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Topic 5: Ecology and evolution

Topic5:Ecologyandevolution

5.1Communitiesandecosystems
AssessmentStatement IBONotes StudentNotes
5.1.1 Definespecies,habitat,population,community, Species:agroupoforganismsthatcan
ecosystemandecology. interbreedandproducefertile
offspring.
Habitat:theenvironmentinwhicha
speciesnormallylivesorthelocation
ofalivingorganism.
Population:agroupoforganismsof
thesamespecieswholiveinthesame
areaatthesametime.
Community:agroupofpopulations
livingandinteractingwitheachother
inanarea.
Ecosystem:acommunityandits
abioticenvironment.
Ecology:thestudyofrelationships
betweenlivingorganismsandbetween
organismsandtheirenvironment.
5.1.2 Distinguishbetweenautotrophandheterotroph. Autotroph:anorganismthat
synthesizesitsorganicmoleculesfrom
simpleinorganicsubstances.
Heterotroph:anorganismthatobtains
organicmoleculesfromother
organisms.
5.1.3 Distinguishbetweenconsumers,detritivoresand Consumer:anorganismthatingests
saprotrophs. otherorganicmatterthatislivingor
recentlykilled.
Detritivore:anorganismthatingests
nonlivingorganicmatter.
Saprotroph:anorganismthatliveson
orinnonlivingorganicmatter,
secretingdigestiveenzymesintoitand
absorbingtheproductsofdigestion.
5.1.4 Describewhatismeantbyafoodchain,givingthree Onlyrealexamplesshouldbeused
examples,eachwithatleastthreelinkages(four fromnaturalecosystems.
organisms). indicatesthatAisbeingeatenbyB
(thatis,thearrowindicatesthe
directionofenergyflow).Eachfood
chainshouldincludeaproducerand
consumers,butnotdecomposers.
Namedorganismsateitherspeciesor
genuslevelshouldbeused.Common
speciesnamescanbeusedinsteadof
binomialnames.Generalnamessuch
astreeorfishshouldnotbeused.
5.1.5 Describewhatismeantbyafoodweb.
5.1.6 Definetrophiclevel.
5.1.7 Deducethetrophicleveloforganismsinafoodchain Studentsshouldbeabletoplacean
andafoodweb. organismatthelevelofproducer,
primaryconsumer,secondary
consumer,andsoon,astheterms
herbivoreandcarnivorearenot
alwaysapplicable.
5.1.8 Constructafoodwebcontainingupto10organisms,
usingappropriateinformation.
5.1.9 StatethatlightistheinitialenergysourceforalmostallNoreferencetocommunitieswhere
communities. foodchainsstartwithchemicalenergy
isrequired.
5.1.10 Explaintheenergyflowinafoodchain. Energylossesbetweentrophiclevels
includematerialnotconsumedor
materialnotassimilated,andheatloss
throughcellrespiration.
5.1.11 Statethatenergytransformationsarenever100% Referencetothesecondlawof
efficient. thermodynamicsisnotexpected.
5.1.12 Explainreasonsfortheshapeofpyramidsofenergy. Apyramidofenergyshowstheflowof
energyfromonetrophicleveltothe
nextinacommunity.Theunitsof
pyramidsofenergyare,therefore,
energyperunitareaperunittime,for
example,kJm2yr1.
5.1.13 Explainthatenergyentersandleavesecosystems,but
nutrientsmustberecycled.
5.1.14 Statethatsaprotrophicbacteriaandfungi
(decomposers)recyclenutrients.


1. Explain the significance of the principle of competitive exclusion.

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(Total 3 marks)

2. Explain how parasitism differs from mutualism with reference to named organisms.

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(Total 6 marks)
3. Foraminifera are small protozoans found in the sediment of all marine ecosystems. Several
thousand species of foraminifera live in the Earth's oceans. Because a large number of
individuals can be found in a small amount of sediment and because they exist worldwide,
foraminifera are useful in examining the distribution of species. The bar graph below
summarises data gathered from five coastal regions around North America. Those species
occurring in all five regions are considered to be ubiquitous and those species occurring in only
one area are considered to be endemic. The species of foraminifera were placed into three
classes based on the number of times each species occurred at the five coastal regions.

