. “I’m hoping that if I stay here for a few days. T hen com plete the birthday for the third year in a row. Andy promised not th a t____________ in Germany.50 . Read four more news stories. Three of them are based on true stories. Ivanov? Man leaves wife at gas station No. He says.” gas and d idn’t realize his mistake until he got a call sue take som ebody to court.” he said. Some balls are bound to go over the w all.” Any problems? O Workbook p. and the balls are now all locked A M acedonian man drove six hours at the start of inside his shed. “I’ll have to apologize a lot when I see her.his wife. your wife is waiting for you at a gaa station near Pesaro in central Italy. The team has kicked 18 balls over Paul Vose’s backyard fence.______________ Sue Barker had reminded her husband several times Ljubomir Ivanov. Gary Ford. very likely to “Yes. "Are you Ljubomir Ivanov?” they asked. to forget. it went right out of 3 He later told the police that h e ____________ that his wife his head. forgot his wife’s the police officer and Ivanov again. He was working late and when he got home. the coach of the team.” L ocked out o f h er life "I was very tired and not thinking. a Read the headline of this news story. Ivanov immediately drove back to Pesaro to pick up his wife so that they could continue their vacation. but one has been invented. “She usually sits in the back seat. G reporting verbs. “They should learn to shoot better.” Ivanov told reporters later. 1 The police asked the m a n if. she will forgive me. the door was locked and a suitcase with his things 4 He said that h e ____________ to apologize a lot when in it was on the doorstep. Ljubomir Ivanov left her at a the goal. from New Jersey.” he said. Since then Andy has been he saw her. living in a tent in the backyard. W hat do you think its Which do think is the invented one? about? Then read the story. “W hat’s the matter?” shoot kick a ball to w ard the goal “Where are you?” "I’m in Germany. bound to certain to. u su a lly to get m o n ey from them from the police on his cell phone. b C heck w hat you know.” “Well. as V the media P word stress Breaking news 1 GRAMMAR reporting verbs c New grammar. and she 2 Then they asked h im ___________________ . but when the day came.

admit > admitted. fire engine. But the worker was so busy talking on 11 “Lets do it. and is stressed on the second syllable.” He to do it.14 Now listen to the sentences in a different order. the final consonant is doubled before an -ed ending. himself to bed 1 The soccer team m 2 The angry neighbor □ 3 Sue Barker □ 4 Andy Barker □ 5 The mother □ 6 The teacher □ 7 The police □ 8 The negotiators □ A “Don’t jump! It’s not worth it.” winter break. A police spokesperson said Respond with the reported sentence.” He doing it. . until she asked what 5. It’s urgent!” the ten-year-old boy said. accuse admit advise agree convince deny insist invite offer persuade promise refuse regret remind suggest threaten Worker mistaken b 5. the phone to his girlfriend that he d id n ’t realize 12 “You did it!” He him of doing it. While e © p.” he w ouldn’t have to return to school after his C “Please talk to this man.” He offered to do it. G “You’d better not do anything like that again. I really will. I’ll do it. All except three that again! are stressed on the second syllable. “The holidays were such fun. Eventually.” him watching TV in bed with his hand glued F “We’re going to take you to court!” to the headboard. c Complete the sentences below with the correct reporting verb in the simple past. the sirens were for. tried to convince him not to jum p by shouting 10 “I wish I hadn’t done it.. paramedics used a spray to try to dissolve the glue.” and persuaded them to come right over. to him. d Read the stories again and m atch sentences A -I with the people Boy glues who said them .” she finally gave up. They then asked negotiators to talk to the man. I’ll do it.” He doing it. Circle the three exceptions. 3 “OK.3 Listen and check. they managed to free him and he got to school 2 PRONUNCIATION word stress only a few hours late. they closed off a busy street and 8 “I didn’t do it!” He doing it. A German construction worker is expecting He 4 “I’ll do it. I won’t do it. regret > regretted. him for a potential suicide jumper. Practice saying the reported sentences.” D “Please come right away.140 Grammar Bank 5C. etc." He doing it.” to do it. e. building.” He me to Ho it. that the worker would be given a bill for wasting police time. She then called the police H “I’ll remember this time. sirens the noise m ade by a police car. The negotiators 9 “Yes. what was happening below. T hen underline the words in the text where these ideas are reported. W hen the 6 “I think you should do it. I did it. police saw the man on the roof of a five-story 7 “Would you like to do it?” He me to do it. i “You sit down. His mother found E “Don’t forget to call the restaurant.g. the boy happily watched TV. Read the rules and do the exercises. called the fire departm ent. a big bill after emergency services mistook 5 “Don’t forget to do it!” He me to do it. it was me. 2 “No. for jumper If a two-syllable verb ends in consonant-vow el-consonant.” He to do it.” A Mexican boy glued his hand to his bed so B “I’m not going to give them back. After spending two hours trying to unglue him with nail polish remover. Some people say he was warned by his teacher not to try a trick like a Look at all the two-syllable reporting verbs in the list. believe me.

. Another awful thing is celebrity gossip □ that editors 3_______little pieces from your review w ithout you politics □ knowing.. w hich I love. there’s also the feeling that you may have a 2_______ im pact on the work.. That was in the last paragraph and it What stories are in the news right now? got cut. a With a partner discuss what you think would be the good side and bad 1 new information about anything. producer or the actors read what you’ve w ritten and agree w ith c Talk in small groups about the following. printed in the and see if your ideas are included. parking. getting back to the office to write for a nightly (1 = most interesting). they might actually change som ething and im prove the performance. as theater is an ongoing thing. Some critics also like making friends w ith the stars and all The media and you that . so it looked as if I’d never 5_______ this great new talent. e. side of being a theater critic and a sportswriter. deadline. but there was a new young actor w ho I thought was great and who later became a star. or c. or other games • look at cartoons • read advertisements. apartments Do you have a favorite . sports □ say it right from the start because otherw ise it might not get printed. information previously unknown 2 reports of recent happenings. What kind of news stories do you find For mo the worst part of the job is all the traveling. Choose the best option.but personally I d o n ’t.? c Read the two articles again. a. especially b Now read the articles by two journalists who write for a new spaper those broadcast. If the b O p. you. Then correct the mistakes to see a lot of plays and shows.. Getting there most / least interesting? Write 1-6 on time. sudoku.154 Vocabulary Bank The media. T hat’s not som ething that movie or book critics can do. • movie critic 1 a apparently b gradually c obviously • journalist 2 a positive b harmful c negative • sportswriter or sports commentator 3 a change b add c cut Which newspapers / TV channels / 4 a to complain about b that isn’t important c worth saying radio stations in your country do you 5 a noticed b spoken to c criticized think are. science /technology □ business I once wrote a review of a play called A nother Countr}'. etc.3 VOCABULARY the media 4 READING & LISTENING news noun [u].? 6 a permission b opportunity c wish • biased 7 a more exciting b harder c easier • reliable 8 a vacations b routine c unpredictability • sensational 9 a drop b throw c lose 1^^ 10 a monotonous b exciting c frightening . jobs. That all gets really stressful. critic is that.. I d id n ’t like □ health □ it m uch.. How do you usually find out. Let’s watch news.. in sentences 1-3. after night for some time.? • what the weather's going to be like • the sports results • what's playing at the movies • the news headlines Do you ever. b.. newspaper. 2 I have a really exciting news for you! som ething th at’s going to be repeated night 3 It’s 9:00.? Where? • read your horoscope • do crosswords.. You learn as a critic that if you have anything 4_______ . But the really great thing about being a theater 1 The news on TV are always depressing. 3 the news a regular television or radio broadcast of the latest news a Look at the dictionary extract for the The positive side of the job is 1_______ getting word news above.g. to • news anchor com plete the sentences.

but it does get lonely and it can also be very 10_______ I’ve spent b Hold the debate. C orrect the false sentences. I work as part of a team. each side tries to argue against the points m ade by the other side. And you never know what tim e y o u ’re going to be home. take notes. T hen listen again and m ark else was happening: As they were leaving. C I got to the airport really quickly as 2 They choose the job partly because it’s dangerous. I’ve also had the 6_______ to travel to Celebrities have to accept that the media publish places I w o u ld n ’t have seen otherwise. the mail carrier arrived. □ 1 Most war reporters would prefer regular hours. during the winter. spending C hristm as Day on the beach in A ustralia. D As he was driving home. (as = when) the sentences T (true) or F (false). It’s been fantastic visiting the Taj Mahal in India or give examples.everything and go. and it’s great to get away from hom e as m uch as you can • Divide into groups o f four.16 Listen and check. 3 The job can be rather lonely. • The As are going to defend the right One of the m ain dow nsides is the 8________ You d o n ’t work o f new spapers to publish stories regular hours . We can use as in many different ways: 1 to compare people or things: She’s as tall as I am. predict some of the things they might say. 4 She used to be slimmer than she is now. which person’s job would you most like to have? W hich one would you least like to have? © p. That is the price like Australia. about fam ous people’s private lives. 1-4 in the box. and function: She works as a nurse.it might be on your celebrities’ right to keep their private day off. talking about the good and bad sides of their handkerchief as a bandage.157 Phrasal verbs in context File 5.15 5. it might be in the m iddle of the night . The restaurant critic (as = because) 1 She sometimes reviews restaurants in other countries. E My son’s hair got darker as he got older. w hich I can assure you isn’t m uch fun. w hen a story breaks . a war reporter. There are m uch 7 ways to make a living. but you never relax because you’re waiting for the phone to • The Bs are going to defend the ring. A The review in The Times wasn’t 5 She usually goes back to restaurants she has criticized. stories about their private lives. We had to use a Tim. to 9---------. The As begin.you just have lives private. MINI GRAMMAR as It’s great to get away from hom e as m uch as you can during the winter. 2 to describe somebody’s job or something’s d You’re going to listen to Alice. 3 to say that something happened while something e 5. there was hardly any traffic. each a large proportion of the last 40 years driving up and down m aking two o f their points.I m ust have seen some a You are going to debate the following topic in of the most spectacular m oments in small groups. 4 to give a reason: We didn’t go out as it was raining. A nother thing is the constant • Prepare at least four arguments. . B You can use that glass as a vase for The war reporter the flowers. and traveling. two As and two Bs. □ 6 She never feels like eating out on weekends. program researcher. jobs. c Now. F He got a job with a TV network as a 6 One of his best friends was kidnapped last year. 2 She never orders the most expensive things on the menu. [ 4 He has problems getting used to normal life when he comes home. sports journalist 5 SPEAKING The plus sides . a freelance restaurant critic. and the they pay for being rich and famous. as good as the one in the Post. soccer and other sports over the years. The Bs highw ays. Caribbean. South Africa.you can spend a couple of days not working. 5 Being a war reporter is more dangerous than it used to be. T hen the Bs speak and the As take notes. it started to rain. □ f From what you’ve read and heard. Decide how as is used in each sentence and write 3 She often misses having company when she’s eating out. A nd then.Pat Gibson. before you listen.

W hat do the stalls /stolz/ (British English) composed for a person who has the seats in a theater on the you th in k they mean? recently died ground floor Sir Georg Solti (1912-1997) a famous Radio 4 one of the BBC radio COMMON PHRASES Hungarian conductor channels in the UK 1 The Promenade Concerts started___________ in 1895.___________ .. . and so another conductor.8 Listen to part 2.19 Listen and com plete the phrases.. Then answer the same questions with a partner. What does he say a b o u t._________ 3 Why are the concerts called the Proms? 4 How long do the Proms last? As i t ___________ ... and used to go to a of shows .. pv 2 What was his brilliant idea? Very few people attend actually all of them . . Answer the questions with a partner. What do you think they mean? COMMON PHRASES 1 The Kerrville Folk Festival is a little bit more -_____ . Before you listen..? 5 20 Listen to four people talking about music 1 felt old compared to the other people there festivals. pv Unfortunately. pv EarthFest □ 4 . Colin Davies. Kerrville Folk Festival □ 1 Listen to the interviews again with the audioscript on Lollapalooza page 128. Savanna Tim Christina Curt 2 It was a lot o f . pv 5 What do people have to do to get the best places on the floor of the hall? .. Austin City Limits □ 3 And then just out there for the rest of the day. . . . read the glossary and look at how the words are pronounced to help you understand what he says... Answer the questions with a partner. mobile phone /'nioobl foon/ (British season tickets /'sizn 'likats/ tickets that are English) a cell phone for many concerts and are cheaper than The Rite of Spring a famous piece by buying individual tickets the Russian composer Stravinsky queue /kyu/ (British English) to stand in line bassoon /ba'sun/ a wind instrument Faure (1845-1924) a famous French Simon Rattle a famous British composer conductor requiem /'rekwiom/ a piece of music d 5. 3 went to some festivals a long time ago 4 mentions the weather 5-21 Listen and complete the phrases. he died just a week later. absolutely anything . 5Y Music festivals C o l l o q u ia l E n g l is h THE INTERVIEW □ a You are going to listen to an interview with Sir Nicholas Kenyon. 1 Princess Diana’s funeral Listen to the interview again w ith the audioscript on 4 Short Ride in a Fast Machine 2 Sir Georg Solti and the page 128. G lo ssa ry impresario /. Sounds of the Underground □ MultiROM .. Write the speakers num ber next to the 2 attended a festival by the water festival(s) they have been to. The Proms were later moved important arriving to the Royal Albert Hall. who was the director of a British music festival called the Proms for 12 years.impra'sorioo/ a person who Verdi (1813-1901) a famous Italian arranges plays or concerts composer the Queen's Hall /kwinz hoi/ a concert fanfare /'Isenfer/ a short loud piece of hall in London where the Proms were music played to celebrate sb / sth first held. it could have been called 5._____ 6 What is special about the Proms’s audience? that Verdi requiem .. 5-17 Listen to part 1. W ho . Would you like lo go to the Proms? Do you 5 Simon Rattle and The Rite V erdi requiem o f Spring have any similar concerts in your country? 3 Colin Davies 6 a radio interview ON THE STREET □ Listen again.. it basically means that people are able t o _____ 1 What did an impresario want to do in 1895? and stand during the music.

details of the problem s. W hen the waiter took our order. I asked him politely if he could turn c Last week you had a bad experience at an expensive hotel. the m ake sure you know how to use them. we received. We were so angry we Dear Ms. 6 said she wouldn’t / refused to We have eaten at this restaurant2____________. CHECK your letter for mistakes (gram mar. and 7 will not do so again / won’t go there again the background music has always been very soft and 8 unacceptable treatment / awful treatment 3____________ However. 81 . W hen you get hom e. Joseph Clements 1 Decide where you were staying and imagine what problems there might have been. FL 32807 2 Why is Joseph writing? January 9. while we were eating our main course. 2009 3 What does he hope to achieve? Cafe Royale Guest Relations Department b Com plete the letter with the m ore formal o f the 5000 Lake Drive two phrases. Look at the Useful language expressions and However. I am writing to complain a b o u t. Sincerely. which he did. Useful language She spoke to us i n 5____________ and unfriendly manner. What kind of problem would make you complain? 2 Decide what you would like the hotel to do... organized in three or four paragraphs (reason for w riting. This time I asked to see the manager. I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with . Use the phrases in b and in U seful language. but 1 7____________ unless I receive Typical endings an explanation and apology for the 8___________ I look forward to hearing from you.. Use a form al style (avoid contractions o r inform al expressions). you decide to write a letter or e-m ail to complain. W RITE 120-180 words. and spelling). 9 OosepkChm tbs PLAN the content. Orlando. FL 32808 1 I’m writing / I am writing Dear Guest Relations Representative: 2 lots of times / on many occasions 3 pleasant / nice '-Lam-Hailing to complain about a meal my family 4 on this particular evening / when we were there this time and 1 had at the Cafe Royale restaurant on Lake Drive 5 a really rude / an extremely rude last Saturday night. almost deafening. Wong: decided to leave without having dessert or coffee. A formal letter W r it in g a Read the letter and answer the questions. She told us that wewere the only customers Typical openings who had ever complained about the music and Dear Customer Service Manager: 6____________ turn it down. music was turned up again and we could hardly hear ourselves speak. punctuation. 270 Dolphin Circle 1 Who is the letter to? Orlando..4_____________the music 9 Best wishes / Sincerely was terribly loud. I have eaten at other locations of Cafe Royale all over the country. conclusion / request for action). the music down.

1 Did you hear the w f. My brother w orks___________________ in crossword reporter snore keyboard a French restaurant. get 4 Please try n o t___ _ late again. the stressed syllable.” he said PRONUNCIATION to us. _ ? It’s going to rain. 10 He has terrible i It takes him ages to get to sleep. 5 ^ What do you remember? GRAMMAR VOCABULARY a Complete the second sentence so that it means a Make nouns for people from the following words. but 1 can’t remember the t ______ 6 The report was c He wasn’t allowed to say what he wanted to say. a U nderline the word with a different sound. 1 After being in Australia for a year. When I was a teenager. 9 I didn’t get much sleep last night. Underline the same as the first. It had an awful r in the paper. Joana___________________ late. It’s very b ______ 4 His latest song is really c Everybody’s singing it. 2 My hair was very long when I was a teenager. be b Underline the stressed syllable. 1 whisper whistle whole awake The suspect denied___________________ 5 “I’m sorry I’m late.” Joana said. meet 2 The car needs___ . 3 This newspaper always supports the government. b Put the bold verb in the gerund or infinitive. so I’m going to take a n this afternoon. 7 Could I have an extra p for my bed. guitarist orchestra biased sensational critic 82 . 2 Let’s not see that movie. please? 8 My husband says I s really loudly when I’m asleep. I u sed ________ long hair. 3 “I think you should talk to a lawyer. conductor click convince 6 My brother is a waiter in a French restaurant. He advised___________________ to a lawyer. I still find 1 conduct driving on the left difficult. accurate advise admit agree 1 I don’t remember you before. Should I take it to the car wash? wash / y u / refuse review accuse cartoon 3 He m anaged____ to the airport on time. choi. 4 “I didn’t kill my husband. 2 violin After being in Australia for a year. I still can’t 3 drums g e t___________________ on the left. 4 edit 5 compose 6 journal 7 solo 8 report 9 photograph 10 rap b Complete the missing words.” the suspect said. 5 I can remember the lyrics.

. But. he hasn't even been to bed. Vu also said that when the b they knew teenagers wouldn’t like it villagers were planting sugar cane. His neighbor Vu said that Ngoc 4 They changed the music in the shopping mall because volunteered to help beat a drum during the night and guard the house for the relatives of the dead during funeral ceremonies a the young people complained 6 they could take a nap. and irritability. b. night b dawn c noon Still awake. Thai Ngoc is obviously one of them. C an you . There are two topics you don’t need. a never listen to pop music Phan Ngoc Ha. I have tried sleeping pills and Vietnamese traditional medicine. claims that he has not slept for 33 years! D health □ "My insomnia started many years ago after I got a fever. B crime Q F travel □ Sixty-four-year-old Thai Ngoc. I still feel healthy and can farm like other men. some extreme insomniacs can still live and work normally. As b ir d s a w a k e n the early risers a t1 on the farm. and at night he often does extra farm work or guards c never go to classical concerts his farm to prevent theft. from central Quang Nam province C show business D G weather in Vietnam. Because of b According to c Thanks to cooking b buying c taking care of so that b however c because appetite b sleep c sleeping pills so b even c although CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? a 5 22 You will hear five extracts from a news broadcast. A business □ E sports □ x Y o n e person is already up. or c. But amazingly."4 his wife. He spends the day farming and5 his pigs and b only like noisy music chickens. his doctor said he was in perfect health except for a c is only experimental minor decline in liver function. but b 5. not even to get me to sleep for a few minutes.8______ CAN YOU SAY THIS IN ENGLISH? this is a very small minority. 2 helps. in fact..23 Listen to a music expert talking and answer a. in special cases. b it is sung in a foreign language the insomnia doesn't seem to have had a negative impact on my c you don’t understand the rules health.700 consecutives sleepless a it is the first time you hear it nights since then. several people asked Ngoc to c they wanted to attract more customers be their "alarm clock" and wake them up early in the morning to 5 A lot of older people______ go to work as he was up anyway.. or c to fill in the blanks. lethargy.? P describe the kind of music you listen to and how it makes you feel D describe your sleep habits and any problems with sleeping you have □ talk about things you used to do and things you have gotten used to doing □ talk about where you get your news from and compare the different kinds of media in your country 83 .. nothing b medicine c an injection asleep b sick c well after 33 years. I even 2 Modern classical m usic______ carry two 50-kilogram bags of fertilizer for four kilometers every a does not have rules day. despite 11. said that a chronic lack o f7 often causes c don’t like music with a strong beat anorexia. Match each extract with what it is about (A-G). 3 A lot of young people______ Ngoc lives with his six children on his farm at the foot of a a have negative feelings about some kinds of music mountain. he has never once been3 "Fortunately. when Ngoc went for a medical checkup b can sound like noise recently." 1 Music can sound like noise to you if ______ said Ngoc.What can you do? R e v ie w & C h e c k ------------------------------- CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? Read the article and choose a. director of the Hoa Khanh Mental Hospital in b associate pop music with crime Danang. b.

certainly Cover the article and try to com plete the sentences." they a W hat do you know about the first moon landing? heard him say as he dropped from the ladder of his spacecraft to Answer the questions with a partner. It was the perfect 1 Who was the first man to set foot on the moon? quote for such a momentous occasion. who stepped outside a few seconds after him. Using high-tech sound analysis techniques. I 3 It was the perfect quote for such a _________ occasion. say why the intended meaning of the sentence is lost.1969. but he said it so quickly that it was step for man. in pairs. mean 5 They were possibly the m o st________ words in history. On the other hand. foot Ford. but I think it means 4 made it a m o re_________ sentence. m em ory 6 Armstrong said the “a” so quickly that it w as_________ on the recording. an Australian computer expert. m om ent Mr. on the lunar surface. been since then about what Neil Arm strong actually said? one giant leap for mankind." making words from the words in bold." the Read the article again. "Neil is a modest guy. after almost four decades.. the 'a' was intended. has discovered that the "a" 2 His first words were “That’s one small was spoken by Armstrong. because that's the only way it makes sense. one giant leap fo r___________ man inaudible on the recording that was broadcast to the world. humanity). G articles V collocation: word pairs P sentence stress ' Speaking to the world One sm all word. 3 What was the first thing he said when he landed? landed the Apollo 11 spacecraft on the moon on luly 20. i READING A l a global audience of 500 million people were watching and listening. the space explorer has been 1 Armstrong made the first human vindicated. one big difference in m eaning s n e il Arm stro n g became the first man to walk on the moon. In his 500 million Peter Shann Ford biography First Man he told the author James Hansen. Armstrong wrote what he knew would become some of c “That’s one small step for man.” the most memorable words in history. one small step for mankind (i. make the first human footprint on the lunar surface. Armstrong.” out of the capsule. audio Listen to the original recording o f A rm strong speaking. Read the article and check. In effect the line means. one giant leap for mankind. "I must admit Buzz Aldrin that it doesn't sound like the word 'a' is there. W hat controversy has there Armstrong has always insisted that he wrote "one small step for a man. Then. C an you hear the “a”? . W hat do they mean? But now. Ford's findings have been presented to a relieved Mr. 1969 First Man But did he really say the sentence incorrectly? Until now Armstrong 6 hours and 40 minutes James Hansen himself had never been sure if he actually said what he wrote. Peter Shann * footprint." which would have been a more meaningful W hy is the missing “a” so important? and grammatically correct sentence. * 4 “One small step for a man” would have James Hansen said. people have argued about whether the NASA astronaut got his 2 When did he land on the moon? lines wrong. Without the missing "a. one giant leap for mankind. 'That's lollowing names and num bers are m entioned. one giant leap for mankind. But from the moment he said a Yuri Gagarin b Buzz Aldrin c Neil Armstrong it. "That's one small step for man." July 20. In the tense a “Wow! Its so big!” six hours and forty minutes between landing on the moon and stepping b “I’m floating in a most peculiar way.e. a In 1959 b In 1969 c In 1979 Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.

} _ threat to4 _ survival of our civilization the East and the West This speech that is gathering ominous and destructive potential even as we marked the beginning of the gather here. An Inconvenient Truth." year after the war ended. the describes "aplanetary emergency. he worked for the US navy. Use the glossary to help you. From Stettin in 1 Baltic to 2 Trieste in 3__ and quickly. C om plete the campaign against global warming. who tried to sell some of the Armstrongs hair. Martin Luther King. W hat is the vowel sound in a. His speeches with a." 6 ability to solve this crisis and avoid ' worst - though not all . 6 Before becoming a astronaut. bListen again and underline the stressed words. was the British Prime Minister The following is an extract from his Nobel during World War II. b O p-142 Grammar Bank 6A. he has refused to give the autographs.3 D ictation. Bucharest. he was involved in a lawsuit with an ex-barber. an. d 6. Since c Read three extracts from speeches m ade by famous 2001. treated equally. all these famous cities and9 populations around them. Churchill first used the phrase "iron curtain" to describe the boundary that W e. Read the rules and do the exercises. and Sofia. a future when allpeople would be 4 He was the first man who set foot on a moon. an. ominous suggesting that so m eth in g bad w ill h ap p en Berlin. species a g ro u p o f sim ila r an im als o r p lan ts planetary co n ccrn in g th e E arth ancient states of8 Central and Eastern Europe. and the in 1-5? W hy is the pronounced differently in num ber 6? •Stettin Iron Curtain c Practice saying the sentences from a. Warsaw. 5 His famous words were heard by people all over the world. 2 GRAMMAR articles (1929-1968) was a leader ofthe a Right (✓) or wrong (X)? Correct the mistakes in the American Civil Rights movement.2 Now listen to the extracts spoken by the people descend co m e d o w n the continent E urope (in th is text) themselves. Adriatic. extract from a speech made in 2 He was a shy boy. who loved the books and the music. Prague. Vienna.4 iron curtain has descended across5 continent. In this extract Prize acceptance speech. which warns against climate change. Core has dedicated himselfto a people. Try to pronounce the reduced form s correctly. W hich of the three ancient very old sphere an area of influence or activity extracts do you think is the m ost dram atic? 3 PRONUNCIATION sentence stress a 6. Belgrade. in which he from a speech given in 1946. Budapest. Check your answers. Tennessee. highlighted phrases. won Winston Churchill (1874-1965) him an Oscar and a Nobel Peace Prize. I have' dream that 2_ my four little children will 7 Since 1994. 4 6. 1963. AI Core (1948-) was Vice President of the United States from 1995 to 2001. or (-). are confronting2 planetary ideologically andphysically divided emergency. In this 1 Neil Armstrong was born in the US. Behind that line lie a ll6 capitals o f7. in April 1968. one day live in 5 nation where they will not be judged by 8 In 2005. Listen and write down six sentences. who was assassinated in Memphis. King spoke ofhis “dream" of 3 He studied aeronautical engineering in the college. Jr. decisively. But there is5 hopeful news as well: we have "Cold War.4 SONG $ Space oddity O 85 .1 human species. 4 color of their skin but by5 content of their character. 2006 documentary. the. lie in what I must call10 Soviet sphere.of its consequences if we act boldly.

B□ felt very relaxed before his / her presentation 5 Always be punctual: start on time and try Cn gave the last part of his / her talk very quickly to finish on time. d 6-5 Listen and num ber the pictures in the correct order. 7 Try not to repeat yourself too much. Which ones? 9 Practice your presentation beforehand. After speaking in French for 45 minutes.. try not to lose your concentration. At this point." he replied. 1 Would any of the “top ten tips” have helped some of the speakers? 8 Be careful not to speak too fast. the manager of the company came up to me and asked if I would change to speaking in English. "No. so I didn't say anything beforehand. "Is my French that bad?" I said.? 4 Be careful about telling jokes .. D□ made the problem he / she had even worse 6 Get to know as much as possible about your E□ didn’t find out he / she had a problem until the end of the talk audience beforehand. Before you listen. f Talk to a partner. take some comfort from the fact that at least it probably wasn’t as bad as these true stories. I was halfway through my presentation and we had a break for coffee. 2 Which speaker do you think was the most embarrassed? 10 Make sure the equipment you need is in 3 Have you ever been to a talk or presentation where something working order before you start went terribly wrong? 86 .. Did you 2 Don't have more than four or five main points. 5 LISTENING c You’re going to hear five o ther people talking about a disastrous presentation. Not wishing to be the "typical American" presenting in English. I intended it as a surprise.they may not A□ couldn’t understand why nobody found his / her talk interesting be appropriate. "it's just that we are all from the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. W hat do a Have you ever had to make a speech or give you think the problem was? a talk or presentation in front of a lot of people? W hen? Where? How did you feel? Was it a success? b Read p art of an article about presentation disasters. I had carefully prepared my presentation in French. fe w ye a rs AGO I had to give a presentation to A ." Top ten tips for speaking in public 1 Don't make your presentation too long. W hich speaker . W hich tip from Top ten tips below should the speaker have rem em bered? PRESENTATION D* % However bad —'* yon think yonr presentation lias been.. look at pictures A -E.the Belgian management team of an international IT company. e Listen again and write 1-5 in the boxes. guess correcdy? 3 Even if something distracting happens.

c. second word? right o r now o r more o r _____ sooner o r all o r once o r _____ b Listen again and underline the stressed words. T hen 7 She’s ____________ of her husband. 1 've been collecting them fo r aboui five years new. W hile they are listening. don’t speak too quickly. You can choose what to talk about. 8 It was an amazing storm. but now we get along well. only odds and ends • something you really love doing were left. for example: e M atch the word pair idioms with their meanings. presentation. Practice reading the extract. W hen you give your f Complete the sentences with a word pair from b. they usually Some pairs of words in English that go together always come in divide what they say into small chunks. reading Satman and Superman when 1 was nine or ten. other students. Remember to pause and take a breath from 1 He visits u s ___________ . everyone..6 VOCABULARY collocation: word pairs 7 SPEAKING a 6-7 W hen people give a talk. beginning o f a talk and m ark (/) the pauses. n 7 The army was called in to restore law and order. school introduced me to manga. wmng-or-rigkt. □ 2 After we cleaned out the garage. have a short question-and-answ er session. They are all joined with and. w ith a a certain order. a Read the information in the box. we always say “Ladies and Gentlemen” brief pause betw een each chunk. Listen to the and “right or wrong. There was lots o f ____________ 87 . she arrived home____________ 4 Please stop making so much noise. and c Look at som e com m on word pairs joined with or. Then aboui one o f my hobbies. or e. today b Take one w ord from A and m atch it with another from B. Notice how th e phrases are linked and how and and or are c You are going to give a short presentation to pronounced. • a hobby you have or a sport you play 1 I’m sick and tired of hearing you complain. d 66 Listen and check your answers to b and c. the government sent in soldiers to try to should write dow n at least one question to ask establish____________ the speaker after the presentation is over. decide which w ord com es first. the other students 6 After the riots.” NOT Gentlemen and Ladies. 3 After lots of adventures. A problems E a situation in which the law is obeyed B fed up F without problem or injury GET IT RIGHT making a presentation C compromise G small things of little importance Read through the tips in Presentation disasters! D occasionally H without a home or money again to help you prepare your presentation and give it successfully. 1 started. 1 've been crazy aboui comics and comic books. when 1 was a teenager. we arrived safe and sound. I need som e__________ In groups. which are Japanese comics. W hat is the 1 'm also learning to draw them■. collecting conics. This will help the audience follow 2 I’m afraid it’s your last chance.. time to time. □ • an interesting person in your family 3 I’ve been having headaches now and then. maybe twice a year. □ m ake a plan o f what you want to say. Practice saying them . / and thanX you the same? fo r Coning. Since 1 was a child. some frien d s from. How do you say “Ladies and Gentlemen” and “right or wrong” in your language? Is the order Crood afternoon. 1 m going io ialK to you. □ • the good and bad side of your job 6 We’ve had our ups and downs. She wants to leave him. It’s ____________ what you are saying. take turns giving your presentation. □ • a famous person you admire 5 Every relationship needs a little give and take. Later. □ Decide what you are going to talk about and 8 Despite flying through a storm. □ 4 He’s unemployed and down and out. 5 _________ he’ll realize that she’s not the woman for him. for example.

is known as the entertainment capital of the world. commit to the strict rules of their faith or leave behind the Amish lifestyle 8 Mose is not quite sure what he’s going to do next. venturing 10 The reviewer thinks the program didn’t end in only a few miles from their small communities. to explore modern society and are given the chance to experience 6 Nick felt sorry for the beggar. m ark the sentences below unknown to one group of people the Amish. G uncountable. But now five of them have chosen to spend their Rumspringa in a d Answer the questions. 2 Do you think Rumspringa really gives Amish teenagers with one thing in mind: will they return to the simple life they've always freedom of choice? Why (not)? lived. Do you know who the Am ish are? W hat do you th in k happens in the television program ? Read a preview o f the TV series and find out.. They reject conveniences like electricity. and focus on hard work. once Amish people reach their late teens.living in Los Angeles with six city kids who have no idea that they will be sharing a house with the Amish. home to many of the world's most famous movie stars." a time when Amish young people must decide whether to 7 Most adolescents leave the Amish community after Rumspringa. and cars. For 1 Do you think that this kind of television program is a good idea? Why (not)? ten weeks they will explore everything the modern world has to offer. or will they choose to remain "Amish in the City"? 3 Do you think that the fact that only one of the Amish went back is a happy ending or a sad ending? . Amish teenagers can spend their Rumspringa 9 Miriam is planning to travel. big city READING & SPEAKING a Look at the photos and read the quote. 4 Mose thinks that “Reggae” is the name of a singer." Los Angeles. working together to grow 1 The Amish kids aren’t used to seeing such tall buildings. religious worship. but it is completely w ithout looking back at the text. way no one has before . Then discuss the questions with a partner. and family. For 300 years this T (true) or F (false). and say why the F ones are false. anywhere. This period is known as "Rumspringa. telephones. make their own clothes. plural. they are allowed 5 The reviewer thinks that the Amish learned a lot from the city kids. 1 What is Rumspringa? Do you think it is a good idea? 2 What do you think will be the biggest culture shock for the Amish when they go to Los Angeles? 3 What do you think the majority of the five young Amish will choose to do? AMISH IN T H E C I T Y "Pleasantly entertaining. and their family forever. The Amish kids' innocence and sense of wonder about the new world they're seeing makes this series more moving than any reality PREVIEW -Tonight's TV show I've ever seen before. Then. a very positive way.. have something done V cities and towns P word stress in multisyllable words Bright lights. and collective nouns. but most of them choose to stay near their homes. c Now read a review of the program on page 89. fascinating group has lived in isolation. However. communities. the outside world for the first time. and build their own 2 They thought the parking meters were pretty funny. 3 The Amish are very good at painting. their own food.

. in the case of b © p. w hat they m ean. two girls (Miriam and Ruth) are amazed by the height of the skyscrapers. -ion. Explain in your own words In the first episode. and the city kids introduce them to pop music. convenience. and -ence / -ance. A sad ending the weather you like most clothes you love wearing or a happy ending? It depends on your point of view. amused by parking meters . a U nderline the stressed syllable in these multisyllable words. try to talk for a m inute about: decides that big city life is not for him but that he probably won't go back to the Amish modern furniture the most beautiful scenery you’ve seen either. and Randy) and b O p. Of course the big question is what happens 6 Walking around cities in the summer can be hard work / a hard work. at the end . only Ruth decides the traffic in your city / town your family to go back to the Amish lifestyle. e. "The Amish don't the island. They are -ment. but Amish girl Miriam offers 2 During Rumspringa the Amish tolerate bad behavior / behaviors. Jonas and Randy both want to go to good advice you’ve been given politics college. government. high child when. "Reggae?" replies Amish boy Mose. Do you have them where you live? three boys (Mose. 9 A world-famous violinist is giving a tonight at the Sydney Opera House. really learning something are the city kids." 4 A good guidebook will give you advice / advices about what to see.g. and the number Typical endings for making a noun from a verb are: of cars on the five-lane freeways. plural. "It just wouldn't happen. and asks them for money. after Rumspringa the vast 7 It’s best not to take too much luggage / too many luggages. Even a trip to a grocery store is an adventure. slowly but surely you feel that the people who are b 6-8 Listen and check. e. but Some nouns from verbs / adjectives are irregular.g. . the traffic in Los Angeles. adm it important. and Miriam wants to see more of the what’s in the news chocolate world. lose>loss. "I've never heard of him. Of the five of them. majority of adolescents choose to stay in the 8 I just heard an interesting news / some interesting news. Read the rules and do the exercises.a totally new Typical endings for making a noun from an adjective are: concept for them . ignores him. Jonas.. choose>choice there are so many vegetables here that I've 1 Los Angeles is well known for its variety o f __________ entertain never seen before.155 Vocabulary Bank Cities and towns...g. However. at least temporarily. Mose says. exhibit players or iPods. "But he accommodations cathedral community cosmopolitan entertainment exhibition sounds interesting. wouldn't let anyone be homeless. he adds. e. him a piece of her chicken. poor>poverty." she says." 2 _________ is a big problem in many large cities. the majority decide. and collective nouns neighborhood. Amish in the City. accommodate gallery as she has never seen art before.. not to go back." As the city kids burst out laughing.!42 Grammar Bank 6B. e.g. Then practice saying the words. One evening when they are eating at a sidewalk cafe in a rather run-down 4 GRAMMAR uncountable.what do the young Amish decide to do? Usually.g. "I'm a farmer.g. e.. she sees the ocean. elevators. 2 VOCABULARY cities and towns B ^ E S fjr ^ Hint's TV a Look at the highlighted words and phrases in the review. a beggar approaches them a Circle the correct form. 4 There is a large Italian_________ in Buenos Aires. -ness. reality.and they love riding in -ity. e. information." gallery historic homelessness industrial neighborhood overcrowding pedestrian performance pollution poverty provincial skyscraper synagogue violence But as the program progresses. for the first time in her life. and -ation e. violent from boards with paint on them that would 6 The best way to see th e _________ of Manhattan is from a ferry around look so nice. City boy Nick 1 Amish men can’t have long hair / a long hair. perform The Amish are not allowed to use CD 10 I saw a wonderful_________ at the National Museum of Korea last month." she explains. entrance. darkness. see take art in school because they feel it isn't 7 Some museums have free________ once a week. congestion. Mose c Play Just a m inute.." Ruth is also as excited as a little 8 T h e ________ of a typical skyscraper in New York is 500 feet or more. the noise of c Make nouns from the bold words to complete the sentences. Amish community.g. homeless Ruth is entranced by a visit to an art 3 Tourist_________ in Tokyo are often very expensive. the five young Amish. "The Amish 3 There is often terrible traffic / a terrible traffic in Los Angeles. City girl Megan asks if any of the Amish have heard any reggae 3 PRONUNCIATION word stress in multisyllable words at all. 5 We usually have some bad weather / a bad weather in April. In small groups. commune "I didn't know you could make something 5 Vandalism a n d _________ are often problems in some inner city areas.

