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Disc Contents IPA, 2006 - 14th Annual Convention Proceedings, 1985

Fourteenth Annual Convention, October 1985



T. Koning*

ABSTRACT signing of the Singkarak Block Production Sharing Contract

The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin with Pertamina. The Singkarak Block, covering an area of
located w i t h the Barisan Mountain Range of West Su- 7265 sq km (2805 sq mi), was unexplored for hydro-
matera. This basin was totally unexplored for oil and gas carbons prior to CPI's commencement of exploration ac-
until P.T. Caltex Pacific Indonesia initiated exploration tivities. During the three-and-a-half years of the Singkarak
activities in February 1981 after signing the Singkarak Block contract life, detailed surface geology mapping was
Block Production Sharing Contract with Pertamina. Geo- carried out and extensive airborne radar (SAR), seismic,
logical field mapping, an airborne radar (SAR) survey, and and gravity coverage was obtained. This effort resulted in
gravity and seismic surveys were carried out in the Ombilin the spudding of Sinamar No. 1 in November 1983 which
Basin and provided a wealth of new geological and geo- was drilled to a total depth of 9902 feet (3018 meters).
physical information which led to the drilling of the Sina- Sinamar No. 1 has historical significance for Indonesia's
mar No. 1 exploratory well to a total depth of 9902 ft oil industry. It is the first exploratory well drilled for hydro-
(3018 m). carbons in the Ombilin Basin, and the first such well drilled
Sinamar No. 1 is a significant well in the history of in the Province of West Sumatra. However, of greater
Indonesia's oil industry since it is the first oil and gas significance is Sinamar No. 1's distinction as the first well
exploration well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indo- ever to be drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia.
nesia. In addition to being the first well drdled in the Despite the high risk normally associated with first-time
Ombilin Basin, Sinamar No. 1 also represents the first oil drilling of an unproven play in an untested basin, Sinamar
and gas exploratory drilling in the Province of West Su- No. 1 tested flows of oil, gas and condensate in small vo-
matra. lumes.
Seismic and well data indicate that despite the small The Ombilin Basin is a relatively small Tertiary basin
areal size of the Ombilin Basin (approximately 1500 sq covering approximately 1500 sq km within the Padang
km), up to 15,000 ft (4600 m) of Tertiary sediments are Highlands (Fig. 1 and 2). The basin is well known for coal
present. The Tertiary section in the basin ranges in age mining carried out since 1891 in the Sawahlunto area.
from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. Significant deposi- Many explorationists in Indonesia's petroleum industry
tional hiatuses occur within the Tertiary succession. Pre- are also acquainted with the Ombilin Basin through the
vious geological mapping by the Institute of Technology Indonesian Petroleum Association and CPI-sponsored uni-
Bandung and information obtained by the recent oil and versity field trips which have visited superbly exposed
gas exploration indicates that the Ombilin Basin was a outcrops of Tertiary sediments along the basin's eastern
true intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary history. and western margins. The Ombilin Basin is far removed and
Massive debris flows and extensive alluvial fan deposits in a different tectonic setting than Sumatra's oil producing
occur on the basin margins and in a large Eocene lake occupi- fairway in the South, Central and North Sumatra back-arc
ed the basin center. Uphft and erosion since Middle Woce- (foreland) basins. The closest oil production is the Langgak
ne has reduced the Ombilin Basin to its present areal con- field operated by CPI and located over 120 km north of the
figuration. Although this basin is located within Sumatra's Ombilin Basin.
magmatic arc and- is partially covered by volcanics from
extinct and active volcanoes, subsurface temperature The Singkarak Block covers a large area, however, only a
gradients are significantly cooler than those in the Sumatra limited portion of the block is regarded as having oil and
back-arc basins. Eocene lacustrine shales and Oligocene gas potential. Much of the block consists of surface expo-
marine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydro- sures of pre-Tertiary basement rocks comprising the core
carbons tested in Sinamar No. 1 and the oil seepages lo- of the Barisan Mountains of Sumatra. The Singkarak Block
cated along the basin margins. overlies the magmatic arc and several active volcanoes with
heights of up to 9480 ft (2890 m) occur in the block, The
INTRODUCTION volcanic activity has resulted in widespread deposits of
P.T. Caltex Paci@ic Indonesia (CPI) initiated exploration Recent volcanic effusives which blanket large areas and
in the Ombilin Basin, West Sumatra in February 1981 by conceal the underlying Tertiary sedimentary sequences and
pre-Tertiary basement rocks. Indeed, the products from the
* PT CALTEX Pacific Indonsia, Jakarta, Indonesia Marapi volcano, which is presently the most active volcano
in the block, cover an area of about 450 sq km. The useful for (1) highlighting structural features unobservable
landscape varies from rugged, jungle-covered mountain at ground level (2) accurately locating structural elements
hghlands to intensively-cultivated, rice paddy terraced mapped by the field party (3) ~rovidinga regional structural
lowlands, which are nourished by fertile soils derived from framework, and (4) planning an efficient seismic grid which
the volcanic rock assemblages. avoided areas of extreme topography and inaccessabdity.


(3). Seismic Survey
(1). Surface Geology Mapping Project
Seismic operations encountered numerous challenges in
There was listtle detailed knowledge of the geology of the Singkarak Block. The area was totally unexplored for
the Singkarak Block prior to signing the contract with Per- hydrocarbons; consequently, information on sediment thick-
tamina. Surface geological maps (1:250,000 scale) by nesses, rock lithologies and velocities was scanty to nonexis-
Kastowo and Gerhard (1973) and Silitonga and Kastowo tent. The ability of seismic to penetrate the extensive
(1975) of the Geological Survey of Indonesia were used in deposits of Recent volcanics was uncertain. Consequently,
the initial block evaluation. However, these maps are large. the effectiveness of reflection seismic as an exploration
scale and were primarily useful for outlining areas of Ter- tool was also of concern. Much of the block consists
tiary sedimentary outcrops; detailed stratigraphic des- of rugged mountainous terraine with elevations ranging
criptions were absent. The Koesoemadinata et al. (1977) between 700 f t (200 m) and 3000 ft (900 m) above sea level
paper on Indonesian coal basins was valuable in obtaining a which presented serious problems in recording and logistics.