Occurrences
(number of times species seen in a region)
500
> 32 E
E 2-32
400 1-2

300
Number of species E
200 E

U E U U U U
100

0
Pacific Arctic Atlantic Gulf of Caribbean
Mexico

[Source: Buzas and Culver, BioScience (1991), 41, pages 483489]

(a) Calculate the percentage of endemic species occurring in the Pacific region.

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(1)

(b) Among the five regions, deduce the region where it would be easiest to find most of the
ubiquitous species.

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(1)

(c) Compare the occurrence of endemic species in the Pacific and Caribbean regions.

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(2)
(d) Suggest, giving a reason, which of the Pacific, Atlantic or Caribbean regions will have a
greater extinction rate.

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(2)

(e) Identify which region has the lowest species diversity.

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(1)
(Total 7 marks)

4. On a field trip a group of students was asked to estimate the size of the population of a small,
nocturnal ground dwelling mammal, the long-nosed bandicoot (Perameles nasuta). The
bandicoot feeds on invertebrates and plant material found by digging pits 5 cm deep in the
ground with its front legs.

[Source: J Smith & P Smith, Fauna of the Blue Mountains, Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1990]

(a) (i) State the name of an appropriate technique to estimate the population size
of P. nasuta.

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1)
(ii) Describe this method of estimating the population size of P. nasuta.

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(b) Deduce, with reasons, the trophic level of P. nasuta in food chains.

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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

5. Ecologists sometimes measure the gross production and net production of a species in an
ecosystem.

(a) Define the term gross production.

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(1)

(b) Explain why the gross production of a species in an ecosystem is always higher than the
net production.

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(2)
(c) Outline the changes in the gross production of an ecosystem during ecological succession.

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(2)
(Total 5 marks)

6. Explain how energy and nutrients enter, move through, and exit a food chain in an ecosystem.
(Total 8 marks)

7. The Kluane boreal forest ecosystem project was a large scale ten year experimental
manipulation of food and predators on arctic ground squirrel population (Spermophilusparryii
plesius).

Three areas were set up:

a food addition area


a predator exclusion area
a food addition area enclosed within a predator exclusion area.

The areas were monitored from 1986 to 1996. In spring 1996 all fences were dismantled and
food addition was stopped.

As a further experiment, spring and summer mark-recapture population estimates of the


squirrels were conducted from spring 1996 to spring 1998. The results for these two years are
shown below. The areas are labelled according to the conditions imposed during the previous
ten years.

30
Control
25 Predator exclusion
Squirrels hectare 1

Food addition
20 Food addition plus
predator exclusion
15

10

0
Spring Summer Spring Summer Spring
1996 1996 1997 1997 1998

[Source: Karels et al., Nature, (2000), 408, Pages 460463)]


(a) State the squirrel population in the food addition plus predator exclusion area in spring
1996.

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(1)

(b) Describe the effect of ending food addition on the squirrel population.

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(2)

(c) Scientists believed that the number of ground squirrels in the boreal forests was limited
by an interaction between food and predators that acted primarily through changes in
reproduction. Using the data, discuss this hypothesis.

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(Total 6 marks)

8. (a) Define the term net production.

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(1)
(b) Complete the diagram of the nitrogen cycle by naming the organisms involved in
processes A, B and C below.

denitrification
N 2 in atmosphere
Denitrifying
C. bacteria
(Pseudomonas
lightning
denitrificans)

Proteins in feeding Proteins in


plants animals

death excretion
absorption A.
Fertilizers

Nitrates in soil decomposition

Ammonium
salts in soil

B. Nitrifying
Nitrites in soil bacteria
(Nitrosomonas)

(3)
(Total 4 marks)

9. (a) Outline the effect of living organisms on soil conditions.

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(2)
(b) Discuss the economic reasons for the conservation of tropical rainforest biodiversity.

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(3)
(Total 5 marks)

10. (a) Simpsons index is given by the following equation:

N (N 1)
D=
n(n 1)

where:

D = the diversity index, N = the total number of all species found and n = the number of
individuals of a particular species.

(i) State what would happen to this index if the numbers of one species increased but
the total number of species stays the same.

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(1)

(ii) State what a high value of D suggests about an ecosystem.

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(1)
(b) Explain the use of biotic indices in monitoring environmental changes.