Ferris Wheel? 4 Chicago i s in that it’s the only big city in the US 6 Why does Lake Michigan make Chicago special? with a beach right in the heart of the city.5 LISTENING a 6-9 You are going to listen to an interview w ith a travel w riter talking about Chicago. Gate sculpture? and it’s on a clear day. c < 6. 7 Why are most of the Chicago Cubs games sold out? 5 In fact. 3 What is special about the surface of the Cloud 2 Its surface is like a m irror that reflects the city skyline. 5 Where should you go to watch the sunset besides the 3 But 1 a m to say I have never been on it. Listen and m atch the questions with the photos. my husband to me on one of those 8 What is the Lincoln Park Zoo famous for? carriage rides! 9 Why was a particular carriage ride memorable for d W hich o f the places she m entions would you m ost like the writer? to see? How would you answer the questions in a about a city or town that you know well? m . Try to fill in the missing words.10 Now listen again to five extracts from the 1 Why does the travel writer suggest taking a boat? interview. a perfect background for 4 What does she like about the John Hancock Building? a photo. 1 What advice would you give to someone visiting Chicago for the first time? 2 What’s the one thing that someone visiting Chicago should do or see? 3 What’s the best place to have your photo taken? 4 What’s your favorite landmark? 5 What’s the best place to watch the sunset? 6 What would be a good place to go on a scorching hot day? 7 What’s your favorite sports venue? 8 What’s a good thing to do that is absolutely free? 9 What do you think is the most romantic thing to doinChicago? b Listen again and answer the questions. 2 What is her suggestion for an indoor activity that 1 You can get a great view of the famous buildings and visitors to Chicago should do? bridges while you’re enjoying a down the river.

6 SPEAKING & WRITING a Read the questions in Help me. Are there any topics of conversation I should avoid if I talk B Are you going to buy a new one or it ? to local people? How much should I tip . A is a tourist and B is a local person. Help me. 3 Sightseeing If I'm short of time. Are there any landmarks that will help me know where I am? Complete the sentences with the correct form of have and the past participle of a verb from the list. B tries to answer A’s questions as fully as possible. W here’s the best place to have your photo taken ? Change roles for sections 4-6. Use have (something) done when you ask or pay another person to do som ething for you. A asks B the questions from sections 1-3. Where should I go to get the real atmosphere of the 2 A Your hair looks fantastic! city/town.. I'm a tourist! Compare: 1 Safety I took a photo of the Great Wall of China. Are there any dress rules if I go into a place of worship? 5 A Our refrigerator is broken. so it changes according to the tense.. a by day 3 My coat is really dirty. What's the best way to get around town? I had my car repaired after the accident. b W ork in pairs.. = I took the Is crime a problem in the city? What should I be careful of? photo myself. Was there anything your p artner said th at you disagree with? 91 .. a short description of your city / town for the website. Write city / town if you were asked by a tourist. Can I rent a bicycle? Is it a good city / town for cycling? I’m going to get my hair cut tomorrow. Are there any areas of the city I should avoid . MINI GRAMMAR have something done A should ask for as m uch inform ation as possible. = I asked a during the day someone to take my photo.? I had my photo taken on the Great Wall of China. I it yesterday.500 miles. 2 Getting around I ’m going to have my hair cut tomorrow. b at night Have is the main verb in these sentences. Is it OK to take taxis? Are there many taxi stands? A You can also use get instead of have.? 6 I’ll need t o ____________ my passport_____________before my next trip abroad.. what three sights should I see? clean cut paint renew repair service What two galleries or museums should I visit? Do they 1 W e____________ the walls____________ a new color charge for admission? next week. You could use some of the tips you talked about in b. a waiters b taxi drivers 5 Shopping What would be a good souvenir to take back with me? What's the best market to visit? Is there anyplace where I should bargain? 6 Food and drink Is the local tap water drinkable? Is there any food or drink I must try? Is there any food or drink I should avoid or be careful with? c Now go through the questions again together. I need to it b at night 4 You should_____________ your ca r__________ every 4 Local customs 7. I ’m a tourist! and d Imagine that your school is going to produce a new website decide how you would answer them about your giving inform ation about your country for tourists..? B Thanks.

According to Dr. At some point. c 6. Wiseman recommend it displaced and cried "Eureka" ("I have found it"). Do the experiment with a partner. Chabris in illusion works because each of our eyes has a "blind Perception. look at the psychology. In what way do you think these three things spots" that cause us to miss seeing the obvious. simple were innovative? Then listen and answer the questions. 1 Why don’t most people think creatively? Master magician Harry Houdini once amazed 2 What was the gorilla experiment? the world by making an elephant vanish.2 Before you listen to the rest of the program. G quantifiers: a ll / every. Sim ons and C.. Richard Wiseman. W ho said it and why? Read the second paragraph and check your answer. most people have psychological "blind photos below. Dr. etc. Wiseman g has studied people who frequently experience this kind S of "eureka momenf' and thinks that the difference J between them and ordinary people is that they think ? in a different way. Now slowly bring the book toward your face." a small area inside the eye that cannot see. 3 What happened when Dr. W hat kind of people a Read the first paragraph of an article about creative have “eureka m om ents”? W hy don’t m ost people have them ? thinking. W hat do you think is happening? T hen listen to the first part o f the program and outside the bath.." S . This simple This photograph w as first published in the article "Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynam ic events" by D J. answer the questions.11 You are going to listen to a radio program about Eureka! Thinking creative thinking. Wiseman’s creative idea? notion of gravity after seeing an apple fall. but make sure that you keep looking at Houdini's head with your right eye. First. which he calls "creative thinking. a professor of d 6 . spot. Now close your left eye and hold the book up at arm's length. Wiseman tried the experiment on a You are now going to do the same thing.F. who was taking 2 Why are the three things in the photos a bath when he suddenly realized that the volume of examples of creative thinking? an object could be calculated by the amount of water 3 What did Dr. solution to a problem. the elephant will suddenly disappear. or to the journalists? Why? the English scientist Isaac Newton. pages 1059-1074. 4 What was Dr. 28. The few people who do not 1 What does the gorilla experiment have these psychological blind spots are people like demonstrate? the Greek mathematician Archimedes. V science P changing stress in word families Eureka! 1 LISTENING & SPEAKING Now look at the title o f the lesson. look at the photo. who developed the £. group of top scientists? o o k a t t h e p ic t u r e s of Houdini's head and an L elephant. usually when the book is about eight inches from your facc.

6 Without oxygen. you are in REM sleep (or dream ing sleep) for . 1 How much of human DNA is the same as chimpanzee DNA? true false a Hardly any.. c only carbon dioxide. a all of the night. All living things I All the living things have cells. 1 a I don't consider myself an especially 5 All / Everything is made up of atoms. Are you a 1 2 Deciduous trees lose their leaves every year / all years. b Neither of them . b som e of the night. about science? true false e The best part of working on a problem Take our quiz and find out. 5 W hen does a lem on tree produce fruit? a Nearly all year. making progress. c Som e years. 2 contains two odd digits but not the same digits. d © Communication How much do you know about science? p. is solving it. 3 W hen w e breathe out. Read the rules and do the exercises. 4 W h ile you are asleep.. true false b O P-142 Grammar Bank 6C. true false c I like dealing with problems that have clear answers. How much do you know true false d I don't like breaking rules. add lines to these boxes 2 The air w e breathe contains . a Read these scientific facts. how much of that air is oxygen? a None of it. 118. C heck the answers. C heck the answers. c Som e of it. f O Communication Are you a creative thinker? p. 6 If blue-eyed parents have one son and one daughter.. it appears black. 118. b All of it. Use your instinct to circle the correct word or phrase.. b If I'm working on a problem and I'm not c Take the science quiz below with a partner. b Nearly every year. In three minutes. 3 Both / Both of insects and spiders are invertebrates.e Take the quiz below to find out if you 2 GRAMMAR quantifiers: all/every. Circle true or false. Think of a number between 1 and 50 that b Som e of it. neither humans or / nor animals can survive. who w ill also have blue eyes? a Both of them . crea ive thinker? 4 If something absorbs all / every the colors of the spectrum. m u . c most of the night. b neither nitrogen nor carbon dioxide. are a creative thinker. c One of them . 3 to make each one into a different object a both nitrogen and carbon dioxide. lucky person. I usually stop for a while and wait for a solution to present itself. c Most of it. etc.

to discover what papers from the 1890s are too dangerous to touch. while investigating how lenses transmit most people thought that it was beneficial.. he is the only person who has had this honor.. in the 1920s. but that didn't stop him from doing some pretty stupid radium. radiation . the credit for any of them. leading to their investigation of radioactivity. he often did the most realized what a dangerous and deadly phenomenon it was . Write A -D in the right box. While driving in the Tanami desert normally one of the risky practice finally caught up with him.. and in 1786 he was emptiest places in the world.? D had a very dangerous way of working with chemicals BD needed some time to recover from an experiment ECU was injured twice while he / she was doing experiments o n was granted a special honor after his / her death n j discovered something that slowly killed him / her □□ wasn’t recognized for everything he / she discovered I E was very unlucky to die doing his / her job H I left something behind that is still dangerous today c 6. At the time.13 Look at the highlighted words. Which scientist. and how they were eight more elements. Again he escaped suffering are kept in special lead boxes. How m any o f the scientists actually died as a result o f their research? Throughout history scientists have risked their health and their lives in their search for the truth.in fact bizarre experiments. including chlorine. another vehicle crashed into them and found dead in his laboratory surrounded by a large number of Shoemaker was killed instantly. and those who view them have to wear permanent damage. Once. w hich are all related to science. advertised "the therapeutic effect of its and then moved it around just to see what would happen. 94 . b Read the descriptions again and answer the questions.. however. In fact. Some of his ashes were sent to the toxic chemicals. In his laboratory in Cambridge. Read the descriptions and label the illustrations A-D. nobody things." Both Pierre and Marie Curie experienced radiation Miraculously. He spent a large find a way to manufacture phosphorus. This the earth. he discovered part of his life investigating craters on the moon. including mercury and cyanide. pushed it to the back. 3 READING a You are going to find out about how scientists throughout history have suffered while m aking their discoveries.he was run over by a carriage while crossing the street B In the 1750s the chemist Karl Scheele was the first person to D Eugene Shoemaker was a respected geologist. W hat do they mean? Are they sim ilar in your language? How do you think they are pronounced? Listen and check. He was a brilliant scientist. radioactive waters. did not die from darkened room before his eyes recovered. Her laboratory books Adapted from A Short History of Nearly Everything by Bill Bryson effect this would have on his vision. nothing long-lasting did. and later did research into the comets of the planet Jupiter. Pierre. though he had to spend some days in a protective clothing. the seventeenth-century scientist was a C In the early 1900s Pierre and Marie Curie discovered the element genius. all her stared at the sun for as long as he could bear. though he didn't get formed. but his In 1997 he and his wife were in the Australian desert where they one failing was a curious insistence on tasting a little of every went every year to search for places where comets might have hit substance he worked with. and Marie Curie died of leukemia in 1934. There was even a hotel in light he inserted a long needle into his eye. On another occasion he sickness. Even now. New York which. Marie's husband. any of which might have been responsible for moon aboard the Lunar Prospector spacecraft and scattered there - his death. A Isaac Newton.

what happens in Which did you enjoy different situations or when they are mixed the most / least? © with each other Which subjects the parts of cells in living things (genes) that do you think control what a person.4 Look at the words in the chart in b above and underline hadn’t been made? the stressed syllable. for a new kind of _ Scientists usually experiments in a laboratory.. a M atch the different kinds of scientists with what they study. 6 Pharmaceutical companies try t o new drugs to cure illnesses and diseases. 9 People c a n to be guinea pigs in clinical trials. animal. photographic. sound. e. k treatment? . Isaac Newtons experiments his theory that gravity existed.g. Are there any scientific discoveries that you wish 6. c \ e / j the structure of substances. develop discover do (x3) invent make prove volunteer would you agree to be a guinea pig 1 Pierre and Marie Curie . a clinical trial U nderline the stress in the verbs and also in the bold words. com plete the table.4 VOCABULARY & PRONUNCIATION 5 SPEAKING science. In w hich groups does the stress change? Would you ever agree to be Practice saying the word families. animals and plants study in school? e . changing stress in word families Answer the questions with a partner. a volunteer in Complete the sentences with the correct form of a verb from the list. Listen and check. most like scientists to discover in the i near future? £ O p-157 Phrasal verbs in context File 6. Practice saying the sentences. subjects do / did you living things. or plant is like actually taught you something rocks and how they are formed useful? b In pairs... heat. e. M l 7 Scientists have t o _ . light. photograph. The telephone w as in the 1870s. Is there a scientist person adjective subject (living or dead) who 1 scientist scientific science you admire? Who? 2 chemist 3 biologist 4 physicist What do you think 5 geneticist is the most important 6 geologist scientific discovery of recent years? i k In som e “word families” the stressed syllable changes in the different parts o f speech.g.g. radium in the early 1900s. etc. Archimedes____ an important discovery in his bath. photographer. a lot of research into the possible side Are you worried effects of new drugs. What would you f 6-'5 Listen and check. about any of the things scientists are currently 8 Before a company can sell a new drug. G3 . of a new drug? If you were sick. they have t o ____ tests experimenting with? and trials to make sure it is safe. a biologist a chemist a geneticist a geologist a physicist Which scientific Talk about natural forces. e.

. Before you listen.. Answer the questions with a partner. T hen answer 1 went to college in their favorite city the same questions with a partner.20 Listen and com plete the phrases. they can travel on land and water..g... glee /gli/ joy. they would like to visit. Christina Juan Sophie Tim Rachel . and know your___________. but didn’t get a ... 2 What are the most popular sights on the tour? and i t __i very well.... I really enjoyed that. fear Faneuil Hall /'tknyal hoi/ a m eeting h all an d m ark etp lace in Boston Celtics /'seltiks/ a professional basketball sin c e 1742 team based in Boston Sam Adams /s:em 'sedaniz/ (1722. delight u p p er-class B oston neighborhood shriek /Jrik/ to give a su d d e n scream in a Boston Brahman /'bsstsn 'brurnon/ h ig h voice a p erso n o f hig h social sta tu s in B oston freak out /frik ao t/ (inform al) to h ave a stro n g reaction.6 ^ Great cities C o l l o q u ia l E n g l is h THE INTERVIEW □ a You are going to listen to an interview with Graham Bull. This company uses “Ducks”. COMMON PHRASES 1 What two things make the Duck Tours special? 1 . pv 3 What is the best thing about Boston for a tourist? 2 The worst thing about being a tourist in Boston is. read the glossary and look at how the words are pronounced to help you understand what he says. i. e. renovated World War II vehicles that are amphibious. Dublin □ Paris □ Rome □ Tokyo □ d Listen to the interviews again with the Listen again. Answer the questions with a partner. My favorite city in the world would to be Miami.koustsr/ a train track at am u sem en t parks th at goes up levity /'kvnii/ hum or. to make a long J .? audioscript on page 130. 4 What is the worst thing? ___________ . 1 something people are occasionally not aware of during the tour 5 Well. the weather could have been better because it rains all th e .. W hat do R ev o lu tio n from M assachusetts su p p o rts a roof you th in k they mean? b 6 . there is a good deal of sense of humor involved. W ould you choose a D uck Tour 5 some trash found by the janitors instead o f a norm al tour? W hy (not)? 6 what they found when the old building was torn down ON THE S T R E E T ^ a 6-19 Listen to five people talking about their favorite cities and a city c 6. 2 didn’t like the weather in their favorite city 3 wants to return to a city they visited before 4 has family members in their favorite city 5 thinks their favorite city isn’t too big or too small C E H B S MultiROM . 3 Do not drive a car in Boston unless you live here c 617 Listen to part 2. Athens □ Miami □ Prague □ I was there for a day.. that was pretty . G lossary roller coaster /'ro o lar ..6 Listen to part 1. a “conDUCKtor” - or a tour guide . COMMON PHRASES 1 .. the matter of driving a car.. 2 a birthday surprise 3 how the woman felt when the Duck went down the ramp e Listen to the interview again with the audioscript 4 where the new Boston Garden was built on page 129. W ho .. What does he say a b o u t.? 4 I ___________ she was probably in her seventies.e. the remains of /n'm einz/ the d ead body of 1803) a le a d e r in th e A m erican rafter /'neftor/ a long piece o f w ood th at d 6-18 Listen and com plete the phrases. Cambridge (US) □ New York □ Rio □ I haven’t been to South America a t . fun a n d d o w n very steep slopes Beacon Hill /'bikan hil/ a historic... W rite the num ber o f each speaker next to the W hat do you think they mean? two cities they m ention.for Boston Duck Tours.

Chicago has dozens of ethnic neighborhoods from Greektown to Little Italy to Chinatown and more. festive meal at a Mexican restaurant or try b Find synonyms in the report for the expressions in bold. • If you really want to go to a particular CHECK your report for mistakes (gram m ar. all packed with restaurants. and spelling). • Even if you have a limited budget. A report W r it in g r e This report describes various options for students who want to eat out while staying in Chicago. (part 1) the main attraction is the people . enjoyable. Chicago steak would be m ost useful for visitors to your city / town. Outdoor hot dog stands . tend to be fairly expensive. restaurant. a Chicago-style deep-dish pizza at an Italian restaurant or pizzeria.mostly In general / ___________ (part 2) sports fans . Useful language so come hungry. • Consider having your main meal at lunchtime. ____________ Fast food . Cafes are likely to be / ___________ fairly cheap. so be prepared for an PLAN the content. especially on weekends and holidays. these ethnic a Read the report on restaurants and think of an appropriate restaurants are reasonably priced. 3. Enjoy a heading for parts 1. meal.You can try a delicious Chicaco-style hot dog with all the condiments. Talking in general Sports pubs . organized in three or four sections. advantage of the different restaurants Chicago has to offer. WRITE 120-180 words.. though costly. but they are often noisy and crowded. take 3 Decide what information to include under each heading. but the food is relatively inexpensive.The majority of fast-food restaurants are clean and the service is fast.. when prices are commonly lower than at dinner. 1 Decide which report you are going to write. among the best in the country. be sure to make reservations. (part 2) Moderately priced dishes include burgers Almost always / ___________ (part 3) and sandwiches.and the vibrant atmosphere. Usually / ___________ (part 4) 3. Generally speaking. Not much atmosphere. punctuation._____________ c You have been asked to write a report on either entertainm ent There are many options if you want to try or sports facilities in your city / town for an English language somewhere special. Portions tend to be large. 4^__________________________ 2 Decide what headings you can use to divide up your report. Most / ___________ restaurants in my town . Use a neutral style (avoid contractions • Don’t make your meal cost more by ordering and inform al expressions). and 4. and of course the food is the same all over the world. 2 When you don’t mind spending a little more Ethnic restaurants .At Chicago’s lively sports pubs. each with a heading. . W ith a partner. decide w hat kind o f inform ation means spending a lot of money. expensive drinks. houses. but this nearly always m agazine.

or c. b - c Circle the correct verb. 5 We’ve moved almost everything to the new office. 4 A lot of research is being done into hu m an genes c a 5 Many im portant discoveries were made in the 19th century. There are just a few a The odds and e left. Say why. b. b Com plete the phrases. I’ve only met him once or t______ freshwater lakes in the world. c A 1 Scientists usually do / make experiments in a laboratory. 2 Archimedes did / made an important discovery in his bath. 1 After the robbery. 2 He arrived back from his adventure safe and s______ c a 3 Why have you taken only black and w photos? 3 _ Lake Michigan is one of the largest 4 I don’t know him very well. history for ten years. he was i n prison 1 Gyeongju is a city in Korea. a no b any c none 9 I didn’t buy my jeans in that store because were so expensive. govern b . . U nderline the word that is different. a Com plete the sentences with the right form o f the bold word. b an advice c some advices d W ord groups. I’ll have to buy some. science 2 1 now live next door t o school I used to go to.don’t marry him! 5 Before a company can sell a new medicine. 2 One of the biggest problems in big cities i s poor a the 3 The has to do more to protect the environment. biological physicist cosmopolitan outskirts industrial a . a everything b all c all of them 10 They shouldn’t go in the boat alone because of them can swim. a the 1 Please turn the TV down. a both b either c neither b U nderline the stressed syllable. What do you remember? GRAMMAR VOCABULARY Choose a. I need some peace and q______ b . a a piece of 3 Drug companies have to make I do a lot of research into possible b some side effects. it has to make / do tests a some advice and trials using volunteers. c an 4 These pills are made / done in Puerto Rico. 6 I need to buy a n ew ___ 1 cathedral synagogue harbor mosque a pant 2 taxi stand cable car bus station airport b pants 3 suburb district landmark neighborhood c pair of pants 4 square skyscraper town hall courthouse 7 I’m going to the optician. 8 There’s milk. 5 Let me give you . I need t o ___ 5 chemist scientist physicist genetics a have tested my eyes b test my eyes PRONUNCIATION c have my eyes tested a U nderline the word with a different sound. 4 He wants to buy inexpensive clothes. .

2 She sees friends more often than before." The best news." To 4 What is the teacher going to show the children? Adapted from a newspaper counteract my problem of sounding monotonous. indicators" point to a balanced personality. D Mr. □ give advice about how to speak in public successfully 3 She gets along well with the people in the village. b He was brought up by his father’s mother. you simply remain silent. clear enough because I sometimes have difficulty pronouncing the 2 Which of these problems doesn’t the man mention? letter "r." which means that I overuse terms a Too many people. articulation. are derived by analyzing the voices of hundreds of good speakers. sends the recording to Branka Zei. as this very naturally makes b How to look at something closely without a people vary their pitch. 5D "If people are comfortable c Buy postcards in the gift shop. For chief executives.another way of saying that my voice is fairly deep. he would ask me to a How to use a microscope. with no clear tendency c Too much traffic." says Mr. a sad memory. Loud and clear: A For most of us the idea of having the weaknesses the message sent by your voice of our speech exposed is scary. or investors. □ talk about famous scientists and their discoveries 5 The bus service is good. with silence. he would get me to read from b Plan their own tour of the museum. however. Grant. imagine myself telling a story to a child. If Mr. and a neutral work-related topic. Zei measures the recording against an guess w hat they mean? "ideal" voice. then they don't have to put in those filler words. or c. armed 2n A badly delivered speech can have a devastating impact on with that information. Using software. b. a script and pause after each phrase. the man who has been listening to me.21 Listen and circle the correct answer. pitch is 158. I do not vary my pitch much.. 99 .. □ give a short presentation on a subject you know about 1 Her friends thought she would miss her job. among other things. I am about to have my voice analyzed. he and his associates coach me the public image of a politician. Ms. "Deeper a Get a technician. speech can damage the company's standing with employees. and expressing these feelings C The idea is that when you are tempted to say “urn. what does my analysis show? The good news is that my median a 6. F Voice coaching. c How to know which tree a leaf comes from. a. voices carry more authority than high-pitched voices. commonly used by politicians and business people." Last. E On the other hand. b Fix the projector. '□ The reason? me angry. customers. voice analysis offers the 5 Which of the following is true about Newton? chance of really improving the way we speak in everyday life and a He was not a very healthy baby. 3D CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? So. such as "um" and "uh. Can you linguistics.” provides a balanced view of the voice's emotional content. Grant receives a report on the results and. when we are on the podium.What can you do? R e v i e w & C h ec k CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? a C om plete the article with a sentence A-F. My loudness level and range are perfect. 3 What does the tour guide recommend the tourists do? toward introversion or extroversion. once only for actors. which means I have a monotonous voice. I use "disfluencies. 4D Also my articulation is not c Make the room darker. Alastair Grant of presentation analysts Grant Pearson Brown. B I talk for two minutes on four topics: a happy memory. b 622 You will hear an interview with a wom an CAN YOU SAY THIS IN ENGLISH? who m oved from the city to the country. is that my "vocal b A lot of crime. a Swiss psychologist who specializes in b Look at the highlighted words and phrases. «□ But for those brave enough to try it. something that makes I am sitting in an office having my voice recorded.25Hz compared with the standard reference for a woman 1 What does the woman offer to do? of 200Hz . M ark Can you . c His father was a poor farmer. a Visit the Roman room. microscope. Grant were to work with me further. □ describe a big city you know well and its attractions or problems 4 She often gets takeout for dinner. an unconvincing to use my voice more effectively. whose pitch. is now When I am finished. and fluency.? the sentences T (true) or F (false).

G structures after wish
V -ed / -ing adjectives and related verbs; expressions with go
P sentence rhythm

I wish you w ouldn't...

1 S P E A K IN G

expressing annoyance
When you talk about things that annoy you, you can
Things that
use these expressions:
It really annoys me when ...
really annoy us
It drives me crazy /n u ts when ... people shout into
It drives me up the wall when ... cell phones.
- we asked people around the world
It really gets on my nerves when ...
People who shout into cell phones... really annoy me, etc.

a Read through the list of annoying things (A-O) in the magazine
article. W ith a partner, say which of these things annoy you, too. Dentists who try
Choose your top three “pet peeves.” to chat with you
when your mouth is k
b T h ink o f three o ther things that annoy you. T hen com pare
full of equipment.
your three things with other students.
(Yet strangely they
always seem to
2 GRAMMAR wish + simple past and would/could understand you!)
a ‘. 7.1 Listen to four conversations. W hich o f the irritating
things (A-O) in the magazine article do they refer to?
1□ 2 d 3 n 4 □ People who criticize politicians and the government
but then don't vote in the elections.
b Listen again and com plete the sentences.
1 I w ish _________ that!
2 I wish______ a dollar for every time I picked the one broken one. I get into the shower, and then either the water
3 I w ish______, but it depends on the traffic. goes cold or there's no shower gel left
4 I w ish________ in the street.

c W hich speakers would like somebody else to change their behavior?
Cyclists who ride on
d © p-144 Grammar Bank 7A. Read the rules for wish + simple past
^ the sidewalk and nearly
and wish + would / could. Do exercise a.
knock you down.
e Complete the sentences so that they are true for you. Compare with
a partner.
About me
1 wish I could ______ __ (ability)
I wish I were m o re ................ . (adjective of personality)
I wish 1 weren’t so .................. (adjective of personality)
I wish I had . (personal possession)
1 w ish __________
Things people do that annoy me
I wish m y __________ wouldn’t ___________ (brother, sister, friend)
I wish would / wouldn’t ...____ (drivers / cyclists)
1 wish young people today would / wouldn’t ___________
I wish there were a law against people w ho___________
When I'm traveling on a plane or
train, and a child sitting behind
me keeps kicking my seat.

3 VOCABULARY -ed/ -ing adjectives and
related verbs

We often talk about feelings in three different ways, either
by using a verb (e.g., annoy) or by using the -ed or -ing
adjective (e.g„ annoying, annoyed).
It really annoys me. (verb)
That noise is really annoying. / Jane is so annoying.
(-ing adjectives describe the thing or person that produces
a feeling)
presenter, who each speak only a couple of lines at a time. I’m really annoyed about last night.
(-ed adjectives describe how a person feels)
[h ]
When I'm standing in line for a train ticket and
the person in front of me can't make up their mind a C om plete the sentences with the correct form o f the
what kind of ticket they want word in bold.
1 I get very___________ when I speak Spanish and
When you want to buy something people don’t understand me. frustrate
in a store, and you have to wait for 2 It’s ____________ when you can’t remember
the salesperson to finish a telephone someone’s name, em barrass
conversation with a friend. 3 It really____________ me when people are late, irritate
4 I wish the sun would come out. I find these gray days
s o ______________depress
5 We w ere___________ when the plane suddenly began
to lose height, terrify
6 The trip had been v ery ___________ , so she decided
to go to bed early, tire
7 I wish he’d come home! I t ____________ me when he’s
out late at night, worry
8 Jack wasn’t very___________ when we made fun of
his new tie. amuse
LU When you get a cart in a supermarket 9 The end of the movie really____________ me. It was
totally unbelievable, disappoint
and one of the wheels is broken.
10 It was a ___________ game! Our team won 3-2 with
E
a goal in the last minute, thrill
When you get in a taxi, and the
11 She really____________ her parents when she told
driver asks you the best way to go.
them she was getting divorced, shock
H 12 What a n ____________ day! I need to relax and put
I'm talking on the phone and I need a pen my feet up. exhaust
quickly, but I can't find one that works.
b A few “feeling” verbs have an -ed adjective, but not the
M . -ing form. Complete the adjectives in the sentences below.
Drivers who double park on a busy street and then
put their emergency lights on (as if that makes it OK). 1 I was delighted to meet her. She was a delightful person.
2 I was scared during the movie. The movie was
very________
IE 3 We were extremely impressed by your resume. Your
People who
resume was extremely________
sunglasses i
4 I’m very stressed by my job. My job is very________
5 I was really offended by what you said. What you said
was really________

c In pairs, talk about som e of these:
• something in the news recently that shocked you
• a movie you found really disappointing
• something that frustrates you about learning English
• the kind of weather that makes you feel depressed
• an embarrassing mistake you once made
Telemarketers that call you during the

63
• an area of your town / city that is scary at night
evening, trying to sell you something.

4 R E A D IN G
a Look at the photos of actress Paula Wilcox as she is
today and in the TV series that made her famous,
Man About the House. How old do you think she is
in each photo? How has she changed?

b Read a magazine article where Paula talks about things
she regrets. In which paragraph does she talk ab o u t...?
A □ a time when she misjudged other people
B □ a time when she didn’t want to seem different
from other people
C □ her insecurity about her appearance
D □ how she regrets not taking more risks
E D situations when she shouldn’t have talked so much
F D advice she should have listened to

c Read the article again carefully. Find words or
phrases that mean:
1 ___________ it makes me remember (1)
2 ___________ very beautiful (1)
3 ____________ a missed opportunity (1) Regrets, I’ve had a few...
4 ____________ having a leading role (2)
Actress Paula Wilcox, now in her fifties, was best known for
5 ____________ amusing and intelligent (3)
her role in the TV series M a n A b out the House, which she
6 ____________ the most amusing and interesting
person (3) starred in when she was only 19. Here she talks about things
7 ____________ kind, soft (4) she wishes she had known then...
8 ____________ things that are new or difficult, Now when I look in the mirror and think, "Oh boy, I'm getting older,"
but stimulating (6)
it reminds me that I used to do the same thing when I was 19 and 20.
d Use your own words to sum m arize the advice she f I used to look at myself and think I looked awful. I wish I'd known what
gives in each paragraph to younger people. W hat I was going to look like 30 years later, because then I might have
do you think o f her advice? realized how gorgeous I was then. I looked great but I didn't appreciate
it - what a waste!

5 GRAMMAR wish + past perfect I now understand that it's OK to be successful. When I was 19,1was
starring on TV and making lots of money, but most of my friends were
a U nderline the seven sentences in the article with
2 college students. I felt embarrassed and used to walk around with my
wish. W hat tense is the verb after wish? Are they
hands in front of my face so as not to be recognized. I wish I'd known
wishes about the present, the past, or the future?
that it's possible to enjoy the good things about fame and that you can
b O P-144 Grammar Bank 7A. Read the rules for wish keep your friendships in spite of it.
+ past perfect. Do exercise b.
I wish I had learned sooner how to listen to people better. I used to think
c W hat regrets do you think these people might have? I had to be intelligent and witty in social situations. If I'd known how
Make sentences with I w ish... + past perfect. 3 much people appreciate being listened to, I wouldn't have tried so hard
to be the life and soul of the party.
1 John has always been extravagant and never has
Life has taught me that sometimes when people behave badly with you, it
much money in the bank. Now he really wants
is because of some unhappiness that they are carrying around with them,
to buy an expensive car, but he can’t afford it.
4 a problem that has nothing to do with you. I wish I had been more gentle
2 Annie has just been to the hairstylist. She isn’t very
with people in that situation and not reacted so angrily. Once you find out
happy with her new look.
what's really going on, the whole relationship can change.
3 Claudia was offered a job in San Francisco but
didn’t take it because she didn’t think her English My dad always used to say, "Learn what you can while you are young
was good enough. and in school because when you are older, you either won't have
4 Mark got really angry with his girlfriend last night. 5 enough time or won't have enough money to pay for lessons." That was
Adapted from a newspaper

They had an argument and she left him. good advice, and I wish I'd spent more time on my piano lessons.

I wish I'd saved part of my salary. I wish I hadn't Finally, I wish I had always said yes to challenges. I'd say to young
spent so much money on that vacation... people today, if you are offered the opportunity to do something you
6 have never done before, go for it. You might feel a little nervous,
but say yes anyway.
IT %

4 SONG J3 If I could turn back time Family Lifestyle Education.. I regret not buying some really cheap was earning a good salary.when I came back an hour when I was younger.? after class? A wasted time when he / she could have been doing something else Q What do you usually do when something B wishes he / she had said something to someone □ g o es with your computer? C missed an opportunity because he / she wasn’t independent □ Have you ever promised someone something D wasn’t old enough to take advantage of a situation □ important and then gon e your word? E regretted trying to change his / her appearance □ Do you think you could g o food for 24 hours? b Listen again.1 didn’t bring an umbrella today. <71MSI . etc. Here are c Now ask and answer the questions in pairs. b Listen again and underline the stressed words. And I’m getting hungry.” help you g o professionally? I woke up immediately when my alarm c Read about the research below. the whole relationship can change.” the clothes you’re wearing? 2 “The top and skirt I wore were really skimpy. B □ I thought you said we were in a hurry! Look at the highlighted phrasal verbs with C Q So do 1..” go t o at night? 4 “I really liked him.” How long does it usually take you to 3 “The Russian revolution.2 D ictation. 1 Do you usually g o your notes Who . practice the dialogues. I wish I had been brave enough to go up to the top floor of the Eiffel Tower when I was in Paris. I wish I hadn't had my hair cut short exams last year. would you g o it? 10 What’s g o in g in the celebrity Psychologists have researched things that world in your country these days? people regret about their lives. they were gone. work.6 PRONUNCIATION sentence rhythm 8 VOCABULARY expressions with go a 7. Do you identify with any of clock w ent this morning. something you have never done before. If you are offered the opportunity to do In pairs. Complete the questions with the correct word. I wish I'd studied more for my final yesterday.” “This wasaunique opportunity. Once you find out what’s really going on. Listen and write down six sentences with wish. but it is.” “Now it’s too late. W hat do you think they mean? E □ Why don’t you go back to the store and see if they still have it? F □ I’m sorry. some of the things people wrote: 9 7. back on far for off on over 7 LISTENING & SPEAKING sleep with without wrong a 7-3 Listen to five people and m atch the speakers with the regrets. I regret not visiting my grandfather shoes when I first saw them on I regret not learning to play the guitar more when he was in the hospital. c M atch each sentence from the dictation with a sentence below. it’s not my fault. I wish I'd saved more money when I she had problems.” “Old letters. W hy do the speakers m ention or say the following? Do you usually choose shoes that go 1 “Mercedes” and “Bosch” “It would have opened doors for me. d T hink of three regrets (big or small) that you would add to the lists. I wish I'd listened to my sister when last month. A Q Do you want me to call and make an excuse? go for it. I regret arguing with my parents I wish I hadn't eaten so much last night. later. sale . You have no self-control! page 102. Com pare with a partner and ask for m ore information.” Do you think that speaking English will 5 “I just did the bare minimum. go from the article about Paula W ilcox on D □ Well. the regrets? If you were offered a job abroad.