general overview of the structure of the Ombilin Basin. The Annual rainfall of approximately 120 inches (300 cm) and
definitive paper by Koesoemadinata and Matasak (1981) seasonal flooding also presented access and logistics prob-
which reviewed in-depth the results of field mapping in the lems. These problems were partially offset by a good road
O m b b Basin by the Institute of Technology Bandung net throughout most of the block which facilitated logistic-
(ITB) had not yet been published when exploration com- al support. The most prospective area in the block is the
menced in the block. Ombilin Basin; an area of high population density and
Accordingly, little specific information was available intensive agriculture. Rice-paddies cover most of the level
regarding basin depth, subsurface temperatures, or the areas. The local population maintain the traditional and
presence of reservoir, cap and hydrocarbon source rocks. complex Minangkabau culture. The introduction of a high
The principal encouragement for exploration of the Singka- technology seismic operation into this area required patien-
rak Block were two oil seeps located along the southern and ce, tactfullness and an understanding of the local culture
western margins of the Ombilin Basin. These seeps in- to ensure cooperation of the population. To overcome
dicated that oil source rocks were present in the Ombilin socio-cultural problems and to benefit the local economy,
Basin and had been subjected t o temperatures sufficiently over ninety percent of the 800 man crew consisted of
high to cause oil generation. West Sumatrans. Close consultation with provincial and lo-
A field mapping team was organized consisting of N.R. cal government officials resulted in a high level of co-
Cameron and J.A. Aspden of the Institute of Geological operation from the local population and contributed to
Sciences, Keyworth, England, and N. Suwarna and Suharso- the effectiveness of seismic operations.
no of the Geological Research and Development Centre, Two short experimental lines were shot in the Ombilin
Bandung. Several undergraduate students from ITB served Basin in May 1981. The results were encouraging and
as field mapping assistants. From August through Novem- were used to guide the selection of recording parameters.
ber 1981 the mapping team concentrated its efforts o? the In November 1981, production seismic commenced and
Ombilin Basin. Reconnaissance mapping was carried out in approximately 660 km of reconnaissance and detail data
other less prospective parts of the Singkarak Block. The were recorded until cessation of shootkg in April 1983.
mapping provided a wealth of new geological information Most of the seismic was recorded in the Ombilin Basin
which guided the subsequent exploration activities in the where seismic results were definitive. The seismic data is
block. of sufficient resolution t o identify sedimentary structures
such as wedge outs, foreset bedding and slump features.
(2). Synthetic Aperture Radar Survey Reconnaissance seismic was recorded in the Talawi Syncline,
In heavily vegetated tropical regions, the cloud-free con- the Lake Singkarak Graben and the Payakumbuh Basin.
ditions required for air photo surveys are seldom present. Since well control was absent in the Ombilin Basin,
Cloud cover restricted effective use of parts of the available surface geological data was used to identify events in the
aerial photo coverage and, furthermore, the existing photo seismic sections. To accurately integrate the outcrop geo-
coverage was incomplete. The relevant Landsat imagery was logy into the seismic sections, the surface elevation profiles
also hindered by cloud cover and did not provide sufficient (in two-way time above a 450 ft datum) were plotted on
geological detail. Accordingly, a side-looking radar survey all sections. Data from the surface geology maps, such as
of the Singkarak Block was carried out with synthetic formation boundaries and rates of dip were transferred
aperture radar (SAR). onto each section, projected into the seismic data and map-
The SAR was flown in October 1981 over an area of ped throughout the seismic grid. In many parts of the
4500 sq km at an altitude of 37,000 ft (1 1,280 m). Com- Ombilin Basin, deep weathering and extensive Recent allu-
plete coverage was obtained in one day. The SAR was very vium obscures the outcropping of Tertiary sediments.
However many of the seismic shotholes were drilled to indicated an Eocene age for graben development. Ka-
depths of 100 ft 125 ft (30 m - 40 m) through the wea- tili and Hehuwat (1967) noted that Middle Cretaceous
thered zone or alluvium and into the underlying Tertiary to Early Tertiary orogenesis was responsible for graben
strata. Binocular microscope examinations of bottom hole formation and that transcurrent tectonics were not active
cuttings samples from the shotoles were very useful for until Lower Pleistocene. On the basis of the presently
accurately identifying formation boundaries which were available geological data, we believe that the Ombilin Basin
integrated with the seismic data. is a graben-like, pull-apart structure resulting from Early
Tertiary tensional tectonics related to strike-slip movement
(4). Gravity Survey along the Great Sumatran Fault Zone. However, subsequent
A gravity survey was carried out in the Singkarak Block stages of erosion and faulting hinders the reconstruction of
between July 1982 and April 1983, obtaining over 2800 the original Ombilin Basin configuration. The Great Su-
km coverage. The objective of the gravity survey was to matra Fault Zone probably has had a long and complex
obtain regional gravity control throughout the block and geologic history. Indeed, the role of this fault zone in pre-
identify encouraging areas which would be subsequently Tertiary time is uncertain and will hopefully be better
evaluated by seismic. Gravity readings were also obtained understood as additional geological information becomes
along all seismic lines shot in the Ombilin Basin. Close available from West Sumatra.
correspondence was evident between the gravity and re- The Ombilin Basin is regarded as a pull-apart basin. The
gional structures. Consequently the gravity data were term "pull-apart" was first introduced by Burchfiel and
integrated with the seismic and surface geological informati- Stewart (1966) who suggested that the central part of
on in the structural analysis of the Basin. Death Valley, California resulted from tension along a
segment of a strike-slip fault oriented slightly oblique to
REGIONAL STRUCTURAL SETTING the main trend of the fault zone. This tectonism caused a
The geology of West Sumatra is dominated by two dis- pulling apart of the two sides of Death Valley and the
formation of a median graben. Since the introduction of
tinctive and intimately related tectonic features: the
this term in 1966, a pull-apart origin has been proposed for
magmatic arc and the Great Sumaira Fault System (Katili
many basisns (Mann et al., 1983). The structural geology of
and Hehuwat, 1967). Both are major regional tectonic
the Ombilin Basin is strikingly similar to that of Death
features extending over 1,650 kilometers from Semangko
Bay at the southwestern end of Sumatra to the north- Valley (Fig. 5). The Ombilin Basin is structurally also very
similar to the Ridge Basin, Southern California which, des-
western tip of the island in Aceh. The Indian Ocean plate
is presently moving obliquely to the Southeast Asian plate. pite its small areal size of only 200 sq km, contains over
The convergence of these two plates has created a strong 44,000 ft (13,000 m) of marine, fluvial, and lacustrine
dextral wrench stress whch is expressed in the Great Su- Tertiary and Pleistocene sediments deposited in an active
matra Fault zone. The consistent right lateral wrench fault wrench-fault setting (Crowell and Link, 1982).
character of the main movement along this fault was initially Studies of sediments in ancient pull-apart basins show
described by Durham (1940), and Katili and Hehuwat that pull-apart basin deposits are characterized by the fol-
(1967) and a minimum lateral displacement of 25 km was lowing: (1) great stratigraphic thickness relative to basin
postulated. Reconnaissance field mapping, aeromagnetics size, (2) high rates of sedimentation, (3) thick asymmetric
and photogeology by PT Rio Tinto Bethlehem Indonesia sedimentary sequences and facies patterns, (4) organization
in West Sumatra indicated a measureable right lateral shift of facies into marginal fault-bounded fanglomerates and
of 130 km along the Great Sumatra fault (Posavec et al., central flood basin/playa/lacustrine deposits, (5) dominant
1973). longitudinal mode of basin infill, and (6) textural cycles
The Great Sumatra Fault zone is active; stream offsets that reflect tectonic activity (Hempton & Dunne, 1984).
and road dislocations are evidence of the present day lateral These characteristics have all been noted in the Ombdin
movement along the main fault and some of its splays. The Basin and will be discussed in latter parts of this paper.