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(3)
(Total 5 marks)

11. In the south-west of the USA, dams were built across rivers in the early 1900s to stop natural
flooding. As a result, a non-native tree Tamarix ramosissima (salt cedar) gradually replaced the
native Populus deltoides (cottonwood) as the dominant woody species. Flooding is being
re-established to reverse the invasion of Tamarix.
Studies were done to investigate the relative competitive abilities at the seedling stage using
different densities of the two species. Seedlings were grown in pots at different densities and
mixtures of the two species. A three dimensional model was developed to show the effect of the
densities of each species on Populus mass (graph A) and height (graph B). Densities represent
the number of seedlings per 20-cm-diameter pot.

[Source: A Sher, D Marshall and S Gilbert, (2000) Conservation Biology, 14, pages 17221754]
(a) Considering the pots where Populus is growing without Tamarix, describe the change in
mass and height of Populus with increased density of Populus seedlings.

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(b) Describe how Tamarix density affects Populus height.

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(1)

(c) Suggest two factors that could have allowed Tamarix to dominate in non-flood
conditions.

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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

12. (a) Distinguish between parasitism and mutualism.

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(2)
(b) Outline the management of nature reserves.

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(2)
(Total 4 marks)

13. In communities, groups of populations live together and interact with each other. Outline the
importance of plants to populations of other organisms in a community.
(Total 6 marks)

14. Ecosystems require an input of energy, water and nutrients to maintain themselves. Nutrients
may be reused through recycling within ecosystems.

Nutrient cycling within an ecosystem has been studied in many biomes. One factor studied is
the mean residence time (MRT), which is the amount of time needed for one cycle of
decomposition (from absorption by organism to release after death). The table below gives the
mean residence time for certain nutrients in four different biomes. In addition, the plant
productivity is also shown. (Plant productivity gives an indication of the quantity of biomass
potentially available to consumers.)

Mean residence time / years


Biome Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Magnesium Plant
productivity
2 1
/g Cm yr
Sub-arctic forest 353.0 230.0 324.0 94.0 149.0 455.0 360
Temperate forest 4.0 5.5 5.8 1.3 3.0 3.4 540
Chaparral 3.8 4.2 3.6 1.4 5.0 2.8 270
Tropical 0.4 2.0 1.6 0.7 1.5 1.1 900
rainforest

[Source: W H Schlesinger (1991), in M Bush, Ecology of a Changing Planet (1997), Prentice Hall, page 67]

(a) (i) State which nutrient shows the shortest mean residence time in a temperate forest.

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(1)

(ii) Identify the biome in which potassium has the longest mean residence time.

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(1)
(b) Compare the mean residence time for nutrients in the temperate forest and chaparral.

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(2)

(c) Evaluate the relationship between the mean residence time and plant productivity for the
different biomes.

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(2)

(d) Suggest one reason for the difference in mean residence time of nutrients in the tropical
rainforest and the sub-arctic forest.

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(1)

(e) Define the term ecosystem.

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(1)
In addition to nutrients, other atmospheric elements may also enter the ecosystem. Radioactive
cesium-137 was released into the atmosphere by atomic bomb tests in 1961. The cesium-137
was deposited in the soil and on to plants. The graph shows the amount of radioactivity found in
the tissues of lichens (an alga and a fungus growing together), caribou (a member of the deer
family) and the Inuit (people of Alaska and Northern Canada) in the Anaktuvuk Pass of Alaska.

Inuit

Increasing radioactivity
/ nCi g 1

Caribou

Lichens

June Dec June Dec June Dec June Dec June Dec June
1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

[Source: W G Henson, Cesium-137 in Alaska Lichens, Caribou and Inuit. Health Physics, (1967), 13,
pages 383389, Pergamon Press; reproduced with permission from the Health Physics Society]

(f) Describe the level of cesium-137 in the Inuit from 1962 through to 1965.

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(2)

(g) The three organisms form a food chain. Deduce the trophic level of

(i) lichens. ...............................................................................................................

(ii) the Inuit. ...............................................................................................................


(2)

(h) Suggest a reason for the difference in the amount of cesium-137 found in lichens, caribou
and the Inuit.

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(1)
(Total 13 marks)
15. The total solar energy received by a grassland is 5 l05 kJ m2 y1. The net production of the
grassland is 5 102 kJ m2 y1 and its gross production is 6 l02 kJ m2 y1. The total energy
passed on to primary consumers is 60 kJ m2 y1. Only 10 % of this energy is passed on to the
secondary consumers.