Driving around the office parks that encircle Washington. quite without meaning to. b before all public holidays.. Then. Paul Feldman dreamed big dreams. c there is more control from the management. nce upon a time.. In order to recoup his just how honest his customers were. he wanted to tackle world hunger. When employees from neighboring floors economic experiment. cover the article and say w hat you can rem em ber a b o u t. he took a job in Washington. Before you listen.. Then he made ever made as a research analyst. costs. a Look at the title of the article below and the photos. whenever.. a they are more likely to get caught. but his wife supported him. of people who paid. and the proportion b a company where the money basket got stolen. 1 What do you think the average payment rate was? c before some public holidays. to steal more. he would bring in some bagels. analyzing weapons expenditures for the US Navy. and what it involved. a serrated He had also. a 70-80% b 80-90% c 90-100% 5 Which of these people is most likely to pay? 2 Were smaller offices more or less honest than big ones? a An employee who doesn’t like the boss 3 How often has the cash basket been stolen? b An executive who is very __________ 4 Did people “cheat” more during good or bad weather? popular with the staff. down to the penny. 5 Did people “cheat” more or less before Christmas? Why? c An employee who likes 6 Who “cheated” more. b Read Honest workers or thieves? and check. they wanted some too. When his research institute fell under new management. and cream cheese. G clauses of contrast and purpose. His economist friends thought he had lost his mind. 6 how his business progressed. in pairs.. b they would be more embarrassed about being caught. designed a beautiful knife. Within a few years. not fraud. colleagues would would deliver some bagels and a cash basket to a company's snack introduce him to their wives not as "the head of the public research room. he set out a cash basket and a sign with the suggested price. he solicited customers with a simple pitch: early in the morning. b because he asked them personally for the money 1 Paul Feldmans original job. He held senior- level jobs and earned good money. 1 More people paid in Feldman’s own office . c a company where less than 90% paid for their bagels. what were the characteristics of a company that stole versus a His collection rate was about 95 percent. c because the people were his coworkers. he for his best work. Feldman O Trained as an agricultural economist. Every Friday. Did they steal from him? If so. or less? . a after a day off. but he wasn't always recognized decided to quit his job and sell bagels. he attributed the company that did not? Under what circumstances did people tend From underpayment to oversight. it a habit.400 The bagels had begun as a casual gesture: a boss treating his bagels a week to 140 companies and earning as much as he had employees whenever they won a research contract. Paul Feldm an’s experim ent. By measuring the money collected against heard about the bagels. etc. Eventually he Freakonomia the bagels taken. Try to Listen again and choose a." the leftovers. or c guess what the article is about. At the office Christmas party. executives or lower-level employees? the company where he / she works. predict the answers to the questions. 7 the economic experiment he (unintentionally) designed. a after he caught somebody stealing. You are going to hear an econom ist talking about 4 People “cheat” more . b. 4 why he started asking for money.5 Listen and check your answers to c. Feldman was delivering 8.. a a company where less than 80% paid for their bagels. he found it possible to tell. Instead. in pairs. was bringing in 15 dozen bagels a week. 3 People are more honest in smaller companies because . 3 how the “bagel habit” started. 5 his friends’ and family’s reaction to his change of job.. he would return before lunch to pick up the money and group" (which he was) but as "the guy who brings in the bagels. whatever. 2 Feldman eventually stopped selling bagels to . V business and advertising P changing stress in nouns and verbs A test of honesty 1 READING & LISTENING 7.. 2 the incident that made him decide to change his job.

paper. The bagels had begun as a “thank you” to his employees W hat’s the difference between . e. 3 started as a small family business and then became much bigger. it’s always the wrong thing. whichever (= any thing... 4 Sales of hybrid cars have reached a new record.” e. produce. to record. Come and sec me whenever you like. 2 VOCABULARY business and advertising 5 Half the applicants for the job were rejected... they are usually stressed on the first syllable. etc.? whenever they won a research project. she opens her mouth. whenever. • downloading music and movies from the Internet without paying a Read the inform ation in the box and practice saying • buying pirate DVDs / CDs each w ord both ways: as a noun with the stress on • photocopying a book the first syllable. town / city that. 2 belongs to a multinational. find w ords that m ean . 1 is part of a well-known chain. I’m going to buy it. a Look at the Honest workers or thieves? article again and 6 Rejects are sold at a reduced price. and as a verb with the stress on the • taking home pens. to project. They also have the meaning it doesn’t matter what / which / Name a business or company in your who / how / where. 3 PRONUNCIATION changing stress in nouns and verbs Some words change their stress depending on whether they are nouns or verbs.156 Vocabulary Bank Business and advertising. 4 ____________people who buy a product from a store or company (paragraph 5) MI NI G R A M M A R b O p. however 5 export a product / import a product (= it doesn’t matter how). she says something 5 spends a lot of money on advertising. whenever. from the office or school second syllable.g.. e.. . I’ll go by bus or train . Practice saying the sentences. however. 3 Home sales are recorded at the courthouse.. stupid. wherever (= any place). whoever (= any person).g. reject. 4 was taken over by another company. a record. 2 a customer / a client 3 the boss / the staff We can also use: 4 set up a company / take over a company whatever (= any thing).. or wherever.? progress.__________ is cheaper. whoever.. . whatever. Com plete the sentences with whatever. whichever.g. object. 3 ___________ people who work for somebody (paragraph 2) c 7. 7 The demand for organic produce is growing. a project. they are often stressed on the second syllable. Words like this include: convert. 2 ____________an employer or manager (paragraph 2) 10 Making a profit is the company’s main object. or department in an organization (paragraph 1) 9 My boss objects to people dressing casually at work. you like. • not saying anything when a salesperson gives back too much change 2 The new building is progressing well. As verbs.__________ expensive it is! I give him. • buying designer goods that they know are fakes 1 We’re making good progress with the report. f How do you feel about people . • keeping a library book b U nderline the stressed syllable on the highlighted word. 1 ____________the person who is in charge of a group 8 Most toys are produced in China nowadays. from a limited number). etc.. c Take the business quiz with a partner. Sometimes the vowel sounds change. As nouns.. etc. present. 2 There is a prize for can answer the question first. 1 Please s it. too.6 Listen and check. 1 an employer / an employee We use whenever to mean “at any time” or “it doesn’t m a tte r w hen.

its price was really included in to fitness" Buy now while supplies last! No exercise . "Pum avite is absolutely fantastic and a m iracle cure for people like me. there won’t but now Simon has muscles be any m ore available. 4 GRAMMAR clauses of contrast and purpose b Read the m agazine article. who have them . they could sell them ? an exclusive product m arketed by Cure Everything Pharm aceuticals." explains Sim on.I want it! T he idea m akes us feel clever. G we don’t really need the products offer ends H the ad saying it was free on March 31st! d Look at the eight phrases again. “T here are only a few left! A nd after they’re sold.” W hat happens w hen we read o r hear these words? Even though 2 .” T here’s som ething about the word “free” that im m ediately attracts us . Would you try Pumavite? W hy (not)? How advertisers win our hearts and minds. Do you really think the m anufacturers o f that “lim ited little tim e for the gym. From then on. W hich ones express a contrast? W hich ones express a purpose? e O P-144 Grammar Bank 7B. " I slept my w ay A free information to fitness!" B the actress is holding the product in the photo C get us to believe it Only $799 D get your personal information Adapted from a website E we can’t fail to get the message for a three-month supply F demonstrate the amazing effects of their product Limited supplies . But no m anufactured products are ever W ith three children and a busy job." P U M A V IT E contains plant extracts In fact. they will bom bard you w ith these produce exactly the same effect as a two. Read the rules and do the exercises. maybe don’t even to die for! like them . and the highlighted word(s) im m ediately before them . m ade. and get our money There's no such thing as a free lunch “Get a free cam era w hen you subscribe to our m agazine for two years. we im m ediately w ant to be am ong the lucky few Sim on Sloth had never been one for exercise. "I slept my way In spite o f 1 the m agazine subscription. But that cam era (which will probably break as soon as you get it out o f the box) wasn’t a gift at all.and give us your address course of the tablets has transformed him! “Just fill out this form for 3_____________ Do you think "You take it at night. these kinds o f ads are really produced so as to from the Andes and complex vitamins. A three-month Just sign your name here . im m ediately." says Simon. as if we got the better of the company. . Together 4___________ . he had very scarce.som ething for nothing . "and com panies really want to spend their m oney on sending you its special secret ingredient gets to work a free brochure? It costs them to produce it and to mail it. m ore direct advertising and probably pass on your nam e hour workout at the gym or swim m ing pool. and address to other com panies. It is guaranteed to c Read the article again with the glossary on page 107 and w ork and is the best investm ent I have ever complete it with the phrases below. too. . a Read the ad below. edition” DVD couldn’t produce a few m ore if they thought But then Simon discovered P U M A V IT E tablets. P ut a check (✓) next to the “tricks” that the Pum avite ad uses.

.. Try to complete all the sentences in two minutes. 107 .” Talk in small groups. . • cold-calling But be careful.g. 10 I think the advertising of cigarettes and alcohol should be banned so as not to . I'm a doctor (or a celebrity) • political parties If a celebrity is using the product. Be careful . 4 He got promoted to branch manager despite . 3 She applied for a job with a company in Miami so th a t. “People just can’t get enough o f them. the m ore powerful the advertising message is. a doctor) • a catchy song • something free Glossary • humor « u h « rrih e p ay m o n ey reg u larly in o rd er to receive slh get the better of to defeat sb / sth or gain an advantage • a good slogan available th at you can buy or get • a story be scarce th ere is not m u ch o f it • animals or nature bombard “atta c k ” sb w ith . “Unbelievable response!” and com bine this with a a because of the ads? photograph o f a large group o f people. 2 Even though I was really late. e. or does it? the product? Why do they have this cffcct on you? Ads frequently use “real people” to 7 on 4 Do you think people should be allowed to advertise the following? Why (not)? our health or fitness. too m any q u estio n s. If a 5 How successful do you think the following forms of doctor recom m ends it.. But o f course the person in the ad • alcoholic drinks or TV com m ercial is a gym -toned model! • expensive children’s toys • junk food Trust me.. it m ust be fantastic.” “Record sales. 8 In spite of a huge marketing campaign.... everybody can be wrong.. In order to 5___________ .. The bigger the marketing are? authority.g.... do you really • leaflets / brochures in your mailbox think she colors her hair with it at hom e? Do the • junk e-mails authorities m entioned really exist? “My dog biscuits are • website pop-ups • sports sponsorships recom m ended by the International Association o f Dog 6 Think of ads and commercials that use the N utritionists” (an organization I started last week)..the stress is different on one of the words: A nd everybody ca n t be wrong... 5 Most of the employees don’t like the new CEO. 7 Which of the above marketing techniques might too m u c h in fo rm atio n influence you to buy the product? be fooled be tricked f Sentence race. so the product m ust be product production producer fantastic. • an authority (e.. But don’t be fooled. 1 The customer took the shoes back to the store to . although ..... so that b in spite of the ads? . 6 He left the company he used to work for in order to .. 9 I went to our headquarters in New York for .” 1 Are there any products that you have bought recently . Although 8___________ . it must work. Even if everybody is 2 Have you bought something recently that wasn’t as good doing it (and they may not be). my boss . 7 Although John was the hardest worker in the company. . as the advertisement made you think? 3 Are there any ads that make you not want to ever buy The camera never lies.. “A following to sell a product: recent study found that my lem onade tastes better than • a celebrity any o th er bran d ” (my m other liked it better)... 5 SPEAKING stress in word families Everybody's doing it • Underline the stressed syllable in this word family. they use expressions like “It’s the new sensation sweeping the country.

why do you think this word or phrase is being 1 *ea a d rin k that^ is made by pouring hot used in your language? water over dried leaves • How do you feel about these borrowed English words? 2 _________ ah ouse_____ . you can use these phrases:for example. If not.144 Grammar Bank 7C. of the preposition affect the relative pronoun? h © p. and ask your p artner to guess w hat they are. 7 macho /'m atfo o / □ G Italian • Which three of the words defined on page 109 would 8 tycoon /tai'k u n / □ H Japanese you choose to add to your language? Why? 9 graffiti /gra'fiti/ □ I Spanish • Think of five words or phrases that your language has 10 yogurt /'yougort/ □ J Turkish borrowed from English.120. walls and ceilings are • Can you think of any words / phrases that have been made of hard snow borrowed from other languages besides English? 3 a machine________ can perform a • Can you think of two English words or phrases that complicated series of tasks automatically don’t have an exact translation in your language? Why 4 _________ a p erson________ is successful in business do you think that is? or industry • Do you know of any words in your language that don’t 5 a person_________job is to drive a car. In pairs. Do you have words for any of these concepts in your language? Now complete the definitions with who (x6). Read the rules and do the exercises. or whose and write the correct word from a. How does the position 2 In which sentences could you change a word to that7. that (x4). or such as. Define m ore foreign words that English has borrow ed." 3 chauffeur /Jo o 'fsr/ □ C Czech 4 shampoo /J'aem'pu/ □ D French 5 algebra /'aeldjobro/ □ E Hindi W ork in groups o f three or four.! 18 B p. Have these words been borrowed because there wasn’t C heck w hat you know. Look at the com pleted definitions on page 109. try to match the words with the giving examples languages they come from. Read about the book THE M E A N IN G OlF TiOgO on page 109. Do you use any of these words If you want to give examples when you are speaking (or very similar ones) in your language? English. Discuss the questions. 6 tea Itil □ F Inuit giving as m any examples as you can. which (xl). 2 igloo /'iglu/ □ B Chinese such as “shampoo” and “yogurt. i © Communication W hat's the word? A p. 1 robot / ’ro o b at/ □ A Arabic English lias borrowed many words from other languages. have an exact translation in English? especially fut somebody rich oi important • D o you have any favorite w ords in English? W hy d o you 6 ________ writing or draw ings_________ people make like them? on a public wall or building W hat word could you use instead o f who? Instead o f that? How w ould you define the other four words in a? Any problems? © Workbook p. or whom (xl). G relative clauses V prefixes P word stress TingO 1 GRAMMAR relative clauses 2 SPEAKING a English has borrowed m any words and phrases from other languages. whose (x2).70 New gram m ar. Com plete definitions 1-6 with an existing word for this concept in your language? that. for instance. . Answer the questions below' with a partner. 1 Which two sentences contain non-defining relative clauses 3 In which sentences can you leave out the relative pronoun altogether? (ones that add extra information to a sentence)? 4 Look at the definitions for puntare and rujuk. who.

Neko neko (Indonesian) To have a creative idea attracted to. Aviador (Spanish) A government employee12___________only shows up on payday. _____________ r IE skin has been tanned too much by a sun lamp. out very little money( in f r aaK cafe. The title of the book comes from one of his favorites. . (Italian) An adjective to describe a personf Lampadato only makes thing worse. Puntare (Italian) To stare intensely at a person Rujuk (Indonesian) To remarry a woman to 9. Fucha (Polish) A job5. Adam Jacot de Boinod. "Tingo.1___________works as a researcher for TV quiz shows. leaves without paying the bill. THE JHEaNING of In this book. you do in your free time without paying any tax. but that he thinks perhaps English ought to incorporate into the language.« y »hen you see her from behind but is not when you see her from the front. means to borrow things from a neighbor's house one by one until there is nothing left! h—h*w (Japanese) A » m a n >---------Y » « * is P . Zechpreller (German) Someone Zhengron (Chinese) A person 14 _________ looks have been improved by plastic surgery. has collected words from all over the world that do not exist in English. J Drachenfutter (German) The presents 4_ guilty husbands give their wives (literally "dragon's food")."2___________is a word from the language spoken on Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean. h ) A p e rs o n 11 — ^ a ">* °< Fshes (Albanian) A long mustache 11___________looks like a broom. you had been married before.

The m an. 4 ________ Genoa.This was the Latin nam e for a slave given to Roman u p an d dow n like a ball soldiers to reward them for performance in battle. The word was underworld slang from the early 1600s.” The ancient Romans would often avoid capture by throwing off their capes when fleeing so that they could ru n more quickly. e. a father legally claimed his newborn child by sitting in front of his family and placing the child on his knee.” Glossary bounce (paragraph 2) m ove 10 ------------.g.” In Ancient Rome.It is believed that this term originated from a m an’s last name.” The word originally had nothing to do with m arital status.g. terrorized a section o f London with his family in the 1890s. Eventually. this term cape (5) a piece of clothing w ith no sleeves w orn was applied to anyone who was a slave to anything. The pants were nam ed after the city. b Now com plete 1-10 with the w ords below.g. squ are piece. 6 ------------. 2 ________ From “cabrioler. The story behind the words 1 ________ Comes from two Old Norse words (the language spoken by the Vikings) that mean “house” and “owner. U nderline any w ords you don’t know and try to and expressions guess their m eaning from the context. D id you guess u su a lly o f bak ed clay any o f them ? acronym (9) a short w ord that is m ade using th e first letters of a group o f w ords. was the first city to m ake denim cloth.. Like credit cards. the customer had to present the tile to the bank teller.” The first carriages for public rental bounced up and down so much that they reminded people of goats jumping on a hillside. This is incorrect. and the name of the bank. this means “without your cape.. 9 _________ The popular explanation of the origin of this word is that it is an acronym meaning “To Insure Promptness. try to rem em ber the origin o f each word. In pairs. Can you guess what any of them are? Use the pictures to help you.” that is.From the Latin. d Now cover the article and focus on the words in the list in b. e. If the borrower was over the limit.3 READING & LISTENING a Read about the origin of ten English words. whose first nam e was Patrick. addict alarm broke (adj = having no money) cab (= taxi) e. meaning “to pass on a small sum of money. 7 ________ Many banks in post-Renaissance Europe issued small. who would compare the imprinted credit limit with how much the customer had already borrowed. E3 .which was what soldiers shouted when they saw that the enemy was attacking.” a French word that means “jump like a goat. 3 ________ From the Italian “To arms!”. except for the fact that home ownership made these m en extremely desirable m arriage partners. is fast. porcelain “borrower’s tiles” to their customers. called “Gene” by sixteenth-century Europeans. to make sure the service in. a drug. the teller broke the tile on the spot. aro u n d your sh o u ld ers tile (7) flat. these tiles were imprinted with the owner’s name and credit limit. C heck w ith your teacher or a dictionary. a restaurant. originally meant “placed on the knees. In order to borrow money. 5 ________ In Latin.. PIN = personal escape genuine jeans hooligan husband tip identification num ber promptness (9) quickness slang (9) very informal words c Read the article again carefully. 8 --------------.

g. the main stress on the sauce it is today. Orange b 1 7-8 Listen and underline two stressed syllables in each word in a. Ask for m ore inform ation. e. doesn’t come from 8___________ . One way of making new words is by adding a prefix at the beginning of a • ketchup • orange • tennis word. 1 food that tastes a little bit raw in places “narangah. They are usually used without a hyphen but sometimes need one. written by that person 10 once ate so many that he 4 the artists who came after Monet. base word and the secondary stress on the prefix. under-. The Sanskrit word... men or women? 18 • How often do you buy precooked meals? • When was the last time you redecorated your room or apartment? O P-157 Phrasal verbs in context File 7. so a 5____________ into it." which 2 when you wake up later than you had planned to means 9 . 11 ______ and some orange trees 5 what happens if you don’t understand something correctly grew from his12____________ 6 the shape of a half moon Ask and answer the questions w ith a partner. some 4___________ mixed A Unlike suffixes (which aren’t stressed). over-. antisocial)." which • Have you ever asked a celebrity for an autograph? means15____________ The sport lost • Do you know any ex-smokers? there and became popular in • Do you know any people who are bilingual? 17____________ dut the "tenez" sounded • Are there any English words you sometimes mispronounce? more like "tennis " when it was said with an • Who do you think is better at m ultitasking. mis-. Van Gogh. etc.. Then match the bold prefixes with their meanings. The story is that an 3 the story of someone’s life.g.e 77 You’re going to listen to a 4 V O C A B U L A R Y & P R O N U N C IA T IO N language expert talking on the radio prefixes and word stress about the origins o f the words below.. This word. 2 again or back 9 not enough |Ketchup 3 4 against badly / wrongly 10 11 of or by oneself one The original sauce was invented by 12 small 5 before 1____________ It was made from 13 too much 6 former 2____________ British explorers first tried 14 twice 7 half it in the 3____________ century and really liked it. a legend? 2 Which word changed its form because a Look at the words in the list. . prefixes are often stressed. and it became the word with a prefix may have two stressed syllables. Tennis • Are there any professions that you think are overpaid? The sport started in13____________ • How often do you take antibiotics? It was14____________ called “tenez." may come from “naga ranga. ft comes biography circle cooked impressionists sleep understand from ancient 5anskrit.? in 6___________ and 7___________ . and also the word for orange c W hich prefix(es) could you add to the words below to describe . These prefixes change the meaning of a 1 Which word’s origin is related to word. Later. e. the original word was hard for the English to say? antisocial autograph biannual ex-husband microscopic misspell 3 Which word originated from the way monosyllable multinational overworked postgraduate preconceived the English pronounced a foreign word? rewind semifinals underpaid f Listen again and com plete the 1 after 8 many sum m aries w ith one or m ore words. etc.

I think. 4 What other example does he give of a word that came into 4 And the editor of the OED a t ____________actually wrote to the language quickly? a consultant.. 5 These are too technical. read the glossary and look at how the words are pronounced to help you understand what he says.? 6 Well. Before you listen.. Answer the questions with a partner..._____ . W hat do you to h av e th e a p p e n d ix rem oved think they mean? su rgically COMMON PHRASES b 7.. W hat do you used in their language.kara'neijn/ a form al u biquitous /yu'bikwntos/ being cerem o n y w h en a crow n is first ev ery w h ere a t th e sam e tim e placed on th e h ead of a new king or q ueen shift v /Jift/ to m ove or ch ange K in g Edw ard V II (1841-1910) on behalf of as a n o th e r p e rso n ’s King o f Great B ritain an d rep re sen tativ e Ireland from 1901 to 1910 ap p en dectom y /.penda'saitas/ a in v en t (a n ew w o rd o r phrase) sw ellin g o f th e a p p e n d ix (a p od castin g /'padkaistii)/ sm all organ atta c h e d to the bro ad castin g a program for in te stin e s in sid e th e body) d o w n lo ad in g o v er th e Internet coronation /. What’s ___________you? 1 hang time and time-shift 2 hawala and ki e Listen to the interview again with the audioscript on 3 appendectomy and appendicitis page 131.. pv What does she say a b o u t. You can____________out. b Listen again. 2 . c 710 Listen to part 2. but no 1 How many new words go into the Oxford English one really____________to . this is clearly such a big thing that it has to go in _____ 2 Why do some terms go into the dictionary faster than others? away.. Dictionary each year? 2 .. 3 . Mateusz Victoria Matandra Volke we don’t invent new words.? 1 says that their own language is dominant in one d Listen to the interview again with the audioscript on particular field page 131...scpEn'dektami/ d 7-n Listen and com plete the phrases. which actually doesn’t _____ sense in English. 3 There are a ____________different ways that words can be 3 Why did podcasting enter the dictionary very quickly? formed in English.7 "^ Words C o l l o q u ia l E n g l is h THE INTERVIEW □ a You are going to listen to an interview with Jesse Sheidlower. 2 mentions a language that doesn’t use English words for many modern inventions 3 talks about an “English word” that isn’t really English 4 mentions two words connected with food M ultiRO M . a lexicographer and one of the m ain editors of the Oxford English Dictionary. W ho .9 Listen to part 1. pv 5 And if there are new inventions o r like that. 1 There are going to be words that come in very briefly... T hen answer the sam e questions w ith a partner. pv 4 Most people ju s t with downloadare.. Answer the questions with a partner. G lossary coin v (a w ord or phrase) /lo in / to appendicitis /a. W ho is the most positive about using think they mean? English words? W ho is the m ost negative? COMMON PHRASES 1 It is used.. you don’t have these words in.2 Listen to four speakers talking about English words c 713 Listen and com plete the phrases. Can you think of any new words that have com e into your language recently? ON THE STREET □ a 7. everything to with technology ...

. your personality. or whether to employ new staff. and your family circumstances. the right move for you or not depends on your skills. which gives you more freedom to do things your way. This will give you material for the introduction. You have to 1 Decide what you could say about how people today are make a lot of big decisions. to expand. and conclusion. Use a formal style 9_____________ . whether interested in famous people or want to be famous themselves. and spelling). Finally. up their own company. Useful language To list advantages / disadvantages To add more points to the same argument In addition. CHECK your report for mistakes (gram m ar. advantages. In spite of (the fact that) . (+ noun) . you might find that instead of finishing early. and then advantages). Finally.. Being your own boss has many obvious advantages. PLAN the content.. but introduction. organized in four paragraphs: company fails. . you could lose not only your job.. To make contrasting points However. Whether it would be linking expressions in Useful language. working also although another advantage because of for someone else or being for example on the other hand such as your own boss? the main advantage to sum up More and more people are choosing to give up their jobs and follow b Put the linking expressions in the correct spaces below. Furthermore. .... disadvantages (or disadvantages also your home and your life savings. b u t5_____________ . a boss watching over you. Use the advantages and disadvantages. you could c You are going to write a com position titled W hat are the 4_____________ become extremely rich if your advantages and disadvantages o f being fam ous? company becomes successful.. . "For and against" writing n a Com plete the com position with linking expressions from the list. . there are a number of disadvantages. You have Because (+ clause) . This all seems very tempting. .. If the W RITE 120-180 words. there is an element of risk.6_____________ . deadline. and and in theory can decide what time you finish work. . 2_____________ offering a new product or providing To introduce the conclusion a new service.. the opportunity to do something you really believe in.. owning a business has both (avoid contractions and informal expressions). To give a reason '_____________ is that you are in charge... To introduce an example For instance... This is often very stressful. Use capital letters where necessary.7______________you are the boss 2 List two or three advantages and disadvantages. you 3 Decide if you think on balance there are more advantages have to work all night8______________an important than disadvantages. number them in order of importance.3_____________ is that you do not have In conclusion. punctuation. the greatest advantage of all for some people.. Which is better.

” she left. b C om plete the m issing words. but I would like one. although he didn’t 4 We are planning to 1 our new product in September. 1 That walk was exhausted / exhausting. 1 This word is very difficult to say. I always it. or c. have the right skills. royal. I want to get a _______ b so that I don’t wake degree. client biannual irritate tiring a wherever b however company shocked money become c whatever b U nderline the stressed syllable. What do you remember? GRAMMAR VOCABULARY a C om plete the second sentence so that it a Circle the right word. c Com plete the sentences with one word. father up. 5 Many English words come from French. to work. 5 The bank has br all over the country. 1 w ish____________ stop whistling. he won ten million 4 We are really . our salary. b. I’m trying to concentrate. I w ish____________ a car. a which 1 amusing business whose misunderstand b that c where My aunt Amy. 3 I regret not speaking to her before 1 Will the company make a p this year? she left. 2 The s_________ for their new advertising campaign is “You’ll never I wish I to her before find a better one. just retired. so I ended driving them home. 4 He got a good job. 3 This company has 40 employees / employers. 3 He works for a in____ _ company with offices in Asia and Europe. pronounce a to not wake 2 After I graduate from college. was born. 5 That’s the man for whom I used 1 He set a new company that makes software. I need a good rest now. graduate c so as not to wake 3 The city was completely________ after the war. biography b despite c even though PRONUNCIATION That’s the house in Shakespeare a U nderline the word with a different sound. example. a that profit logo though owner b who c which That dog follows m e I go. 4 There are many different kinds of pasta. disappointed record (verb) produce (noun) expand manufacture . m eans the same as the first. paid a in spite of 5 The actress wrote her after she retired. 2 Please stop whistling. We can hardly survive on dollars in the lottery last year. I’m trying to 4 Do you do /make business with many foreign companies? concentrate.he has so many customers / clients. C hoose a. built He still works. 1 I don’t have a car. such fettucine. That’s the man I u sed ___________ 3 They missed the last bus. 2 I was really shocked / shocking when I read the e-mail. was the CEO of an cart alarm scary market important company. 5 That lawyer must be very successful . He got a good job. 2 Our local grocery store was taken by a big supermarket chain. despite the right skills. 1 1 opened the door quietly my d Com plete the sentences using the bold word and a prefix.

Listen and answer the questions. and many. has a natural capacity for language. it was restricted in its range of sounds and differed between the sexes. The experiment seemed to confirm Everett's theory: the tribe just couldn't understand the concept of number. Minor? 3 Everybody who buys the fitness program ______ 3 What did he help create? a can work out with a personal trainer 4 What happened when Murray. The Piraha can't write. They use only three 3 When the Piraha women speak together. □ talk about advertisements you like or dislike and explain whether b She’s very friendly. The tribe has survived. for centuries. although there are now only 2 Their language is unusual because____ around 200 left. two. they____ words to count: one. mainly because they have c there is no grammar almost no words for numbers. 2 Why does the man regret not going to college? b 7. who have the smallest number of speech sounds in the world. it has just eight consonants and three vowels.? b 43 billion yen. C.2 billion dollars. 2 Who was W. Can you . b usually whistle to each other now a professor of phonetics. who spent seven years with the tribe in the 1970s and c sound as if they are just making noises 1980s. c The man eats so slowly. b He would be earning much more money. 1 What is the book’s subtitle? c He would have enjoyed the experience. a children can learn a language quickly b all languages have some rules in common Their culture is similarly constrained. a he quickly gave up was not just simple grammatically. Dan Everett. Can needed to trade with other tribes. he found. their culture c communicated without words intact. without time. Everett discovered a world without numbers. not one could count to ten. b. Their language. tribe. the editor. b. which is how men maintains th a t____ communicate when hunting. have little collective memory. |_1 dcscribc things that irritate you and that you would like people c 1. To the untrained ear. A world without 1 Over the centuries the Piraha tribe h a s ____ time or number a not decreased in numbers The Piraha are an isolated Amazonian tribe of hunter-gatherers who live deep in the Brazilian b kept its customs rainforest. colors. □ talk about foreign words that are used in your language and how you feel about them 115 .14 Listen and circle the correct answer. without words for 4 When Everett tried to teach them arithmetic. which holds that the human mind a 7. The Piraha can also whistle their language. 1 What does the woman find irritating? which enables children to understand abstract concepts such as number.What can you do? R ev iew & C heck c an YOU a Read the article and choose a. After eight months. without subordinate clauses. have fascinated b men and women use different vocabulary ethnologists for years. and that all languages share a basic rule structure. went to meet him? b gets a free set of weights 5 What crime had Minor committed? c can consult a trainer if necessary 4 How much profit did the company make this year? CAN YOU a 132 billion dollars. and without a past tense. who communicate a some concepts don’t exist mainly through hums and whistles. using / wish 5 What is the woman’s new boss like? 0 talk about things you regret in life a She’s rather arrogant. and no concept of decorative art In 1980 Everett tried to teach them to c all languages count in the same way count: he explained basic arithmetic to an enthusiastic group eager to learn the skills b Look at the highlighted words and phrases. for the b he eventually realized it was impossible women. We do not yet know if the Piraha have persuaded him to change his theory. The Piraha. to stop doing. a. only seven c they didn’t want to learn consonants and three vowels. CAN YOU The Piraha's inability to count is important because it seems to disprove linguist Noam Chomsky's influential Theory of Universal Grammar. the language sounds more like 5 Chomsky’s Theory of Universal Grammar humming than speech. For the men. or c. a can’t be understood by men We know about the Piraha thanks to an ex-hippy and former missionary.15 You will hear part of a radio program about a book called a He would have been able to get a more The Professor and the M adman.. Chomsky's collaborators has recently gone on an expedition with Fverett to study the b The man leaves dirty dishes on the table.. One of a The man never does the dishes. even you guess w hat they mean? one plus one was beyond them. interesting job. or c. they make you want to buy the products c She makes people feel inferior.

? a bomb on the plane and escaped.. If you don't have a bandage.. BE The correct treatment is first to pour cold water on the burn for at least uala Ni Chanainn. by saying the sentences to B and checking with a tag question. This will I usually stop a nosebleed if you do it for five minutes.? Lovesick violinist grounds plane 5 You were born i n _________ (place). Do not break blisters and don’t put any sunscreen or other cream on the burn. isn’t it? Try to use a falling intonation. the airport authorities stopped Nuala and took her • get dressed {get undressed) away to be questioned. e. She was in her seat. Your favorite color is pink. and ask your partner to clarify or rephrase if there’s anything you don’t understand.? 6 You’d like to be able t o ________ .? rem em ber the story.? • try clothes on (in a store before they buy them) b Close your book and tell B your story in your own • get dressed up (for a party. go to your nearest hospital. and if that still doesn't work. .. a wedding. • trendy clothes (old-fashioned clothes) Meanwhile. then tell your p artner about it. e...g. . etc.. ..? 4 You haven’t been t o _________ (a country). (a sport or hobby) .g.Communication IB You're psychic... d C ount your correct guesses. who then spent another two 3 What does it mean if you say “These shoes don’t fit me”? weeks in the US with the boyfriend. However.) 4 When do people usually . 3 You went t o _________ last weekend.. 2 What material are the following usually made of? she managed to convince them that she hadn't planted a • a sweater {wool) bomb: she simply couldn't bear to leave her new boyfriend! • cycling shorts (spandex) The plane was allowed to depart nearly four hours later. There was a woman named Nuala who 5 What does it mean if you say “Paula’s dressed to kill tonight”? was a violinist fro m Ireland . . .? 7 You can’t ________ very well. If the guess is wrong. she went to the airport and boarded the plane that would take her back home to Ireland.. repeat for ten minutes. Read the article 1 Your favorite color i s ________ .) luggage were thoroughly searched by a bomb-sniffing dog. The plane and all the • These pants are too tight. • a tie (silk) minus the love-struck violinist. ? b Check if your guesses are true.. W ho was the better psychic? 1C You're the doc! Stu d e n ts A + B C heck your answers.. (These pants are too loose...? 8 You’re very good a t ________ . when she suddenly decided 2A Clothes quiz Stu d e n t A not to go after all. R espond with a short answer. N around San Francisco as part of a theater group. leaving airline officials thinking that perhaps she had planted 1 What’s the opposite of .. an Irish violinist had been traveling ten minutes and then to cover it with a loose bandage. (People will admire her because o f her clothes. tell B the real answer. c Now B will check his / her guesses about you. . M ake guesses and com plete the a You’re going to read a new spaper article and sentences below about B.. . aren't you? S tu d e n t A 2B Flight stories Student A a Im agine you’re a psychic. She rushed off the plane at the last minute.. If not. (They’re too big or too small. n u The correct treatment is to pinch the soft part of the nose.. after extensive questioning... a Ask B the questions (the answers are in italics)..) c Now listen to B’s story.? and write down ten words that will help you 2 You really like________ .. When the tour was over.. b Answer B’s questions.) words. . you can use a dean plastic bag or plastic wrap. waiting for the plane to take off.

although If you don't read books ... You want to try to convince your mother / father. you know they're not very pleased with your final exam results. 3 the dining room. Read and check your answers.. hide your jewelry in the children's bedroom and leave the dog at home when you go out! 4B Argument! Student A Read the situations and role-play the argum ents. 4 the office. In fact. but your parents are both What are you reading now? engineers. your spouse bought you some DVDs. history related texts to transport.. Do you read more or less than you used to? If you read b o o k s. as there was less risk of being disturbed by returning residents. sports publications short stories chat rooms and forums Q a Favorite items to steal are expensive goods that are fairly easy magazines nonfiction. d However. b How sim ilar are your reading habits? Fifty professional burglars described their working methods to researchers who visited them in jail. 6 a child's bedroom. b. B has just given you the chocolates. which you think would be a What's the best book you've read recently? better fit. You haven't What was the last book you read? enjoyed it at all and have just failed all your final exams. Do you read anything specifically to improve your English? Do you enjoy reading on screen? You start. 2 the living room. 5 the kitchen. academic / work- comics biographies. ® It's your birthday today. Why don't you read books? If you had more time.. Did you use to read books when you were younger? What's your favorite way to relax? .2C Reading habits Students A + B 3A There's only one place burglars won't look. studying engineering. which looks as if it came from a drugstore. a Answer the questions in the reading questionnaire Students A + B below with a partner.000 worth of goods. General reading which you didn't particularly like. He / She arrives home late. e. you Why did you choose to read it? never really wanted to study engineering.. So if you want a tip from the professionals. and he / she knows Do you ever read any of them in English? this). ® You’re in your first year of college. including digital cameras and flat screen TVs. would you read more? B will start. Q b The burglars' favorite method was dismantling windows or patio doors. Last year for your birthday. ten of the fifty burglars said they actually preferred homes to be occupied. and Which of the above do you read? How often? produces a box of chocolates (you're on a diet.g. You would like to Do you have a favorite author or authors? change your major and study journalism. □ Burglars search rooms in this order: l the main bedroom. Your spouse (B) had promised to come home early so that you could go out for dinner.. Q a. You have been dropping hints for the past month about what you really want for your birthday The reading questionnaire as your spouse is usually very unimaginative about choosing presents. and you feel they pushed you into it. academic journals textbooks news websites Q a The criminals unanimously considered a barking dog more manuals song lyrics of a deterrent than a burglar alarm. Their research revealed: The press Books Online national newspapers novels web pages Q b An experienced burglar searches a house in 20 minutes and local papers classics blogs usually takes $3.

