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LTE Network Planning

ZTE University
Contents

Overview of LTE Network Planning


LTE Network Dimensioning
Layout and Simulation
Output of Network Planning
Challenges of LTE Network Planning
LTE-2G/3G interference
Interference in HetNet
Cloud Radio
Interference
Management

Inter-radio operation
Voice fallback
PS handover

Propagation model and


Inter- and
parameters Intra-
Scheduling strategy radio
Traffic model Operation
Converged network
Co-site and co-antenna
Radio technology Precise
evolution Network
Planning
Multi-Bandwidth

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Flow of LTE Network Planning

Requirement Network Site Selection & Network Design


Analysis Dimensioning Simulation Output

Network construction Link budget Site survey Frequency planning


strategy Cell capacity Capacity and throughput RF Planning
Traffic model Coverage radius simulation Engineering planning
Sites to be selected Coverage simulation output

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RF Design Methodology

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RF Design MethodologyInput and Output
Coverage Inputs
Area to be covered
Targeted service at cell edge
Coverage Outputs
Indoor penetration level Link Budget
Cell Range
RF Planning
Network Information Legacy Site Reuse
Incumbent network info Number of Sites
LTE Frequency
LTE Maximum bandwidth

Link Budget
Adjustment

Site table and


Topology
ALTEL Sites simulation
Design
results

Coverage
Requirements Simulation
Tools
Google Earth
Mapinfo

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Fundamental Requirement Analysis
Irregular
Area

Boundary, clutter type, building density, and population


Site-sharing and existing network statistics

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Required Information of Operators
Category Description

Coverage Clutter classification, boundary,


population, and penetration ratio

Capacity Traffic model and service model

Link budget parameters Frequency band, channel bandwidth,


cell edge throughput, coverage
probability, shadow margin, and
propagation model
Equipment parameters Maximum transmission power, multi-
antenna technique, antenna gain,
receiver sensitivity, and noise figure

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Contents

Overview of LTE Network Planning


LTE Network Dimensioning
Layout and Simulation
Output of Network Planning
Network Dimensioning Method
Coverage Capacity
Coverage Capacity Requirement
Requirement
Requirements Requirements

Capacity
Link Budget Planning
Outdoor Block error rate
coverage
Key coverage
KPI Data rate

area
Cell Radius
and Site Cell Radius and
Number Site Number

Comparison
Coordination

Final Cell Radius and Site


Number

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Flow of Coverage Planning
3 Omni
Requirement analysis
Input data Star sectors
t

UL/DL MAPL

Link budget

UL radius DL radius

Cell radius

Balance between UL and


DL

Coverage area per site


Coverage area per site

Number of sites
Total number of required sites =
Total coverage area coverage
Total number of sites for area per site
the End
target area
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Basic Principle of Link Budget

MAPL
Maximum UE
transmission power
RX
sensitivity
Cell radius UMTS and LTE
formulas are
the same.

MAPL = Pmax - Receiver Sensitivity - Losses - Margins +


Gains

Parameters are different.

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MAPL of Link Budget
System
Parameters
Frequency band Minimum level for receivers MAPL
System Duplex mode Receiver sensitivity
configuration Noise figure
SINR threshold for
demodulation
Antenna gain (RX)
Cable loss (RX)
Body loss (RX)

Other factors
EIRP

Minimum RX MIMO gain and IRC gain


EIRP Dependent on Diversity gain and beam forming gain
Factors Handover gain
Number of RBs Penetration loss
Antenna gain (TX) Shadow and interference margin
Cable loss (TX)

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ZTE LTE Link Budget DL 2.6 GHz Band 20 MHz