(a) Calculate the energy lost by plant respiration.

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(2)

(b) Construct a pyramid of energy for this grassland.

(3)
(Total 5 marks)

16. (a) State how gross production differs from net production in an ecosystem.

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(1)

(b) State the units that would be used if constructing a pyramid of energy.

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(1)
(c) Explain how parasitism differs from mutualism, giving an example of each.

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(4)
(Total 6 marks)

17. What term refers to a community and its abiotic environment?

A. Biosphere

B. Ecosystem

C. Habitat

D. Niche
(1)

18. Which organisms externally digest dead organic matter and then absorb the nutrients?

A. Autotrophs

B. Detritivores

C. Heterotrophs

D. Saprotrophs
(1)

19. Outline ways in which leaves take part in the carbon cycle in ecosystems, apart from
photosynthesis.
(Total 4 marks)
20. Outline the use of the Simpson diversity index.

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(Total 3 marks)

21. The relationship between the numbers of rodent species and rainfall was studied in dry areas of
Chile and in the south-west of the United States. The results of the study are shown in the
scattergraph below.

Key:
8 Chile
USA

Number of species 4

0
10 50 100 500
Rainfall / mm

[Source: UNEP, (1995), Global Biodiversity Assessment, Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, page 154]
(a) Calculate the difference between the number of species found at 80 mm of rainfall and at
100 mm of rainfall in

(i) Chile.

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(1)

(ii) the USA.

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(1)

(b) Compare the relationship between the number of rodent species and rainfall in Chile with
that of the USA.

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(2)

(c) Suggest two reasons for the relationship between the number of rodent species and
rainfall in each country.

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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

22. (a) Outline changes caused in marine ecosystems by over-fishing.

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(2)
(b) Explain the low numbers of organisms in higher trophic levels of a food chain.

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(2)
(Total 4 marks)

23. (a) Describe the use of ex situ conservation measures.

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(3)

(b) (i) Define the term niche.

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(1)
(ii) Explain the niche concept using a named organism.

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(4)
(Total 8 marks)

24. What are the two components of an ecosystem?

A. community and abiotic environment

B. species and habitat

C. habitat and abiotic environment

D. species and community


(1)
25. The reticulated python (Python reticulatus), a species of snake, consumes rats as part of its diet.
The graph shows changes in the proportion of rats in the diet of male and female reticulated
pythons from southern Sumatra as the length of the snake increases.

1.0 Males
Females
0.8

0.6
Proportion of diet
composed of rats
0.4

0.2

0.0
100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Length of snake / cm

[Source: R Shine, et al., (1998) Functional Ecology, 12, pages 248258]

(a) Identify the relationship between the proportion of diet composed of rats and the length of
female pythons.

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(1)

(b) Compare the feeding preferences of female and male pythons of lengths between

(i) 100 and 300 cm.

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(1)

(ii) 300 and 400 cm.

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(1)
(c) Suggest two reasons for the differences in feeding preferences of the pythons as length
increases.

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(2)

The snakes were bought at local markets and skinning factories in Sumatra. Therefore, the
origin of the individual snakes was not known. Estimations about prey size and species were
made from fur and skeletal remains in the gut of the snakes.

(d) Suggest two factors that could influence the reliability of the results of this investigation.

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(2)
(Total 7 marks)

26. Discuss, giving named examples, the difficulties of placing organisms in higher trophic levels.

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(Total 4 marks)
27. The water flea (Daphnia sp.) normally produces eggs asexually. Under certain conditions,
Daphnia will switch to sexual reproduction, producing "resting" eggs that can survive dormant
for many years.

The graph below shows how the day length and biomass of algae (a food source for Daphnia)
varies over the course of the year in the habitat of Daphnia.

18

16 biomass of algae
day length

14
Biomass
Day length of algae /
12 arbitrary
/h
units
10

J F M A M J J A S O N D
Month

[Source: V Alekseev and W Lampert, Nature, (2001), 414, pages 899901]

(a) Identify the month during which the quantity of food is at a maximum.

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(1)

(b) Compare the changes in biomass of algae with the changes in day length from January to
June.

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(3)
An investigation was conducted to determine how conditions experienced by one generation of
Daphnia can affect resting egg production by the next generation. The investigation examined
the influence of three variables on resting egg production: day length, quantity of food
(photosynthetic algae), and conditions experienced by the previous generation.