" If you filled it in as "IV. 7 aO b 1 cO d 1 Then define them to B. the m ore sleep deprived means that. although you have probably you are. saying which language they come from. the numbpr k represented Read the results of the questionnaire and calculate your as "Mil. Try to visualize it. c Has your language “borrowed” any of these words? 118 . The following are some of the more creative ideas that people have come up with: <? \ «>• <:*■ a mug of coffee a mousehole a playing card £ a Look carefully at your painting. from above d B will now show you the picture to see if you agree with The important question concerns how you represented the number 4.g. A re you a ~ crea ive t h i n k e r / The more times you circled false. except for Big Ben in 5B Sleep Students A + B London. an envelope a pyramid seen a vote c Listen to B describe another painting. Communication 4C Two paintings Student A 6C Are you a creative thinker? Students A + B C heck your answers to the test. you have not really seen or remembered what is right in 2 a 1 bO cO front of your eyes. truly creative people usually come up with a different number. seen clocks and watches with Roman 1 a0 b 1 numerals hundreds of times." However. 3 a 1 bO cO 4 aO b 1 c2 7C What's the word? Student A 5 aO b 1 c2 d2 6 aO b 1 c2 a Check that you know what your list of words below mean. Then describe it in . T he higher your score. The vast majority of people choose either 35 or 37. The more boxes you were able to fill. In Roman numerals the number 4 is always represented as "IV. Say who you th in k they are and what you th in k they’re doing. the more creative you are and the higher your "eureka potential". focusing especially on the people and their a man in prison a wall a tea bag body language. 17 or 31. on almost all clocks and watches with Roman numerals. However. The m axim um is 14." that score. e. 8 1 point for each one you circle 1 caravan /'ksrovasn/ (Persian) 2 blanket /'blaeqkat/ (French) 3 em barrassed /im'b<erost/ (French) 6C How much do you know about science? 4 tsunam i /tsu'nam i/ (Japanese) Students A + B 5 soprano /sa'p ran o o / (Italian) Check your answers to the quiz. 6 massage /m s'sa j/ (Arabic) 1c 4b 7 m osquito /m a'skitoo/ (Spanish) 2a 5a 8 fog /fog/ (Danish) 3c 6a b Listen to B’s definitions and say what the word is. his / her description and interpretation. the more creative you are..1 15 r r r detail to B. b Show your picture to B and see if he / she agrees with you.

. so he • put your shoes on (take your shoes off) missed his flight home.? 6 You wouldn’t like to he a / an (a jo b ). c Close your book and tell A your story in your own words.g.) could leave the country. ..) if there’s anything you don’t understand. and ask your p artn er to clarify or rephrase conversation under your hat”? (Don’t tell anyone about our conversation." Sheridan finally • change clothes (to go to the gym. Sheridan told a reporter from the Brazilian news 4 When do people usually .IB You're psychic. aren’t y o u ? Try to use a falling intonation. and the Brazilian very flattering on you”? (They don’t look good police persuaded the airline to let him use his old ticket to on you... After working for five months.g. Make guesses and a You’re going to read a new spaper article and then tell your com plete the sentences below about A. they treated me very w ell.g. but unfortunately he had spent all his a A nsw er A’s questions....? 5 You were born i n __ (month). get home from work) 5 What does it mean if you say “Please keep our b Listen to A’s story.) go home.. He had had a great vacation. money. the airline employees at the airport 1 What’s the opposite o f ... 3 What does it mean if you say “Those shorts aren’t he had saved enough for the airport tax. (He looks scruffy.? told him that he would have to pay airport tax before he • He looks stylish. Even though Sheridan explained • a short-sleeved T-shirt (a long-sleeved T-shirt) that he was com pletely broke..? that will help you rem em ber the story.. If the guess is wrong. 3 You’ve seen (a m ovie).. e. so now 2 What material are the following usually made of? he needed to buy a new ticket and pay the airport tax. ... His ticket was nonrefundable. All he had was his airline ticket back to Amsterdam. he was planning to fly home to Holland. Tourist stranded at airport d C ount your correct guesses. But w hen he checked in. 2 You don’t like .. e.? 4 You didn’t last n ig h t... he w asn’t allowed to fly.. S heridan’s only option was to • shoes (leather) sleep in the airport and work in restaurants in exchange • jeans (denim) for food and some money. Respond with a short answer.. There was a Dutch tourist who was on vacation in B ra zil. Read the article and write dow n ten words 1 You’re going to tonight..? program Jornal da Globo. in the evening) nice to me. tell A the real answer. c N ow check if your guesses about A are true by saying the sentences and checking with a tag question. (a kind of music) . 119 .. • stockings (nylon) Since he had no money.? 7 Your favorite season is 8 You can sp eak____ ______( ___? A is going to m ake som e guesses about you. when they arrived hom e safe and sound last week. b Ask B the questions (the answers are in italics). “The Brazilian people were really • hang clothes up (after they iron them or after they take them off. e.. You’re going to see a movie tonight. p artner about it. aren't you? Student B 2B Flight stories Student B a Im agine you’re a psychic. W ho was the better psychic? for five months When student Sheridan Gregorio arrived at Fortaleza airport 2A Clothes quiz Student B in Brazil.

You know that M Your son / daughter is in his / her first year of college studying engineering. visualize it. 4C Two paintings Student B © The Art Institute of Chicargo Photography Nighthawks (1942) Edward Hopper a Look carefully at your painting. b Listen to A describe another painting. which you’re 7C What's the word? Student B going to describe to A. So you were very relieved when he / at a drugstore on the way home and bought some she agreed to study engineering. Focus especially on the people and their body language. but you couldn’t.Communication 4B Argument! Student B Read the situations and role-play the arguments. saying which language they come from. Try to You’re going to define them to A.m an'sun/(A rabic) interpretation. 3 lottery/'latari/(D utch) 4 poodle / ‘pudl/ (German) c Now describe your painting to A. You yourself are he / she wants a specific present. He / She will start. but you have an engineer. You start. He / She shopping. and you really encouraged your child to follow in your footsteps. a Check that you know w hat your list o f words below m ean. c Now define your words to A. and you think he / she would make an excellent engineer. so you stopped very difficult to get a good job in journalism nowadays. You have just discovered that he / she failed all the final exams. but you think that this is a "lazy option" and that it's go shopping today. You had intended to finish work early and was interested in studying journalism. this year in chocolates that you know he / she usually likes. A will now show you the picture to 1 bungalow /'bAqgalou/ (Hindi) see if you agree with his / her description and 2 m onsoon/. college he / she seems to go out with friends all the time and spends a lot less time studying than you did at the same age. Although he / she worked hard in high school. 6 parasol /'paerasol/ (Italian) 7 kidnap /'kidnaep/ (Danish) d Show your picture to A and see if he / she agrees 8 iceberg /'aisbarg/ (Dutch) with you. d Has your language “borrow ed” any o f these words? . He / She was been very busy at work and haven't had time to go good at math in school. b Listen to A’s definitions and say w hat each word is. Say who you 5 bonsai /'bonsai/ (Japanese) think they are and what you think they’re doing. A is your partner. 1 1 It's your spouse's birthday today.

. you have a range of possibilities - Susanna made me forget everything in no time. That was enough . u m . I what their aspirations are. artificial. I came to the conclusion Joyce Within a range. I had to go hom e after half an hour. but I kept on Alex Yeah.. 1 knew it was with me. to have a powerful and positive effect on your important! Interview er Did other people ask you interesting finances. 1 grew up there. W hen I life.. I don’t think I’ll be speed dating again any time soon. But strangely you can be the best of yourself or the worst . to make a long story short. and last which is based on their date. six m onths later 1 enough. “I heard that you were in prison once . really. you know. and two m onths ago we got married! tour.. have called 9-1-1 right away because I don’t know first person did ask me. and I pulled hard in and a list o f topics.. that means. She says that she inherited from her attendant. but I thought that they were very. you about a person? Joyce A person’s chart shows their temperament. You just don’t astrologer do? Emily I chose six men that I thought I would like to see again. Clara. 1 should Sally He’s very tall. I have to be not but you must never be tempted to have plastic intimidating. their personality. I don’t know anybody named I was there to help. So I asked Sally’s office . So. And there’s an intersection make a good impression. And so you need a sense of compassion. Alex? Sally Who’s Caroline? the story was in all the newspapers. I went on one date with a guy who teaches astrologer need to have? 1ft ^ Jane I decided to ask Sally some questions Joyce There’s really a wide body of knowledge that at a university. so I was excited about meeting her.Audioscripts and we had a great evening. what would you do?” Jane That's good .. I’ve recently started seeing a lot more of an old friend of m ine who is a professor. and Emily and Alex are here Interview er So it was a real success story for W hen I saw the lady’s face.. Conor. placc of birth. Emily? Were you asked anything unusual? to a lot of your problems.” he could have died. I’ve never seen them be honest. you need business skills. I had a terrible toothache and I was in doesn't she? hum an nature. but we haven’t bad headaches. Then we got together the next day and went for a long walk.. maybe a poet or a songwriter..was I married. to be able to establish a rapport. she seemed really bubbly and fun.. did I have children. Afterwards. pushing my fingers down his throat.. Alex? Alex I e-mailed one of the matches. So I have children right away. ignorance of first aid had nearly killed my son! 1litting Sally Ireland is a place where you will find answers Peter on the back was OK. Joyce Before I see someone.Peter carecr from the one you have now. but he just invited me to join him on a lecture proposed. In fact. So you have to know the and I’d had an injection. her next questions surprised m e. four of them chose me think of him in that way. Sally looks like a kind and sincere to work as a television presenter. “If you could be invisible for a day. He’s good Interviewer What do you do when somebody comes with language.. and he may end up working with to see you? happy being single. 1 made every mistake possible and “W here are you from?” The second most common was. like hiding things! Jane So. I realized that we had nothing in common. Alex 1 got three. but we haven’t been able to meet yet. Ireland does play a big role in my But I was very lucky. is a lot like you.. atmosphere was awful. you’ll be going there very soon. the organizers of the event suggested Alex Absolutely! my arms around her waist. on a CD because she said I needed to listen to money. when am I going to meet him? and author of books on astrology. cycles are predictable. I put on the CD. be?” One woman even said.. she Interview er Can a person's chart predict their future? Unfortunately. I’m actually Sally Your son. The ones Sally Well.. so we just finished our She gave me a recording of our conversation background. Interview er What about the other three matches? you’ll have a long life without any major illnesses. you know. We didn’t contact each other again. aid. yes. for now. We’re both very busy.I’m five-foot-tcn myself.. So your chart is what and makes good guesses about their lives from you’re like. and I was really worried that I wouldn’t then that Sally doesn't have any paranormal abilities.which was much more normal than I knew exactly what to do because before I started fairly com m on questions like. got home. and the tomato came out. same as Emily. in fact.. by the time that we met Sally Let’s see. We were taught a lot about first aid. It’s so Things like that. I don’t think he’s really my type. I couldn't think way they are and what they can do with that in life.. and those lost my job. been in touch. I knew I was hurting Peter. so I got four matches. She’s not good with words at all. what their relationships are like and. meanings of the planets in terms of how they affect for coffee. their family I think she felt the same way. “What do you do? Have you ever Caroline. what would it your life is Ireland. I also asked typical Jane 1 don’t know. But I’m very glad Alex Yes.. but putting my fingers Interview er And you. what would you be?” Or. what kind of questions did you ask? you then? really serious. Interview er W hat can a birth chart or horoscope tell after spending a few minutes with her at the cafe. 1 was feeling really unhappy about my work situation. self-employed. you have to be good with people. because hers are going to get before and in two hours I’m going to tell them worse.if you do. At the speed ex-husband. 1 managed to I can rem em ber are. myself. Also. it’s his exactly what to d o . First. and man is going to be "the one for you. W hen I listened again. I’ve decided that. It was kind o f a disaster though. people think about learning first aid. We really got along well at the speed everything she had told me a few times. Joyce What an astrologer does is give people a better Jane 1 immediately started thinking about all the understanding o f themselves . and then the next day Interview er How about you.. the kind of people they are attracted to in Then I arranged to meet another one of my matches. “W hy do you live in this city?” Although one Jane Ah. But She is just very good at judging people’s character between fate and free will. I put Emily Well. the information she gets from them. but I wasn’t really to. and very personal things about themselves. I found out that my she got that from! life. I was shown into I just put my arm around the lady and gave her a hug. So. and it bccamc very awkward. you’re a healthy woman. Joyce One. their character. He’s a Emily I said I’d go to work and play tricks on my distinguished public figure . he does like words and writing. to Sally Well. agony. W hat does an Interview er How many matches did you get? Sally Actually. as a matter of fact... you already know him.. but. started coughing. very interesting! What does he look like? nearly killed him because of my ignorance.is that true?” I don’t know where Jane Yes. But in general. And if you’re going to be that he had met someone else. you’ll need to watch out for headaches. After all. It was only when she started talking need counseling skills. to be able to interpret because earlier that m orning I'd been to the dentist. some were pretty interesting. strange. some of the Emily The second man contacted m e right after the surgery . Her face was starting to turn blue. “If you were an animal. questions? Jane It is? I’ve never been to Australia. somebody named Caroline is going it’s something that should be taught in school. very optimistic that an Irish pushed the tomato even further down his throat. because some o f th e.. u m . I could have Emily Not really! The most com mon question was connection. And. sort o f pre-prepared up three times. of Australia.why they are the too. But. dating event.maybe a professor? 1 18 Interview er Joyce Levine is an astrologer coworkers in the office. However. and time?” I found that the conversation ran more of other people. she asked me a few basic it’s what you should do when someone is choking. And then when they come in for an Sally But your daughter. Now. it will go horribly wrong.. I smoothly when I asked people these kinds of questions . Life is cycles. and we m et in a cafe. Jane What about my health? what the planets mean. “Have you tried speed dating woman. "If you had to choose a different touch the tomato with two of my fingers and I was Sally Another place that's very im portant in able to move it a little. to be honest. attention I got in the restaurant. well. information that I give them may be hard to listen event and invited me to dinner. Look for the Irish down his throat was a big mistake. your m other suffers from headaches. Jane In fact. realized that for each thing that Sally got right. The This was beginning to make me wonder. and o f those sue. Australia is very important in your life. you know. how they’re likely to work or spend coffccs and left. so on. what we do is basically go over what really liked. He seems to be really anxious to get m arried and have so will your mother. Then questions. But then he sent me a text message the next day and canceled. I used to be a flight tonight?” o r. that’s true. The other two have about my children that I really started listening. you have to learn to. Interview er How did you answer that? brain that will really attract you to him. a woman I week he won a poetry prize at school. people I know.. 1q 1 Jane I left Sally s office feeling very positive. In fact. “Why did you come I’d expected. and the emergency operator would have told me Sally And he’s highly intelligent. We’ve Jane Yes. When managed to meet. of anyone who fit the description. But Jane It’s true! They're both dyslexic. I’m very. words. and must admit I was a little bit embarrassed by all the everyday questions. Interview er W hat kind of knowledge does an Interview er Did you go out with any of the people? Emily Yes. and their Interview er How about you. Jane W hen I arrived. She gets Interview er And what skills do yon have to have? exchanged a few e-mails since then. Emily. you convinced. she does. dating. and the piece of steak came out. The before?” or “What do you like doing in your free grandm other the ability to “see” the past and future technique I used is called the Heimlich maneuver. I calculate their chart. and what not to do. He said Jane So far it was all very positive. And maybe this story will make questions like. I really think done this before? Do you enjoy living in this city?” Sally Well. He’s not Irish. Emily Aaaah! Interview er . is m ore like your appointment. that m orning I found out that I’d got several things wrong. and I’m not. and a person walks in my door. their time.

O ne of ou r main weaknesses. If always know where the planets are. And so a astrology. languages! I’d also say that we can be lazy. let’s say Interview er W hat’s your star sign? nice. O n one hand. but it hasn’t yet reached the speed to be able to fly. checkup. especially as our big cities now have such a fire on a plane. Maybe it’s because our o f obstacle.. People don’t usually come in the first Interview er Do you ever read your horoscope? weather is so cold! 1 think I'm pretty typical. Yeah. Interview er What's your star sign? government or a boss. or our unwillingness.. answer some of the most frequently asked questions Joyce The clients 1 have really are a wide range of Interview er Do you think someone’s star sign has about flying and air travel. not too often. I think it might kind things that we believe in . “Maybe. People here want to provide for true? my horoscope surprisingly. I mean. We treat Richard Both takeoff and landing can be dangerous. and also others? influence on their personality? we drink too much.. the first question is: what weather families.. that is not going to particularly and you stand by your mates no matter what.1 dangerous during takeoff and landing.. "There could be some health standing in society. you know. if stuff.or Steven No. know what’s affecting me.. But I can’t say that they’re not sure what to do. but I don’t really 3 It’s difficult to generalize about us as a people. too. I wouldn’t scare them. and this is where we make our friends. Men know when to expect turbulence. When the plane is moving on the Interview er D o you th in k som eone’s s tar sign has an sake. uh. and Interviewer Are some airports more dangerous than Interview er Do you think someone’s star sign has an we’re a bit careless about the way we dress. Pilots health is OK. but yeah. Even the rich like to work! We’re also very ground. their families. Is that Duey I do. However. but I hope I'm not as information? Interview er Do you ever read your horoscope? materialistic as some of my countrym en seem to be. this is probably a good time for a and having a good sense o f humor. planes very rarely have to land Fern Sagittarius.. We’re also known for being extremely outgoing landing? given your cycles. I m ight. bigger influence on how you turn out. irrespective of their profession or They’re the most critical moments of a flight. we’re a Interview er How im portant is it for pilots and air- great hockey-loving nation! O n the negative side. compared to other cultures that might | ig '' influence on their personality? have more touching or hugging or kissing. how they different people. during the flight. I think individualism is a Richard That’s true. Most accidents happen in this period. I guess it might do. Interview er Your star sign. which I think exits are in the hotels where they stay. a lot o f times you can find things that. If I’m everyone’s culture and welcome their customs. you know. with individuals. Interview er Do you think someone's star sign has an reserved. And. you want to make sure that your others as equals. when we usually Interview er Is all turbulence dangerous? bad about their future. is that we can be quite self-satisfied and Richard Fortunately.. you know. avoid it by changing routes or flight levels. Pilots Joyce If I saw som ething that could be a serious sport. their traditions. do apply. but I would say that we’re be full of smoke and fumes. personality plane? and she wants to have the baby’s chart done. Most airline crew up reading a lot. would influence you by reading it often. intellect.I’ve been flying for 37 years now. by landing.the m oody emotional sign. We’re also very seat belts in a plane is really a waste of time. So often you read them and they Interview er With me in the studio today are got there and basically what they can do about it. the first time someone comes in they Interview er What is your star sign? people unless we know them very well. you know. This tends to happen during can work with businesses. I like time because they’re happy or they’re curious. in fact.to controlled by someone else.. would you tell them? socialize around a barbie a barbecue. U h . hospitable. it’s fun achieve anything.. 4 People in this country are thought of as very polite. 1 suppose I am typical . Steven I would say takeoff is probably slightly more the message or skill. It’s a to land there. For characteristics that relate to their sign. O r they’re having o f got a little bit of insight into how horoscopes I’m a hockey lover! some kind of relationship difficulty and they want are developed and how generalizable they are to to understand what’s going on in their life.” O r. but. so it’s entertaining. we’re physically in terms o f what they do with them. There is a critical moment Interview er Do you ever look at your own future? down-to-earth and friendly.and members can even tell you where the emergency of influence you if. friendly and unusual . it’s not usually dangerous. like making our own decisions and dislike being he has very little tim e . either lost a job or they want to make a change and once took a course in psychology and. Even though we’re predictable and then hum an beings have a choice day to find my horoscope and read it. I work with Tiffany U m .. Richard For some difficult airports like. Just think of our in water but. can be seen as a little cold. it may be dark and the plane will Interview er Do you think someone’s star sign has an multiethnic population. Interview er W hich is more dangerous. whether it’s the abort the takeoff. relate to people's. I don’t go out of my way every maybe we’re a little too reserved. 1 thrown all over the cabin if you aren’t wearing your Interview er What’s your star sign? mean.. I don’t think I’m very typical. and I’m also an individualist wear your belt even when the seat bell light is off. they only allow very experienced pilots C u rt Um.. Nice to be here. and we think of ourselves that Kathmandu.. maybe a little reserved. They’ve Tiffany No. flipping through a magazine and it has them. Steven Yes. The cycles themselves are basically it.maybe only a second . and that have some kind of problem or they've hit some kind Tiffany I'm a Taurus.. Interview er W hat about life jackcts? Interview er What's your star sign? though. like. O n the other hand. people. um... that is .” That means we criticize minutes after takeoff and the five minutes before to spend more time with your mother. Ideally. and we try to problem. m ountains around them and airports in countries where you grow up and the people you talk to have a but I’m not going to say which! with older or more basic navigation equipment. O n the negative side. but we only experienced this three or four times. given permission to land a plane there. Some o f us are overly there is sudden and severe turbulence. I work with couples. Interview er If you saw on someone’s chart something really enjoy our leisure time. arrogant towards foreigners.. but work is also valued for its own Richard Not at all. I work any influence on their personality? Pilots Thank you. Joyce O f course. and the pilot suddenly puts the brakes on. you know... it’s m ore like a generalizable conditions are when the wind changes direction and say. but they'd get distinguishing themselves through money. they might apply to several two pilots. I would tell someone. 1 don’t necessarily want save that for people we’re close with.. ideally. But I would say probably though I do definitely have one of the weaknesses . we’re extremely tolerant people. conditions are the most dangerous when flying a m other might call me because a baby was just born you know. like a buddy or friend. takeoff or frighten them. Personally. bigger space around ourselves and don’t touch Joyce Typically. o f course. And for some of these airports pilots Interview er Do you ever read your horoscope? very multicultural society here. “We’re having difficulties. But more importantly. I don't think you should a little bit too materialistic. concerned with having “things” .the three problems in the family. I’m probably fairly typical.I’m dangerous than landing. to be honest. actually. is another strength.when we have to . and so I always 2 I think overall we're strong individualists. You might want “knock down tall poppies. and 1 work with businesses. Also. way. I think we’re in a car. because I don’t always follow the crowd. I’ll read their food. again.possessions. We the pilot has a problem with the plane at this point. So I would say.. If that’s something they grow nearly as insular as we used to be. I’m a Cancer .. If there’s a like to listen to what it says ’c ause it’s usually crazy. Wc defend the exit to you might save your life. information about emergency exits. and I’ve When’s a good time for hiring?. traffic controllers to speak good clear English? . influcncc o n th e ir personality? optimistic: w e think that if we w ork hard. maybe. I start most of my mornings with hardworking. I as others are perceived to be. and it’s especially likely to make money this year? Are there going 2. so . However. I Steven Probably the most dangerous weather relationship consultations.. Richard and Steven. We're not the exits are and knowing which one is the nearest D ennis Um. so I think Interview er Do we really need to listen to the safety D ennis Leo. you can’t help it! It’s . Welcome to both o f you. That’s why airlines usually recommend you Dennis My what? optimism and drive. but I’m not as outgoing just before takeoff when the plane is accelerating. I don’t ever read my horoscope because I to think of myself as polite and friendly and helpful. a couple might come in personally think. just like Duey I think it’s what you read into it.. In some ways.. but I would tell them talk about having a mate. of yourself. Duey My star sign is Aquarius. thought of as polite and friendly. and friendly. some are . you could be take it too seriously. But it’s rather to b e. you know .” And I sort of thing. I w ork. Steven It’s definitely worth listening to the D ennis I do every once in a while. who are going to Interview er W hat kind of people come to see you? other people as well. I do. very suddenly. good quality because it encourages self-expression Interview er Passengers often think that putting on Interview er Do you ever read your horoscope? and often leads to success in life. we can passengers can be thrown out of their seats. I think I’ve inherited the typical seal bell.. hardly. Will you have problems with employees? 1 i’d say we’re a down-to-earth people. I do. no.” or something people who try to stand out from the crowd. We believe in working hard. We Interview er Why do people usually come to C u rt Yeah. wc tend to talk about the “critical eight minutes” . we kind and yes. So listening to where influence on their personality? basically very tolerant and open-m inded. so wc try to accept have to practice on a simulator first before they are C u rt Once in a while. We keep a sec you? to admit that. You know.Are you more thunderstorm s and typhoons. the chances o f surviving Interview er Do you ever read your horoscope? inability. I mean. like that. in such a way. From things that I've read about Interview er Now..particularly airports with high Fern Um. if you read it and maybe that we avoid taking extreme positions. to learn foreign if your plane did crash into the ocean are not high. Fern No.

and he is . “What’s that noise? What’s that bump? What’s I had my younger brother right next to me. waiting. as a pilot? go the extra mile. “Everything is going to be fine. there have able to continue safely.. off the top o f my head that’s small airplane passed in the opposite direction just visit the country . about four years old and telling me.. They’re looking for Sophie W hen I fly? I love to fly. we landed the plane. good customer service skills. a times. U h . Instead.. I. which nervous. He was angry. what I want with him! He broke my fire engine!” it’s. too. nausea and kind of being poisoning after six hours. fine. it scares him! Listen to him!” of passengers who are afraid of flying. the people on the plane change. it’s one o f the paper. and then 1 flew to Prague. the weather was terrible.Steven It’s the official language of the air. stretch Interview er Have you ever had a frustrating m other demanded. your calves. once they get their questions be all right. and landing at Richard And besides peoples English not being good. some countries don't respect the convention and Interview er What kind of training did you have? don’t force their pilots to speak in English. I don’t know. and they kept telling and a half feet tall... Everyone worked together. Heidi Someone who is happy. And just the stuff you see on the turned him on again. certainly. we did a lot of emergency situations. we told Interviewer Heidi Evans is a flight attendant for JetBlue. many pretty hard. she scooped up Little Brother" and before. We ended up good English. could think o f probably would be the delays. they’re making a scared face. got the people off . Always a good thing to do is exercise news..incapable Interview er And what are the bad sides? uncomfortable and wanting to get off the plane o f doing anything at all for the rest of the flight. 1 think it’s so Interview er What's your most frightening experience someone who is patient..and safety related. It takes a toll on your to get off the plane for over an hour and a half “No!" Peter shouted. take to do. How do you flying. Sophie U h . calmed the people down. he was perfectly hire somebody that’s going to be cranky and doesn’t and didn’t get out until the next day. experience when you were flying? “I don’t like him!” Interview er You must come into contact with a lot Juan U h. going to different destinations. energetic. 1 had one bad experience when I was “Peter. and you could actually be able to pick pockets so fast and so skillfully that “You’ll do no such thing!” Mommy said. terminal! That’s certainly the most dangerous thing Interview er What are the good sides of being a flight Towards then I start getting bored. down in Orlando. to meet the director. and I got food That’s the great perk for me. fortunately. The director o f the movie was looking for would punish him. the (light was is flying throughout the night. flight attendants got up. in the family. and as we were taking off. I tend to feel a little bit sick when Toronto. “My God! How long has he been off?” Peter’s walks through the aisle. drink lots scariest things. 50 feet below my plane.to “I’ll do it!” he yelled. She situation? movies. someone who is willing to exciting. And 1 think we all have. I’m not the easiest flyer. crying my eyes out. “I’ll turn him off and hide him York. So. drink plenty. “He’s a baby!” going on?” And we calm them down. A attendant! You get to travel for free. Heidi Before you go on a long haul. To be honest. broken. I land . when Mommy came into the living room. or they are sick.as you probably know loves to be at their job.the young boys . were shooting the movie. Instead. W hat made you want them. so you pretty much sleep the rest of the day without being able to get off. But that doesn’t happen as much experience when you were flying? different meals. the big guy... But most Heidi We had an extensive training. he felt her fingers searching for And at that point he got on the phone with the ground people to make an emergency landing. We were going to Puerto Rico. oh geez. willing to give us the sword. We looked around.. I can’t think of anything had eaten a different meal and felt fine. “It’s going to “He’s stupid! I hate him! Take him back!” and they usually. 1 felt terrible . our destination just fine.” And here I am. There so 1 had to go and speak to him. He looked very Interview er W hat kind o f person do you think the was a time in Chicago when I had to wait on the imposing standing in the cabin. I’ll Interview er How can you tell if someone’s scared? turn him off and hide him someplace where you can’t Heidi You can sec it in their face. but aside from that. She see little bits of smoke coming through the cabin. someone who is willing to work Interview er What do you least like about flying? Steven Crossing the street outside the airport with other people. frustrating. uh. The few you right away. Peter didn’t care. very exciting. so obviously Heidi I actually saw a movie aboul a flight attendant. or luggage. He wanted them to someplace dark!” smoke. loves to fly.. so. Later. the rest of the crew was fine. engine hit the floor. But I remember once learn how to deal with many different situations. She put Little Interview er Have you ever been in a dangerous supplies magicians for live events and for TV and Brother" down and took a step toward Peter. whether it’s for the I had the actor Steven Seagal as a passenger .. through the whole offhand. you know. but otherwise. it doesn’t always happen. plenty. and they need to use our emergency situation skills for. actually. that’s different .but it changes every day. My destinations Tiffany Um. planes crashing. traveling around the world. o f water. was broken. stretch your legs. I have. someone going on a long flight? It’s one o f my fears. my most attendant? Interview er Have you ever had a frustrating frightening experience would have to be a near miss Heidi There arc a lot of good perks being a flight experience when you were flying? 1 had when 1 was flying a Boeing 747 at night.. and you're up all night and you have to get in been times before where we’ve been stuck waiting and you get very exhausted. want to be on the airplane anymore. anyway. the plane dropped about “He’s mine!” Peter shouted. no. in the third hour. we told that they would look like professional pickpockets. Shelly Yes. The my company. red-eye flight Interview er What do you least like about flying? she didn’t thank Peter for picking up all the wrapping through the night. flying is waiting in long lines. new people. and his second-best Christmas present Interview er W hat tips do you have for Juan I get kind of nervous when I’m flying on planes. It looked got hurt.which I take advantage of. night. uh. but there’s been a tim e. There is an office . in fact. I just started bawling my eyes out.. the plane safely.” So. I get bored after. you can go Sophie Um. “He’s m ine and 1 can do question? Do you need something?” And usually 60 feet an d . so grabbed his arm and spun him around.. We Shelly U h . while you’re on the flight.. They don’t really want to never happened and finally we got sent to a hotel . it's not something you want He trembled and screechcd louder than ever. us that we’d be taking off any m om ent and that carrying a sword. we learn how to use a bathroom.. meeting getting in another plane. make sure you get plenty of rest. Weapons aren’t allowed on board. they’re usually pretty good. That was pretty The windshield cracked and popped out as the fire when you get home. and he was carrying an enorm ous samurai where people arc afraid to fly.a martial arts expert.” answered. where people don’t experience when you were flying? sword.. the movie company got in touch with But it didn’t. Heidi There aren’t that many bad sides. body.. which was gold and had want to be there. “We smell smoke. him.. probably my least favorite part about are usually very well behaved. would come next. “I’ll turn him off if you don’t take him back. we started to smell teach them to be pickpockets. that’s a 15-hour flight. talk to them. 1 do. taking off. we looked. Luckily. though. and that was that. a discount airline. or check-in. of course. thankfully... Probably in connection with flying. the cabin crew told me that he had just gotten on defibrillator. with a famous person as a passenger? if something ever would occur that we would Interview er W hat do you least like about flying? R ichard I’ve carried a lot of famous people.so. which Tiffany Flying? H m m . We walked through the 2 16 cabin. nobody it’s crucial for pilots and air-traffic controllers to speak and it looked like som ething 1 could do. Heidi Yes... I was about “I hate him! Take him back!” deal with this? 12 years old. it would look like they’d been doing it for years. the “You are not to turn him off again. There’s smoke in the cabin. plenty of water. the turbulence. C onsultant Well. I feel a little bit distinctly rem em ber how good they tasted! change. We learn how to deal with situations Interview er Have you ever had a frustrating board. because my copilots as people think. and I plane . four weeks 2 IQ ^ Interview er How do you feel when you fly? o f them do. we learn CPR. We did a lot of work on the cabin Shelly I feel pretty good once I’m in the air. their eyes pickpocket consultant for Oliver Twist? “Peter!” Mommy said. I’m the director of a company that angrier than he’d ever seen her before.it’s the Interview er How do you feel when you fly? flight attendant brought us some hot snacks. the Interview er Have you ever had a frustrating because on all flights the crew members are given sitting. Taking simulators. We were taking off out of New someone to train the actors . I suggest you sleep in the morning Juan Flying?. But. Peter hadn’t even played Interview er How do you feel when you fly? with it once. There’s also red-eye flights. Ever!” Heidi We just ask “Are you okay? Do you have a turbulence was awful. like.. dressed completely in black. They're looking for someone with Interview er I low do you feel when you fly? been given to him as a present in Bali. the oldest “You are going to learn to be nice with him. especially about takeoff and landing Interview er Have you ever become ill during a flight? is exciting because I get to meet a whole slew of Interview er What do you least like about flying? R ichard Once I was flying from Hong Kong to people that are new. She was are shut tightly. The spanking and at that m om ent we called the captain.” We got back to be a flight attendant? in our seats..and it’s great! Tiffany Landing. where they something at the back of his neck. Just after this happened. You can see them Interview er How did you become the find him!” clenching their fists onto the arm rests. He was about sue airlines are looking for? runway for about four hours. There’s no office. and she was angry. just in case. before and. a off and landing is sometimes a little nerve- ^ Interview er Have you ever had a problem lot of safety drills to make sure we were prepared wracking.