DL Link Budget Morph


Dense
Urban
Bandwidth
Urban Suburban Rural
kbp
Cell Edge User Throughput s 2048 2048 2048 2048
eNode B
Channel Bandwidth MHz 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
Required cell edge Number of RBs # 100 100 100 100
Number of TX Antennas
2 2 2 2
throughput (eNodeB) #
Number of RX Antennas (UE) # 2 2 2 2
Total DL eNodeB TX Power/Path W 40 40 40 40
Max eNodeB TX Power dBm 49 49 49 49
Assign # Resource Blocks # 79 79 79 79
TBS bit 2216 2216 2216 2216
MCS # 0 0 0 0
Number of RBs Modulation QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK
Used Bandwidth KHz 14220 14220 14220 14220
eNodeB Antenna Gain dBi 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0
Cable & Connector Losses dB 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
UE
UE Antenna Gain dBi 0 0 0 0
TBS & MCS UE Noise Figure dB 7 7 7 7
SINR Requirement dB -6.00 -5.65 -5.00 -4.19
UE RX Sensitivity dBm -101.5 -101.1 -100.5 -99.7
Adjacent Cell Loading % 50% 50% 50% 50%
Geometry Factor in the Cell
-2 -2 -2 -2
Transmission mode Range dB

(Multi-antenna) SINR DL Interference Margin dB 0.96 1.06 1.25 1.56


Extra Losses and Gains
Cell Area Coverage Probability % 95% 95% 90% 90%
Shadowing Standard Deviation dB 10 8 8 6
Shadowing Margin dB 11.65 8.71 5.4 3.3
HO Gain dB 4.49 3.41 3.1 2.2
G factor MAPL Other factors Penetration Margin dB 20 17 14 8
Body Loss dB 0 0 0 0
Propagation Model
Cost231- Cost231- Cost231- Cost231-
Propagation Model Hata Hata Hata Hata
Frequency Band MHz 2600 2600 2600 2600
Antenna Height m 25 30 40 50
Morph Correction Factor (Kc) dB 0 -3 -12 -18
Cell range DL Coverage
DL MAPL dB 138.9 143.3 148.4 154.5
DL Cell Range km 0.78 1.36 3.96 10.14
Inter-Site Distance km 1.17 2.04 5.94 15.21
Coverage Area km2 1.19 3.59 30.54 200.60

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DL Link Budget Parameters

ZTE LTE Link Budget DL 2.6 GHz Band 20 MHz


Bandwidth
Dense
Urban Suburban Rural
Morph Urban
Required cell edge
throughput Cell Edge User Throughput kbps 2000 2000 2000 2000
eNode B
Channel Bandwidth MHz 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
Number of RBs # 100 100 100 100
Number of TX Antennas
2 2 2 2
MIMO configuration (eNodeB) #
Number of RX Antennas (UE) # 2 2 2 2
Total DL eNodeB TX
40 40 40 40
Power/Path W
Max eNodeB TX Power dBm 49 49 49 49
eNodeB TX power Assign # Resource Blocks # 79 79 79 79
TBS bit 2216 2216 2216 2216
MCS # 0 0 0 0
Modulation QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK
Used Bandwidth KHz 14220 14220 14220 14220
eNodeB antenna gain eNodeB Antenna Gain dBi 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0
Cable & Connector Loss dB 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

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ZTE LTE Link Budget DL 2.6 GHz Band
20 MHz Bandwidth
Dense Suburb
Urban Rural
Morph Urban an
UE
UE Antenna Gain dBi 0 0 0 0
UE Noise Figure dB 7 7 7 7
Adjacent Cell Loading % 50% 50% 50% 50%
Geometry Factor in the
G factor Cell Range dB
-2 -2 -2 -2
DL Interference Margin dB 0.96 1.06 1.25 1.56
Extra Losses and
Gains
Cell Area Coverage
95% 95% 90% 90%
Probability %
Shadowing Standard
10 8 8 6
Deviation dB
Shadowing Margin dB 11.65 8.71 5.4 3.3
HO Gain dB 4.49 3.41 3.1 2.2
Penetration Margin dB 20 17 14 8
Penetration and body loss Body Loss dB 0 0 0 0
Propagation Model
Cost23 Cost231 Cost231 Cost231
Propagation Model 1-Hata -Hata -Hata -Hata
MH
2600 2600 2600 2600
Frequency Band z
Antenna Height m 25 30 40 50
Morph Correction
0 -3 -12 -18
Factor (Kc) dB
DL Coverage
MAPL DL MAPL dB 138.9 143.3 148.4 154.5
DL Cell Range km 0.78 1.36 3.96 10.14
Inter-Site Distance km 1.17 2.04 5.94 15.21
1.19 3.59 30.54 200.60
Coverage Area km2
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ZTE LTE Link Budget UL 2.6 GHz Band
20 MHz Bandwidth
Dense