1926, 1943, and 1983 earthquakes at Padang Panjang area
testify to the area's active seismicity. The Great Sumatra OMBILIN BASIN STRUCTURE
Fault is recognizable on the SAR imagery within the Sing- The structural geology of the Ombilin Basin was des-
karak Block as a single continuous fault trace extending cribed in detail by Koesoemadinata and Matasak (1981)
northwest from Lake Singkarak for some 60 km (Fig. 3 who based their mapping and interpretations on outcrop
and 4). The marked dislocation of Recent water-lain vol- data. The tectonic elements identified by CPI's field
canic debris and ,alluvium from the Marapi volcano is evi- mapping team were adjusted to fit the SAR imagery and are
dence of present day motion along this fault. shown in Figure 6. The surface structural interpretation was
Numerous graben-like structures, including Lake Sing- integrated into the seismic data resulting in the Sawah
karak, have been identified along the length of the Great tambang Formation time structure map (Fig. 7).
Sumatra Fault Zone (Tjia, 1970). Van Bemmelen (1949) The exposed portion of the Ombilin Basin covers an
suggested that these structures resulted from uplift of the area of approximately 25 km by 60 km, trending parallel
Barisan geanticline, and that associated tensional stresses and to the dominant northwest-southeast Sumatra structural
block-faulting formed longitudinal median depressions. grain. The original Ombilin Basin was likely appreciably
Van Bemmelen postulated that the occurrence of Pa- larger than the present basin outline; however, post de-
leogene basins, as the Ombilin Basin, within the Barisans positional erosion has removed much of the peripheral
areas of the original basin. The eastern margin of the basin oriented approximately N400W, parallel to the strike of the
is marked by the Takung thrust fault where pre-Tertiary Great Sumatra Fault. Distinctive seismic dead zones up to
rocks override the Tertiary sediments (Cameron et al. 1981; 1 km wide are associated with some of these faults, e.g. the
Koesoemadinata and Matasak, 1981). Westward from the Suo and Lirnau Faults. A second, less pronounced set of
Takung fault the basin deepens rapidly as Tertiary section faults are oriented perpendicular to the major faults. These
is downfaulted by several northwest-southeast trending are generally normal, down-to-the-basin faults, which can
reverse faults (Fig. 8) which may have associated lateral have lateral movement of up to 2 km. These faults are inter-
movement. The southern boundary of the basin is not preted as third order dextral wrench faults.
fault-bounded. Post-middle Miocene orogeny has uplifted The southern part of the Ombilin Basin contains the
the southeastern half of the basin and subsequent erosional Palangki Anticline. This major structural element is a horst
truncatiop of the Tertiary formations established the block resulting from basement block faulting and is express-
present southern and southwestern basin margins. ed topographically as a prominent "nose" rising approxi-
A major tectonic feature bisecting a large portion of the mately 1300 ft (400 m) above the adjacent basin plain.
Ombilin Basin is the Tanjung Ampalo Fault. This north- Seismic isochrons mapped along the margins of this structure
south trending fault forms a prominent scarp which se- do not give evidence for early structural growth. At the
parates the deeper part of the Ombilin Basin from the Si- south end of the Palangki Anticilne, uplift and subsequent
galut Plateau t o the northwest. The Tanjung Ampalo Fault erosion has exposed pre-Tertiary andesites at surface in the
is believed to be a second order dextral wrench fault for- core of the anticline. These rocks were radiometrically
med in response to first order dextral strike-slip stress +
dated by K/Ar at 143 4 million years B.P. (Early Cre-
associated with the Great Sumatra Fault Zone. The fault taceous - Late Jurassic).
bifurcates in the south with one strand striking south of the
basin into pre-Tertiary highlands and the other paralleling
the western basin margin. STRATIGRAPHY
The western margin is controlled by basin uplift and
complex faulting. The magnitude of the basin margin tec- The stratigraphy of the Ombilin Basin was described in
tonics is evident at the southern entrance to the town of detail by Koesomadinata and Matasak (1981). The results
Sawahlunto where several thousand feet of Tertiary sedi- of our 1981 surface geology mapping project generally
ments can be seen spectacularly juxtaposed against Triassic support the stratigraphic description by the the above
workers although some significant depositional hiatuses
limestones. were identified whichwere not detailed in their 1981 paper.
The northern end of the Ombilin Basin is divided into Subsequent data obtained from seismic and drilling confirm
eastern and western basinal features separated by a pro- that at least three major tectonic breaks occur in the basin.
minent ridge of basement outcrops at Bukit Tungkar. Seismic and vitrinite reflectance data indicate that a total
(1) The eastern extension (the "North Limb") of the basin amount of up to 15,000 ft (4600 m) of Tertiary section
narrows to a width of only 4 to 5 km and continues north- may have been eroded during these hiatuses. lndeed it is
ward to disappear beneath the recently extinct Malintang not unrealistic to estimate that the Ombilin Basin may have
volcano. Although the North Limb is a very narrow trough received up to 30,000 ft (9100 m) of Tertiary sediments
flanked on both sides by pre-Tertiary basement highlands, during its depositional history. The reader is also referred
seismic data quality is remarkably good and shows the to the classic paper by Musper (1929) on the Ombilin
Tertiary sediments are little deformed and gently dip north- Basin's stratigraphy. Despite the passage of over fifty years
westward. It is remarkable that the deepest part of the since the writing of this paper, Musper's field descriptions
Ombilin Basin isnot in the geographical basin center; rather, remain most useful and his hypotheses about the basin's
the maximum basin depth occurs in the North Limb near complex geology are worthy of consideration. The follow-
Guguk, where seismic data shows in excess of 15,000 ft ing is a condensation of the Cameron et al. (1981) field
(4570 m) or Tertiary sediments. (2) A second nothern mapping results and also includes studies of the basin by
extension of the Ombilin Basin is the Talawi Syncline the authors. Relevant stratigraphic information from Sina-
located west of the Bukit Tungkar ridge. It is a northwest- mar No. 1 is included.