I drove until I met is roughly 550 yards. Barbara’s the river were being advised to get out and move to They only come inside for breaks. who comes from Britain. if possible. so obviously the risks involved in driving Interview er How long did it take the boys to learn to They were giving regular reports on how fast the are something we should take very seriously. So. is four times as dangerous as jeans pockets? escape routes. They would be completely experimenting. and the reason why a lot Interview er For our listeners who aren’t familiar with I could hear cars starting up and driving away all of them happen is because people break the rules.or maybe I just came to my senses. So she stopped driving. It had been pouring rain for several days. The third cause o f fatal some things but not others. do the children really spend all day appeared that there was a real danger that the river 39 outside? But.. pick pockets? water level was rising at various places throughout Driving gets a lot of bad publicity. and I could see that it was almost empty. than men. really. If apartm ent in a small town just a few miles north of than by shutting them up in classrooms all day. but I got through and finally arrived work for the week. W hen they come out of a decided to make big changes to her lifestyle because have more minor accidents than men. if she hadn't gone at all. For example. terrible dilemma. So. from being outside? traveled 10. or ride a motorcycle. But the poor people who lived fatal accidents happen on country roads. even in the winter. You’re welcome.but the fact quickly. This is when people are finishing C onsultant That’s right. now.their apartments were very badly or freeways are m uch safer. But would you go as far as And finally. so 1 decided to try to get When we drive is also a significant factor in and of course away from what you don’t want them to a relative’s house. Hello. So far. Most som ething is. then preschool in a village in southern England. But then But the most important factor o f all is age. interview.you have decided to get into the car and escape. a safe place. A driver . you on the street with a map and asks you where flood. They had been completely under water. Driving to see. it is much worse. parking lot.. yes. and even if it’s raining. Barbara decided to travel to Interview er And this afternoon on Schools Around the World. average driver spends nearly an hour and a half a day C onsultant Yes. and the engine made a funny noise like a cough 4:00 and 6:00 p. and children have that confidence. ahead was flooded. she would have was in danger both at work and at home... in the middle of things. my car was the only is exceeding the speed limit. accidents happen within 20 or 25 miles o f where Interview er U h -huh. W hy is that? The answer seems to be that 38 from pickpockets. driving with Interviewer Wow! That's amazing! You just stole my another car. Fortunately.m. so I Interview er W hat kind of things do children learn a quarter of the price. Barbara’s journey overland and by sea did to her parents’ house. in the car.273 miles. Interview er That’s incredible. aren’t they? More and m ore o f us are trying to do our we concentrate less when we’re in familiar territory. Tuesday is looking. and especially to tourists. and finally to Australia. They learned really the Czech Republic. driving. only S900. Thailand.. which was blocking the road. They can climb trees and walk on logs. but he drove Saturday m orning is the most dangerous time o f the and your wallet. toward Prague were flooded. So he gave me the job! I stayed up all night watching the TV bulletins. but even these roads were impassable during the day. and so they know exactly really wanted to go to the wedding. If you know where people a couple of times. and they can learn about insects. the ones that say things like “Watch Barbara was invited to be a bridesmaid at her best aged between 17 and 24 has double the risk of an out for pickpockets!” As soon as men read that. how much has Barbara really done to would overflow. expecting it . The pickpockets see that. so good! But then I stopped being trees grow.. older driver. To fly or not to fly? Interview er Well.65 metric tons. only spend about 90 percent of their day outside. We and it took her 51 days. She traveled 14. between 2:00 and 3:00 a. Technology. if someone quickly. and I drove them so they’re in the field all day . away from the river. but I went much more The time when you arc most likely to have a from me. By day. and it’s a time when drivers need are looking. Sue. so I did Sue They can learn about the world by doing 25 hours. if someone comes up to I was one o f the lucky ones. to be the last person to leave our apartm ent building. but playing outside.. and it’s on the third floor.1 knew you were going to try to steal water safely. But she to 21. While it’s true that mile for mile women take tourists in New York. and 1 jum ped back into the car and went can learn about the danger o f fire by sitting around produced any emissions. The roads percent. they make you look at the map. We’re also more likely to be injured at from everybody on the movie set. to concentrate especially hard. could see that the River Vltava was swollen. and that’s bccause pickpockets part for the environment. And she herself was producing. . especially as likely to be killed in a car accident. day not in a classroom. of safe there. I really didn’t notice a thing. by boat to Singapore. and I live in an think this is a much better way of teaching children emissions her trip produced was 1. O n the other hand. exploring. Which is why a lot of people would like they immediately put their hand on the pocket The flight to Australia takes 24 hours and produces to sec the age limit for having a driver’s license raised that their wallet is in. he managed to get through the So. I started to feel a little bit like Fagin myself. nearly 2. for example.playing. Another know exactly what they’re going to look at. mile for mile. You can e-mail us a t. and my pen. really slowly through the water. Also 70 percent of fatal wallet or your phone from your back pocket. I was of impatient. the first thing people do she was worried about climate change. and it would have taken her just My wife and baby were at my apartm ent. a huge am ount of carbon dioxide emissions. and I Sue Hello. This is mainly bccause visibility is Interview er U h . My office is in the center of Prague. when you’re most likely to have a fatal accident.7 metric tons. it’s riskier to be a pedestrian or confidence. we are visiting an unusual little very helpful to everyone. they got so good that they were stealing the danger increase as the minutes passed. The Interview er And did you? happening. And I still didn’t see you. Anyway. it’s easy for pickpockets to do their work.. for example. He just asked me to steal his watch. So. Some magicians call it . We have a large field next to the school. C onsultant That’s the trick. to make sure it’s still there. I put things. and the second most C onsultant The real trick is to make people notice one left in the parking lot. is look up at the tall buildings. a surprising 10 “misdirection. he didn’t give me an ordinary breaking into our apartm ent and stealing things. you need from just down the street from where I was. So now she had a where it is. Vietnam. In general. I was about to give up . try to stay off the road then. O n my last attempt. Let me show you.you know. and my apartm ent wasn’t damaged at all as Which brings us to where accidents happen. The most frequent reason what’s the trick of being a pickpocket? At about three in the m orning. W hat do you have in your opposite direction. it would be even easier! door. the truth was that I sort of felt that I wanted to be without him noticing.004 miles. someone breaks the law. a man is twice subway station in the city. so I decided to follow on the road? Well. I did. thieves love the posters in the subway and she started buying organic food from local stoics cautious drivers. my wife and m y child into the car. that warn people to be careful with their belongings and using a wood fire to heat her home. even from me. friend’s wedding in Australia. They course. The road headlights. but the driver of the other car was 130 yards. In Prague.. China. because I finally accidents is when drivers fall asleep. I’m sure that information will be Instead of flying. W hy did I do that? I told a real fire.m. Tourists arc especially at risk wc live. Women arc generally more careful and of course. north of is that. To be a good pickpocket. which was a few miles away in the assessing our risk of having an accident.Interview er What happened when you met him? myself that it was because I was afraid o f looters of Barbara’s trip? We would be very interested in C onsultant Well. But the C 0 2 emissions would have been the sensible thing and went home immediately. bus through Russia. help the planet? Let’s compare the two trips. to be involved in what was We spend a lot of time in our cars. you also know where they’re not safely at my relative’s house. and you forgot about your jacket pocket him. The total amount o f C 0 2 a hundred yards from the river bank. and they were willing to give her such a TV. they’re stealing your on the first floor . I followed him. In the story of Oliver Twist. So. so they probably trip cost her about $4. Strangely.. and there are a C onsultant Not very long. My office escaped the the safest day o f the week to be on the road. Australia over land and sea! She traveled by train and Thank you very much for talking to us this afternoon. maybe as little as wallet. a driver’s visibility C onsultant Can you show them to me? too long. He said W hat are the most dangerous times and days to be was direct your attention to your jeans pocket and he thought he could make it.. Fagin is the master thief evening. she wouldn’t have sensible. All of us who lived or worked near Sue Yes. And when they look about the am ount of carbon dioxide emissions that m en take too many unnecessary risks when they’re up.000. didn’t move. There was a journalist reporting lot of myths about how dangerous it is .” but I call it "direction” . but hearing your comments. Water was coming into the car under the nonfatal accident is Friday afternoon between weren’t expecting it. it would have cast her about Prague. right on the banks of the River Vltava. on a your keys. what do you think back to our apartment. she’d traveled by plane. They learn about how plants and produce less carbon dioxide. Six years ago. But accidents do happen. I tried various at night. Sue Barbara works part-tim e at the Center for Alternative I was at work when I heard the news on Palmer is the director of the preschool.. I suppose I had a kind o f perverse desire work or at hom e than we are when we're driving a car. damaged. So. so I could sit in my living room and watch a jogger than to drive a car. let’s look at who has accidents. C onsultant Yes. 50 percent of all fatal accidents occur because who trains the young boys to be pickpockets. and I felt kind week. so highways maybe while you’re doing that. just keys. The weather is like.. which Barbara Haddrill did? myth about driving is that women are worse drivers is usually a building or a m onum ent. you see. I mean. and from time to time I looked out at our fact.I thought I’d waited so much worse at night. but I still that matter. The water was rising quickly now. What makes this preschool different is that whatever the C onsultant Sure. long vacation. and my nerves gave out frequent is drunk driving. the 20 children spend most o f their epic journey took her nearly two months. for the end. to direct people toward what you want them to see. Barbara.. but at night. Now it Interview er Sue. All I had to do wading into the water to see how deep it was.

no skateboard. And Interview er What was it like? friend’s name. only lasts seconds but.. equipment to take part. But then he realized. . By an incredible stroke obstacles in a town or city to create movement. but it doesn’t touch on what we do.or maybe it’s because of it. lifestyle that I enjoyed.. here. a lighter. um.. however small.. He felt responsible for Interv iew er W here do you m ost enjoy doing risk sports or activities? what had happened to his friend.. you D uey U m .. 1 mean. Free runners use anyone can do? several kilometers downriver.. and jumping that seems to be a very positive thing. Suddenly. Yossi. the key especially at the beginning. going to try out rock climbing. not at all. insect repellent. will sue the school for huge amounts of m oney and with no limitations. I’ve heard parents say that children started doing free running? definitely love to get into white-water rafting. As long as you start out very small way to work. Interview er Have you ever done any high-risk sports it is to give our children some freedom. which I did Interview er Is there anything else you’d like to try? remembered something that he once saw in a for about 20 years. up in the air after huge waves was just awesome and kind of nerve-wracking at the same time.Interview er And don’t you think this is a little bit Interview er Is there anything else that you’d like 3 14 ' dangerous for young children? They might easily Interview er How dangerous is free running? to try? fall down. discovered another footprint. Parachuting insect repellent spray. very safety conscious. and diving in the Great Barrier reefs. running. We have pretty extreme sports. C hristina My dad goes white-water rafting and I’ve about the school and our teaching methods and Interview er Have you had many accidents since you always wanted to try that with him. Interview er What was it like? worried nowadays that if a child has an accident but it was more about the sense o f freedom..” Duey High risk?. I guess... Gymnastics would help. and kids just or activities? never have seen Kevin. But nobody answered. which wasn’t very nice and 1 had to go to speed until it hit a rock. we work in movies and for me. Personally. the police. freedom. that the child's parents way to be able to move within your environment experience. let me go. The your way somewhere? but you could be. So I guess those are wasn’t Kevin’s. 1 think. and just using basic obstacles. It was At night Yossi tried to sleep. but it isn’t essential. You might get the odd sprained ankle. what we do is perceived as being very cool. or activities? to be allowed to take risks during play. it was a rush. They took him back to the aren’t practicing anything. someday. years back and I still remember. they don’t have enough very.. But nowadays schools do all over and over and over. the risk element played a part. so it hasn’t been a log and let himself float down the river. you could do it. that it was the same footprint. and jum ping out of a plane isn’t are totally overprotected. So I gave up the boxing and there was both did it..it was a hiking boot. give it another chance. word for what we do is repetition. and it Interview er Why do you think schools have become Interview er What attracted you to free running? was one of the best things I have ever done in my so obsessed with eliminating risk? Was it the risk element? entire life. he woke up rest following. I’m movie. we'd do it in a team of maybe ten of us. depends on how you define to be Kevin’s footprint! He followed the trail until he Interview er Tell us about the organization Urban it. so I drifted into martial arts. But I eventually convinced her. you blow.behind The jungle was full of noises. of do it anywhere. you know. So it’s seen as a positive u h . so Josh Just a total new experience for me. on the contrary.. teaching is the way that childhood should be. Interview er Have you ever had any problem you can ju st. you will pick than other children . a pair of trainers and I’m ready to Interviewer Is there anything else that you’d like with parents? go.. But generally the scale.. around the South Bank. so he started walking upriver. take your time. Interview er What was skydiving like? would never find Kevin. He came up to the surface the organization Urban Freeflow. and I was supposed to get it for my 18th a huge void in my life. recommend it to everyone. such a jum p out of a plane.. there’s no risk. whereas jet skiing. and climbing. shore. People have forgotten just how important commercials where safety is paramount. you know. .. Kevin managed to swim to hospital here. for the youths it’s very engaging. He had just enough strength left to hold onto thing to do. I fell out of a tree once. he was weak and EZ The police run these schemes for youth Interview er Is there anything else you’d like to try? exhausted from lack of food and lack of sleep.. they’re not doing any kind of sports. and soon they were in rapids. so if they had EZ In term s of schools. Next month. He was sure that Kevin would EZ The most rewarding for me would be running in m arried and had children and that quickly ended. we’re I get too nervous. we’ll see. He had been walking but then we devised a performance team. Interview er How did you first get into free running? So it was what I wanted to do for a long lime. Yossi was exhausted for the next thing to do and I saw this on TV one Interview er Have you ever done any high-risk sports and starving. Um. that the way we are normal. After five days alone. 4 4 \ Kevin was feeling desperate. I went skydiving. it took me around the world. have accidents. the map. o f a sudden. recall how that But Kevin wasn’t dead. thank you very much. what we do seems to be quite Josh I cannot see myself doing any high-risk sports. If you see a big jum p being done. There’s a big Interview er Have you ever done any high-risk sports been there a short time earlier or later. But then he EZ Well. you know.. “That’s what I’m looking for. Sue. My parents jaguar away.. where it giving up. I mean. I’ve done scuba diving. And I got married and had a kid and I had to not sure she would be excited about. by EZ It helps if you have a background in some kind o f luck. his flashlight. you could kind plays football. We teach as well. birthday and I never followed up on it with them. And they know practiced that at ground level thousands of times. my background is in boxing. U h . ^ Interview er EZ is a free runner who started Interview er Is free running really something that But Yossi didn’t drown. but Yossi was swept away by the rapids. or does a bit of running and pick it or seven kilometers of jungle. I ruptured my car himself. calling his London. we teach in schools.. Yossi felt depressed and was at the point of We take care of all sorts o f commercials and movies things to do. that part of the rainforest once a year. just the freedom to try? Sue Oh. Suddenly. 1 mean if you wanted to. the C hristina It was really like an out-of-body o f any kind. I think if anything. Sue Oh. so I would philosophy. Bolivian hunters in a canoe. if you’re on being a complete beginner.he was rescued by two do for them. Yossi was trembling with fear. They’re not doing any Josh The only high-risk sport I’ve ever done would be town of San Jose. you know. for Yossi. there’s no problem. yeah. for example. like the wheel of a race car. He offenders. I’m his horror. and they’re trying to get them out of. Yossi realized that he 20 athletes in the team now. however. he saw a day. look for him. to Freeflow. He was still looking Interview er How do you help the police? feels. no. same again. He used the cigarette lighter to set fire to the level. He felt sure that Kevin must very high-profile. and fell on my The raft was swept down the river at an incredible Interview er Well.1 did participate in know which plants can hurt them. we’re sponsored by Adidas now. PE. Sue I think it’s because schools and teachers are so EZ To a degree. I think I would want to give sky. and I definitely maybe even put them out of business. someday. jumping out of an airplane. That was the real draw for me. and most important of all. that fire is dangerous. you know. They are extremely positive aspect. eight who are very. My wife. as he was walking. you can start from The backpack contained a little food. it was a because he heard a branch breaking. The men only hunted in Interview er And how does it help schools? uh. you’ll 43 Yossi and Kevin soon realized that going by out in the rain . and I remember sitting in bed watching it and I or activities? footprint on the trail . but he felt terrified. 45 which didn’t really do it for me.. It wasn’t anything like. It’s just the adrenaline rush. we’d have C h ristin a After I turned 1 8 .. or no BMX. Can you do free of sport. gel blisters on your hands. He turned on lampposts and walls and just moving. was free running? Tim Uh. so that’s what we the same ever since. no. But after nearly a week. just someone who two friends were now separated by a canyon and six EZ Yeah. but he started walking and practice there and then move on elsewhere. U h. I’ve done bungee jumping. You don’t need any like I’ve ever experienced before.. My mom. O ur children taking. And I was looking So. 1 raced cars for 20 years before I got feeling very optimistic. they would problem in the UK with obesity. around in circles. I think that todays children dangerous. The river got faster and faster. which is river was a big mistake. like someone leading the way and the probably where I felt most comfortable . and calluses. Interview er Have you ever done any high- downriver to look for him. It had said.. Suddenly. and I boxed at international T im U h . I did that several we’ve taught the army.. and he spent two days recovering.scuba diving a chance again. But it would be great to.. There was a jaguar staring at him . Duey Skydiving was probably one of my favorite be dead.. They need everything we do is calculated. It was his own. and Interview er What was it like? unwittingly they’re taking part and exercising. I mean. it’s what 1 did since 1 was 10 years old. Urban Freeflow started out as a website. decided that it was time to forget Yossi and try to save know. he found their backpack floating in the river. running anywhere. and he managed to scare the just change my life around and become sensible all probably. a high-risk activity. and just. it’s seen as a very cool thing to do. was very hesitant to they can to avoid adventure and risk. and the parents agree with me.. I’ve done skydiving. in that sense.and that’s in spite of being up the odd scrapes here and there. I would probably have a few. and if you’re on your up straight away. He didn’t know people who practice would go to a particular spot if Yossi was alive or dead. back and try that out again. EZ O n the facc of it. who come to our school are healthier and stronger EZ Well. head. doing bad things. if you’re practicing this sport. I’ve been a little bit scared to go Kevin was incredibly lucky . Tim Uh. and that it EZ Well. jumping.

the texture isn’t in any given scene and play it back and just work housework. This you can taste. obviously in my course this is easier said than done. I’d done stage combat before. / Hello. It's much easier to memorize. He was convinccd that it was all his fault that after you’ve both had a good night’s sleep. luckily. twice. makes when the writing is good and it makes sense. but I don’t think it is chicken. in school plays.. I just say the conversation is very important. so first the mystery drink. / That's a lot better. a married couple. but Kevin finally persuaded them to take him both calmed down. I don’t through it slowly.. Ready? Now.. they had agreed to meet Marcus and Karl. as a kid in high school. sometimes commercials . If you find yourself raising Steve Yes. or “You never remember to buy Presenter And now to the sound effect. and slowly losing his mind. acting you do? my opinion anyway. Presenter You’ve got ten more seconds.” Presenter Now the object. W hich. yeah. with your parents. preparing for a new role? Yossi was too weak to shout. it has two tiny little holes in the Interview er Is there any role you ve spouse. in Stratford. But. Kevin felt terribly probably find that the problem is much easier to solve friends.” You can continue the discussion In terv iew er Did you always want to be an actor? up in a plane and fly over the part of the rainforest the next day when perhaps both o f you are feeling less Trevor Well. the blindfold is on . / No. or your 4 24 any markings ." This will just make the other person think play you a sound. I think it’s something natural. but I didn’t really enjoy it. It could be with your spouse.. Imagine you are Joanna Well. you have in it. He hadn’t eaten for days. for example. like real work. also in Newcastle here in the United Sometimes we just can’t avoid a discussion turning Steve It sounds like thunder to me. you often have a the housework. it’s something that I always loved to where Yossi could be. this last role that I played is Raising your voice will just make the other person Presenter O f course. W hat do you think? Coriolanus. then started doing student films and fringe theater and It was evening. If you’re the Steve It feels like a coin. can you? find the character. The memorization is the most and Karl were not there. nothing. T revor I have a Dictaphone actually.. so you the city o f La Paz and went directly to the hotel where Presenter Now. I’ve Yossi. sometimes even was saved. friends.. But if you do start arguing with Joanna Well. That's it. Learn how to argue cleanly and and got an agent and started getting proper acting thought a bee had gotten inside his mosquito net. please? T revor Well. Joanna Could be. for Presenter And welcome to tonight’s edition seen him. acting and improvising and guilty. but they were still It is also very important to stick to the point. or a horror movie or something. o f course. “I Joanna It must be [beep]. He lay down by the side of the river when a real problem comes along.” and even voice-over work. So. voice... I know. but no major ones. I guess. which is for radio or As soon as Kevin felt well enough. But of course it’s your job. were very dem anding about the part. much harder time memorizing poorly written lines. record the other people's lines. The Bolivian army Presenter OK. where you lend your voice to those as well. I’m going to the Royal Shakespeare Company for the first time. in film and conducted a search of the rainforest. Some people think that arguing is profession or for the rest of my life. Trevor U h. he went like in sports. Remember. just admit it! This is Joanna Can I feel it? Yes. that kind of thing. and move on.. I started taking some By now. Presenter OK. T revor There’s a few roles that I’ve played or The next tip is. but never and quiedy. ready in advance. the im portant thing is to try not to let a sweeter. So I went in to river to look for his friend. now! You just show up and you’re expected to know all Joanna It doesn’t really smell like anything. experience of a job. I say my line. So you have to be very disciplined and get all that In life wc sometimes have disagreements Steve It smells fruity to me. stop for a m oment and take a deep breath. So. it’s a {beep}. fairly. Kevin’s last hope Well. Can you tell us a little bit about the kind of point when he parried in the wrong place . or with a friend.. Did Steve and Joanna get it right? Remember. one of the most difficult parts.. you know. television you don't have the benefit of rehearsal. don’t exaggerate. There isn’t much I don’t do. or ever took it seriously to act as a was to pay a local m an with a boat to take him up the im portant thing. it’s meat. It was a one-in-a-million chancc. Interview er What’s the most difficult thing about noise wasn’t a bee. I got to work for happened twice. I mean. but Marcus and you can smell it. And. the discussion will very soon turn into an argument. but it sounds very distant. W ie n you do a play. you never do your share exactly like chicken . your lines and then you do it a few times and that’s 414 it. The two men had never Steve and Joanna No.it tastes fairly light. obviously. Suddenly. Steve No.. But Marcus anything. Conflict is a normal part university and took economics as a more practical of life. that can be difficult. which was amazing. So now. to. 1 suppose. dead. and dealing with conflict is an important part thing to do. line. far as acting goes. six weeks to rehearse with the other people and W hen Yossi had recovered. He an apartment. Starting. memorizing lots of lines. always bad. a they were blunt swords and axes. Tullus Aufidius in lose their temper. The other person will have much middle.. First.. u h . willing to think about what you are saying. those arc my tips. nothing. Ready? Now! that would be w eird. Yossi had been alone in the jungle of any relationship. It will help your relationship become stronger jobs. in Washington in him or her stop listening to what you arc saying. but this is very important Presenter OK. it definitely feels metallic.. W hen he opened his eyes. If you think that an argument is getting for television or even sometimes animated shows to a Bolivian Army base and asked them to look for out o f control. just arrived back in the town o f Apolo. I play the next a student and you share an apartment with another chicken. Kingdom. act. It was a boat. into an argument. Try not to say Presenter So now we're going to take off the oftentimes when you do something it’s the whole things like “You always come home late when my blindfolds . T hink of the smaller arguments loved it and then started doing it more seriously he heard the sound of a bee buzzing in his ear. because they are just bad. Earlier this year.. call “Time out. four. I guess.. plane had to fly too high and the forest was too dense. If you don’t learn to argue appropriately. not necessarily just the part m other comes to dinner” when that might have only Joanna an d Steve Thanks. the m om ent of a huge sword and ax fight in the middle of the play. America. the director and the props and everything. as Interview er Do you prefer working in the theater or don’t start talking about cell phone bills. and 48 ultimately. but with other people. I’ll go with that. after university. not very strong. We had to do Say “I’m sorry I shouted. Just 4 23 the other guy three stitches on his fingers at one Interview er Trevor White is a Canadian concentrate on solving the one problem you actor. you won’t be ready unpaid work just to get experience in acting and ready for another night alone in the jungle. someone. “Look. Don’t bring up small accidents. you can hear it only performed plays.. But of Steve It could be [beep |. But I want to say one last that I could. person who is in the wrong. so now the food. And then was starving. There's theater. you know. particularly enjoyed? more respect for you in the future if you do that. But 1 don’t think I ever believed Yossi was going to die in the jungle. The tense and angry. which I just calm discussion turn into a heated argument. if necessary. your boss. television work. very large pieces of metal. not a machine.there we are. film in movies and TV? work. 47 And my final tip is that. But if sometimes Its much more constructive to say something like. And we had a couple of keep to the topic you are talking about. The army soldiers were sure that Yossi must be “Listen. right? It tastes a little bit like their line. it is im portant to keep things under control. Steve Yeah. he and Kevin flew to Joanna an d Steve Hi.. What are we going to do a b o u t it?” think it’s duck. Can we hear it again.” and continue calmly. you know. because there were lots of things that your voice. let's meet Joanna and Steve example. My second piece of advice is simple. one o f Shakespeare’s lesser you’re being unreasonable and will probably make is you’re hearing.. Remember. maybe. It was a hopeless search. Time’s up. Karl were never seen again.. as it were. I’d rather talk about this tomorrow after we’ve rarely said “no” to an acting job. ever had to play? The m ost im portant thing is not to raise your voice. no. anything like this.. It’s amazing the difference it of the housework.oh. or just two good acting classes and really enjoyed that. W hen Joanna Yeah. If you can talk calmly truth. I gave old arguments or try to bring in other issues. but Kevin had already 4 17 T revor It really depends. just playing around with They couldn’t see anything at all. but you can’t taste it. You know.. and leave the other things for another time. to face it together. then you can say to the other person. too. whether it’s three people sharing for nearly three weeks. That way there is much more chance do. Try to round of applause for Vanessa.. Just but it’s completely sm ooth . and you have to decide what it and we did Coriolanus. you audition for a bad science fiction TV show think we’d better take another look at how we divide up Steve OK.. too. exhausted. but Yossi o f Use Your Senses. we were using actual. the easiest and best way to avoid an argument. I stop it. He as training sessions. you have three. I don’t do strange character voiccs because The first thing I would say is that the way you begin but you can’t see. and in Madrid in Spain for five months. and that was about 13 years ago. Maybe there’s a better way of doing it. that you will be able to reach an agreement. I think it’s [beep]. with definitely fruity. your parents. O ur assistant Vanessa will give us the answers. he saw that the buzzing and last longer. toothpaste. from Chicago.it doesn’t seem to have apologize to your roommate. If you say. if you’re arguing about the housework. so you do it. This is not true. you’ll find the other person will be more you need all the answers right to win today’s prize.you can’t see have a long time to learn your lines. You’ll also and in my spare time.that’s are having. Could it be a train? Interview er What’s the most difficult role that you’ve and there are ways to do this. to me. it smells a little like orange juice but Interview er How do you learn your lines? this happens. so you just basically record all the other lines student who you think isn’t doing their share o f the Steve I don’t think I’ve had it before ..

a meal I have. a few get into extra work and stuff because they think.. expert in sleepwalking. of music when they’re going to work and another injure themselves while they’re sleepwalking. They're not the kind of people beings are the only animals which listen to music for sleepwalk are usually people who used to sleepwalk who would be happy with a nine-to-five job. so I Shelly Well. it takes them . Interv iew er Have you ever actcd? She would climb the crane just as easily as if she Another problem is that if I write a bad review of Juan I acted once. And for sad. for after a car accident.. hear a certain piece o f music. The best thing about my job is that I get portraying a different person. even when you’re doing exciting kind when they’re coming home. for example. and then we think.. they’re playing our song.T revor 1 think theater is the most satisfying work in main reasons. So. for man was charged with murder. Research shows that about 18 percent a meal. lost a lot of its attraction for me. In theater Secondly. uh. they can trip or fall over a chair o r even always waiting around. They can take a sometimes abroad.. o f the population has a tendency to sleepwalk. or going to the sort of reading a book about nine hours a day.. W hen P resenter And what happens when sleepwalkers people are happy. this music varies from person to person.. Shelly It was a lot of hard work. two or three of those days all told is actually you then we play angry music. A few that was valuable. something like Albinoni’s Adagio Josh I love doing acting. feel like eating so much. because the owner of the restaurant m ade up our own play and. “Darling.To film a proper feature to get even sadder. W hat music no m em ory of the incident. 1 think it’s so much fun for strings. Is is also fun. it isn’t. People used to think that it was Interv iew er So being an actor isn’t really glamorous? for the first tim e in some very special circumstances. you don’t really earn that much activities. Rachel It made me feel that 1 really wasn’t meant does is it copies this. som etim es we want window while sleepwalking and fell 30 feet to the know. Uh. and fun doing different projects. it is definitely safer to wake a sleepwalker up. which Think of Humphrey Bogart in the film Casablanca wake a sleepwalker up when they’re walking. Firstly. O r we’re ground. 5 16 which is something that I was always terrified of. it’s. sound.. is a sleepwalker responsible for his or to be an actor specifically. so he money and you. story surprise you? have to eat a lot when I’m not really hungry. in fact. and that's a thrilling thing. because you get to do it over and us remember im portant moments in the past. they speak faster. higher-pitched m usic will sound her actions? experience and it was a start in public speaking . I was a sophomore. should people sometimes or some very talented people that might play another kind of music to relax us when we we wake them up? you admire. a sleepwalker usually doesn’t some plays for a dram a class that I was in. P rofessor It can be very brief. you know. I prefer to eat at hom e rather than go out for Juan It was very nerve-wracking because you had to P rofessor Yes. but I felt really driven cars. I was in one of my theater classes were awake. you know. trying to figure to intensify the em otion that we’re feeling. for example. The other day there was a case setting up new camera positions. 1 guess. and I had one man who appetizer. So it just was a friend with me. over again in front o f a live audience. I have treated people who have my job well. dessert. although if you do. it is quite it’s. and commercials as well as Let m e give you some examples.. P resen ter Now I imagine some of you are old friends who I may not have seen for a while. it will the house where his parents-in-law lived and. most restaurant critics have a weight problem. we rem em ber hearing it P rofessor No. he killed his mother-in-law. if we’re feeling sad. we might play a certain kind of few moments. The same is true of this isn’t true. acting oftentimes. you can get to work with some famous music to prepare us to go out in the evening. T revor No. W hen they’re sad. the first movement o f Beethoven’s Seventh not guilty because he had been asleep at the time he major motion pictures. I don’t think acting is a glamorous life. if it has these characteristics.. exquisite food in restaurants when I was at college . they speak m ore slowly while they were sleepwalking? Rachel W hen I was in high school. lot o f fun. we often use music to help us to make the or she probably won’t know where they are for a film and television work is. I was nervous. and you get get hom e from work. dangerous to wake up a sleepwalker. Symphony. The commercial print. So. you know. yeah. emotions: happiness. Slow music with lots of falling pitches will P rofessor A very good question. and when people are angry. I have to try all the courses . people who write film soundtracks. bathroom. so I've everyone loves a free meal in a fancy restaurant. the house. Babies can tell remember anything afterward. you know. Obviously. In applauding. and I don’t have to pay the check Interv iew er Have you ever acted? scene which visually has no emotion. ridden horses. say Mars.which is a long time ago by the music they write to go with ft. I used to act in collcge musicals make the scene either scary or calm or happy just the most wonderful. sadness. and their voice wake up? Do they remember the things they did S In terv iew er Have you ever acted? is higher. 1 guess in any way. yes. but it doesn’t example. and they often listen to one kind of the myths about sleepwalkers is that they cannot all those things are really fun. or we P resenter So if we see someone sleepwalking. can be a change. we lay the table. If a sleepwalker is walking around things. And it’s just a ton of O f course the people who exploit this most are the to go to the best restaurants in the country. from The Planets by committed the crime. fact.. I had to act in and their voice is lower. so I Let’s take three im portant hum an maybe half an hour or even more. That’s why sometimes it’s difficult to know if the job is that because I do it so often.” but you end up even m ore rom antic?” getting up and getting dressed. you feel fabulous. but it was pretty clear that the audience was P re sen ter But how did this girl manage to climb a a problem with my weight now . Loud music w ith irregular rhythms years ago a m an from Canada got up in the middle Interv iew er Have you ever acted? will sound angry. not by her words. So. I love dancing. at first. when I got on even tried to fly a helicoptcr while he was asleep. And I’ve never been on a red carpet. But it can occasionally last much longer. For angry. The most typical cases are of people “Oh.. But the 90% of the day. see. You can wake up a sleepwalker particularly in . we listen to music to make often happens after a stressful event. someone is sleepwalking or not. this will be really glamorous. when. and another. and there seem to be three . Also. but I have to do it. who is an rarely have to eat by myself. but not as glamorous as people might saying. Yeah.. but he was found independent films and a little bit of extra work on example. adult sleepwalking why we listen to music. So we they raise their voices or shout. And curiously it’s more war reporters that I’ve met are people who were I think it’s very interesting that human com mon am ong boys than girls. yeah. uh. so. I did some acting in high school. you film takes m onths and maybe in all that time only feeling angry and we w ant to intensify the anger. when they're 130-foot crane? on weight when you eat out several times a week. and it produces the same P resen ter So. for example. Think of the that I wouldn't normally be able to afford. I get the chance to eat K errie U h . But. That looks glamorous. suppose I can’t judge. P rofessor It would have been no problem for her. So faster. uh. w hether their m other is happy or not simply by the girl who climbed up the crane will probably have Interview er How did it make you feel? sound o f her voice. They are pleasure. so I used to do lots music makes it absolutely terrifying. I did a invited into the studio Professor Miller. they’re always fixing lights. I frequently one of them was Fiddler on the Roof. “W hat music would make this minutes.. Interv iew er How does it make you feel? Holst. there are several. couple of musicals in my junior and senior years . apparent reason. that was P rofessor Yes.. you example. and anger. it’s difficult for me to ever go to that in high school. this isn’t the case. but most of the time. T he third reason why we listen to m usic is fall down stairs. Luckily. In fact. you're people on buses and trains with their iPods.. Adults who looking for adventure. for no years ago doing m ore serious work for more make you experience this emotion.it’s very easy to put enjoying themselves and by the end. I started a few the m usic is. you should remember that another to shoot guns or. P resenter People always say that you should never tend to pay as well as film and television. but the worrying about what it’s going to cost. I think a lot of people a rom antic dinner. so it’s a good way of catching up with continuation of that experience. and I can now. order the most expensive dishes and drinks without Interv iew er How did it make you feel? All you can see is a woman having a shower. it’s much more com m on in children than Nearly all the foreign correspondents and in teenagers or adults. does this The downside? Well. you’re just sitting and waiting around. we light candles. How long does sleepwalking last? doing anything. the did performances for the student body. eating out has and one o f the last highlights. music in the shower scene in Hitchcock’s film Psycho.you know. that was. P rofessor No. and sometimes I don’t great doing it. Professor Miller. That’s mainly why people listen P rofessor Yes. O r when we’re planning P resenter H m m . she wasn’t seriously injured. For of a nine-year-old girl who opened her bedroom out who’s going where. I also have stage.. so wc play sad music. To do Interv iew er How did it make you feel? Professor Not at all. work hard. It doesn’t m atter how good or bad of the night and drove 12 miles from his hom e to Josh I’ve done a little bit o f acting. and to music in cars.so happy. well. and they can at the end of the evening. For example. The other great side of the job is that I can take a of dancing when I was growing up. and. W hen the weekend Interv iew er How did it make you feel? P resen ter Is sleepwalking very common? comes. main course. A lot o f research has been done to find out when they were children. go on car chases. when we met someone for the first time. sleepwalkers usually have their eyes will probably recognize me. If we want to go from one activity to com mon for the sleepwalker to be confused. And Interv iew er Have you ever acted? finding this story a little difficult to believe. But it was a good em otions. and we just P resenter And would her eyes have been open? restaurant again. rem em ber all your lines and you had an audience. feel sad. Another disadvantage of one o f the premier highlights o f my acting career open. For happy. K errie Lots of fun. we listen to music to help us to change without any problem. actually.” W hen we that true? think it is.