The table below shows the percentage of resting eggs produced under the various conditions.

Conditions experienced by Conditions experienced by Percentage of resting eggs


1st generation mother 2nd generation mothers produced by 2nd
generation
Food Levels Day Length Food Levels Day Length
High Short Day High Short Day 0.0
High Long Day 0.0
Low Short Day 52.3
Low Long Day 38.0
High Long Day High Short Day 0.0
High Long Day 0.0
Low Short Day 13.0
Low Long Day 11.0
Low Short Day High Short Day 0.0
High Long Day 0.0
Low Short Day 7.5
Low Long Day 15.8
Low Long Day High Short Day 0.0
High Long Day 0.0
Low Short Day 0.0
Low Long Day 30.7

(c) Discuss the conditions in the 2nd generation which favour resting egg production.

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(d) Using the graph, deduce, giving a reason, whether resting egg production is likely in
April.

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(1)

(e) Determine the change between the 1st generation and the 2nd generation which is most
likely to trigger resting egg production.

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(1)

(f) Suggest the advantages of having asexual and sexual reproduction in Daphnia.

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(3)
(Total 12 marks)

28. Ecologists sometimes investigate one population and at other times do research into a whole
community. Define the terms population and community.
(Total 4 marks)
29. In Norway the body masses of young moose (calves) fluctuate from year-to-year in the fall
(autumn). Because of the regularity of the pattern, the fluctuation was thought to be related to
food availability. Moose (Alce alce) eat bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), as do the bank vole
(Clethrionomys glareolus). It was known that the bank vole populations peaked the year after
high bilberry production.

These population changes were studied in a Northern area and a Southern area of Norway. The
variation in mean fall (autumn) body mass of moose calves and the bank vole density are shown
for the two areas in the graphs below.

Northern area
30
70
Moose
20
Moose calf 60 Bank vole density
body mass / kg / arbitrary units
50 10

Vole
40 0
1971 1979 1987 1995
1972 1980 1988 1996
Year

Southern area
30
70 Moose
20
Moose calf 60 Vole Bank vole density
body mass / kg / arbitrary units
50 10

40 0
1971 1979 1987 1995
1972 1980 1988 1996
Year

[Source: V Sels et al., OIKOS, (2001), 92, pages 271278. Reprinted from OIKOS]

(a) (i) State the lowest body mass of moose calves in the Northern area.

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(1)

(ii) Determine the year in which bank vole density was highest in the Northern area.

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(1)
(b) Compare the variations in the moose calf body mass in both areas.

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...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) Evaluate the hypothesis that both populations vary according to the availability of the
common food source, the bilberry.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

30. (a) State two factors that affect the distribution of animal species.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Explain the principal of competitive exclusion.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(3)
(c) Outline the process of ecological succession.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

31. Sea water temperature has an effect on the spawning (release of eggs) of echinoderms living in
Antarctic waters. Echinoderm larvae feed on phytoplankton. In this investigation, the spawning
of echinoderms and its effect on phytoplankton was studied.
In the figure below, the top line indicates the number of larvae caught (per 5000 litres of sea
water). The shaded bars below show when spawning occurred in echinoderms.

= 0 % to 25 %
= 25 % to 75 %
= 75 % to 100%

The concentration of chlorophyll gives an indication of the concentration of phytoplankton.


Note: that the seasons in the Antarctic are reversed from those in the northern hemisphere.

Number of 80
echinoderm larvae 0

% Spawning of
echinoderm

Sea temperature /C
2
1
Sea temperature / C
0
1
2
100
Log10 Chlorophyll 10 phytoplankton
concentration
/ mg m3 1
0.1
0.01
Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec
1993 1994

[Source: adapted from Stairwell-Smith and Peck, Biological Bulletin, (1998), 194, pages 4452]

(a) State the trophic level of echinoderm larvae.

...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Identify the period during which the spawning of echinoderm lies between 25 % and
75%.