southeast trending syncline containing a thin section of
Tertiary sediments. The Talawi area was extensively up-
lifted and subsequent erosion has left only a thin veneer The pre-Tertiary basement rocks of the Ombilin Basin
of Tertiary section. The Talawi Syncline extends from are well exposed around the basin margin. Permo-Carboni-
the Sigalut Plateau northwestwards towards Batusang- ferous slates and phyllites of the Kuantan Formation out-
kar where the Tertiary sediments are masked by volcanic crop along the eastern basin margin. A limestone member
debris which flowed down the flanks of the presently within this formation outcrops as a 5 km wide band of co-
active Marapi volcano. Reconnaissance seismic recording nical karst hills clearly visible on the SAR imagery. This
was generally not definitive due to severe topography, thin unit initially outcrops at the southeast margin of the basin
sedimentary section, intense structuring and extensive Re- and can be mapped for approximately 60 km northwest-
cent volcanic cover. Seismic data does indicate areas where ward where it disappears beneath Malintang volcanics.
sediments thicken locally. For example, some 5000 ft Along the western margin of the Ombilin Basin, a complex
(1525 m) of sedimentary section is evident north of Kolok. assemblage of pre-Tertiary rocks outcrop. These include
Within the central Ombilin Basin the major faults are Permo-Carboniferous and Triassic limestones, slates and
volcanics and the Middle Cretaceous Lassi granites (Ka- between active alluvial fans. Debris slides and turbidites
tili, 1962). A renowned outcrop for studying the Permian periodically entered the lake in response t o tectonic pulses
limestones of Sumatra is at Guguk Bulat, near the eastern in the adjacent basement highlands. The often calcareous
shore of Lake Singkarak (Fontaine, 1982). nature of the Sangkarewang is partially attributable to the
high input of fine calcareous debris derived from the
Sangkarewang Formation adjacent pre-Tertiary limestone highlands. The calcium car-
bonate may also be the product of bio-induced precipita-
Tertiary sedimentation began in the Eocene following tion of calcite during algal photosynthesis. Carbonate mi-
widespread graben formation related t o large scale trans- nerals can also be precipitated inorganically in a lacustrine
current tectonics. The stratigraphc succession in the environment by physical changes in water temperature,
basin center begins with thin grey breccias which rapidly evaporation, or mixing of water masses (Eugster and
grade upward into dark, organic rich, very fissile, noncal- Kelts, 1983). Sangkarewang beds reprresentative of deep
careous to calcareous, well laminated euxinic shales and water anoxic lake deposition are exposed in road cuts
marlstones. These sediments were deposited in a stable along the Batusangkar - Lintau road. Alluvial fan deposits
lacustrine environment. The Sangkarewang beds contain and the lake margin sequence are well exposed in outcrops
a rich fauna of fresh water fish fossils which have been of along the Batusangkar - Talawi road.
interest to geologists and paleontologists since the 1800's A significant intra-Sangkarewang unconformity occurs
(Gunther, 1876 and Musper, 1935). An exceptionally well- at 8840 ft (2700 m) in Sinamar No. 1, indicated by a marked
preserved skeleton of the bird Protoplotus beauforti was shift in vitrinite reflectance and spore color index (Fig. 10).
discovered in the Sangkarewang. This fossil is paleoenviron- In addtition, an abrupt change in bed dip occurs on the
mentally significant because it represents the oldest evidence dipmeter from 8 0 NE above the unconformity to 50 SE
of relatives of the living snake bird or darter, which are birds in the underlying beds. Uplift and erosion related to strike-
restricted primarily to the wet tropics today (Rich and slip fault tectonics preceeded the deposition of the Sawah
Marino - Hadiwardoyo, 1977). The presence of lacustrine lunto Formation (Cameron et al. 1981). This depositional
sediments in the Ombilin Basin is significant for the hydro- hiatus was mapped locally in outcrop and is evident as an
carbon potential of this basin since lacustrine rocks are angular unconformity on some of the seismic lines located
known to be excellent oil source rocks in many other basins on the basin margins.
worldwide (Fouch, 1983).
The Sangkarewang lacustrine beds have been mapped Sawahlunto Formation
outcropping intermittently along all margins of the Ombilin The Sawahlunto Formation consists of Eocene shales,
Basin. Reconstruction of the outcrop data outlines a large siltstones, quartz sandstones and coals, occurring mostly in
lake covering at least 1000 sq km. By way of comparison, the northeastern part of the Basin (Koesoemadinata and
the ancient "Lake Sangkarewang" covered an area approxi- Matasak, 1981). This formation also includes the coal beds
mately ten times larger than the present Lake Singkarak. mined at Sawahlunto. The type section for the Sawalzlunto
However the Sangkarewang lake is small compared to the is at Sungai Durian where it has a thickness of 904 ft
Eocene Green River Formation's Lake Gosiute which ex- (274 m). According to Koesoemadinata and Matasak (1981)
tended over 50,000 sq km in Wyoming and Colorado (Fi-' the Sawahlunto Formation wedges out to the east and
card and High, 1972). Sinamar No. 1 was drilled near the south of the Sawahlunto area. A seismic line was recorded
centre of this lake and penetrated about 1500 ft (460 m) over a deep 2890 ft (880 m) coal exploration core hole
of dark, organic rich sediments containing nonmarine fauna (DDH-8) drilled southeast of Sawahlunto (Fig. 7). The
and flora (Fig. 9). This section averaged 2.6 weight percent Sawahlunto coals intersected in this core hole were identi-
total organic carbon (TOC) and is regarded as the primary fiable on the seismic section, resulting in reasonably con-
hydrocarbon source rock in the Ombilin Basin. fident mapping of the Sawahlunto Formation in the area
Concurrent with the deposition of lake sedimentsin the covered by the Ombilin Basin seismic grid. Sinarnar No. 1
basin centre, thick fan breccias, conglomerates and sand- intersected only 550 ft (170 m) of probable Sawahlunto
stones accumulated on the basin margins. De Haan (1942) Formation consisting of mudstone, siltstone and thin coals.