which. How did the Proms start? change the program. he had been C h ristin a Oh. I mean. that he had actually 2 I get invited to talk to teachers all around the world. The audience wasn’t laughing at my jokes. But after Interview er World-class musicians perform at mobile phones going off in concerts. I was big into director of a music festival in London called the first m om ent that we had to take that piece out and metal when I was young and his age.. very well. and then as soon as I finished.. and so I’ve stopped and asked them. Interview er What was it like? that made you want to do the job in the first place and We changed some programs to make them more T im U h . I have been to the Sounds of the of kidnappers. I was. and you’re talking to people who have experienced the musical world. my and some people were looking very unhappy. which is called F. I was. and they are also becoming the target piece. except me . and I kept forgetting what 1 concert every day. who had already heard the talk to leave. I just remem ber it always being politely for 45 minutes. and during that period there’s one turned round and glared at this person in the stalls. We then lost another major figure of the what I was listening to at the time. One of the problems of the job is seeing a lot a very good friend of Princess Diana and indeed uh. and I wanted to say.Jane’s Addiction. but now being just a little bit too old. because they were in large hotel room in Poland. And there’s a lot “Hang on. And it’s one day of horrific things and then going back hom e to had rung me up just after Diana’s death to say that o f bands coming right along the water and they normality. And it’s beautiful country. next day at hom e for a Radio 4 program about talks and are interested in what I’m saying. They listened director of the Proms. I think I’m a good speaker. in the country. it’s out I just apologized profusely and invited the people concentration is absolutely amazing.I think 1 was killed last year.. and orchestras really com m ent on . And so people do Interview er Have you ever been to a music want to come and perform. so it was perfect.. What was it like? went to a friend’s wedding in m y hometown. I’ve the reason why the job is so exciting. took over Interview er Tell us more. Unfortunately. I could see from the audiences eyes that N icholas The Proms lasts for two m onths in the when a mobile phone went off very loudly in the it was directly above my head. so it was like being in that N icholas The Promenade Concerts started way Interview er Are there any embarrassing or amusing environment. I’ve been to one huge music festival.so all those were sort of through with other journalists and photographers. the conductor Sir Georg Solti. Texas. It was pretty fun. in the hall. 1 work as part of a team .5 * during the year. two concerts on many days. and in the about ten minutes. they behave City Limits Music Festival. but in the sum m er people tended to go away. It was. I just ignored it. listen to some of the the risk of being killed. and the Albert Hall is a very. and memory. the first couple had. so it’s kind o f a camping experience. which is a big national heavy kidnapped recently and a very good friend of mine could have been called absolutely anything this metal tour. and used to Proms for 12 years. so we happening in the world?" Interview er There was also another strange would walk around and sample the food and then Another major worry about my job these days is coincidence in the program at the time of Princess we would walk to the music. unfortunately. I just Proms is a wonderful m ixture of total informality Savanna Yes. 518 which is also called ACL. from the m iddle o f July to the m iddle stalls and Simon Rattle stopped the bassoonist and o f bats. But the new to use a newly-built concert hall in London. and people buy season a spectacular success and it was wonderful. society life finished. I rushed period of music-making. same things as you and seen the same things as you. but it was a while ago..” I didn’t really know what to do at this point. and at the end I asked for of them? very hot. dinner together at the end o f the day and talk things last two weeks of the season and they fitted very. W hat you get at the festival? audience had been really enthusiastic. The Lollapaloozas. Philharmonic. which we were going to do on the last night C u rt Uh. “Is anything the matter? and total concentration. potentially dangerous about the job are also the things where the Proms happen. and Simon Rattle and the Berlin their eyes and were not looking very happy. But out of the room. last Friday of the season. It was that Verdi requiem and dedicated it to both of C h ristin a W hen we got there first we picnicked a beautiful day. the N icholas One o f the things that was a real challenge bands are great! And it was fun to watch the ones Queens Hall. O n the day of her funeral. and the conductors who come here say.. still up really brought classical music to the widest possible because in the beginning. cases of journalists being killed simply because they John Adams had written an absolutely wonderful Interview er Have you ever been to a music festival? are journalists. At first. he had called it Short Ride in a Fast Interview er W hat was it like? In terv iew er Sir Nicholas Kenyon was the Machine. piece. I saw several people get up and walk out of the hall. The nam e "Proms” that was just so awful because Stravinsky’s The window. teacher said “Actually.not to date mean... was the oldest guy there. Nobody said anything. back in 1895 when a brilliant impresario wanted experiences you remember? and it made me really uncomfortable. and then just hang out there for the rest only by accident. It was and stand during the music. Two of m y colleagues have been o f the Proms in 1997. So it’s a very. audience.very few people attend stopped it. I remember a few years ago coming back he wanted to dedicate this Verdi requiem to her play and there’s food conccssion stands and lots of from a war zone where I’d been for a long time. Why do you think that is? and it’s a wonderfully classic little bit of tape. so we’ve heard it all music and that is a feature that so many conductors Savanna The Kerrville Folk Festival is a little bit before. it’s a whirling abstract piece of fanfare music. I’ll never forget it! tickets in order to be able to attend all the concerts. Finally. was to have conducted the Verdi requiem on the Interview er Have you ever been to a music festival? And that’s very im portant in this kind of work.. very intense So anyway.. and he was. And so it was perfectly obvious from the C u rt Uh. so it’s a lot of fun. and usually the audiences enjoy my placcs in the floor of the hall. It was a lot of fun. and so he had phones would go off in concerts and it could be 1 I was giving a talk to about two hundred people in a the brilliant idea o f taking away all the seats on very embarrassing. is usually very hot 3 I was giving a presentation to a rather serious Interview er There must have been many truly memorable concerts during your tim e as because it’s in September and it’s urban and a lot of group of business people in Germany. who It was great.arthFest. was almost everybody. way back . yeah. my favorite bands . was going to say. very big space and mobile 6.. and it was a fantastically charged atmosphere a little bit during the m orning and then in the about unim portant things. There were im portant classical concerts to use them. But there was one particular incident it was probably a bird that had come in through the experience of concert-going. I mean. where they stand. appropriate. three and there was a round of applause and everything. And it h ad .. unique atm osphere. Very oddly we fantastic one. everyone was having fun and talking them. I took my 14 year old cousin . they actually absolutely listen to the Interview er What are they like? exactly the same talk last year. had just begun that piece m oment. it restarted and the performance was of the talk. I realized that something was flying around usually sat. can’t you see that there is something awful occasion as that. wc put in been to probably a hundred shows and it was a Something else I really like about the job is that Faure’s requiem to the program. Soundgarden early on .the level o f more laid-back. I couldn’t concentrate. but after a while I noticed that the women is an abbreviation of “Promenade Concerts" and it Rite of Spring starts with a very. great food. the problem is that you gave how they want. I realized that something was the Proms for much lower fees than they usually middle o f this interview. to some extent the things that are difficult and just across the road in Kensington Palace from myself. well. any questions. and I just panicked. Journalists used to get killed Diana’s death in 1997.and they come and media attention and there were paragraphs in the English teachers.. of. my own phone went off wrong.. very exposed quiet in the audience were following its movements with basically means that people are able to walk around bassoon solo. I can’t remember such an electric afternoon we would walk around. it Underground festival. So I hurried through the last part concerts on some days. The next In terv iew er How long do the Proms last? together at the Proms. and then I and so another conductor. when to switch them off. and I had to go and be interviewed the say so myself. since I thought there and walk around and have a very informal them off. but of September. companies that come and bring samples.” And one don’t dress up to come to the Proms. Could you tell us about it? bands play. I tried to continue. of course. people who got into the job precisely because it has N icholas The death o f Princess Diana was Interview er Have you ever been to a music festival? very odd hours and involves going to difficult places. I’m from Austin. but now there are more and more N icholas A wonderful American composer called of the day. Then N icholas I think the Proms has an absolutely embarrassment at the same thing happening to me. I particularly difficult because. and letting people come in and stand them and people got embarrassed and switched the room. Then a young 128 . that it became the subject of a lot of and this time I was in Mexico giving a talk to some actually all of them. making one of their first appearances then that I realized that it was a large bat. you know. Unfortunately. It was awful. And Austin City Limits.. I’m really frightened sum m er. As it turned out. she lived T im Yes. in the Royal Albert Hall. this was such an incident. About halfway through the floor of the hall.. receive. whether they do or not . conductors just ignored the talk. Usually. if I do they queue during the day in order to get the best papers. for a series of popular concerts that to the Proms was the arrival of the mobile phone. I’d 5 20 given a presentation there the year before.. Could you tell us about one great music acts. people didn’t know how there rocking out. Colin Davies. where the expensive people the middle of the music. that’s what orchestras and I just couldn’t figure out what was going on.. that have been around since I was into it. uh. So that although people been to the Kerrville Folk Festival and the Austin You don’t seem to be enjoying this. he died just a week later people.you sit down and have had programmed two or three requiems in that you know. go to a ton of shows. a lot of fun. I’d seen a lot of death and destruction.

there is a good deal of Park. are always strong kind o f glue. man stood up and said to me. people like the man who invented Post-it Boston is.they are all one way the wrong Travel w riter That would be Lake Michigan.. around downtown. that can travel on land or water. Chicago would stick to something. and it works out very well.there street. seven scorching hot day? use the weak glue to make Post-it notes. while the two teams were playing there is levity in the tour. One and he thought. Daniel Simons and Christopher the name o f Andy Wilson. Steven. it’s Wrigley Field. there is a visiting Chicago should do or see? of them said no. One o f the tilings he on my laptop. I Presenter And tonight on the program were that you can use to buy another book. people started games are sold out. I mean. faces of different Chicagoans projected on a huge then slowly walked off the court. They got U h . My talk wasn’t until one o’clock. called “Cloud Gate" by Anish Kapoor. But that and the fact Travel w riter Outdoors: take a stroll in Millennium during the film. That’s what the gorilla experiment proves. “W hy didn't anybody think of that night or day . and I was more magical. a voucher people at the cafes were already having lunch. good sound and screen. His book is full of tips . where the People just accepted the idea that it was impossible. sometimes you can run onto five. what makes a Duck You can get a great view o f the famous buildings of passes made by one team. O r the idea o f cheap air travel. the hom e of photo taken? actually tried it on a group of top scientists. the furniture I looked down at my zipper and realized that it was. Dr. It’s a very I’d have to say the John Hancock Building. Richard Wiseman. and I’m equipment. we’ve got all the the m odern skyscraper and has some of the most was wearing white ones.. a study was carried out by two G raham The company was founded by a fellow by researchers. Wiseman’s theory is that most desperately looked for a taxi to take me first back to people don’t think creatively because they Interview er Graham Bull is a my hotel and then to the company’s offices where I concentrate so hard on the small. people got the answer right. Chicago is one hour behind Montreal. and at least half amphibious tour .. There are so many. presentation was supposed to start in 15 minutes. and It’s a special. In fact. And people who don’t know their way around is unique in that it's the only big city in the US with can get badly. I believe on a tour.. hoping to catch a baseball if a home run is hit thinkers? was something wrong with the projector and the outside the stadium. the sunset? Presenter Dr.we go on the river. that morning. and after I’d gotten to my hotel Travel w riter A horse-drawn carriage ride down Presenter And has he had any “eureka moments" and checked in.. badly lost. It’s volunteers just didn’t see it! the tour? fabulous! Indoors: the Chicago Museum of Science Presenter That’s incrediblc. m aking it seem all the Steven Yes. I think there is a high degree Apollo 8 space capsule! Wiseman repeated this experiment many times. It was in the science and sports venue? but nobody made it. It’s a “hands-on” type of museum. with its beautiful gardens and amazing basketball. So I started touching keys Interviewer What’s a good thing to do that’s can become more creative.he said that from that. Chicago is the birthplace of team was wearing black T-shirts and the other team . What’s your favorite wanting cheap furniture that was well designed. the matter of driving have never been on it. of Boston Duck was going to give the presentation. His idea is to print a book that well prepared.. and so scoreboard. Afterward. Wiseman has lots of tips on how we screen was too dark. so most airlines like JetBlue. a simple task: they just had to count the number Interview er In your opinion. Steven Hutchinson. The journalists to try to think of articles that nobody I had to improvise from what I could remember. So. demonstration of how we usually focus only on about Boston for a tourist? Interview er What’s your favorite landmark? what we’re looking for and don’t see outside it.it was only a quarter to twelve. without question. Travel w riter Take an architectural boat tour along playing basketball. technology departm ent of the university. monkeys. it’s the see them. the views from notes..C.” spectacular architecture in the United States. He was actually trying to develop a really a car. But as soon as I began my talk. on one of those carriage rides! contains the first chapters of 15 different books. we sometimes miss really im portant discoveries thing is really the friendliness o f the city. Steven Because they were so busy trying to count to determ ine because different people have where you can see a coal mine or look inside the the passes that they didn’t notice the gorilla! Dr. So. so 1 Travel w riter For me. “Oh.. called “Ducks." or a tour guide. and O r the man who set up IKEA. he people have heard o f Beacon Hill. but I am ashamed to say I Steven Yes. way. a perfect background 6 1?% Interview er W hat would you say is the best thing Steven The gorilla experiment is a perfect for a photo. would find interesting .. a beach right in the heart o f the city. in Washington. Then they were asked reasons. I think the best Travel w riter Tough question. that would be great in Boston the Chicago River. for years people had been 4 I had to give a talk to some students at a university Interview er Sounds good. but I absolutely free? recommends is to try to do the opposite o f what managed to delete the whole presentation. different interests. impossibility. for example. “It is possible. wonderful view o f Boston. And half o f the Interview er What are the most popular sights on tower. possibly a brilliant idea for something interesting 5 I had to give a business presentation to a company Interview er What do you think is the most romantic would come up. you are safe at anytime of the m ost graceful. and it and still has ivy-covered walls and a hand-operated going to do it. breathtaking on a clear day. There were two teams. For example. How did the thing of all was that the title of the talk I was giving Presenter W hat was the gorilla experiment? Boston Duck Tours start? was “How to manage your time better”! Steven Well. D. The Crown Fountain. And that’s really amazing because.it’s really not a dangerous spot. and not the double-rich. you usually do.. to walk the tallest skyscraper. The idea thought it was a little early for lunch and checked reviewing a book called D id You Spot the Gorilla? by is that you read the beginnings and then choose my watch . Travel w riter In front of an outdoor sculpture one of them saw the gorilla. O f course.. when I noticed that several This book has a book token in the back. I’d seen the auditorium before.it’s really in Montreal one time. Cubs fans are incredibly loyal. . special occasion. uh. So there Travel w riter Spend a day at the Lincoln Park Zoo.. it is an Interview er What’s the one thing that someone if they had seen anything unusual. It’s not that are right in front of us because we just don’t friendly city. But instead of just thinking. a woman dressed as a gorilla walked sense o f hum or involved. I believe 14 years ago.” he actually thought o f a way to way. enjoying the sunshine. they were tour special? and bridges while you’re enjoying a cruise down asked how many passes they had counted. was all very embarrassing. and where admission is free every day of the year.” And that’s how we got discount was a nice room. has onto the court and beat her chest at the camera. I finally arrived they are working on that they don't see the bigger Tours. The streets are almost all o f them one Interview er What would be a good place to go on a “Oh that’s no good.. U h . and most G raham Boston Duck Tours is special for two the river. notes that streets in a row . and 1 don’t know what I did. didn’t think there would be any problems with the Chicago Cubs play baseball. are the two best things about the city Interview er What's the best place to watch creatively. 69 Interview er W hat advice would you give to Chabris. I flew in from Chicago thing to do in Chicago? worth reading.. Dr. I Steven Well. doesn’t he? G raham The worst thing about being a tourist in would be a good spot. “Sir. It was built in 1914 But then somebody said. In the summer. my husband proposed to me idea for book lovers. like the Sears Tower. Wiseman’s main message? thinking for you. They gave the volunteers historical sights. as a matter of fact. So steel on the outside. That’s why when something is invented. at Harvard University in 1999. company. but for som e o f us. a freelance journalist. P resenter W hat a great idea! Now that’s creative so that meant it was actually a quarter to one. actually. Wiseman gives some examples of Interview er And what is the worst thing? Travel w riter I imagine the Ferris Wheel at Navy Pier people who he says are creative thinkers. but not too much. make a very weak one. my watch. six. our Boston Brahm ans. W hy not? G rah am T he m ost popular sights are difficult and Industry.we’ve got the Charles River. In fact. your fly is open. they didn’t because they didn't think those. The company uses vehicles. in general. nothing. I was strolling along by the river. with its bold design and cross-braced people often say.and the worst picture." 20 minutes late and very stressed . He was a fellow who was traveling about and someone visiting Chicago for the first time? volunteers to watch a 75-second film of people he saw a Duck being used. there’s an 18-mile bicycle path along the lakefront. before?” Well. and it’s pre-revolutionary days. fountains. It zoo is famous for its collection of apes. specific job that “conDUCKtor. forth. in Beacon Hill because Interview er And what’s the best place to have your and the result was always the same. I thought I’d go for a walk since Michigan Avenue is very romantic. I think they are interested also in Faneuil Hall. The ride goes himself? it was such a beautiful day and 1 had plenty of through a historic district. lie thought up a great time. Fans even stand out on the Presenter Can we make ourselves into creative complaining that they couldn’t see the slides . with water cascading down from the top. W ith us tonight to talk about this book is with the book token. It is an stunning. he told a group of I was with no presentation notes at all... who’s an expert on creative which book you want to read more of and buy it then I suddenly realized that I’d forgotten to change thinking. And it is also a safe city. and other primates. And Dr. hut he could only manage to live here and know your way around.” the lake is full of swimmers and sailboats. G raham For a tourist in Boston. O ne is that we actually. Its surface Presenter That’s amazing! w hich is w here Sam Adam s did his work in the is like a m irror that reflects the city skyline. Steven Yes. My what exactly is Dr. u h . Do not drive a car in Boston unless you the skyscrapers. o f interest in th e . I think.

they had a ghost. where I went to college. Now. Unfortunately. He also thinks that the visit before I’m done. True story. they dismissed it. An office with 20 to 30 did they find? This is a true story. I passed my exams children. I played a lot of tour is amphibious. less honest. about it. about 17..but stealing the money flummoxed by this. what a foreign country. And they America at all.. I was there two years ago 3 I really wish I'd been able to know my grandm other are more honest..but I just wasn’t brave enough to start a the least honest floor was the executive floor! It makes . but didn’t get a chance. honesdy people behave is the morale in an office. And. C h ristin a My favorite city in the world would have felt really stupid and really wished I hadn’t done it. Before world? in the audience could see how red my skin was. they weren’t at all concerned. looking .. they to be Dublin in Ireland. She was stressed or miserable. it’s Europe. it would be was what he considered to be normal. I only went to the she was probably in her seventies. people like that. Well. He didn’t like it. them as short as I could. but just before the 4th of July and Labor Day. I played in a band.. but if it’s imagine that?! minutes. On rare occasions we will there. the less In terv iew er W hat is your favorite city in the world? letters and papers. and he liked stolen. I suppose it is what you would call “an basket is. probably. They found did that. I’ve never been there and I’ve heard great things writers. fewer people pay. Boston Garden right in the very same location. G rah am There’s one particularly funny.. supreme. at all.. I had a family that had arranged a really cute. But I really wish employees generally pays 3-5 percent more than an the remains of a monkey! He'd escaped from the that I’d taken that job because I think it would office with two to three hundred employees. so he had to do something. compulsory lectures.. if you’ve 2 Three years ago I was going to take part in a dance because they would feel worse if they were caught. and my professional life seems to be because in a smaller community. it turned out that lifestyle. The reason being the weather’s face-to-face. and everyone’s really nice. Between 80 and 90 percent ghost in the old Boston Garden. I didn’t you feel. u h . My family. to make a long story short: days turn into company Mercedes. and since then I’ve like the 4th of July... I mean. Months turn into years and this Germany. that the Ducks are intended to Sophie My favorite city in the world would have to sports. 4 The only thing I really regret is not having had the top floor was the executive floor.” I would have learned to become an So. in the end 1 didn’t go. But in fact. Interview er What city would you most like to visit? conversation. We got to the river and we have a ramp Interview er W hat’s your favorite city in the world? and I got my degree in the end. so I When employees like their boss and like their job. an d .. if things the following m orning this rubbish shows up again 1 W hen I was a young man. so I don’t have shriek with glee. keeps going on and by this time they’ve cemented apprenticeship. since he started the business. It was strewn all over the floor. are just a day off work. So. weeks turn into m onths and this rubbish company Bosch visited Mercedes. U h . people ago and had been living in the rafters of the Boston would have been more fulfilling.that he would feel assumed that they had a vandal in the building.. but never anything more. Everybody wants to go out I studied English literature... And we did the S ophie 1 think I would like to visit Athens. what do the bagel data tell us about the kind into their m inds that they have a ghost in the old engineer.. I wish I’d realized at the time that this was a roller-coaster sensation of “oh-we’re-going-down” or 18 and I always wanted to take someone special unique opportunity to read lots of novels. Greece.our magnificent premier Interview er What’s your favorite city in the world? because Feldman worked there himself.. but it was preceded by the old original did a lot of my growing up. And now it’s too or amusing incidents during the tour that you can probably have to be Rome.which luckily not many did . . 1 haven’t been to South only if a company habitually paid less than 80 percent the night before after an athletic event.. because it was where 1 So when Feldman began his project o f selling bagels Garden. to see it again or to see more of own office. never the optional ones. and the two lower I have a lot of family that lives down there. onto the water. The courage to talk to a guy who 1 saw at a party last floors were for people who worked in sales and diversity down there. and tour and she was enjoying it and she was. probably Tokyo. I think it has a lot of historical. And the reason being late . First.. The Garden that we have now is the new City.. This seems to be because holidays with my friends and I’ve h ad . So it’s definitely one city I would love to never asked her much about her own life. too? back there to see. and I wanted to get a nice tan the weather is a really important factor. 5 My biggest regret is how I spent my time in college. I really enjoyed that. so 1 decided to go to The bagel data also suggest that your mood.. And its not uncom mon for people to fiancee. it’s a high. I was only a child. The janitors came because now that I have friends there. 1 really liked him .. o r the average into work one m orning and they found rubbish a ... So that was. Now I’m then the office is more honest... it’s just gorgeous out there. and the following morning. it’s a fast-paced summer. but I also spent most of my time either three years ago. they had a Rachel 1 would really actually like to visit Rio. where they cleaned up a sense o f other cultures. I went to when I was 17 years. but I wish she had lived longer honest they are. now wife . but he had to accept it. And I was fortunate to be able to do about great writers. I was interested in. the weather could have person.1 was working didn’t improve. that rate wasn’t representative G rah am There is. but I’ve always that goes down at a rather steep angle into the river. and so everyone ways . For example.probably Garden for years undetected.. that would we would have gotten along well. I was there projected that at least 95 percent of the people would freaking out. people are less honest. discovering ail about her through reading her old higher the position people are promoted to.... and then. but she was in Russia. you know. uh. There’s a funny story about it would be great. the baskets Well. and people wonderful time. and to listen to people who on her facc this look of what appeared to me to be that with my then girlfriend. In those days not many people more honest than big ones. Interview er W hat city would you most like to visit? he considered that a company was “honest” if over 90 And. In his office. now wife . how there are tens of thousands o f sports spectators. In terv iew er W hat city would you most like to visit? during the Russian Revolution. he would leave a note.. But Christmas and was absolutely gorgeous. OK. and there are so many things I would love Thanksgiving are holidays when people often feel very been better because it rains all the time. that time to read anything. to learn And at that point I turned around and I could see back there.. and he offered me a job in stealing a bagel isn’t a crime . I really wanted to do it. and I listened to a lot go into the river. and she knew all The other thing Feldman believes affects how C h ristin a I would love to go to Prague just because kinds of interesting people at the time: painters. And in terms of studying. which was something instance that occurred. percent of the people paid. it became clear that she didn’t know Interview er W hat city would you most like to visit? W hen Paul Feldman started his business. he would simply stop selling there. She died when I was 12.. I kind of felt like pay for their bagels. And when they tore down the old didn’t want me to leave home and go and work in pay? Well. Well.. first of all. I had the most better. The top and the skirt I wore the next day are also affected by public holidays. value I left all my essays until the last minute and kept obviously enjoying this birthday present from her and I think it would be very cool to see. and these. I think it was two or be Cambridge. I wish I'd tried. that was too long and I got unusually cold or rainy. in Spain as an electrician for the Germ an car Interestingly. I don’t know.. to regretted not taking more advantage of those four And when you’re on the ramp there is that kind of be a little cliche.he’s engaged to another woman! tell us about? for that is. but in different 6 19^ Interview er What’s your favorite city in the for the contest were really skimpy.. but it was to have been able to talk to her about. she was perfectly sized city. The people were awesome.. the city discovered that she must have been a fascinating always look forward to them. and they downtown sports arena where the Celtics reign Rachel My favorite city in the world is New York knew him personally and probably liked him.back then really knew what they were talking about.. Petersburg.3 > sort of giving them a warning. Now I'm excited glee. of bagels to a company that was on three floors: the beautiful. these janitors are the way that I worked. so I stayed under the lamp about 20 weather is unusually good.. especially the children. service.. u h . So because that was the payment rate that he got in his city. favorite city in the world.. I mean.she and I got to go back there working and have small children.. it’s beautiful. he this tour was an amphibious tour and she was really T im U h . He made this forecast presumably In terv iew er Do you tell any funny stories about the I had an opportunity to see it and wasn’t able to.. in the m ind of an office worker. you know.I read what I had not a youngster. surprise birthday for their mother. are more worried about being dishonest . I just did the bare m inim um . Paris. it would be a different experience of getting rate. it's just gorgeous. the ones that didn't Boston Garden. This Ringling Brothers Barnum and Bailey Circus years have opened doors for me. I would guess Interview er W hat city would you most like to visit? to. ever been to one of these sports arenas. and administration. it shows that smaller offices are building to replace it with the new Garden.it depends on which public holiday. contest. After a while. T im Oh. more people pay. Polish. in other offices. .. And people burned. I was a little bit pale. for a day. affects how honest you are.. A m an from the engineering he leaves to collect the cash have hardly ever been weeks. it’s different.. funny I mean. but it certainly wasn’t the get a passenger on board who is not aware that the Interview er What’s your favorite city in the world? m ost im portant thing in my life. Well. you can’t complain. the following morning. And. was shrieking her brains out! And when we got was pretty neat. I Christmas and Thanksgiving. he had to accept less. but my parents of offices that were not honest. television sweeping every inch of the arena and have much time. U h . Massachusetts. and it’s like a socializing or sleeping. . because I think it's of music. Obviously. in St. keeps showing up. she and spent about ten days an d . a tanning salon the day before the contest. So their bad m ood makes them a lot o f fun. He reached this conclusion because Juan My favorite city in the world would have to so that I could have talked to her about those times over several years he’d been delivering three baskets be Miami. I’m absolutely positive Interview er Have you had any interesting Juan City anywhere in the world. But * 7. most people paid probably just Boston Garden . W hen the never once was that monkey ever detected! Can you really quickly.he was very good. U h. I would’ve.

John. No one complains around France. it was decided to keep language every year? the word appendectomy and appendicitis out of .that’s the fruit.. something like “Here you are. one o f the recent your own words? Sally This is my favorite one. well. you don’t have these words in.. and we’ll look your own words? force of nature. because I like Spanish as well and they they hit the ball.it’s the word for M atandra An English word that is used in the Italian tempting oranges. In some cases it can be very fast.. to become prominent and why. it’s a technical term or Interview er Do you think it would be better to use eating a lot of it. which country. like. it’s got to go in pretty quickly if the term Interview er Are there any English words that are in 1790.all people use it now . one day. where 1 think the first Victoria Uh. “Well. so we try to make our come from the Latin word for orange.” Yes. Well. The man then exclaimed. Sally Yes. dictionary. and you know it’s important and that’s a term that used. really liked it. Sally? Interview er And how long does it usually take for a use your best judgm ent for what’s com m on enough Sally Hello. in this have to play softly. but it’s a nice story! Interview er Do you think it would be better to use Presenter Yes. used in your language? never seen before.. it is. who was the is a really positive one. You know. in general. music.” there are plenty of words like that. a sort of informal banking system taken up by many nationalities. describes that. even though this is that because English is cool. are a lot of French words that sound English. citrus aurentium. for a sort of. Really. So what with you?” So it’s very hard to predict what’s going about how large the language is or anything like are the three words you are going to tell us about that. and obviously. people closer. Could you give us an estimate being. And 1 think the best recent used in your language? tomatoes into the sauce and it became known as example is podcasting. into the language very quickly is google as a verb V ictoria No. the color came Jesse There’s no easy way to say exactly how long later . sauce was part o f the English diet . but at the same time you should keep Interview er Jesse Sheidlowcr is one of the Jesse O ne of the famous stories in the history main editors o f the Oxford English Dictionary. “hot found it. and it was also becoming popular something where you have a new invention and your own words? in the American colonies. Sally Well. new word to get into the dictionary? ketchup. we’ve given had been its stomach. because they are used sauce "ketchup..” which sounds very odd to the Presenter So is this true? words can be formed in English. But because of how Interview er Are there any English words that are through the forest when he found a tree that he had prominent Google is and how many people use it. a term from Arabic. brings nations. for that. but it doesn't tell you anything English language expert. no one will are honest. So. when they are new..” because it was a little bit easier for know then that as soon as there is a word coined everywhere in this world and why not in Poland? the English to pronounce. By 1740 the Jesse Typically.we just take them . which means. Volke It’s part of culture. everything to do with technology. two separate words and use them together in a particular way. worldwide. which refers to an informal have. The OED puts in around a thousand because he had appendicitis and had to have an Wednesday afternoon program about words and appendectomy. it can go in very quickly. uh. The name was originally tenez. It is tsiap. this English. thank you very Interview er Do you think it would be better to use uh.” look for information on the Internet .you wonder whether maybe these guys got to be Jesse It’s very hard to give an exact num ber for the the dictionary because these were thought to be executives because they were good at cheating! num ber of new words that enter the language in too technical. uh. up saying the Italian version of downloading. there was no other term. of the OED is that when the OED was first your own one. no.. Sally Davies.but they now had to call it “le tennis!” it’s a pity not to do the opposite.. “These fruits are naga ranga. you know. it’s very interesting that neither orange in was i t And we waited a very short am ount of time it's not French at all. but it’s one useful figure you can look at. as usual. the domain o f another language. which is which is formed from taking two words and using them together.” spelled K-E-hyphen-T-ST-A-P. people were still using the word tenez each time I miss that. uh. some Americans in New England mixed is important enough. Italian is the main Sally Well. But we have a lot of things like English nor naranja in Spanish or arancia in Italian before saying. I don’t “tomato ketchup. it will take for a new word to make it into the Interviewer Are there any English words Presenter OK. There is just no way to figure out tim e actually wrote to a consultant. For example. Interview er Are there also new words that come words and they are pronounced in the same way.a relatively recent term in sports.. no. . If you that are used in your language? Sally Well. And finally our last word is tennis. language.and tennis. so quickly.. well. Many years later.. tell us about orange. there were no competing parking. which is typically used to refer to. try to get this one. there are n o t. U m . And if the sport gained popularity worldwide and was there are new inventions and stuff like that. Then OED from foreign languages all the time. And I have with me. you know. "poison for Interview er How are new words formed? Jesse There are a num ber o f different ways that which is "scaricare. There are going to be words these words. I don’t think so. Well. which is a Japanese term. its popularity had spread Interview er Can you give us an example of a word “komputer. a life force or a strong much for those three words. our “Well.. which was very. and he said. K-I.. case. they have. new words every year. tomato ketchup is. which we don’t and eventually it took on this new spelling. you everything to do with the Internet. including the invent new words . I think.. an elephant was passing Google started in the late 1990s. let’s start with ketchup. and this was the term for it. this is clearly such a big thing words sound English. . which refers to the amount of time that a ball kicked or on a crusade to defend language in so much as.” example we have from that is 2003. there arc specific areas which arc just Presenter W hat do you mean? thrown stays in the air or that a person jumping stays in the air . we should. but they were saying it with the from other languages? Jesse There are a num ber of words that enter the have so many. My three words today are to be put in. Sally. One of the most com m on ways is “compounding.” or skateboard and things like that. say. All you can do is today. but there Presenter Well. for example. at the very earliest stages. but w e. I like the idea that there comes from. which sounded m ore like “tennis. Presenter That’s fascinating! Well. And that’s a num ber with their origins. I don’t know. or people pay attention to only because keep them out. but no one really pays ever use these. um . orange .. So you’re just shifting the tim e you’re Volke Too many. hamburger. “Oh. narangah. maybe computer. but no tomatoes. . words for computer English accent. we’re going with it. to Malaysia. a man came if you want to find out what som ething is.people were the dictionary very quickly.” Players used Another example is time-shift. the story of Feldman’s bagel business a given year. it makes u s. I must say. but it became so think there are a lot of English words. It’s the equivalent of chi in Chinese.. but the vast majority of customers stay around. when you have a word that enters dog” in Polish. asking about steal from him. to set off English speakers have always had their own special entries in the OED is the word hang time. Say. video recording or digitally Interview er Are there any English words that are to say “Tenez” when they hit the ball. but they are not going to be a part of the coronation o f King Edward had to be delayed 7-7 P resen ter Now it’s tim e for ou r regular the language. and it shows that M atandra 1 don’t think it’s necessary to . even though no one is watching them. apparently. the world because you say pianissimo when you from the French verb tenir.” that is.” "downloadare. when they o f how many new words come into the English were working the letter A. the elephant ate so searching for things on the Internet.uh. yes. it’s . no. like Sally Well. different places. meaning used in your language? something like “There. You can attention to. Presenter Poison for elephants? happened to have been coined very soon after you know. you know. in Poland By the early 18th century. It’s said that it comes from naga ranga. I think. You can be open to other languages 79 and cultures. there were no other descriptions.. very recent. tennis is a sport that first developed in domain in.and I think where people pay debts on behalf of other people in French . There is also an Another good example of a new word that came your own words? interesting story about where this word. It’s true that some people do which are really new words. terms. Hawala. which are going to professor o f medicine at Oxford. As a result. and that is where British explorers first that entered the dictionary very quickly? plenty o f words that are about cuisine. And the editor of the OED at the But. in the 1690s. too many.uh. We forget a the sport lost popularity in France and gained lot of German words and replace them by English popularity in England at the same time. And they renamed the that becomes very popular very quickly. but in Poland we say It was made from fish and spices. and we take all the English words. people looked at the OED and said. we don’t system o f u h . forward to next week’s program. meaning to use the Google search engine to arc words that you can understand in every which literally means “poison for elephants. And I think we should Interview er Are there any interesting stories about new words entering the dictionary? maintain that. Instead. It’s a car park and we call it “parking” and Sally Well. download.. itself. What’s wrong some meaning. also known as OED. they all come from the that it has to go in right away’’ Interview er Do you think it would be better to use ancient Sanskrit word narangah. English watching it.” where you take Italian ear. Then about 50 years later. and Internet to the same spot and noticed the remains of the google it. This tree was full of beautiful. which actually doesn’t make sense in Presenter So. hot dog.” But recording. “hamburger. and you M ateusz No. plenty of words like that. someone could argue that Internet is elephant with some orange trees growing from what actually Latin b u t. um. so it is American after all? ubiquitous.” so most people just go with elephants. many that he died. television shows that you can watch at a later time. the Chinese invented a sauce called “ke- have a term for something that is very im portant M ateusz Yes. Ki.” And then a few years later. These are too technical. that come in very briefly. way o f pronouncing foreign languages.

know. A Take your shoes off. 2 The present perfect simple emphasizes the completion of an action (= I’ve 6 when we say / ask how much / many we have done finished reading the book). B Yes.__________ connected in some way with the present. subject and the modal / auxiliary verb. However. second. Use the present perfect simple: 3 for continuous actions that have just finished (but that have present results). e.g. B So did I.g. have.. Use an affirmative tag A I went to a psychic yesterday. last time. B You will? That’s great! tag question after an affirmative statement. We’ve been living in an apartm ent for the last two months. be. 2 We haven’t called the doctor yet. did before the subject.. will you? Your wife can speak Portuguese.) to say that continuous for shorter. intonation. intonation. more tem porary actions. I know. etc. we expect somebody to agree with us. 3 Why d id n ’t you like the play? Isn’t this a beautiful place? What are you talking about? NOT About what arc you talking? 4 W hat are they talking about? W here is she from? We often use just the question word and the preposition. tenses. e.g. recently. something started in the past and is still true now. With other A I haven’t finished yet. 2 with already and yet. ? and for / since you can often use the present perfect 5 with How long? and for / since with non-action simple or continuous. She’s been out twice this week.. 4 to make “echo questions. e. etc. all day. Do you know. etc. e. 6 You won’t forget. In this case the tag question is said with rising Use so + auxiliary + subject to agree with an affirmative statement.g. « Tag questions can also be used to check I like dogs. B About what? OR What about? 6 Could you tell me w here this bus goes? W hen who / what / which. 2 I haven’t been sleeping well recently.. etc. add do / does or Don’t use do / did in the second part of the question. isn’t it? Use auxiliary verbs (do. like. 4 for finished actions (no time is specified) that are 2 I’ve read that book. Do you know where he lives? NOT Do you know where he docs live? We often use negative questions to show surprise or when You can use if or whether after Can you tell me. Can you tell me if! whether he’s at home? IB auxiliary verbs 1 A Do you speak Chinese? B Yes. I’ve been reading that book. is the subject of the question. Can you tell me where it is? NOT Can yott tcll me where is it? With the simple present and simple past. i. 2 for repeated actions.. 5 I’ve known her since I was a child. 1 We’ve lived / We’ve been living in this town since 1980. 4 All the guests have arrived. A You didn’t lock the door! B I d id lock it. It’s been raining on and off all day. isn’t she? 3 with so and neither to say that something is the same.. 2 to avoid repeating the main verb / verb phrase. we often prefer the present perfect verbs (= verbs not usually used in the continuous form. W ith the simple present and simple past.g. etc. To make questions with modal verbs and with tenses Where does she live? (direct) Could you tell me where she lives? (indirect) where there is an auxiliary verb (be. 1 with How long? and for / since with action verbs to say that an action started 6 How m any of his books have you read? in the past and is still happening now. e. I promise.. e. but Anna isn’t. 3 It’s the best book I’ve ever read. som ething you think is true. the preposition often comes at 2 W here do you live? D id you go out last night? the end of the question.g. 5 W ho lives in this house? How many people came to the party? A I’m thinking. Jim’s coming. I do. Use neither (or nor) + auxiliary + subject to agree with a negative statement.. I just spoke to her. 1 to talk about past experiences when you don’t say present perfect simple or continuous? when something happened.n 1A question formation 1 C an you drive? Why are you crying? If a verb is followed by a preposition. invert the In indirect questions the order is subject + verb. have. .g. Use the present perfect continuous: She’s had the job for six months. It’s the first time we’ve done this. She’s a painter. 1 How long have you been feeling like this? Have you ever broken your leg? I’ve been w orking here for two months..g. • Tag questions are often used simply to ask A Silvia isn’t coming. B You did? question after a negative statement and a negative A I’ll make the dinner. B She is coming. I’ve been w orking in the garden. B N either have I.): In this case the tag question is said with falling 1 in short answers. continuation of an action (= I haven’t finished reading the book). e. e.” to show interest. 3 I’ve been shopping all morning. The present perfect continuous emphasizes the or how often we have done something up to now.e. stress the auxiliary verb. the voice goes down. but my husband doesn’t. He’s a doctor and so is his wife. 5 to show emphasis in an affirmative sentence. instead of answering just Yes / No. don’t Do you know if he’s coming? use do I did. e. as in a regular Yes / No question. 3 with superlatives and thefirst. but my husband doesn’t (like dogs).g. 2 I like dogs. I’ve already finished my lunch.. etc. etc. 1C present perfect (simple and continuous) present perfect simple: have / has + past participle present perfect continuous: have / has + been + verb + -ing 1 I’ve been to Brazil.. must.. add A I loved the movie. e. another person to agree with you. have.). can’t she? It’s a nice day. They’re filthy. 6 to make tag questions. do / does / did before the main verb. especially with a time expression. I’m exhausted.g. Who wrote this? NOT Who did write this? Use indirect questions when you want to ask a question in a more polite way.) or modal verbs (can. 1 W ith How long.. Fairly well..