...............................................................................................................................................
(1)
(c) Explain the relationship between the seasons and the concentration of phytoplankton.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) (i) Outline the effect of sea water temperature on echinoderm larvae numbers.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Using the data in the figure, predict the effect of global warming on echinoderm
larvae numbers.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

32. Sea turtles have existed on Earth for millions of years, but are now threatened by human
activities, both at sea and on the sandy beaches where they lay their eggs. All species of sea
turtle reproduce in a similar way. During the breeding season, when females have mated at sea
they emerge from the ocean at night and drag themselves up a beach. They dig a pit into which
they lay fertilized eggs. After covering the eggs with sand the females return to the ocean. The
warmth of the sun on the sand incubates the eggs allowing the development of young turtles,
called hatchlings. These emerge after about 50 days and move down the beach at night to the
ocean.

Ecologists have been keeping records of the nesting activity of sea turtles along the eastern
coastline of Florida since the 1950s. The bar chart below shows the mean number of nests per
kilometre of beach between 1989 and 1998 for the three species of sea turtle that are commonly
found.
Loggerheads Green Turtles Leatherbacks
(Caretta caretta) (Chelonia mydas) (Dermochelys coriacea)

30

Canaveral

Latitude / degrees Melbourne Beach


north of the equator 28

Hutchinson Island
Jupiter Island
Juno Beach

Boca Raton
26
0 1000 0 50 0 5

Nests km1

[Source: M Salmon, Biologist, (2003), 50, pages 163168]

(a) State which species of turtle nests in the greatest numbers on Jupiter Island.

...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Compare the distribution of nesting in the three species of turtle along the eastern
coastline of Florida.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(2)
(c) The parts of the coastline where there was most nesting were those where there was least
human activity and therefore least artificial light. Suggest an experiment that could be
done to test whether artificial light discourages nesting.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

A study was undertaken at the southernmost nesting site, at Boca Raton. Here a beach lies
adjacent to a series of apartment buildings that are unoccupied during the nesting season. These
buildings therefore shade the beach from artificial light further inland. The location of nest sites
along the beach has been accurately recorded, in relation to the position of the apartment
buildings. The chart below shows the locations of the nests and apartment buildings and the
height of the buildings as seen from the beach.

60
Height / m 40
20
0
100 metres

Villa Del Whitehall


Mar Arvita Placide
3000 South Stratford Arms
Whitehall South
Location of nests ( )
and
apartment buildings ( )

Atlantic Ocean

[Source: M Salmon, Biologist, (2003), 50, pages 163168]


(d) Explain how the distribution of turtle nests provides evidence for female turtles choosing
sites that are dark at night.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(4)

On beaches where there is no human activity, hatchlings move directly towards the ocean after
emergence at night. The hatchlings can orientate themselves using one or more external stimuli.
An experiment was done at Boca Raton to test the ability of hatchlings to locate the ocean at
different levels of artificial light. Four sites were chosen and numbered 14, ranging from the
darkest site (1), to the site most exposed to artificial lighting (4). At each site a four-metre
diameter circle was marked. Hatchlings were released at the centre of each circle and the trails
made in the sand by their movements were recorded. The diagrams below show these trails. The
arrow head on the outside of the circle shows the mean direction of the tracks.

(1) (2)

Ocean

(3) (4)
(e) Compare the movement of the hatchlings at the different intensities of artificial light.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

(f) Deduce one external stimulus, and the source of this stimulus, that allows hatchlings to
orientate themselves at sites unaffected by human activity.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

(g) Using the data in this question,

(i) explain two reasons for artificial light reducing the chances of survival of sea
turtles.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) suggest one conservation measure, aimed at increasing the chances of survival of
sea turtles.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 15 marks)
33. A study was conducted to investigate the growth factors affecting plants in urban areas
compared to rural areas. Fast-growing clones of Eastern cottonwood trees (Populus deltoids)
were grown in both urban and rural sites. The results of three successive growing seasons (X, Y,
and Z) are shown below.

Season X Season Y Season Z


100 100 100
80 80 80
Shoot 60 60 60
biomass / g
40 40 40
20 20 20
0 0 0
Root
20 20 20
biomass / g
40 40 40
LI HV NY LI HV NY LI HV NY
Key: LI and HV are rural sites and NY is an urban site

[Source: Gregg et al., Nature (2003), 424, pages 183187]

(a) Identify the site which most favours the growth of cottonwood trees.

...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Calculate the ratio of shoot biomass to root biomass in site LI during season X.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) Analyse the data for growth patterns over the three years of the study.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(3)

A further study showed that differences in light, temperature, water, CO2 concentration, and the
soil could not account for the differences in growth of the cottonwoods in the urban and rural
areas.
(d) Suggest a reason which could account for the growth differences.