and Koesoemadinata and Matasak (1981) refer to these The Sawahlunto Formation is conformably overlain and
rocks as the Brani Formation. Van Bemmelen (1949) noted likely interfingers with the Oligocene Sawahtambang Forma-
that the variegated and coarse nature of the Brani conglo- tion (Koesoemadinata and Matasak, 1981). Field mapping
merates and their restricted distribution indicate that the by Cameron et al. (1981) indicates that the Sawahtambang
conglomerates are local deposits in intermontane basins rests with an angular unconformity upon the Sawahlunto
within an Eocene mountain range. Debris flow deposits can Formation, Sangkarewang Formation, or pre-Tertiary base-
be recognized at Gunung Papan where the entire mountain ment. Seismic records do not provide clear evidence of a
consists of massive Tertiary conglomerates containing re- depositional hiatus between these two formations. The
worked pre-Tertiary limestone cobbles and boulders. Lime- Sawahlunto-Sawahtambang interface is difficult to deter-
stone blocks up to 15 ft (5 m) across are seen in outcrop. mine paleontologically due to the absence of age-deagnostic
Such debris flows can be anticipated in a high relief inter- fossils within the Sawahlunto and Lower Sawahtambang.
montane depositional setting affected by abundant precipi- Lithology type was the primary basis for determining the
tation. Alluvial fan deposits also occur locally along the top of the Sawaldunto in Sinamar No. 1 (Fig. 9). A marked
basin margins and may be recognized by their relatively shift in vitrinite reflectance values also occurs at the Sawah-
abrupt facies change. Lakes may have been impounded lunto-Sawahtambang interface in Sinamar No. 1 (Fig. 10).
Sawahtambang Formation Ombilin Formation
The Sawahtambang Formation consists of Oligocene- The Early Miocene Ombilin F ~ r m a t i o nconsist9 of light
aged conglomerates, sandstones and shales deposited by a to medium grey shales which are often calcareous and com-
braided river system which flowed through a median allu- monIy contain limestone nodules, plant remains and mollusk
vial valley (Koesoemadinata and Matasak, 1981). Towards shells. On the western bash margin near Batumanjulur the
the end of. the nonmarine cycle, meandering streams and Ombilin beds are exposed along 'several fault scarps revealing
peat swamps developed locally and laid down thin coals 200.ft (60 m) of coral rich, poorly bedded limestones. Si-
and mudstones. The type section for the Sawahtambang milar Ombilin limestone beds were mapped near the eastern
is on the western basin margin along the Trans Sumatra basin margin. The type section for the .Ombilin Formation
Highway where approximately 2000 ft (610 m) of Sawah- consists of approximately 4800 ft (1460 m) of sediments
tambang Formation sediments outcrops (Koesoemadinata and is located near Padang Lawas (Koesoemadinata and Ma-
and Matasak 1981). At the south end of the basin, the Sa- tasak, 1981). Seismic data over the North Limb of the basin
wahtambang thins to approximately 300 ft (90 m) of sec.- ii-idicate the 'presence of approximately 9,000 ft (2740 m)
tion. These outcrops were projected into t h sei~miccontrol of Ornbilin Formation. .The true thickness of the Ombilin
and indicate that the Sawahtambang rapidly thickens north- originally deposited in the basin is unknown due to post-
wards to a maximum thickness of 80QO ft (2440 m) in the depositional erosion. Tertiary sediments youhger than Early
North Limb of 'the basin. The original Sawahtambang Miocene o t h g than Recent volcanics are not present in the
Formation was probably much thicker than indicated by basin since rapid uplift of the Barisans prevented deposition
seismic and outcrop data, since ,several thousands of feet of sediments younger than Early Miocene. Therefore the
of Sawahtambang were hkely removed during a Late '~arisansbecame locally the sediment source area for Middle
Oligocene - Early Miocene depositional hiatus. Miocene and younger aged rocks such as the Pliocene Petani
Sinamar No. 1 intersected approximately 4650 ft Formation bf Central Sumatra. This post Early Miocene up-
(1420 m) of Sawahtambang Formation consisting of sand- lift and subsequent erosion cut deeply into the pre-Tertiary
stone, shalq and rare coals. Biostratigraphic analysis by terraine and 'the overlying veneer of Tertiary sediments, and
Lemigas-Robertson Research indicates that the beds were reduced the Ombilin Basin to its present small but deep
deposited in a supralittoral environment with strong flu- configuration.
vial invluences. A distinct marine influence is indicated near
.the base of the Sawahtambang by the presence of a calcare- OIL SEEPS
ous nannofosd assemblage. The top 300 ft (90 m) ~f the The Ombilin Basin contains two oil seeps. The Batikin
Sawahtambang in Sinamar No. 1 is marked by a marine seep consists of a very thin stream of oil actively discharging
incursion during w h c h glauconitic sands were deposited into a small river near the south end of the basin (Fig. 6).
in a littoral to shallow inner littoral environment. The oil has a gravity of 230 API and a pourpoint of 350F.
According to Koesoemadinata and Matasak (1 9 8 I), at The Kolok seep consists of oil entering a pre-World War I1
the end of the Oligocene the basin was locally uplifted and coal exploration hole drilled in the Talawi Syncline area.
eroded, and then subsided, allowing the transgression of the The kolok oil has a gravity of 230 API and a pourpoint of
Early Miocene sea into the basin. This depositional hiatus 300F. Both oils are biodegraded and have characteristics
can be observed in outcrop where Oligocene Sawahtambang similar to Central Sumatra Duri-tpype crude oils.
sandstones are abruptly overlain by marme shales of the
Early' Miocene Ombilin Formation. The boundary is readily
recognizable in the field since the Sawahtambang sandstones EXPLORATORY DRILLING RESULTS
are weather resistant whereas the soft Ombilin Shales Sinamar No. 1 spudded in November, 1983 and was
weather very recessively. drilled on a structural closure on the Sinamar Anticline.
