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07-05-2015

PILE FOUNDATIONS FOR


LATERAL LOADS

Dr. Ravi Kant Mittal


Associate Professor
Civil Engineering Dept.
BITS, Pilani

Lateral Loads on Pile Foundations


During
Seismic Loading
Wind Pressure
Earth Pressure on Retaining Walls
Water Pressure in Water Front Structures
External Moments
Machine Excitations

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Introduction
Causes of Lateral Loading
Earth Pressure
Earthquake
Wave Force
Wind Force
Impact of Berthing Ships
Operating Machineries
Traction of Braking Vehicles
Cable Tension etc

COLLAPSE OF PILED STRUCTURES IN EARTHQUAKES

1964

Million Dollar Bridge after 1964 Showa Bridge after 1964


Alaska earthquake Niigata earthquake
1995 1999 2001

Building in Kobe after Bridge in Taiwan after 1999


1995 earthquake Chi-Chi earthquake Kandla port building after
2001 Bhuj earthquake

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BARGE IMPACT - BRIDGE ON SUNSHINE SKYWAY, FLORIDA


US I-40 OVER THE ARKANSAS SHIP COLLISION, 1980
RIVER

Introduction
Factors Influencing Behaviour

Pile Stiffness
Soil Stiffness
Type of Loading
Pile Head Fixity Condition
Spacing Group Interaction
Embedment Length
Pile Soil Separation

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Pile Group Interaction

Cyclic Lateral Load on Piles

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Introduction
Effects of Cyclic Lateral Loading

Degradation of Stiffness of Soil


Build up of Excess Pore Pressure
Non linear Behaviour - Large Gapping
Increase in Deflection
Complicated Group Interaction
Increase in Magnitude and Depth of Max.
BM

Three types of boundary conditions occur


in practice, namely
(i) free-head pile,
(ii) fixed-head pile, and
(iii) partially-restrained head pile.

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In the case of free-head pile, the lateral


load may act at or above ground level and
the pile head is free to rotate without any
restraint.
A fixed-head pile is free to move only
laterally but rotation is prevented
completely,
whereas a pile with partially restrained
head moves and rotates under restraint.

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Fig. 2 is valid for long flexible piles where


the embedded length Le is 3.5R or 4T.

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Granular Soil

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constant of modulus of horizontai subgrade reaction

Old

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modulus of subgrade reaction K

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Theories Developed
Taking bending of piles into account therefore
more realistic. These can be grouped into 2
categories:
(i) Based on Plastic Theory: Developed for Short-
Rigid Piles where it is assumed that that the
limiting or maximum soil resistance is acting
against the pile when it is subjected to the
ultimate load.
(ii) Based on Elastic Theory (Reese and Matlock):
Based on Winklers assumption

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Elastic Theory
A laterally loaded pile has been often
treated as a beam on an elastic
foundation.
For a true elastic medium, the soil
reaction p and the deflection y at a
given point are affected by reactions
and deflection at all other points on the
beam.

Elastic Theory
However, in Winklers hypothesis, the
elastic soil medium is replaced by a series
of infinitely close, independent, elastic
springs.

The stiffness of these springs may then be


written as k = p/y. The stiffness k is termed
as the modulus of the subgrade reaction.

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Elastic Theory (Cont.)

A Beam on Elastic Foundation

Reese and Matlock Approach


This approach is based on Winklers assumption. The
equation for a beam on elastic foundation, utilizing the
concept of a subgrade modulus has been solved for
differential condition and non-dimensional solutions
have been given for a laterally loaded vertical pile to
determine the variation of deflection, bending moment,
soil reaction, shear etc. It is described in two sections:
(i) Solution for Noncohesive Soils
(ii) Solution for Cohesive Soils

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Solution for Non-cohesive Soils


Non-dimensional solutions, for laterally loaded piles in soil
deposit, in which the subgrade modulus increases linearly
with depth have been developed by Reese and Matlock
(1956). The solutions have been developed for long piles
when L/T > 5, where L is the length of the pile. The relative
stiffness factor T is given by:
T EI nh
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When a pile is long, the deflection of the pile may be nearly


zero for much of the pile length below. Thus the actual
length L loses its significance. Such piles are flexible and
called long piles. For a short pile, the flexural stiffness EI
of the pile loses its significance. The piles act like a rigid
member and rotate as a unit.

Solution for Non-cohesive Soils (Cont.)


The Reese-Matlock analysis is restricted to long piles only.
Hence the criterion that L should be greater than 5T in
order that a pile be classified as a long pile.
For a vertical pile of length L, subjected to a horizontal
load Pt and a moment Mt at the ground level, the solution
for deflection y may be expressed as a function of various
quantities:
y f x, T , L, k , EI , Pt , M t

If the assumption of elastic behaviour is introduced for the


pile dimensions, the principle of superposition may be
applied.
y y A yB

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The value of the coefficients A & B a

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Normally we need deflection and slope at


ground level. The corresponding equations
for these may be expressed as

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For fixed head pile, Slope to be zero at ground


for fixed head pile S=0
Ay= 2.435, By= 1.623, As= -1.623, Bs= -1.75

For fixed head pile, Slope to be zero at ground


for fixed head pile S=0
Ay= 2.435, As= -1.623, Bs= -1.75, By= 1.623

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Thank You

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