...............................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

34. Explain how an organism's abiotic environment can be affected by ecological succession.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 6 marks)
35. The energy flow diagram below for a temperate ecosystem has been divided into two parts. One
part shows autotrophic use of energy and the other shows the heterotrophic use of energy. All
values are kJm 2 yr1.

Autotrophs Heterotrophs

heat 14 140
heat
23 930
autotrophic heterotrophic
respiration respiration
gross
photosynthesis production net production feeding storage
43 510 X 14 690 540

storage
4 900

(a) Calculate the net production of the autotrophs.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) (i) Compare the percentage of heat lost through respiration by the autotrophs with the
heterotrophs.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Most of the heterotrophs are animals. Suggest one reason for the difference in heat
losses between the autotrophs and animal heterotrophs.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

The heterotrophic community can be divided into food webs based upon decomposers and food
webs based upon herbivores. It has been shown that of the energy consumed by the
heterotrophs, 99 % is consumed by the decomposer food webs.

(c) State the importance of decomposers in an ecosystem.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(1)
(d) Deduce the long-term effects of sustained pollution which kills decomposers on
autotrophic productivity.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)
5.2Thegreenhouseeffect
AssessmentStatement IBONotes StudentNotes
5.2.1 Drawandlabeladiagramofthecarboncycletoshow Thedetailsofthecarboncycleshould
theprocessesinvolved. includetheinteractionofliving
organismsandthebiospherethrough
theprocessesofphotosynthesis,cell
respiration,fossilizationand
combustion.Recallofspecific
quantitativedataisnotrequired.
TOK:Whatdifferencemightitmaketo
scientificworkifnatureweretobe
regardedasamachine,forexample,as
aclockworkmechanism,orasan
organism,thatis,theGaiahypothesis?
Howusefularethesemetaphors?
5.2.2 Analysethechangesinconcentrationofatmospheric DatafromtheMaunaLoa,Hawaii,or
carbondioxideusinghistoricalrecords. CapeGrim,Tasmania,monitoring
stationsmaybeused.
5.2.3 Explaintherelationshipbetweenrisesin Studentsshouldbeawarethatthe
concentrationsofatmosphericcarbondioxide, greenhouseeffectisanatural
methaneandoxidesofnitrogenandtheenhanced phenomenon.Referenceshouldbe
greenhouseeffect. madetotransmissionofincoming
shorterwaveradiationandre
radiatedlongerwaveradiation.
Knowledgethatothergases,including
methaneandoxidesofnitrogen,are
greenhousegasesisexpected.
5.2.4 Outlinetheprecautionaryprinciple. Theprecautionaryprincipleholdsthat,
iftheeffectsofahumaninduced
changewouldbeverylarge,perhaps
catastrophic,thoseresponsibleforthe
changemustprovethatitwillnotdo
harmbeforeproceeding.Thisisthe
reverseofthenormalsituation,where
thosewhoareconcernedaboutthe
changewouldhavetoprovethatitwill
doharminordertopreventsuch
changesgoingahead.
TOK:Parallelscouldbedrawnhere
betweensuccessindeterringcrimeby
increasingtheseverityofthe
punishmentorbyincreasingthe
chanceofdetection.Ifthepossible
consequencesofrapidglobalwarming
aredevastatingenough,preventive
measuresarejustifiedevenifitisfar
fromcertain thatrapidglobalwarming
willresultfromcurrenthuman
activities.
5.2.5 Evaluatetheprecautionaryprincipleasajustification Aim8:Considerwhetherthe
forstrongactioninresponsetothethreatsposedby economicharmofmeasurestaken
theenhancedgreenhouseeffect. nowtolimitglobalwarmingcouldbe
balancedagainstthepotentiallymuch
greaterharmforfuturegenerationsof
takingnoactionnow.Therearealso
ethicalquestionsaboutwhetherthe
healthandwealthoffuturehuman
generationsshouldbejeopardized,
andwhetheritisrighttoknowingly
damagethehabitatof,andpossibly
drivetoextinction,speciesotherthan
humans.
Theenvironmentalanglehereisthat
theissueofglobalwarmingis,by
definition,agenuinelyglobalonein
termsofcauses,consequencesand
remedies.Onlythroughinternational
cooperationwillasolutionbefound.
Thereisaninequalitybetweenthose
intheworldwhoarecontributing
mosttotheproblemandthosewho
willbemostharmed.
5.2.6 Outlinetheconsequencesofaglobaltemperaturerise Effectsincludeincreasedratesof
onarcticecosystems. decompositionofdetrituspreviously
trappedinpermafrost,expansionof
therangeofhabitatsavailableto
temperatespecies,lossoficehabitat,
changesindistributionofpreyspecies
affectinghighertrophiclevels,and
increasedsuccessofpestspecies,
includingpathogens.