The Sawahtambang Formation-Ombilm Formation Approximately 180 ft (55 m) of converntional core was
boundary is readily identifiable on seismic throughout the cut at vari'ous depths throughout the well and proyided
basin due t o the significant velocity contrast between the key lithologic, paleontological, reservoir and source rock
two formations. A significant unconformity between the data. Although Sinamar No. 1 was drilled upon Sumatra's
Sawahtambang and the Ombilin is evident on a plot of vitri- ' magmatic arc within sight of active volcanoes, subsurface
nite reflectance versus depth in Sinamar No. 1 (refer to temperatures in the well were moderate. The calculated
Fig. 10) and indicates that several thousands of feet of stabilized geothermal gradient in .Sinmar is only 1.620
Sawzhtambang have been eroded. Accordingly, the basin's F/100' (29.600C/km) which is considerably cooler than
history in the Late Oligocene consisted of regional uplift the average gradient of 3.30 F/100' (60.300C/km) en-
and subsequent extensive erosion. The transgression ?f the countered, in wells drilled in the Central Sumatra Basin
Early Miocene sea into the Ombilin Basin was due to basinal (SEAPEX-PA, 1981). The Sinamar No. 1 gradient is si-
subsidence or is related to the eustatic rise in sea level milar to the 1.470F/100 ft (26.860C/km) gradient ob-
during Oligocene - Early Miocene time which has been do- tained by CPI in May, 1983 from a deep 2200 ft (670 m)
cumented globally in the sedimentary record (Vail et al., coal exploration core hole (Sugar S-14) located near Sawah-
1977). lunto. The subsurface temperatures recorded in Sinamar
he Ombilin Formation is significant for oil exploration No. 1 confirm Gretener's (1981) observations that heat
in the Ombilin Basin since the Ombilin shale is the primary flows from active volcanoes are dissipated locally and d o
cap rock for the Upper Sawahtambang reservoir section. not have regional effects. Tertiary volcanics were not
encountered in the well. The bottom hole core recovered in the Singkarak Block:
mottled red and green claystone representative of con- l.)The Payakumbuh Basin was originally the northwest
tinental deposition and an oxidizing environemnt. extension of the Ombilin Basin. 'The Malintang and Ma-
Although Sinamar No. 1 was drilled in a basin devoid rapi volcanoes now separate these two depocentres. The
of previous oil exploration well control, the stratigraphy in Payakumbuh Basin is outlined by Tertiary sediments which
the we11 proved to be close to prediction. The criticaI sporadicaLLy outcrop through the extensive Recent voIcanic
Sawahtambang Formation-Ombilin Formation boundary rocks are primarily water-lain volcanic debris but also in-
was intersected within 50 ft (15 m) of prognosis due t o clude lahars, breccias, agglomerates, and pyroclastics.
state-of-the-art seismic recording and processing, .readily Andesitic lavas occur near the volcano centres. Stratigraphic
mappable seismic events, and accurate surface geology field descriptions by de Haan (1 942) plus reconnaissance mapping
mapping. by Aspden et al. (1981) indicate the presence of Tertiary
The clastics sections penetrated by Sinamar No. 1 were sediments similar to some of those in the Ombilin Basin.
generally poorer in reservoir quality vis-a-vis the Tertiary re- The Sangkarewang lake beds have not been mapped in the
servoirs in the Central Sumatra Basin. However, good re- Payakumbuh area. Reconnaisance seismic was ineffective
servoirs were encountered in parts of Sinamar h-o. I . in this area due. to the thick deposits of seismically-
Sandstones with porosities averaging 15% are common in impenetrable volcanics. The slirface geology indicates that
:he Upper Sawahtambang and porosities up t o 20% occur the Tertiary sedimentary section is likely thin in the Paya-
at the 5000 ft (1520 m) level. kumbuh area. Prominent northwest-southeast trending
Petrographic and SEM (scanning electron microscope) ridges of limestone are common throughout the area. These
analyses of core samples from 2370' (750 m) to 4200' limestones are the northward extension of the Permo-
(1 220 rn) by Lemigas-Robertson Research indicate that Carboniferous Kuantan Formation. Limestones of Lower
deterioration of primary porosity is due to diagenesis which Carboniferous (Middle Visean) age are also present in this
has resulted in extensive cementation (chlorite, calcite, area {Fontaine and Vachard, 1981).
dolomite. kaolinite) and alteration (kaolinization). Analyses 2) The Lake Singkarak graben was regarded as having
of cores from the 5000 ft (4520 in) level indicate that dia- nossible hydrocarbon potential since a thick Tertiary sec-
genetic alteration of the sediment has been dominated by tion could have accumulated in this graben-like structure.
burial-related events. Pressure solution has resulted in the The lake is 21 km long, has a maximum width of 8 km
formation of concavo-convex and sutured contacts between and covers almost 100 sq km. The mean water level has an
quartz grains. In association, the reprecipitation of quartz elevation of 1188 ft (362 m) above sea level. The origin of
3s syntaxial overgrowths to detrital quartz grains in adjacent Lake Singkarak has been of interest to many geologists,
low pressure areas bas occurred. A depositional reconstruc- including Verstappen (1961), Zen (1972) and Tjia (1970).
tion based on seismic and vitrinite reflectance data at the A bathymetric survey conducted in 1983 by CPI confirmed
Sinamar No. I Location indicates that up to 7000 ft. a distinct deep graben configuration characterized by
(2100 m) of Ombilin Formation sediments may have 5een steeply sloping (250) eastern and western lake margins and
removed hy erosion; consequently, the primary reservoirs a very flat lake bottom (Fig. 11). Maximum water depth is
x a y indeed have been subjected to diagenetic alterations 592 ft (272 m). A short 7 k m reconnaisance seismic line
caused by the original thick overlying sedimentary ~ c c h n n . Has shot immediately south of Lake Singkarak. The seismic
Reservoir anaiysis and petro graphic description from core events recorded on this line are dxscordant and erratic and
~ o n r r o ol ver the Middle Sawahtambang gas-condensate zone wrobably represent Recent volcanics. Nevertheless the exis-
indicate that in situ hydrocarbons can effectively impede tence of prospective Tertiary sediments beneath the volca-
deterioration of porosity and permeability within the n i c ~cannot he discounted.
Tertiary clastic sections of the Ombilin Basin.
Oil shows were evident in cuttings samples and .in the REGIONAL CORRELATIONS
rnudlog nnmediately after penetration o f t h e - ~ a w a h t a m b a n ~
It is beyond the scope of t h s paper t o provide an in-
Format~on. An open hole drillstem test over the Upper
depth analysis of the stratigraphic relationships between
Sawahtambang recolaed a m n o r flow of oil (360 API
the O m b h Basin and the oxher Sumatran Tertiary basins.
Sravlty, 950 F p u r p o l n t ) and gas. Furthermore, testing
Certainly the lacustrine sediments of the Sangkarewang are
r h r o u b perforations resulted in a gas flow exceedmg 13
so alike those of the Brown Skde Formation-Pematang
MMCFD and 300 barrels per day condensate (600 API
Group of the Central Sumatra Basin (Wdbams et al., 1985)
gravity) from the Middle Sawahtambang Formatioq. The
to invite correlation. The Oligocene Sawahtambang Forma-
hydrocarbons tested In Slnamar No. 1 and the oil seeps In
tion is probably correlative with the upper part of the Pe-
rhe O m b h n Basin were sourced from eithe~the Sangka-
matang Group of the Central Sumatra Basin. The marine
rewang lacustrine shales or from sporadlc intervals of or-
Ombilin shales are regarded as the western lithostratigraphic
ganically-r~ch shales and mudstones withm the Sawah-
counterparts of the TelisaFormation of the Central Sumatra
tambang and Sawahlunto Formations.