UL Link Budget
Urban Suburban Rural
Morph Urban
kbp
512 512 512 512
Cell Edge User Throughput s
eNode B
MH
20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
UL Channel Bandwidth z
Required Number of RBs # 100 100 100 100
Number of TX Antennas # 1 1 1 1
Cell edge throughput Number of RX Antennas # 2 2 2 2
Assigned RB number # 10 10 10 10
MCS # 3 3 3 3
TBS bit 568 568 568 568
Used Bandwidth KHz 1800 1800 1800 1800
Number of RBs SINR Requirement dB -1.79 -1.27 1.04 1.49
eNodeB Noise Figure dB 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
eNodeB Sensitivity dBm -110.7 -110.2 -107.9 -107.5
UL Interference Margin dB 2 2 2 2
eNodeB Antenna Gain dBi 18 18 18 18
TBS & MCS Cable & Connector Loss dB 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
TMA Gain dB 0 0 0 0
Extra Loss and Gain
Cell Area Coverage
95% 95% 90% 90%
Probability %
Shadowing Standard
10 8 8 6
SINR Deviation dB
Shadowing Margin dB 11.65 8.71 5.4 3.3
HO Gain dB 4.49 3.41 3.1 2.2
Penetration Margin dB 20 17 14 8
Body Loss dB 0 0 0 0
Transmission mode
Receiver sensitivity UE
(Multi-antenna) UE Antenna Gain dBi 0 0 0 0
UE Max Transmission Power dBm 23 23 23 23
Propagation Model
Cost231- Cost231- Cost231- Cost231-
Propagation Model Hata Hata Hata Hata
Interference margin MAPL Other factors MH
2500 2500 2500 2500
Frequency Band z
Antenna Height m 25 30 40 50
Morph Correction Factor
0 -3 -12 -18
(Kc) dB
UL Coverage
Cell range UL MAPL dB 122.08 126.42 130.11 136.85
UL Cell Range km 0.28 0.47 1.21 3.16
Inter Site Distance km 0.41 0.70 1.81 4.75
ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved Coverage Area km2 0.15 0.43 2.84 19.53
UL Link Budget Parameters
ZTE LTE Link Budget UL 2.6 GHz Band 20
MHz Bandwidth
Dense Suburba
Urban Rural
Morph Urban n
Required cell edge Cell Edge User
Throughput kbps 512 512 512 512
throughput eNode B
UL Channel 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
Bandwidth MHz
Number of RBs # 100 100 100 100
Number of TX
1 1 1 1
Antennas #
Number of RX 2 2 2 2
Antennas #
Assigned RB number # 10 10 10 10
MCS # 3 3 3 3
RX receiver sensitivity TBS bit 568 568 568 568

KHz 1800 1800 1800 1800


Used Bandwidth
SINR Requirement dB -1.79 -1.27 1.04 1.49

eNodeB Noise Figure dB 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

-110.7 -110.2 -107.9 -107.5


eNodeB Sensitivity dBm
UL Interference
UL interference margin 2 2 2 2
Margin dB
eNodeB Antenna Gain dBi 18 18 18 18
Cable & Connector 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Loss dB

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ZTE LTE Link Budget UL 2.6 GHz Band 20
MHz Bandwidth

Dense Suburb
Urban Rural
Morph Urban an
eNode-B Antenna
eNodeB antenna gain 18 18 18 18
Gain dBi
Cable & Connector
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Loss dB
TMA Gain dB 0 0 0 0
Extra Loss and gain
Cell Area Coverage
95% 95% 90% 90%
Probability %
Shadowing margin Shadowing Standard
10 8 8 6
Deviation dB
Shadowing Margin dB 11.65 8.71 5.4 3.3
HO Gain dB 4.49 3.41 3.1 2.2
Penetration Margin dB 20 17 14 8
Penetration and body loss
Body Loss dB 0 0 0 0
UE
UE Antenna Gain dBi 0 0 0 0
UE antenna gain and TX power UE Max Transmission
23 23 23 23
Power dBm
Propagation Model
Cost231- Cost231- Cost231-
Cost231-Hata
Propagation Model Hata Hata Hata