5.3Populations
AssessmentStatement IBONotes StudentNotes
5.3.1 Outlinehowpopulationsizeisaffectedbynatality, Aim7:Simulationexercisescanbe
immigration,mortalityandemigration. performed.
5.3.2 Drawandlabelagraphshowingasigmoid(Sshaped)
populationgrowthcurve.
5.3.3 Explainthereasonsfortheexponentialgrowthphase,
theplateauphaseandthetransitionalphasebetween
thesetwophases.
5.3.4 Listthreefactorsthatsetlimitstopopulationincrease.


5.4Evolution
AssessmentStatement IBONotes StudentNotes
5.4.1 Defineevolution. Evolutionisthecumulativechangein
theheritablecharacteristicsofa
population.
Ifweacceptnotonlythatspeciescan
evolve,butalsothatnewspeciesarise
byevolutionfrompreexistingones,
thenthewholeoflifecanbeseenas
unifiedbyitscommonorigins.
Variationwithinourspeciesisthe
resultofdifferentselectionpressures
operatingindifferentpartsofthe
world,yetthisvariationisnotsovast
tojustifyaconstructsuchasrace
havingabiologicalorscientificbasis.
5.4.2 Outlinetheevidenceforevolutionprovidedbythefossil
record,selectivebreedingofdomesticatedanimalsand
homologousstructures.
5.4.3 Statethatpopulationstendtoproducemoreoffspring
thantheenvironmentcansupport.
5.4.4 Explainthattheconsequenceofthepotential
overproductionofoffspringisastruggleforsurvival.
5.4.5 Statethatthemembersofaspeciesshowvariation.
5.4.6 Explainhowsexualreproductionpromotesvariationin
aspecies.
5.4.7 Explainhownaturalselectionleadstoevolution. Greatersurvivalandreproductive
successofindividualswithfavourable
heritablevariationscanleadtochange
inthecharacteristicsofapopulation.
Aim7:Computersimulationscanbe
performed.
5.4.8 Explaintwoexamplesofevolutioninresponseto Otherexamplescouldinclude:the
environmentalchange;onemustbeantibiotic changesinsizeandshapeofthebeaks
resistanceinbacteria. ofGalapagosfinches;pesticide
resistance,industrialmelanismor
heavymetaltoleranceinplants.


5.5Classification
AssessmentStatement IBONotes StudentNotes
5.5.1 Outlinethebinomialsystemofnomenclature. TOK:Theadoptionofasystemof
binomialnomenclatureislargelydue
toSwedishbotanistandphysician
CarolusLinnaeus(17071778).
Linnaeusalsodefinedfourgroupsof
humans,andthedivisionswerebased
onbothphysicalandsocialtraits.By
21stcenturystandards,his
descriptionscanberegardedasracist.
Howdoesthesocialcontextof
scientificworkaffectthemethodsand
findingsofresearch?Isitnecessaryto
considerthesocialcontextwhen
evaluatingethicalaspectsof
knowledgeclaims?
5.5.2 Listsevenlevelsinthehierarchyoftaxakingdom,
phylum,class,order,family,genusandspeciesusing
anexamplefromtwodifferentkingdomsforeachlevel.
5.5.3 Distinguishbetweenthefollowingphylaofplants,using
simpleexternalrecognitionfeatures:bryophyta,
filicinophyta,coniferophytaandangiospermophyta.
5.5.4 Distinguishbetweenthefollowingphylaofanimals,
usingsimpleexternalrecognitionfeatures:porifera,
cnidaria,platyhelminthes,annelida,molluscaand
arthropoda.
5.5.5 Applyanddesignakeyforagroupofuptoeight Adichotomouskeyshouldbeused.
organisms.