Basin and the Gumai Formation of the South Sumatra
Basin. The clastics of the Sihapas Group of the Central
EXTRABASINAL EXPLORATION Sumatra Basin evidently. did not extend as far westwards as
Although the bulk of the oil and gas exploration ac- the Ombilin Basin.
tivities were focused on the Ombilin Basin, attention was The data obtained from the Ombilin Basin exploration
also directed to the following two lesser prospective areas activities supports Van Bemmelen's (1949) statement that
Sumatra during the Paleogene consisted of pre-Tertiary CROWELL, J.C., and LINK M.H., 1982, Geologic History
highlands locally floored with Paleogene terrestrial sedi- of the Ridge Basin, Southern California: SEPM. Spec.
ments. Marine transgression occurred during the Early Public.
Miocene resulting in the inundation of the entire Barisan DE HAAN, W., 1942, Over de Stratigraphic en de Tekto-
area by the Early Miocene sea. Post-early Miocene uplift niek van het Mangani Gebied: Geologie en Mijnbouw,
related to the Sumatra Fault System resulted in the moun- vol. IV, pp. 21-23.
tain ranges which now separate the Ombilin Basin from the DURHAM, J.W., 1940, Oeloe Air Fault Zone, Sumatra:
Central Sumatra Basin. The Ombilin Basin is thus a remnant AAPG Bulletin, vol. 24.2, pp. 359 - 362.
pocket of Tertiary sediments which originally extended EUBANK, R.T., and MAKKI, A.C., 1981, Structural
over much of the present Barisan Mountains. Geology of the Central Sumatra Back - Arc. Basin:
Proceed, 10th Ann. Conv. Indon. Petrol. Assoc., May,
CONCLUDING REMARKS 1981, Jakarta, pp. 153-196.
The recent oil and gas exploration activities in the Sing- EUGSTER, H.P., and KELTS, K., 1983, Lacustrine Chemi-
karak Block have resulted in abundant new geological and cal Sediments, in Chemical Sediments and Geomorpho-
geophysical data which indicate that the O m b h Basin is logy, Academic Press, pp. 321 -365.
a very deep pull-apart basin containing up to 15,000 ft FONTAINE, H., 1981, Progress Report on the Pre-Tertiary
(4600 m) of Tertiary sediments. The total amount of Study: Proc. 18th Session, CCOP, Seoul, pp. 176-188.
sedimentary section deposited within this Basin may have FONTAINE, H., and VACHARD, D., 1981, A note on the
exceeded 30,000 ft (9200 m). Outcrop and subsurface data Discovery of Lower Carboniferous (Middle Visean) in
indicate that hydrocarbon source rocks, reservoir rocks, Central Sumatra: CCOP News letter, vol. 8, no. 1,
seals and ample structuring are present in the Ombilin Basin. pp. 14-18.
This information provides encouragement for the hydro- FONTAINE, H., 1982, Guguk Bulat, A Very Famous Per-
carbon potential of other intermontane basins in Indonesia. mian Limestone Locality of Sumatra, Indonesia: CCOP
Newsletter, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 21-28.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS FOUCH, T.D., 1982, Character of Ancient Petroliferous
Lake Basins of the World: AAPG Bulletin, vol. 66,
We wish to thank the managements of P.T. Caltex Pacific no. 10, pp. 1680-1681.
Indonesia, Chevron Corporation, Texaco Inc., Esso Ex-
ploration Inc. (who joined the Singkarak Block exploration GUNTHER, A, 1876, Contributions to our Knowledge of
effort in November, 1983) and Pertamina for their permissi- the Fish Fauna of the Tertiary Deposits of the Highlands
on to publish this paper. We also wish to extend our of Padang, Sumatra: Jaarb. Mijnw. Ned. Indie, vol. 7-1,
appreciation to PN Tambang Batubara (State Coal Com- pp. 171-184.
pany) in Sawahlunto who kindly gave us access to data GRETENER, P.E. 1981, Geothermics: Using Temperature
from coal exploration core holes and to measure subsurface in Hydrocarbon Exploration, AAPG Educ. Course Notes
temperatures in a key core hole. Ted Jones and Suwahju- Series 17.
hadi Mertosono are thanked for encouraging us to publish HEMPTON, M.R. and DUNNE, L.A., 1984, Sedimentation
this paper. We are also grateful to Roger Eubank, Harold in Pull-Apart Basins: Active Examples in Eastern Turkey,
Wilhams, Bachtoel Chatab, and Bill Wycherley for their Journal of Geology, vol. 92, pp. 5 13-530.
helpful critisms and generous advice during the preparation
of the paper. Abbas Mislan drafted the maps and the KASTOWO, D and GERHARD W.L. 1973, Geological Map
manuscript was typed by Rasima Ismed. This paper was of the Padang Quadrangle, Sumatra, published by the
written with the hope that it will serve as a further step Geological Survey of Indonesia, Ministry of Mines (Di-
towards unravelling and understanding the complex and rektorat Geologi, Bandung).
fascinating geological history of West Sumatra. KATILI, J.A., 1962, On the Age of the Granitic Rocks in
Relation to the Structural Features of Sumatra, Geo-
physical Monograph No. 6, 1962, reprinted in Katili
(1980) Geotectonics of Indonesia: A Modern View,
ASPDEN J.A., SUHARSONO, CAMERON, N.R., and KATILI, J.A., and HEHUWAT, F., 1967, On the Occurren-
SUWARNA, N., 1981, The Geology of the Payakumbuh ce of Large Transcurrent Faults in Sumatra, Indonesia,
Area, Singkarak Block, West Sumatra: Unpublished re- Journal of Geoscience, Osaka City University, vol. 10,
port, P.T. Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Nov. 1981, Rumbai, art. 1-1, pp. 5-17.
Sumatra. KATILI, J.A., 1969, Permian Volcanism and its Relation
BURCHFIEL, B.C. and STEWART, J.H., 1966, "Pull- to the Tectonic Development of Sumatra: Bull. Natl.
Apart" Origin of the Central Segment of Death valley, Inst. Geol. Mining, Bandung, pp. 3-13.
California: GSA Bulletin, vol. 77, pp. 439-442. KOESOEMADINATA, R.P., HARDJONO, SUMA-
CAMERON, N.R., ASPDEN J.A., SUWARNA, N., and DIRDJA, H. and USNA, I., 1977. Tertiary Coal Basins
SUHARSONO, 1981, The Geology of the Ombilin Ba- of Indonesia: CCOP Technical Bull., vol. 12, pp. 43-86.
sin, Singkarak Block, West Sumatra: Unpublished re- KOESOEMADINATA, R.P., and MATASAK, Th. 1981,
port, P.T. Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Nov. 1981., Rumbai, Stratigraphy and Sedimentation Ombilin Basin Central
Sumatra. Sumatra (West Sumatra Province): Proceed. 10th. Ann.