2500 2500 2500 2500


Frequency Band MHz
Antenna Height m 25 30 40 50
Morph Correction
0 -3 -12 -18
Factor Kc dB
UL Coverage
UL MAPL dB 122.08 126.42 130.11 136.85
MAPL
UL Cell Range km 0.28 0.47 1.21 3.16
Inter Site Distance km 0.41 0.70 1.81 4.75

0.15 0.43 2.84 19.53


Coverage Area km2
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Differences Between UL and DL Link Budgets
Received signals required
Different link budget
Required SINR
methods applied in
the DL and UL
Cell signal
UL Cell interference
Noise

DL

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Flow of Capacity Planning
Traffic model and requirement analysis

Throughput per user Configuration analysis

Throughput requirement of Average throughput


the network per site

Number of sites

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Traffic Model of a Subscriber in Busy Hours
Throughput per user in busy hours (kbps) = Throughput per session (Kbit) * number of sessions 3600
Total = weighted average value of each traffic class

Dense Urban Urban

Traffic Throughput per User in Traffic Throughput per User


User Behavior Times of Times of
Penetration Busy Hours (kbps) Penetratio in Busy Hours (kbps)
Sessions Sessions
Ratio UL DL n Ratio UL DL
VoIP 100.00% 1.4 0.34 0.34 100.00% 1.3 0.31 0.31
Video Phone 20.00% 0.2 0.25 0.25 20.00% 0.16 0.20 0.20
Video Conference 20.00% 0.2 6.32 6.32 15.00% 0.15 4.74 4.74
Real-Time Gaming 30.00% 0.2 0.63 5.05 20.00% 0.2 0.63 5.05
Streaming Media 15.00% 0.2 0.11 16.00 15.00% 0.15 0.08 12.00
IMS Signaling 40.00% 5 0.03 0.03 30.00% 4 0.02 0.02
Web Browsing 100.00% 0.6 0.95 3.79 100.00% 0.4 0.63 2.53
File Transfer 20.00% 0.3 7.11 37.90 20.00% 0.2 4.74 25.26
Email 10.00% 0.4 0.39 0.38 10.00% 0.3 0.30 0.28
P2P File Sharing 20.00% 0.2 6.73 6.73 20.00% 0.15 5.05 5.05
Total 5.6 18.3 3.8 12.5

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Contents

Overview of LTE Network Planning


LTE Network Dimensioning
Layout and Simulation
Output of Network Planning
Iterative Layout and Simulation
Layout Adjustment

Iterative Simulation Site Survey and Selection

Radio Plan Output Network Dimensioning

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Site Survey Before Simulation

Radio Rules Other Rules

There is sufficient site space for


The antenna is five meters higher than
installation.
any nearby building. New sites are required.
The heights of all sites are coordinated in Existing transmission and power
seamless coverage areas. facilities can be used.
There are no significant barriers except for There are necessary facilities for
antenna installation to support heavy
antennas.
load and space isolation.
The view in the main beam direction is good.

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Signal Simulation Result

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Contents

Overview of LTE Network Planning


LTE Network Dimensioning
Layout and Simulation
Output of Network Planning
Site List and Google Map
Name Longitude Latitude Height (m) Site Type
eNodeB104 44.73825 41.7065 25 Applied Site

eNodeB73 25 Applied Site


44.7233 41.717083

eNodeB91 25 Applied Site


44.744681 41.720636

eNodeB83 25 Applied Site


44.709933 41.724717
eNodeB106 44.8106 41.73127 25 Applied Site

eNodeB65 25 Applied Site


44.7359167 41.7362
eNodeB81 25 Applied Site
44.7506333 41.72605

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Example of Site Layout Statistics
27 existing CDMA sites: 12.6% 118 other existing sites: 54.6% 71 new sites: 32.8%

Reused CDMA sites Other reused sites New sites

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