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ia
a O rder the words to make questions. b Complete the questions.
friend known long best have How you your W here did you go on vacation last year? (you / go)
How long have you known your best friend? 1 How o ften____________ exercise? (you / do)
1 you messages send ever text Do 2 W h o ____________ Crime and Punishment? (write)
2 party was a time you to the When last went 3 Could you tell me how m uch___________ ? (this book / cost)
4 W h at____________ at the end of the movie? (happen)
3 if Could bank here a you me near tell is there
5 ___________ your trip to Peru last summer? (you / enjoy)
4 dinner usually Who the cooks
6 What kind of m usic___________ ? (Tim / usually listen to)
5 shopping do going Who like you with
7 W h o ____________ Mia’s backpack? (steal)
6 on don’t weekends you What doing like
8 Do you know w h e n ___________ ? (the swimming pool / open)
7 car to would What you kind likebuy of 9 W here___________ your boyfriend tonight? (you / meet)
8 you time concert know ends Do what the 10 Can you remember w here___________ ? (she / live)

IB
a Complete the dialogues with an auxiliary. b C om plete the conversation with auxiliary verbs.
A You didn’t remember to buy coffee. B I _ d id . It’s on the shelf. A You’re Marco’s sister, aren’t you?
1 AIt’s cold today,____________ it? B Yes, it’s freezing. B Yes, I 1
2 A So you didn’t go to the meeting? A It’s a great rlnh, 2 it?
B I ------------------ go to the meeting, but I left early. B Yes, i t 3 . But I don’t like the music much.
3 A What did you think of the movie? A You 4 _ ? I love it!
B Hiro liked it, but I _____________I thought it was awful. B Really?5 you been here before?
4 A I wouldn’t like to be famous. B N either___________ A No, I 6
5 A Claudia doesn’t like me. B N either7 I.
B She___________ like you. She thinks you’re very nice. A So you 8 go out much, then?
6 A Sarah had a baby. B Well, I 9 go out, but T 1° go to
B S h e___________ ? I didn’t know she was pregnant! clubs very often.
7 AWill your boyfriend be at the party? A Oh, I ii . I love clnhhing.
B No, h e ____________ He’s away this week. B I’d like something to drink.
8 A I can’t come tonight. A So 12 I. Let’s go to the bar.
B You___________ ? Why not?

1C
a Circle the correct form o f the verb. Put a check (✓ ) next to b C om plete the sentences with the present perfect
the sentence if both form s are correct. sim ple or continuous.
Have you ever (fried) / been trying caviar? l ’ve_bought a new car. Do you like it? (buy)
1 She’s lived / She’s been living here for years. 1 W e____________ Jack and Ann for years, (know)
2 Your boss has called / has been calling three times this morning! 2 You look hot____________ ? (you / run)
3 The kids are exhausted because they’ve played / they’ve been playing 3 R ose______ her homework, so she can’t go
outside all day. out. (not do)
4 He hasn’t seen / He hasn’t been seeing the new James Bond movie yet. 4 Did you know that _? They live in
5 I’ve never met / I ’ve never been meeting his wife. Have you? Boston now. (they / move)
6 We’ve studied / We’ve been studying English all our lives. 5 How long. together? Five months?
7 I’ve cleaned up / I ’ve been cleaning up the garage all afternoon. (Laura and Adam / go out)
I’m nearly finished. 6 I ____________ time to cook dinner. Why don’t
8 We’ve already had / We’ve already been having breakfast. we get a pizza? (not have)
9 How long have you had / have you been having your car? 7 W e____________ for hours. I think we’re lost.
10 The train has left / has been leaving the station. The next one (drive)
leaves in an hour. 8 my cookies? There are only a few
left! (you / eat)

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2 ^
2A adjectives as nouns, adjective order specific groups of people
nationalities The poor are getting poorer and the rich are getting richer.
1 The English are famous for drinking tea. The Dutch make The government should create more jobs for the unemployed.
wonderful cheeses. The Chinese invented paper.
• You can use the + some adjectives to talk about specific groups
2 The Argentinians invented the tango. The Greeks are very outgoing.
in society, e.g., the young, the blind, the homeless, the old, the
3 The Turks drink a lot of coffee. The Poles play a lot of basketball. elderly, the sick. These expressions are always plural.
1 You can use the with the nationality adjectives that end in -sh, -ch, one, ones________________________________________
-ss, or -ese. Don’t add s to these words or use them without the. A W hich one would you like? B T he red one, please.
2 Nationality words that end in -an and a few others, e.g., Greek Two ice creams, please. Big ones.
and Thai, are both adjectives and nouns. To talk about the people
from that country use a plural noun ending in -s. • When we don’t want to repeat a noun after an adjective
3 Some nationalities have a special noun for the people. The noun because it is already clear what we are talking about, we
is different from the adjective, e.g., Polish = adjective, Pole = noun. use the adjective + one (singular) or + ones (plural).
To talk about the people you can either use the + adjective or the adjective order
+ plural noun, e.g., the Polish or the Poles.
They live in a charm ing old house near the lake.
A With any nationality, you can also use the adjective + people, She has long black hair.
e.g., Korean people. I bought a beautiful Italian leather belt.
A To talk about one person from a country, you can’t use • You can put more than one adjective before a noun (often
a I an + adjective alone: two and occasionally three). These adjectives go in a
1 a Japanese man / woman / person, an Englishman / Englishwoman particular order, e.g., NOT a n -old-charming house.
I English person, NOT a Japanese, an English, etc. • O pinion adjectives, e.g., beautiful, nice, charming, usually go
2 but: an Italian, a Greek, a Peruvian, etc. (These are nouns.) before fact adjectives, e.g., blue, old, round.
3 a Turk, a Pole, etc. (These are nouns.) • If there is more than one fact adjective, they go in this order:
size age shape / style color / pattern nationality material noun
big new long pink, striped Italian silk scarf

2B narrative tenses: simple past, past continuous, past perfect, past perfect continuous
narrative tenses past perfect simple
1 We arrived at the airport and checked in. or continuous?
2 We were having d in n e r when the plane hit some turbulence. She was crying because
3 When we arrived at the airport, we suddenly realized that we had left one of the suitcases in the taxi. she’d been reading a
4 We’d been flying for about two hours when the captain told us to fasten our seat belts very sad book.
because we were flying into some very bad weather._________________________________________ She didn’t want to see the
1 Use the simple past to talk about consecutive actions in the past, i.e., for the main events in a story. movie because she’d read
2 Use the past continuous (was / were + verb + -ing) to describe a longer continuous past action that the book.
was in progress when another action happened. The past perfect continuous
3 Use the past perfect (had + past participle) to talk about the “earlier past,” i.e., things that emphasizes the continuation
happened before the main event(s). of an activity. The past
4 Use the past perfect continuous (had been + verb + -ing) to talk about a longer continuous action perfect simple emphasizes
that was going on before the m ain events happened. Non-action verbs (e.g., know, like, have) are not the completion of an activity.
generally used in the past continuous.

2C adverbs and adverbial phrases
1 I don’t understand you when you speak quickly. The driver was seriously injured. 4 Adverbs of degree (which describe how much
something is done or modify an adjective).
2 1 never have breakfast. He’s always late.
• extremely, incredibly, very, etc. are used with
3 They’ll be here soon. It rained all day yesterday.
adjectives and adverbs and go before them.
4 I’m nearly finished. We’re incredibly tired. He works a lot.
• much and a lot are often used with verbs and go
5 Unfortunately, we arrived half an hour late. Ideally, we should leave at 10:00.
after the verb or verb phrase.
• Adverbs can describe an action (He walked slowly) or modify adjectives or other • a little / a little bit can be used with adjectives or
adverbs (It’s incredibly expensive; He works very hard). They can either be one verbs, e.g., I'm a little tired. She sleeps a little bit in
word (often) or a phrase (once a week). the afternoon.
1 Adverbs of manner (how somebody does something) usually go after the verb or 5 Comment adverbs (which give the speaker’s
phrase. However, with passive verbs they usually go in mid-position (before the opinion) usually go at the beginning of a sentence
main verb but after an auxiliary verb). or clause. Other usual comment adjectives are
2 Adverbs of frequency generally go before the main verb but after the verb to be. luckily, clearly, obviously, apparently, etc.

A sometimes / usually / occasionally can go at the beginning of a sentence, too. A Most other adverbs go in mid-position,
e.g., She didn't even say good-bye. You just
3 Adverbs of time usually go at the end of a sentence or clause.
have to talk to me.
134

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2A
Rewrite the underlined phrase using the + an adjective. b Write the adjectives in parentheses in the right place,
The people who live in Vietnam like to eat spicy food, the Vietnamese a big parking lot (empty) a big empty parking lot
1 The people from the Netherlands are very good at languages. 1 an attractive man (young)
2 The people who had injuries were taken to the hospital. 2 dirty shoes (old)
3 The system of reading for people who can’t see is called Braille. 3 a leather jacket (purple / stylish)
4 The people from China have a fascinating history. 4 a tall woman (thin)
5 A nurse’s job is to take care of the people who aren’t well. 5 a sandy beach (long)
6 I think the people from Switzerland are very punctual. 6 a new floor (beautiful / wooden)
7 a stylish suit (Italian)
7 The worst season for people without a home is winter.
8 a romantic cafe (French / little)
8 There is a discount for students and people without a iob.
9 an old dog (black / friendly)____________________

2B
a P ut the verb in parentheses in the past perfect simple b Circle the correct verb form.
(had done) or past perfect continuous (had been doing).
My British friends, Meg and Jack McGowan (got)/
If you th in k b oth are possible, use the continuous form.
were getting a nasty surprise when they 'had checked
His English was very good. H ctf been studying it for five in / were checking in at Heathrow Airport yesterday
years, (study) with their baby Sam. They 2had won / were winning
1 My feet were aching. W e_______________ in line for hours. three free plane tickets to Rome in a contest, and they
(stand) 3looked forward to / had been looking forward to their
2 She went to the police because som eone_______________ her trip for months. But, unfortunately, they 4had been
bag. (steal) forgetting I had forgotten to get a passport for their
3 The streets were wet. I t _______________ all morning, (rain) son, and so Sam couldn’t fly. Luckily, they >had arrived
/ were arriving very early for their flight so they still
She got to work late because s h e . an accident
had time to do something about it. They bhad run /
on the way. (have)
ran to the police station in the airport to apply for an
5 I almost didn’t recognize him. H e ____ a lot since emergency passport. Meg 7was going / went with Sam
I last saw him. (change) to the photo booth while Jack ^had filled out / was
6 They were very red. T hey___________ all morning, but filling out the forms. The passport was ready in an
th e y _______________ any sunscreen, (sunbathe, not put on) hour, so they 9hurried / were hurrying back to check-in
7 I could see from their faces that they________________(argue) and finally l0caught / had caught their flight.
8 Jess had a bandage on her arm. She_______________ off her
bike the day before, (fall)

2C
a U nderline the adverb(s) or adverbial phrase(s) and correct b Put the adverbs in parentheses in the usual position in
the sentences that are wrong. these sentences.
We’re going to be unfortunately late. X Unfortunately, we’re Sadly very
f l don’t speak^ood English, (sadly, very)
going to be late.
We rarely go to bed before 11:30. 1 The building was damaged in the fire, (badly, last week)
2 We need to do something, (obviously, quickly)
1 She likes very much the theater. 3 Ben is at his friend’s house, (often, in the evening)
2 Dave was late for work yesterday. 4 She walked out and didn’t say good-bye. (just, even)
3 Immediately the ambulance arrived. 5 He drives fast, (always, extremely)
4 They go usually jogging after work. 6 She danced at the ballet, (beautifully, last night)
5 I was extremely tired last night. 7 She wasn’t injured when she fell, (luckily, seriously)
6 They won easily the game because they played so well. 8 He broke his leg when he was skiing, (apparently,
7 I forgot your birthday almost. nearly)
8 We luckily had taken an umbrella. 9 My father sleeps in the afternoon, (usually, a little)
9 She always eats healthily
10 He’s been apparently fired from his job.

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believed. it is said t h a t h e is thought to etc. base form You can be fined for parking at a bus stop. the passive (all forms) simple present Murderers are usually sentenced to life imprisonment. is not mentioned. past perfect We saw that one o f the windows had been broken.. before. etc. use by. To talk about som ething that is always true or always happens as a result of something else. If I haven’t called by 8:00. and in case.. + that + clause.. like the present continuous. or in two weeks / months. or decided. People think that prices will go up. (i. At this time next week.. present perfect) and any future form (will. If you’re not going. believed. you have to exercise every day. first conditional future time clauses If the photos are good. It is said th a t the company may close. = I won’t take one if it’s not cold. etc.g. 1 You can use It is said... If your muscles ache every day. 3B future perfect and future continuous future perfect: will have + past participle future continuous: will be + verb + -ing I’ll have finished the article by Friday. the information sound more impersonal. so I’ll e-mail it to you then. e. It makes People say the man is in his forties. I’m not going to go either. you are probably getting too much exercise. = I’ll take a jacket because it might be cold later on. report. saying who or what does / did the action.. present continuous. to have been). gerund He paid a fine to avoid being sent to jail. etc. e. after. You can also use the present continuous or present perfect in either clause. as soon as. They think he robbed a bank. He is believed to have left the country. etc. simple present. I’ll have finished in an hour if you don’t I’ll be ready as soon as I’ve taken a shower. T hey’ll have built the new terminal in six months. It is th o u g h t th a t prices will go up. We’re not leaving until the rain stops. present continuous.. or present perfect. use if + simple present. use a present tense after time or condition • You can use any present tense in the if clause expressions. • We use in case when we do something in order to be ready for future going to. to talk about things that are already planned • By + a time expression = at the latest. e. We’ll probably be watching the game when you arrive.. reports and on TV with the verbs know. in most passive sentences the agent future The prisoner will be released next month. he is thought to .g. Prison sentences are decided byjudges.. and think. I'll be going to the supermarket later. when. . unless. etc.g.3 \ 3A passive (all forms). 3C conditionals and future time clauses (with all present and future forms) zero conditional If you w ant to stay in shape. 2 You can use He. expect. active passive • This formal structure is used especially in news 1 They say that the company may close. tell. the subject of the clause) + is said.g. Use the passive when you want to talk about present continuous The trial is being held right now. Don’t call between 7:00 and 8:00. understand. without me. say. until.e. If you haven’t been to Rio. you haven’t lived. simple past Jim was arrested last month. or present tense. A We sometimes use the future continuous. to be) or perfect infinitive (e. an action. I’ll take a jacket if it’s cold. • Use the future perfect to say som ething will be finished or • Use the future continuous to say that an action will be completed before a certain tim e in the future. He is th o u g h t to have robbed a bank. and the simple present in the other clause. The man. The verdict is going to be given tomorrow. future perfect.. I’ll take a jacket in case it’s cold. e. + infinitive (e.g. • When you are talking about the future. The m an is said to be in his forties. it is said th a t. etc. or future continuous) situations / problems.g.. in progress at a certain tim e in the future. If you also want to mention the person or past continuous The theater was being rebuilt when it was set on fire. Use any (simple present. However. but you are not so interested in present perfect My car has been stolen. sta rt dinner I’m not going to work overtime unless I get paid. disturb me.. Compare the use of if and in case: or an imperative in the other clause. infinitive They hoped to be acquitted of murder. The police believe he has left the country. tiling that did the action (the agent). Take your umbrella in case it rains. I’ll send them to you. • This tense is frequently used with the time expressions by Saturday / March / 2030. I’ll be lying on the beach. We’ll be having dinner then.

The robber . The tria l. without a tickct. she'll needs her. R ephrase the sentences to m ake them m ore formal... My handbag . The police can arrest you for drunk driving. G ram m ar B ank 3A Rewrite the sentences in the passive (w ithout by .1 will arrive at the theater at 7:15.. The murderer is thought to be a woman. The muggers . 1 Police closed off the street after the accident. B What do you mean? At 10:00 they_______________ to Taipei....400. And I save $200 a month. The police caught the burglar immediately. Rob (will pass) / has passed the after as seo n a s before if in case (x2) unless until when exam if he studies enough... 1 He’s going to pack his suitcase___________ he goes to bed. 1 If I ’m not feeling / 1 won’t be feeling better I’ll call y o u as soon I get back from my trip. 2 People say the muggers are very dangerous.. I t . CiSUQfflV MultiROM www. drive (finish) powered cars or something. The last payment is in November. I t . week if his children are still sick. 3B Complete the sentences using the future perfect or b C om plete the dialogue w ith verbs in the future future continuous. Somebody has stolen my handbag.oup. start the meeting without me. house by the first of the year. The house 5 Lawyers expect that the trial will last three weeks. They say the number of Our meeting starts at 2:00 and finishes at 3:30. well have sold / we’ve sold our 6 ___________ I’m late tomorrow. (have) to the cities looking for work Big cities 6_ grow Sam is still paying for his car. wearing a seat belt in your car. The conductor fined them for traveling They .com/elVamericanenglishfile/4 137 .. they die / will have died. It takes an hour to drive to work.. so even more people 5_ move a meeting. work I leave home at 7:30.... remember. The burglar. Don’t worry. I t. so we 9______________ around in solar. they say we’ll be having much higher have temperatures here in Canada.. 1 Police believe the burglar is a local man. I’m going to call the doctor. The burglar was caught immediately.. A meeting . transportation. Someone 8______________ a new method of invent By the end of May they_______________ their exams.. 7 Pat will have packed some sandwiches____________ we get hungry..).. 4 You can be fined if you aren't wearing / won’t be 4 I’m meeting an old frien d ____________ I go to Caracas... 3 Police think the robber entered through an open window. as high as 90°F. They had sold the house five years earlier. which is very different... 5 I’ll call y o u ____________ I find out my results. Miranda thinks someone was following Miranda thinks she 4 Police say the murderer has disappeared. b Com plete the sentence with an expression from the list. By December h e _______________ for his car.. The murderer . 3C a Circle the correct form. And islands like the Maldives3_______________ by 2150 disappear At 8:00 tomorrow I to work. give /she will be giving the baby a bath. 5 If we’re lucky. (drive) because of the rise in the sea level... 3 Sophie will be leaving work early tom orrow ___________ her boss 3 Don’t call Carla now. 6 If plants aren’t watered. My house . People think the murderer is a woman.. even bigger by then. storms and tsunamis 4_______________ by the middle of double You can’t call me at 2:30 because w e______________ the century too. (pay) Gas 7_______________ by then anyway. we 1______________ on the beach. so nobody will run out Their last exam is on May 31st. You . we not lie By the end of this year.. continuous or future perfect.. I t . It is thought that the murderer is a woman.. (fly) A Well. If it’s eight o’clock. I t . 1 The plane to Taipei takes off at 9:00 and lands at 10:30. The movie starts at 7:00. (save) 2_______________ in that heat. 8 They’ll be playing in the p a rk ___________ it gets dark. I $2. tomorrow. the movie will have started (start) the 22nd century. her last night. have a car... Can you imagine the traffic? B I don’t think theie will l>e a problem with the traffic. The stre e t. A It looks like the weather is going to be different in When I arrive at the theater. 2 Adam won't be going / doesn’t go to work next 2 They’re leaving early____________ there’s a lot of traffic... They’ll hold a meeting tomorrow. The painters are painting my house.

g.g. It sounds as if it’s raining. You can use could have or might have if a hypothetical situation in the past has a present / instead of would have in the other clause.g. It was too dark. That smells good! These jeans don’t feel comfortable. not coffee. I could concentrate better. It smells as if something’s burning. 2 If you weren’t making so much noise... 3 Use look. e. 3 If I were you. Compare the two conditionals: 1 We use third conditional sentences to talk about a hypothetical past 1 = You don’t study enough. e. 4C verbs of the senses look I feel / smell / sound / taste______________________________________________________ 1 She looks tired. 4B past modals must / might / couldn’t. • Use must / may / might I couldn’t / can’t + have + past participle to make .g. are often used to give advice. + as if + clause. etc. 2 You can also use the past perfect continuous in the if clause. etc. so you failed..g. feel. You can also use can’t have.. You need to study more. should have is more 2 Use might / may have when you think it’s possible that something happened common. + have + past participle______________________ should + have + past participle________ 1 I must have passed the exam. e. 2 He looks like his father. I could concentrate better. if he A We sometimes mix second and third conditionals hadn’t been wearing a helmet.g. or was true. • Use should + have + past participle to say They couldn’t have seen us. you earlier. You can use ought to have as an alternative deductions or speculate about past actions. + adjective. that she was coming. future consequence. I’d make Jimmy wear a helmet when he’s cycling. + like + noun.” e. 1 Use look. the exam. you would probably 2 He would have died if he hadn’t been wearing a helmet. We shouldn’t He still hasn’t arrived. e. have turned left at the traffic light. This tastes like tea. 4A unreal conditionals second conditional sentences: if + simple past. would / wouldn’t + base form 1 If there were a fire in this hotel. etc. e. 2 Use look. If they had known you were coming. I wouldn’t live in the country if I didn’t have a car. he would know what to do. He wouldn't be so relaxed if he hadn’t finished his exams. However. you would have done better on the test. 2 Somebody might have stolen your wallet when you were getting off the train. 138 . You can also use could have with this meaning. 3 Use couldn’t have when you are almost sure something didn’t happen or that it is impossible. 1 Use second conditional sentences to talk about hypothetical or improbable situations in the present or future.. I ought to have told 1 Use must have when you are almost sure that something happened or was true. If you weren’t making so much noise. It sounds like / as though it’s raining. This material feels like silk. 3 She looks as if she’s been crying. It’s my fault. 2 In the if clause you can also use the past continuous. I don’tfeel like going out = I don’t want to go out.. It’s only ten o’clock. 3 With the verb be. They could have stolen your wallet when you were getting off the train. feel. use were for all persons in the if clause. it would be very difficult to escape.. I might not have given him the right directions.feel. I’m sure I got all the answers right. especially in speaking. I wouldn’t have been late if I hadn’t overslept. 3 They couldn’t have gone to bed yet. they might have stayed longer. You were there when the robbery happened. 2 = You didn’t study enough... third conditional sentences: if+ past perfect. to should have. would / wouldn’t have second or third conditional? + past participle 1 If you studied more. you would probably pass 1 If you had studied more. If he were here. Conditionals beginning If I were you.g. A feel like can also mean “want / would like. e. etc.. that somebody didn’t do the right thing. • You can use like or as though instead of as if. have passed the exam.g. 2 If you had studied more. We’re going the wrong way. I should have told you earlier You must have seen something. situation and its consequence. In the other clause you can use could or might instead of would. e.

(lend) If Eva didn’t drink so much coffee. She’s always like that.uke hadn’t missed the train . 6 I’m sure Lucy bought a new car.. A Amanda was rude to everyone at my party. He was only off for one day. a Rewrite the b old sentence sentence with must / might (not) / couldn’t + have + verb. 5 Are you OK? You sound / sound as if you’ve got a cold. 2 A Tom told me his phone number. He was late for the interview. 1 You’re so pale! You look / look as if you’ve seen a ghost! 2 Those boys look ■ B completely 2 What’s for dinner? It smells / smells like delicious! out of tune. MultiROM www.oup. boyfriend. 1 That group sounds like B A her mother.. 1 I ____________ you a present if I’d known it was your birthday. He’s a little bit deaf. but I forgot it. Does that mean you got the job? 7 Your new jacket feels ■ G too young to be driving 8 Your new bag feels / feels like real leather. with the flu. 5 Joe wouldn’t have crashed if h e ____________ so fast.. their car. There’s so much traffic. 5 He looks as if ■ E really sweet. 8 You____________ the news if you’d been watching TV. If h e . he would have played. you wouldn’t have been so tired. a C om plete w ith an appropriate form o f the verb in parentheses. Did you need three pairs? 8 They didn’t come to our party. 7 You look / look like really happy. B H e______________ by car. The train is much faster. (buy) If I.. G ram m ar B ank 4A b C om plete with a second or third conditional. Maybe she had an argument with her B You_______________ some Korean before you went. neighbors were like. B You______________ so many shoes.. 10 If s h e ____________ more sociable. break down. 3 I ____________ you some money if I had any.. she’d have more friends. 4C a Circle the correct form. 7 If you’d watered the plants. 5 Maybe John didn’t hear you. I would have seen you. 6 Can you put the heat on? It feels /feels like really cold in here. 4 That guitar sounds ■ D someone has been 4 Have you ever tried frogs’ legs? I’ve heard that they taste like / smoking in here. (live) 4 Maya didn’t buy the jacket. the invitation. It tastes / tastes like a little strange. 9 Ugh! It smells as if ■ I roses. She didn’t have enough money. I’d keep it. 1 A We couldn’t understand anybody in Seoul. they_____________(not die) Maya would have bought the jacket i f . If I’d waited another minute.com/elVamericanenglishfile/4 139 . please? It smells / smells as if someone 10 Your perfume smells like ■ J it’s going to is having a barbecue. 9 Let’s throw this milk away. That sounds / sounds like 3 She looks like ■ C very soft. a Mercedes! A I don’t have any money left after going shopping yesterday. 4 If I ___________ money on the street. 2 Holly’s crying. He won’t get the job. 6 We would have a dog if w e____________ in the country.. I saw her driving B You_______________ her. B You______________ it down. I must have left my umbrella at home. hadn’t broken his leg. 1 I’m sure Ben got my e-mail. 8 This apple tastes ■ H it’s been overcooked. She doesn’t sleep well at night.. 3 I think John and Megan have arrived. 3 I’m sure Sam and Ginny didn’t get lost. They had a map. I didn’t wait another minute. (find) 3 It started snowing.. 6 Your car sounds as if ■ F the-Beatles. 11 This rice tastes as if ■ K he just ran a marathon... She was in bed 3 A Rob was late because there was so much traffic. Maybe they didn’t receive A You look really tired.... Your boyfriend looks /(looks like) a football player.. We didn’t reach the top of the mountain. taste as if chicken. (not drive) If it hadn’t started snowing. 10 Can you close the window. I don’t have it now. I didn’t see you. (be) If Matt spoke Chinese fluently.. 9 They wouldn’t have bought the house if th ey ____________ what the I’d drive to work i f . (hear) 5 I don’t drive to work. B I know. buy eat go (x2) invite learn write I’m sure I left my umbrella at home. 4B b R espond to the first sentence using should / shouldn’t have + a verb in the list. 7 I’m sure Alex wasn’t very sick. b M atch the two halves o f the sentence. 4 You saw Ellie yesterday? Thai’s impossible. A Sue is in bed with a stomachache. B She shouldn’t have eaten so much chocolate cake. (go) 2 Eva drinks too much coffee. 2 If you____________ to bed earlier. I _______________ to bed earlier. 1 sent it yesterday. (know) 6 Matt doesn’t speak Chinese fluendy. (not break) Luke missed the train.

stop. tired all the time. W hen I lived in Mexico as a child. could. enjoy. keep on. tend. the infinitive. e. 1 Use be used to + gerund to talk about a new You can also use would to refer to repeated actions in the past: situation that is now familiar or less strange.g.. e. had better. if something works. 4 You need to clean the car.g. 3 It might rain tonight. persuade insist on To report what other people have said. It is more A Some verbs can be followed by either the gerund or the infinitive with com mon in the negative. something and you (won’t) forget it. Compare: do something. get used to used to / didn’t use to + base form be used to / get used to + gerund 1 used to drink five cups of coffee a day. for example: 3 Try + infinitive = make an effort to do Start / begin + gerund is slightly more common when we talk about a something. offer.g. use usually + B Don’t worry. mind. She regretted not going to the party. threaten. He wouldn't have a-beard: • You can’t use the base form after be used to / get used to. (Not) forget + gerund = you did M y boss makes us work hard. involve. 1 Remember + infinitive = you remember first. 3 I tried to open the window. and after then you do something. 3 Use the base form after modal verbs and similar expressions.. might. She started / began singing when she was five. A used to doesn’t exist in the present tense. In school we were m ade to wear a uniform. ought to. decide. be used to. I’ll never forget seeing the Taj Mahal.. I rem em ber going to Peru as a child. finish. have to. He didn’t use to have a beard. promise. NOT i 5C reporting verbs structures after reporting verbs After specific reporting verbs. learn. When I lived in Mexico as a child. quit. then you remember it. = you do something. appear. infinitive with a change of meaning. would rather. avoid. . the infinitive. Hiro offered to drive me to the airport. 1 Use the gerund after certain verbs and expressions. Use used to / didn’t use to + base form to talk about past habits or repeated 2 A I can’t get used to w orking at night. can’t afford. e. can’t Try calling Su-jin on her cell phone. leach. should.. the simple present. I’ve always slept with blankets. refuse. 2 Use get used to + gerund to talk about a new But you can’t use would with non-action verbs: situation that is becoming familiar or less strange. practice. I didn’t recognize him. This can be the gerund (verb + -ing). I would always eat pan dulce for breakfast.. but now I only drink tea. seem. I’m n ot used to sleeping with a comforter. agree advise apologize for The doctor advised me to get some rest. imagine. 5B used to. give up. infinitive with a change of meaning 2 I want to speak to you. 1 would rather stay home than go out tonight. 1 + infinitive 2 + person + infinitive 3 + -ing form I promised not to tell anybody. offer ask accuse sb of 1persuaded my sister not to go out with Mike. postpone. e. pretend. You’ll get used to it fast. The car needs cleaning = The car needs to be cleaned. 2 Use the infinitive after certain verbs and expressions.5 \ 5A gerunds and infinitives verbs followed by the gerund. help. happen. would like. want. adm it. agree. make is followed by the infinitive. The car needs cleaning. e.g. 2 Sorry. be able. manage.g. e. miss. e. must. promise something encourage (not) to do blame sb for something threaten invite sometliing deny The police accused Karl of stealing the car. Try + gerund = experiment to see habitual activity.. / usually walk to work NOT I use to walk to work. or the base form.. the first verb determines the form of the second.. 1 Carlos has lived in Hong Kong for years. you can use remind recommend say or a specific verb." warn suggest Hiro said he would drive me to the airport. NOT needs to clean. expect. risk. They can’t afford to buy a new car. very little difference in meaning. He’s used to driving on the left.g. Remember + gerund the verbs make and let. • When one verb follows another. I feel actions or situations / states that have changed. I couldn’t help laughing. I forgot to do it. refuse (not) to do convince somebody admit (not) doing I apologized for being so late. deny. • Some verbs can be followed by the gerund or plan. there are three different grammatical patterns. 1 Rem em ber to lock the door. tell regret "I’ll drive you to the airport. gerund (not being). Jeel like. NOT / didn't recognize him. may. He reminded me not to be late. I used to have pan dulce for breakfast. the action of the verb. 2 Forget + infinitive = you didn’t remember to i i In the passive. e. suggest. e. use the negative infinitive (not to be) or the negative Hiro offered to drive me to the airport. Like / love / hate / continue / prefer + gerund gives a little more emphasis to 4 Need + gerund is a passive construction. can.g.g.. or the base form_____________ verbs that can be followed by either gerund or 1 I enjoy listening to music.g. In negative sentences. For present habits. can’t wait. I like / love / hate / can’t stand playing the guitar.

(buy) She said to me. you’ll have to leave the room. (work) 6 A I don’t think I could work at night. 1 When Jin started his first job. “Would you like to have dinner with me on Friday night?” 7 Meg accused me o f______ her pen. (drive) used to eat with chopsticks.” weekend. deny invite offer refuse remind suggest threaten They advised m e tSLbuy a new car. “I’ll call the police if you have any more parties. “Don’t forget to go to the dentist. b Circle the correct form. he couldn’t ___________ at 6:00 a. the verb in parentheses. didn’t you? (have) 7 D id you used to w ear a uniform to school? 8 Am elia is an only child. 4 I must have my keys somewhere. Sam’s neighbor____________ the police if he had any more parties. eaH not come do get go go out know see talk wear work Your hair needs (cutting)/ to cut. or get used to and the verb in parentheses. we couldn’t get He’s from Japan. (call) (give up) 4 The children said.I ____________ a meal so late. (go out) B runo___________ for a walk. His If you keep o n ___________ . (wear) B It’s not so bad. (eat) bed by midnight.” 5 The doctor advised Pedro _ coffee. She isn’t used to have a big dinner. (have) 8 I apologized to Eva for_______ her 6 Molly said to Jack. (go) I warned Jane___ . but it 4 When we were children. the woman’s handbag. you sleep? She ten d s______________ angry when people disagree with her. 9 I don’t m in d __ _ late tonight if I can leave early tomorrow. S h e . 6 I’ve never worn glasses before. It’s really long! I suggested calling a taxi so we wouldn’t be late. so she____________ nights. her phone number? called the painters. I’m usually in 2 If you want to lose weight. (write) company. 3 Have you tried to read / reading a book to help When I was abroad. I’d rath er_______________ tonight.” 1 Ted insisted o n ____________for the meal. remember to lock / locking the door this morning. 5 Jasmine has been a nurse all her life. night. (eat) Jake adm itted___ . the The children____________ on the wall. but I’ll have to ____________ them. . but she wasn’t Right (*/) or wrong (X)? C orrect the wrong phrases. or base form of a verb below. 7 Did you remember to send / sending your sister 5B a card? It’s her birthday today 8 She tried to f i x / fixing the TV. 2 He needs to call / calling the helpline. (get up) 3 I’m not used to staying up so late. 5 We ran home because we had forgotten to 8 I can’t w ait____ on vacation! turn / turning the oven off. I’m exhausted! I don’t feel like____________ tonight.” said my daughter. (steal) 3 Sam’s neighbor told him. We’d better____________ some shopping if we want to cook tonight. infinitive. through the park at 2 “I won’t eat the vegetables. 6 Their house needed to paint / painting.m. the park.” 6 Our boss persuaded Reiko. so they 10 Do you happen. (go) 6 EEZ S2 S MultiROM www. you’ll have t o ___________ less. I use to it now. (take) M i-soon___________ dinner with her on Friday night. “I’ll take you to the station. 2 The first time we visited China. b Complete with used to. (pay) She offered to take me to the station. 1 I’ll never forget to see / seeing the Grand Canyon for the first time. (spend) 5 Paul used to having a beard when he was younger. “Let’s go for a walk. (not leave) 5 Mi-soon said to me. able to.” birthday. so he ’$ used to driving on the left. her things. be used to. (n o t / share) 5C a Complete with the gerund or infinitive form of Complete with a reporting verb from the list and the verb in parentheses. I m issed___________ my family every day. (not / have) 4 There used to be a theater in our town. 3 I don’t like having dinner at 10:00 . computer crashed. It’s a beautiful day. (take) 2 Lauren agreed___________ with him on the 1 Bruno said. 7 I didn’t recognize you! You____________ long hair.com/elt/americanenglishfile/4 . X isn't used to having 1 Nowadays I use to go to bed early. G ram mar B ank 5A Complete with the gerund. (not walk) My daughter____________ the vegetables. “We did not write on the wall.oup. w e___________ all day playing baseball in closed down three years ago. I can Our school used to make u s ___________ a tie to school. (not remember) Molly___________ to the dentist.I need to study.

etc. and collective nouns plural and collective nouns uncountable nouns 1 Your clothes are filthy! Put a pair 1 The w eather was terrible.g. work. Don’t use an article to speak in genera! e. matter when. outskirts. prison / jail. / There is none. most of them. etc. all of you. All day = from morning to night. staff. 3 Iron is used for building bridges.. both. athletics. Use every + singular countable noun to mean "all of a group. That’s a beautiful piece o f furniture.) and an 3 verb to mean “it doesn’t every week.. etc. stores. Any can also be used without a noun. parks. scissors. streets. Use most to say the majority. toast. rivers. weather. 1 Use no + a noun with an 0 verb or any + noun with a 0 verb to refer to 2 Everybody is here. They need a singular verb. phrases like at home Iwork. all. towns. museums. any 6C quantifiers: all / every. the subject and before a main verb. states. either. continents. 4 T he Danube River flows into th e Black Sea.g. e. the Philippines. provinces. health. etc. etc. We often use both / either I neither + of + object pronoun. We don’t usually use the with: most countries. depending on the second subject. the 80).” 5 Every room has a view. use a / an or T he dog is an Alsatian.) He got into th e car and drove to the geographical nam es______________________________________________________ courthouse. mentioned before or it’s unique). 2 Use none in short answers or with an [±J verb to refer to zero quantity. it can be used luck.g. no article With school. N either o f them realized how dangerous radium was. but it’s spoiled by all the trash people leave. Use a / an when you mention somebody / 5 T he Metropolitan Museum is located on Fifth Avenue in New York. clothes.g. etc. monuments. who.. light.. All fruit contains sugar. or + of the + noun. If a plural noun consists of two parts. none. mountain ranges. 2 Our staff is very efficient. (exception: She's in the hospital. the Trans-Canada Highway.g. You can also use none + o/+ pronoun / noun. iron = the Crew.the thing used to press clothes. A every and all + time expressions: Every day = Monday When both refers to the subject of a clause. e. church. Some nouns can be either countable or uncountable.: both = A and B. individual islands. These nouns are also uncountable: furniture. somebody / something is (e. research. in stitu tio n s (school. all (of) the = specific. verb and can’t be used with a / an._____________________________ pants / shorts are plural nouns The following nouns are always uncountable: behavior. The verb is plural with both. either Use all or all (of) the + a plural or uncountable noun. college. They always need a singular verb.. 3 Come any weekend! Anyone can come. m ost____________ 2 Is there any food? No. but the meaning changes. either = A o r B. oceans. space. regions ending with the name of a state / country / Use the when it’s clear who / what continent (e.). or in individual mountains and lakes. They need a plural trash. In the end she studied b oth subjects at the Sorbonne in Paris. roads.g. the. 1 Korea is in East Asia. All can be used before a main verb (and after be). bread. 6B uncountable. something for the first time or say who / what somebody / something is. M ost o f the people in this class are women. paper. information.” Use an |+| verb. Everything is very expensive. with no singular. belongings. and either singular or plural with neither. My old one is broken. . seas. North America. island groups. none. the UK. it has been cities (exceptions: the US / United States. traffic. all of us. To talk about the building. The scenery is beautiful here. (exception: police) no. Most = general. of / some clean pants on. 1 All animals need food. 3 Lake Maracaibo and Lake Titicaca are both in South America. church. with a pair of or some. singular collective nouns and refer time.. scissors or pants. next / last (week). prison / jail. 4 All o f us work hard and m ost o f us come to class 3 Use any (and anything. neither. galleries. family..g. the names of theaters. deserts. e. about the institution and its usual purpose. they don’t have plurals. manners. things. Most of the = specific. news. equipment. She and her husband b oth won Nobel prizes. don’t use an article when you are talking 1 My neighbor just bought a dog. and they can’t be used with a / an. South Asia). neither = not A and not B. I need to buy a new iron. every. go home / to We usually use the with: bed.. economics). Both Pierre a n d Marie Curie were scientists. All (of) the animals in this zoo look sad. Other examples: glass. The animals all looked sad. n o r Marie was aware of the dangers of radiation. college.g. I don’t like spo rts or classical music. scenery. an iron . I work every Saturday. etc. etc. it can also be used after to Sunday. there is no milk. plural. 3 M ost people live in cities. actions. 1 Is there any milk? Sorry. hotels. They are building a new high school in our town. But none o f us is / are hungry. to a group of people. zero quantity. advice. Use both. business. us. 2 Men are taller than w om en on average. There isn’t any (milk). e. 2 Macy’s is one of the most famous stores in the US. audience are metal. progress. Use everything / everybody + singular verb. 1 Arms (=guns. luggage. but at least there wasn’t much traffic. basic rules: a I an I the. etc. and neither to talk about two people. Use a piece of to talk about an individual item. buildings. Marie Curie wanted to study eith er physics o r mathematics. e. canals. We often use all / most of + an object pronoun. most of it. restaurants (exceptions: highways and numbered roads.) 6A articles My son is in high school. e. N either Pierre All = in general. Everything is very expensive. team. politics (and other words ending in -ics. anyone. with plural and uncountable nouns. 2 We bought som e new fu rn itu re for the patio. the Czech Republic). them. The animals are all sad. I stayed at hom e last weekend.g. homework..

6 The teachers are on strike.C.but maybe it’s some it’s too hot. so the children aren’t going 5 Have you ever been t o ______ Stanley Park in Vancouver. May 7th. 10 Claudia and Joe met in a I the / (-) college in 2003. i / The traffic (7s)/ are awful during rush hour. so we stayed at a l the / (-) home. I like bothmeat and fish. Ecuador. Use the b o ld word. b o th 8 Nobody / Anybody can go to the festival. Mediterranean Sea. 9 People are complaining because the city council refused 10 Southern California is famous for its beaches and to build a I the I (-) new hospital.com/elVamericanenglishfile/4 . We ate (all the)! all cake. In our language lab the equipment is all new. Marcos b o u g h t@ / the / (-) new suit last weekend. e ith e r 5 She goes dancing all / every Friday night. 9 We’ve made a lot of progresses / progress in the last two weeks. We could g o ________________________________ 3 All / Everything in the stores is expensive 2 You didn’t stay very long. 1 The weather was awful. 2 I bought a pair of / some jeans. Her birthday is o n ___________________________ 6 We don’t have any / no onions for the soup. 5 I heard some / a piece of useful information at the meeting.oup. 7 Any / None of us can go out tonight. It’s free. 10 My eyesight is getting worse.___ n e ith e r _____________________________________ smoke. e ith e r 2 I’m afraid there’s no / none room for you in the car. MultiROM www. 8 The homeworks were very difficult last week. G ram mar B ank 6A a Circle the correct article. 4 Most / Most of people enjoy the summer. They’re going to the US to visit family. 4 Liz had an exhausting day. 7 Your glasses arc really dirty. C an you see anything? 8 I have a / some good news for you about your job application. I like meat. D. to a / the / (-) school. so she went to 3 I th in k Sicily is the largest island i n ______ a I the I (-) bed early. 3 My brother gave me a useful piece of advice. 6B Right (V ) or wrong (X)? Correct the wrong phrases. 4 The flight crew work / works hard to make passengers comfortable. 1 Amazon River begins at a small stream in 2 A / The / (-) dishwasher we bought last week has stopped Andes. n e ith e r nowadays. 6 Is that vase made of a glass / glass? 6 I checked two luggages on my flight. pay her taxes. > Circle the correct form. The news are good. 3 Martas clothes look / looks really expensive. _________________________ when they were four. 6 I’d love to stay a t Peninsula Hotel in Hong Kong. 2 We didn’t have time to visit National Gallery 3 I love reading a t the I (-) historical novels. _____________________________stayed very long. 7 Turn left immediately after a I the I (-) school and go 7 Galapagos Islands are situated off the cost of up the hill. Were 4 One of my children could read when he was four. I need a new glasses / pair o f glasses. 5 My brothers don’t smoke. So could the other one. Check ( ^ ) if both are correct. first.I like fish. all broke. working already. great surfing. 8 My neighbors in a I the / (-) prison because she wouldn’t 8 Romeo and Juliet is playing a t ______ Globe Theater. 7 I think I’ll have a / some time after lunch to help you with that report. 5 My boyfriend drives a I the I (-) very cool sports car. when we were i n ______Washington. We could go to Thailand. 5 I need to buy a new pants for my interview tomorrow. too. b o th 1 Most of / Most my close friends live near me. My sisters don’t smoke. 1 We had a beautiful weather when we were on vacation. 6C Com plete the second sentence so that it m eans the same as the a Circle the correct word(s). X The news is 1 Gymnastics is / are my favorite sport. 9 Manila is the capital o f Philippines. but for 3 I think her birthday is on May 6th . I didn’t stay very long. 4 The team has won every game this season. b C om plete with the or (-). 4 Mount Fuji is i n ______ Japan. 1We could go to Hawaii. 2 They have some beautiful furnitures in their house.

the relative pronoun (e. non-essential information about a person or thing. e. visited by thousands of tourists... use the base form. etc. though.g. who. the present / future (but are impossible or unlikely). e. or in the middle of a sentence. it is more common to leave out the relative pronoun and put the preposition after the verb. 1 After to. or stop A You can also use If only instead of I wish. 2 I wish the bus would coine. e. e. In informal English.g. for a meeting. use whom for a person and which for a thing. 1 Use although. e. subject + verb. 1 A non-defining relative clause gives extra. he is still very active... in order to. 7A structures after wish wish + simple past. her birthday. Use wish + person / thing + would to talk about things we want to happen. was given a kitten for That’s the book that / which won a prize. even though I felt sick. 1 My aunt. which) can’t which in defining clauses. e.. I'm writing it down so that I don't / won't forget. If only I hadn’t bought those shoes. i. I went to the bank so that I could take out some money. though she sometimes annoys me. being 85. or comes between a comma and a period.. is 3 James is the man (who) I met at the party. That’s the store (that) I told you about. that happened or didn’t happen in the past Use wish + simple past or could to talk about things you would like to be different in and that you now regret.” 2 Which can also be used to refer to the whole of the 3 When who or that is the object of the verb in the relative clause. NOT Despite of the rain. he is still very active.g. he. even though + a clause. You can also use so that + subject + won’t / wouldn’t / don’t. That is more common than • In these clauses. which was built in the 12th century. though. That’s the drawer in which I keep my keys... happening. 7C relative clauses defining relative clauses________________________________ non-defining relative clauses_____________________ 1 She’s the woman who / that lives next door. 2 Use whose to mean “of who” or “of which. Use wish + past perfect to talk about things I wish you wouldn’t leave your shoes there. • You can’t use that instead of who / which in these clauses. If only the bus would come. this kind of clause is separated by relative clause. because they annoy us. 144 . and it. • Although. and whom to introduce a defining • In written English. he is still very active. who doesn’t like cats. is worrisome.e. wish + would / wouldn’t o r could wish + past perfect 1 I wish I were taller! I wish you had told me the truth. same thing.. a clause that gives essential information about commas. A Don’t use o/with despite. 4 To express a negative purpose use so as not to or in order not to + base form NOT not to. My sister is the only person (who) I can talk to. use a noun. • Use who. 7B clauses of contrast and purpose clauses of contrast clauses o f purpose 1 Although the weather was terrible. she. 2 Adriana hasn’t come to class for two weeks. I wish I hadn’t bought those shoes. so as to 2 In spite of / Despite his age. I’m freezing. They mean the ■ Use to. for. a gerund. and so that to express purpose. be omitted.g.). 1 You can use that instead of who. we had a good time. • Though is more informal than although.. which 4 My sister is the only person to whom I can talk. NOT 1 wish I would. or thefact that + purpose of a thing.g. so as to. somebody or something. I like Ann. in order to. the fact that he’s 85..g.. whose. would. could. I almost tripped over them. you can leave it out. 3 So that is often followed by a subject + modal verb (can. and so as to. 4 After a preposition. A You don’t usually use would for a wish about yourself. 2 That’s the neighbor whose dog never stops barking. I wrote it down so as not to forget it. that / which. I went to the bank for a meeting with the bank manager. and even though can be used at the beginning 2 Use for + a noun. My brother wishes he could speak English better.g. I wish I were taller. The palace. A You can also use for + gerund to describe the exact 2 After in spite of or despite. After wish use were with I. preceding clause. 1 I went to the bank to I went to work. in order to talk to the bank manager. This liquid isfor cleaning metal.

G ram mar B ank

7A
a Circle the correct form. b W rite a sentence with I wish + past perfect.
I wish I (were) / would be thinner! My clothes don’t fit me! I spent all my money last night and now I’m broke.
1 I wish I had / would have curly hair! / wish I hadn't spent all my money last night.
2 She wishes her parents lived / would live closer. 1 I left my camera in the car, and someone stole it.
3 You’re driving too fast. I wish you would drive / drove more slowly. 2 I didn’t set my alarm clock, so I was late for work.
4 I wish it stopped / would stop raining. I want to go out for a walk! 3 I bought a house in the country, but 1 really miss
5 Bens been wearing the same clothes for years. I wish he bought / the city.
would buy some new clothes. 4 I dropped my cell phone in the bathtub, and now it
6 Chloe wishes she could / can play the guitar. doesn’t work.
7 I’m hot. I wish my apartment had / would have air-conditioning. 5 I didnt’ study for the test, so 1 didn’t pass.
8 Their TV is really loud. I wish they turned / would turn it down. 6 I didn’t take a vacation last year, and now I’m
really stressed.

7B
a C om plete the sentences with one word. b Rewrite the sentences.
Were happy in our new house, though. there’s a lot to do. Despite playing badly, they won the game.
Even though they played badly, they won the game.
1 We enjoyed our vacation,_________the weather.
2 Carl doesn’t like spending money,_________ though he’s 1 We took a taxi so as not to arrive late.
very rich. We took a taxi so t h a t...
3 They went to the airp o rt_________ catch a plane. 2 Despite earning a fortune, she drives a very old car.
4 Sandy wrote down his number s o ________ not Although ...
to forget it. 3 Everyone saw the movie, even though the reviews were terrible.
5 My mother called the doctor’s office i n _________ to Everyone saw the movie in spite o f ...
make an appointment. 4 The plane managed to land despite the very thick fog.
6 Bob passed the exam i n _________ of the fact that The plane managed to land, even though ...
he hadn’t studied much. 5 I told her I liked her jacket so that I wouldn’t offend her.
7 Angela took a jacket s o _________she wouldn’t get cold. I told her I liked her jacket so as ...
8 _________the service was poor, the meal was delicious. 6 The manager called a meeting so as to explain the new policy.
9 I went h o m e_________ a shower before I went out. The manager called a meeting in o rd e r...
10 _________being late, he stopped for a coffee.

7C
a Right (✓) or wrong (X)? Correct the wrong sentences. b Join the sentences with a relative pronoun. Be careful with
That’s the man I met on the bus. >/ e punctuation.
She’s the woman who her daughter works with me. X I just failed my driving test. It’s too bad.
whose daughter works I just failed my driving test, which is too bad.
1 This is the quiz show I was telling you about. 1 His girlfriend is very intelligent. She’s an architect.
2 Is this the train that it goes to the mountains? His girlfriend ...
3 She told her boss she’d overslept, that was absolutely true. They gave us a present. This was a complete surprise.
They ...
4 My son, that is very tall, enjoys playing basketball. ^
He was saying something. I didn’t understand it.
5 The employee to who I spoke gave me some incorrect He was saying ...
information. 4 A car crashed into mine. It was a convertible.
6 My brother, which is a chef, always cooks the The car ...
Thanksgiving dinner. 5 I spoke to a police officer. She was working at the reception desk.
7 Easter Island, which is situated off the coast of Chile, is a The police officer ...
popular tourist destination. 6 We bought our computer two months ago. It keeps on crashing.
8 The woman who suitcase disappeared is a friend of mine. Our computer ...
I left some things on the table. They aren’t there anymore.
9 Do you know the woman whom is talking to him?
The things ...
10 This is the book whose review I read in the paper today. g It’s too hot in my room. This makes it impossible to sleep.
It’s ...
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Personality

1 Adjectives and phrases to describe personality 2 Adjective suffixes
M atch the adjectives with phrases 1-20. a Many adjectives are form ed by adding a
suffix to a noun or verb. Look at the typical
am bitious arro g an t asse rtive calm /k a m / ch eerful
suffixes in the chart.
co nscientious /,k a n ji'e n fo s / easygoing eccentric /ik 'se n trik /
fu n n y
loyal
im m atu re
o p en -m in ded
im pulsive insec u re insincere
optim istic possessive reserved
irritable -ible -able -ful -y
responsible sociable helpful bossy
self -confide n t stu b b o rn /'stA b arn / vain well b ala n c ed wise

She’s the kind (sort) of person who ... She’s / He’s ...
1 always looks at herself in every m irror she passes. _____________
-ive -ous -al -ic
2 takes care to d o things carefully an d correctly. _____________
3 is ready to accept new a n d different ideas. _____________ assertive ambitious practical ironic
4 doesn’t say w h at she really thinks. _____________
5 o th e r people often fin d different o r unusual. _____________
6 is fairly relaxed about m ost things. _____________
7 is em otionally in control, n o t moody. well-balanced Add one adjective to each colum n in a by
8 never changes her opinion, even w hen she’s
adding a suffix to the nouns / verbs in the
clearly wrong. list below. You may need to m ake other small
9 expresses h er ideas o r opinions w ith confidence. assertive changes. (Be careful with sense, which can
10 is always in a good m ood.
have two different endings and m eanings.)
11 feels sure o f h e r ability to d o things self-confident adventure critic forget mood
12 isn’t very sure o f herself. insecure pessimist rely sense
13 is d eterm in e d to be successful ambitious
He’s good a t ... T hink o f definitions for the adjectives you
14 su p p o rtin g his friends. m ade in b.
15 giving people advice because o f his know ledge
an d experience.
3 Idioms
16 n o t panicking in a crisis.
She’s not very good a t ... a Look at the highlighted idioms
and try to guess their
17 letting o th e r people share h e r friends.
18 show ing h er feelings o r expressing h er opinions.
He tends to ...
19 behave like a child.
20 act w ith o u t thinking.
21 get an g ry very easily.
22 th in k he is better and m ore im portant than
other people. arrogant
1 My boss is kind of a cold fish. I don’t
23 expect good things to h ap p en optimistic
even know if he likes me or not.
She has ... 2 She has a heart of gold. She’ll always
24 a great sense o f hum or. help anyone with anything.
3 She’s as hard as nails. She doesn’t care
who she hurts.
4 I hope Jack doesn’t come tonight.
He’s such a pain in the neck.

b M atch the idiom s with their m eanings.
Can you remember the words on this page? A annoying, difficult
Test yourself or a partner. B very kind, generous
C distant, unfriendly
O p.9 D shows no sympathy or fear

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Illness and treatment V o c a b u la ry B a n k

1 Symptoms
a M atch the words and pictures.
He h a s ...
a temperature /'tempratfar/. He’s throwing up.
a cough /kof/. She’s sneezing a lot.
a headache (earache, Her finger is bleeding.
stomachache, etc.). His ankle is swollen.
a rash. Her back hurts / aches.
1 a bjister.
a pain (in his chest).

b M atch the sentences.
She’s u n c o n s c io u s /A n ’k a n j a s / . ■ A She’s gone to the bathroom five times this morning.
She has a sore throat. ■ B She’s breathing, but her eyes are closed and she can’t
She has diarrhea /.daia'ria/. ■ C She wants to throw up / vomit.
She feels sick. ■ D It was so hot on the train that she lost consciousness
She fainted. E She feels that everything is spinning around.
She feels dizzy. ■ F It hurts when she talks or swallows food.

2 Illnesses and injuries
M atch the illnesses / conditions with their causes or sym ptoms.
1 He has the flu. ■ A It’s 150 over 100.
2 He caught a cold. ■ B He was overweight, a smoker, and very highly stressed.
3 He is allergic to cats. ■ C His right side is paralyzed, and he can’t speak.
4 He has asthma /'aszma/. ■ D He ate some shrimp that weren’t fresh.
5 He has high (low) blood pressure /bU d 'prejar/. ■ E He’s sneezing a lot and he has a cough.
6 He had a heart attack. F He dropped a chair on it, and now it’s black and blue.
7 He had a stroke. G He has difficulty breathing.
8 He has food poisoning. ■ H He starts sneezing as soon as he’s near one.
9 He twisted / sprained his ankle. ■ I He has a temperature, and his body aches.
10 He burned himself. ■ I He touched a hot iron.
11 He has a bruise on his toe. ■ K He fell down, and now it’s swollen.

3 Treatment
W rite the m issing word in the treatm ent colum n.
bandage /'bacndid3/ injection medicine operation rest specialist stitches X-ray

Go to the doctor’s (GP = general practitioner). He / she may tell you to ... treatment
1 take some e.g., antibiotics/ie n tib a i'a tik s/or painkillers.
2 stay at home and
3 go to the hospital to see a
Go to the hospital / to the ER (the Emergency Room). You may have to ...
4 have an or scan to see if anything is broken.
5 have if you have a very deep cut.
6 have an , when a drug is put into your body through a needle.
7 have a put on to keep the wound /w und/ clean.
8 have an , when part of your body is cut open to remove or repair a damaged part.
Can you remember the words on this page? Test yourself or a partner. O p i2

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a wool cardigan / sweater A don’t tell anyone B in your place C wearing clothes that people will notice / admire D is exactly the right size Can you remember the words on this page? Test yourself or a partner. 3 These jeans don’t fit me. Try to rem em ber 1-8. 6 I need to change clothes. 1 I’m going to get dressed up tonight. 2 Please hang up your coat. C I’m going to a party. G They’re exactly the same color. 2 The Argentinians have a reputation for being very . a fur /far/ collar b M atch the idiom s to their m eanings. 5 Your bag matches your shoes.Clothes and fashion Describing clothes c W rite the m issing word in the O pinion colum n. flattering old-fashioned scruffy stylish trendy Fit Opinion tight loose /lus/ 1 She’s very .She always wears the latest fashions. A Don’t leave it on the chair. a velvet bow /boo/ 4 That sounds like a difficult situation.com/elt/americanenglishfile/4 . M u ltiR O M www. please keep it under your hat. a spandex swimsuit / bathing suit 1 What a gorgeous outfit! You’re really dressed to kill tonight. I wouldn’t like to be in your shoes. E It’s time for your bath. long. His clothes are old and kind of dirty. Did she have it especially made for her? a denim backpack 3 Now that you know my secret. H It’s very attractive. 4 That suit looks great on you! D Breakfast is on the table.oup. . People don’t wear such wide ones hood ed /h u d id/ anymore. F They’re too small. M atch the phrases and pictures 8 Get up and get dressed. 3 He looks really . Look at A -H .(short-) sleeved 5 That tie is very . and he hasn’t shaved. sleeveless 4 That outfit is very on you . a silk scarf leather sandals 3 Idioms nylon /'nailun/ stockings a linen /'lim n/ suit Look at the highlighted idiom s and try to guess their m eanings. M atch the adjectives and pictures. B I just spilled coffee on my dress. V-neck 2 Verb phrases a M atch the sentences.it makes you look slim. 7 Hurry up and get undressed. Materials a cotton undershirt b Cover sentences 1-8. suede /sweid/ slippers 2 That suit fits her like a glove.both men and women dress very well.

His fingerprints were on the gun. They murdered a man. committed investigated questioned K A woman transferred company The crime money into her own bank account. painting. 7 ■ hijacking /'haidjaskiq/ hij acker to hijack C A passenger on a flight made the pilot land in the desert. committed L A builder offered the mayor a free 2 The police the crime. 6 Finally they were with murder. 10 ■ murder* /'m ardar/ murderer to murder E We came home from vacation and 11 robbery robber to rob found that our TV was gone. proof punishment sentenced verdict witnesses The trial 7 Two months later. Carl and Adam appeared in 8 told the court what they had seen or knew. 14 Adam was found (they thought he was innocent). 14 theft thief/Gif/ to steal G When the border police searched 15 vandalism vandal to vandalize his car. O A man held up a knife and made acquitted court evidence guilty judge jury not guilty me give him my wallet. “Hands up!” W rite the words in the colum n. 5 ■ forgery forger to forge B She went to her ex-husband’s 6 fraud /frod/ K. 12 The decided what Carl’s should be.g. apartment in return for a favor. M Two men left a bomb in the 4 They were and taken to a police station. 16 He was and allowed to go free. illegal pills at a concert. 2 What happens to a criminal J An armed man walked into a bank Com plete the sentences. 8 ■ kidnapping kidnapper to kidnap D Someone copied my handwriting 9 ■ mugging mugger to mug and signed my name to a check. O P-37 MultiROM www. supermarket parking lot. Punishments • community service (doing a ($600) fine a life sentence some work to help society. to commit fraud house and shot him dead. ■ burglary /'borglori/ burglar to break in / burglarize A A gang took a rich man’s son and 3 4 ■ drug dealing drug dealer to sell drugs asked the family for money. 1 Carl and Adam a crime.oup. 5 The police them for ten hours. 12 ■ smuggling smuggler to smuggle F Someone tried to sell me some 13 ■ terrorism terrorist to set off bombs. N Somebody stole my car last night from outside my house. 9 The (of 12 people) looked at and heard all the -/_____ 10 After two days the jury reached their 11 Carl was found . cleaning. etc. assassination = murder of an important person. H Someone threw paint on the statue * manslaughter / 'maenslatar/ = killing somebody illegally. but unintentionally in the park. etc. 13 He him to life in prison / jail. 15 There was no that he had committed the crime. usually for political reasons I She said she’d send the photos to (verb assassinate). it was full of cigarettes. six months in capital punishment e. arrested caught charged and shouted..) prison (the death penalty) Can you remember the words on this page? Test yourself or a partner. 3 Carl and Adam were on the way to the airport.com/elt/americanenglishfile/4 149 . a newspaper if the actor didn’t pay her a lot of money. to bribe in the chart. Crime and punishment V o c a bu la ry B ank 1 Crimes and criminals Crime Criminal Verb ■ blackmail blackmailer to blackmail M atch the examples to the crim es 2 ■ bribery .

C fO It’s hot. 8 _________ (n) a violent storm with 4 Its very hum id /'hyum od/ today. blizzard drought /d rao t/ flood /f M / bright changeable clear heavy icy stable strong sunny thick hailstorm heal wave hurricanc lightning monsoon thunder typhoon In the north today it will be very cold.(-10°) 2 Extreme weather 3 Adjectives to describe weather M atch the words and definitions. C You might fall down. have an umbrella. E Can we turn the heat off? western Atlantic Ocean 6 Don’t get sunburned! F Do you want to borrow my jacket? 9 _________ (n) a violent tropical storm 7 Be careful! The sidewalk is G It was pouring. the 2 ________ (n) a long. Weather 1 What's the weather like? b Complete the text with fog. It’s raining / wet. though the period when there is little or no rain temperature will still be fairly low. D It’s hot and damp. 7 (v and n) when everything 2 I’m sweating /'swetir)/. Can you guess the m eaning o f the words in bold? strong winds 1 You’re shivering. not hot (a little wet. not (pleasant. and smog. It’s windy. becomes filled and covered with water 3 I got soaked this morning.oup. but not raining) (a light wind) extremely cold or hot) or cold) 9 It’s ____________ 2 It’s 6 It’s (raining lightly) (unpleasantly cold) (a pleasantly high 10 There are temperature) (short periods of rain) It’s cold. with 1 winds and2 rain. A Come and sit in the shade. it is difficult to see. There 1 ------------. scorching showers warm ___________ is caused by pollution and usually occurs in big cities. very strong winds. However. Complete the weather forecast with these adjectives. (f^ 3 It’s 7 It’s / boiling. though it should clear by hot weather noon.. the weather will be 3 ------------.(n) a period of unusually will also b e3 fog in the hills and near the coast.(n) a flash of very bright light in the sky caused by electricity 5 _________ (n and v) the loud noise that you hear during a storm Adjectives and verbs connected with weather 6 ________ (n) a snowstorm with very Match the sentences. is not usually very thick and often occurs in the mountains below zero breeze chilly cool damp drizzling or near the ocean. it should balls of ice that fall like rain become more9 over the weekend. B It will all be gone by tonight. 4 ------------. and there’s no air. mist. usually hot. -----.com/eiyamericanenglishfile/4 . © p. a Put the words or phrases in the correct place in the chart. 1 It’s 5 It’s 8 It’s 12 There’s a (a little cold. 10 _________ (n) the season when it rains a lot in southern Asia Can you remember the words on this page? Test yourself or a partner. with some showers but occasional8 periods. especially in the 5 The snow is starting to melt. freezing gale-force mild pouring (rain) ___________ is thicker and can be found in towns and in the country. or there is smog.41 150 MultiROM www. When the weather is foggy or misty. and I didn’t in the Pacific or Indian Ocean with very strong winds very slippery.(n) a storm with small 7 . dry southern regions will have5skies and6 sunshine. Driving will be dangerous as the roads will b e4 However.. Over the next few days. 1 1 It’s 13 There are 4 The temperature is (unpleasantly hot) (raining a lot) (extremely strong) winds.

I think I’m going to look for something else. If you w ant to use an intensifier.oup. A exhausted B (be) very surprised C fed up D terrified E sad. and ready to do anything to sit down and put my feet up. 8 very surprised _________(or amazed) 5 I’m completely worn out. 1 I’m sick and tired of telling you to 1 very surprised and unable to move or react stunned do your homework. I just want 9 with little hope..: fed up = bored or frustrated and unhappy (especially with a situation that has gone on too long) I’m really fed up with my job. She looked ten years younger. e. b M atch the stro n g adjectives with their definitions. b Match the idiom s in a above and the R em em ber you can’t use very. O P-53 C H H B S MultiROM www. e. etc. adjectives. with strong feelings below. 7 really angry _________ 1 can’t seem to cheer up. to improve the situation _________ 6 When I saw her. confused disappointed glad grateful homesick lonely nervous offended relieved shocked How would you feel i f . 4 really tired 3 He finally passed his driving test! 5 very excited ________ He’s jumping for joy! 6 extremely scared _________ 4 I’m feeling down with all this rain.g. Just do it! 2 extremely upset and shocked _________ 2 When I saw the burglar I was 3 very pleased _________(or thrilled) scared to death. ? 1 two people gave you completely opposite advice confused 2 the police told you that your home had been burglarized shocked 3 a friend helped you a lot with a problem ________ 4 you thought you had lost your passport but then you found it ________ 5 you didn’t get a present you were hoping to get ________ 6 you were studying abroad and missed your family ________ 7 you moved to a new town and didn’t have any friends 8 you were about to speak in public for the first time 9 your friend tells you she has just passed her driving test ________ 10 a very good friend didn’t invite you to his / her party ________ Some adjectives describe a m ixture o f feelings.. I couldn’t believe my 10 very unhappy _________ eyes. absolutely astonished N O T very astonisked. 2 Idioms astonished delighted desperate devastated exhausted /iq'znstid/ a Look at the highlighted idiom s and furious /'fyurios/ miserable stunned terrified thrilled try to guess their m eaning.g.. depressed Can you remember the words on this page? F extremely happy Test yourself or a partner. extremely. use absolutely.com/elt/americanenglishfile/4 151 . Feelings V o cabu la ry B ank 1 Adjectives a M atch the adjectives with the situations. upset = unhappy and w orried / anxious She was very upset when she heard that her cousin had had an accident.

palm /pam / liver lungs b Read the sentences. I have butterflies in my ! 15j \\N tf 7 When Miriam left David. 1 He winked at me to show that he was only joking. 3 You can’t be serious. _______ " f i It 7 The teacher frowned /fraond/ when she saw all the mistakes I had made. (with someone) nails kidneys 6 fold y o u r________ 12 shrug your. W rite the part o f the body related to the bold verb. wrist heart /h art/ 5 comb y o u r________ 11 shake ./ 10 I need to tell somebody about it and get it off my J6J \ > Can you remember the words on this page? Test yourself or a partner.oup. | ) v > 2 You really put your in your mouth when you told Mark f i r ' f that Jane had been married before. _______ 2 U \ "V ' 4 v / A 3 Idioms 1 C om plete the sentences with a part o f the body. she broke his rr 8 I can’t get that song out of my . I’m starting to get cold 6 The test is on Friday.r The body 1 Parts of the body and organs 2 Verbs and verb phrases M atch the words and pictures. You’ll only make it worse. just point at what you want. _______ 6 Some women think a man should kneel down when he proposes marriage. _______ I I1 v* 1 4 Don’t scratch the mosquito bite.com/elt/americanenglishfile/4 . 3 brush y o u r /_ 9 shake your (to say no) elbow /'elboo/ brain 4 clap y o u r_________ 10 raise your _ ___ \(to LV7onw showvv surprise) OU1J. we were so happy we hugged each other. You must be pulling my ! 4 I can’t remember her name. yawned /yond/. 9 You need to learn the irregular past tenses by . _______ 5 She sadly waved good-bye to her boyfriend as the train left the station. a M atch the verbs with the parts o f the body. _______ 3j ^ LI . chest foot feet hand head heart (x2) leg stomach tongue /tAt]/ 1 Could you give me a with my homework? It’s really difficult. and stretched. _______ 3 When we met. _______/ _____ \ C 10 If you don’t know the word for something. O P-62 152 M u ltiR O M www. eye 2 The steak was tough and difficult to chew. _______ 9 She got out of bed. 8 The painting was so strange I stared /sterd/ at it for a long time. 8 nod y o u r. but it’s on the tip of my W A 5 I’m not sure I want to go climbing anymore. ankle chest arms eyebrows /'aibrauz/ hair (x2) hand hands (x2) calf /kaef/ waist head (x2) nails nose shoulders teeth (pi calves) hip 1 bite your nails hold somebody’s heel thigh /0ai/ 2 blow y o u r. I keep whistling it.

Music V o c a b u la ry B a n k 1 Instruments and musicians a M atch the words and pictures. bass choir/'kw aiar/ composer conductor DJ (disc jockey) lead singer orchestra /'orkastra/ rapper singer-songwriter soloist soprano tenor 1 a man who sings with a somewhat high-pitched voice 2 a man who sings with a low-pitched voice 3 a woman who sings with a high-pitched voice 4 a large group of musicians who play different musical instruments together 5 a group of people who sing together. 5 When I heard the news. 2 It’s a very catchy song. He tells everyone how wonderful he is. U nderline the stressed syllable. c M atch the words and definitions. 1 This song has incom prehensible lyrics. A The rhythm makes you want to tap your feet. 4 It’s a song with a very strong beat. it was . introduces. leaving her to . E I’ve been humming it all day. Q P-70 M ultiRO M www. 3 Idioms Com plete the sentences with the correct m usic idiom. A tooting his own horn B face the music C good ear for music D music to my ears E out of tune 1 She has a . 2 He’s not singing at the same pitch as we are. 5 I think his voice is very monotonous. D I can’t understand what it’s about. B It almost puts me to sleep. 3 This music is so moving. in a church service 6 somebody who writes and sings his / her own songs 7 someone who speaks the words of a song that has a strong beat 8 somebody who sings or plays an instrument alone 9 the main singer in a band 10 the person who directs an orchestra 11 somebody who writes music 12 the person who chooses.oup. She got punished for what they had all done. and plays music on the radio or in a club 2 Adjectives and phrases to describe music M atch the sentences.com/ell/americanenglishfile/4 .vaia'lin/ flute b W hat do you call the m usicians who play each of the instrum ents above? W rite the word next to the nam e o f the instrum ent. She can sing a tune as soon as she hears it. bass /beis/ guitar piano 8 cello /'tj’eloo/ cellist saxophone drums trum pet keyboard violin /. F It almost makes me want to cry. for example. Can you remember the words on this page? Test yourself or a partner. He’s completely 3 He’s always . C The music sounds familiar. It was exactly what I wanted to hear. 6 I don’t know what it’s called. 4 The others ran away. but I recognize the tune /tun/.

in drinking C The newspaper wasn’t allowed to publish all the details. Team manager Prince to wed to quit after 18-year-old EC A It said the plot was poor but the acting good. theater. 3 a person who describes a sports event while it’s happening on TV or radio 4 a person who collects and reports news for newspapers. not on feelings or beliefs. radio. which shotck defeat Probe finds TV soap star I think was true. or TV 5 a person in charge of a newspaper or magazine. re sta u ra n t b ill sp at President backs 2 The news on that TV channel is really biased /'baiast/.oup.h i £th*ytoft c\ eeK .papa'ratsi/ press photographer reporter sports commentator 1 photographers who follow famous people around to get photos of them to sell to a newspaper 2 a person who writes about the good / bad qualities of books. concerts. “ Thousands of jobs axed by US companies water D It made the story more shocking than it really was. advertisement cartoon crossword puzzle front page horoscope m y °U pop M u May. who decides what should be in it 6 a person who announces the news 7 a person who writes articles for different newspapers and is not employed by a single newspaper 8 a person who takes photos for a newspaper 0 2 Sections of a newspaper or news website M atch the words and pictures. critic editor freelance journalist news anchor paparazzi /. scandal 4 The movie review was generally accurate /'sekyarat/.com/elVamericanenglishfile/4 . movies. F a m o u s a c tre ss in L . c/tn i 'er sllSN £l)c jXctuyork eimcs review /ri'vyu/ '**U . faJ>ton Jonfc n r ° ’s classified ads Or 5 weather forecast •e tolled \ritelb 3 Adjectives to describe the media 4 The language of headlines Match the sentences. C question. and guess their m eaning. chemicals B It bases its stories just on facts. Then look at the way the bold Match the highlighted “headline phrases” with their m eanings adjectives are used in context. or part of one.The media 1 Journalists and people in the media M atch the words and definitions. f l j H J 5 I think the report was censored. It’s obvious what political party they favor! HD Stock market Police c :witness hit by oil fears in murder trial A argument E is going to marry Can you remember the words on this page? B have been cut F investigation Test yourself or a partner.l . senator in latest 3 This is the most objective of the Sunday papers. E You can’t believe anything you hear on it. interrogate G has been badly affected O P-78 D is going to leave (a job) H supports C E U H S MultiROM www. etc. 1 The reporting in the paper was very sensational.

B It’s full of life and energy. where the houses are in very bad condition. Can you remember the words on this page? Test yourself or a partner.) are 5 in the (financial) district E the central part of a city / large town 6 in (the) old town F part of a city / town farthest from the center. Many people are earning less than a dollar a day. especially during rush hour. beggars homeless people overcrowding pollution poverty slums traffic jams vandalism Problems 1 There are a lot of and congestion. 6 There are a lot of who sleep on the streets. 8 There is a lot of in this country. D People here aren’t interested in new ideas. 7 are poor people who stop you on the street and ask you for money. all the banks (or theaters. Cities and towns V o c abu la ry B ank 1 Buildings. 3 It’s a very industrial city. and often pay phones are destroyed and don’t work. A It has many interesting old buildings and monuments. O P-89 C E B H 1 MultiROM www. e.com/eit/americanenglishfile/4 155 . 5 There is too much caused by car fumes and factory emissions. 3 There is a lot of . landmarks. on the edge of the city / town b D escribe w here you live. E The air is dirty and dangerous to breathe.oup. 4 In some parts of the city there is a lot of with too many people living in one building. 7 This city is terribly polhited. 4 Cuzco is a very historic city. 2 This area of the city is very run-down. b W hich o f these are problem s in your country? 4 Adjectives to describe a city / town Match the sentences. etc. baseball stadium bicycle lane cable car chapel concert hall courthouse /'korthaos/ harbor hill mosque pedestrian mall skyscraper square /skwer/ statue synagogue /'sinagag/ taxi stand temple tower places of worship other buildings other landmarks and sights getting around cathedral town hall bridge subway 2 Where people live /work a Match the words and definitions. 1 Toronto is a very cosmopolitan city.g. 2 There are on the outskirts of the city. and getting around W rite at least four words in each colum n. C It’s full of people from different cultures. G There are a lot factories in and around the city. 5 I think my town is very provincial. 3 City problems a Complete the P roblem s column with a word from the list. 1 downtown A