Conv. Indon. Petrol. Assoc., May, 1981, Jakarta, pp. 217- Protoplotus Beauforti: The World's Oldest Member
249. of the Bird Family Anhingidae: Geosurvey News letter,
KRUMBECK, L., 19 14, Obere Trias Van Sumatra (Die Pa- vol., 9, Direktorat Geologi, Bandung.
dang Sehchten von West Sumatra nebst anhang), Pa- SEAPEX/IPA, 1981, Geothermal Gradient Map of Southeast
laeontographica, pp. 199-266. Asia: SE Asia PetroL Explor. Soc. and Indon. Petrol.
MANN, P., HEMPTON, M.R., BRADLEY, D.C., and Assoc., ed. K.J. Rutherford and M. Khaliq Qureshi.
BURKE, K., 1983, Development of Pull-Apart Basins: SILITONGA, P.H. and KASTOWO, D. 1975, Geological
Journal of Geology, vol. 91, pp. 529-554. Map of the Solok Quardrangle, Sumatra, published by
METACLFE, I., KOIKE, T., RAFEK, M.B., HAILE, N.S., the Geological Survey of Indonesia, Ministry of Mines
1979, Triassic Conodonts from Sumatra: Palaeontology, (Diretorat Geologi, Bandung).
vol. 22 (3), pp. 737-746. TJIA, H.D., 1970, Nature of Displacements along the Se-
METCALFE, I., 1983, Conodont Faunas, Age and Correla- mangko Fault Zone, Sumtara: The Journal of Tropical
tion of the Alas Formation (Carboniferous), Sumatra: Geography, vol. 30, pp. 63-67.
Geol. Mag, vol. 120 (6), pp. 579-586. VAIL, P.R., MITCHUM, R.M., THOMPSON, S., 1977, Se-
MUSPER, K.A.F.R., 1929, Beknopt Verslag over de Uit- ismic Stratigraphy and Global Changes of Sea Level,
komsten van Nieuwe Geologische Onderzoekingen in Part 4: Global Cycles of Relative Changes of Sea Level:
de Padangsche Bovenlanden: Jaarb. Mijnbouw, Ned. -
in Seismic Stratigraphy Applications to Hydrocarbon
Indie, vol. LVIII, Verhand. (1930), pp. 303-3 13. Exploration, AAPG Memoir 26, pp. 83-97.
MUSPER, K.A.F.R., 1934, Die Fischfuerende Breccien und VAN BEMMELEN, R.W., 1949, The Geology of Indonesia,
Mergelschiefer Abteilung des Tertiars der Padanger Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, Netherlands, vol. I, General
Hochlande: Geologie en Mijnbouw, Geologische Serie, Geology, vol. I-A portfolio, vol. 11: Economic Geology.
vol. XI, pp. 145-188. VERSTAPPEN, H. Th., 1961, Some "Volcano-Tectonic"
PICARD, M.D., and HIGH, L.R., 1972, Criteria for Re- Depressions of Sumatra, Their Origin and Mode of De-
cognizing Lacustrine Rocks: SEPM Spec. Pub. 16, pp. velopment. Proceedings Kon. Ned. Akad. v. Wetensch.
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POSAVEC, M, TAYLOR, D., VAN LEEUWEN, Th., and YANCEY, T.E., and S.A. ALIF, 1977, Upper Mesozoic
SPECTOR, A., 1973, Tectonic Controls of Volcanism Strata near Padang, West Sumatra: Geol. Soc. Malaysia
and Complex Movement along the Sumatra Fault Bull., ~01.8,pp. 61-74.
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PULUNGGONO A., and CAMERON, N.R., 1984, Su- CHRISTENSEN, R.M., 1985, The Paleogene Rift Basin
matran Microplates, Their Characteristics and Their Role Source Rocks of Central Sumatra: Proceed. 14th Ann.
In the Evolution of the Central and South Sumatra Ba- Conv. Indon. Petrol. Assoc., Oct. 1985, Jakarta.
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May, 1984, Jakarta, pp. 121-124. Central Sumatra: Bulletin Volcanologique, XXXV-2,
RICH, P.V., MARINO - HADWARDOYO, H.R., 1977, pp. 453-461.

0 100 200Kk






1. Ulu A i r 16 ( F i s s i o n t r a c k ) M. Miocene Intrusive S i l i t o n g a & Kastowo (1975)
2. Suliki 5.4 + 0.3 (K-Ar) U. Miocene Andesi t e C P I I n t e r n a l Report
3. Ombilin 246 T 7 (K-Ar) U. Permian Granite C P I I n t e r n a l Report
4. Padang Ganting 149 T 3 (K-Ar) U. J u r a s s i c Granite C P I I n t e r n a l Report
5. Talawi 154 7 5 (K-Ar) U. J u r a s s i c Hornfels C P I I n t e r n a l Report
6. Muaro 206 7 3 (K-Ar) U. T r i a s s i c Granite S i l i t o n g a & Kastowo (1975)
7. Lassi 112 T 24 (Rb-Sr) L. Cretaceous Granite K a t i l i (1962)
8. Lassi 52 T 1.6 (K-Ar) L. Eocene Microdiori t e C P I I n t e r n a l Report
9. Palangki 143 -i 4 (K-Ar) U. J u r a s s i c Andesite CPI I n t e r n a l Report
10. Lubuk Terap 17.5 T 5 (K-Ar) M. J u r a s s i c Granite C P I I n t e r n a l Report
11. Tanjung Gadang 118 T 4 (K-Ar) L. Cretaceous Granite CPI I n t e r n a l Report
12. Mundaran R i v e r 95 3 (K-Ar) U. Cretaceous Schist CPI I n t e r n a l Report
13. S a r i k Lawas 22 T 1.5 (K-Ar) L. Miocene Andesi t e C P I I n t e r n a l Report
14. Sirukam 1.66-+ 0.1 (K-Ar) Quaternary Andesi t e S i l i t o n g a & Kastowo (1975)
15. Lubuk Paraku 105 -+-3 (K-Ar) L. Cretaceous Tuff CPI I n t e r n a l Report



A. Agam R i v e r L. Carboniferous 1. F o r a m i n i f e r a 1. F o n t a i n e & Vachard (1981)

2. Conodonts 2. M e t c a l f e (1983)
B. Guguk B u l a t Permian Corals & Forams Fontaine j 1982)
C. Muaro L. Carboniferous 1. S y r i ngopora 1. Musper (1929)
2. F o r a m i n i f e r a 2. F o n t a i n e (1981)
D. Sawahlunto U. T r i a s s i c Conodont s M e t c a l f e e t a l . (1979)
E. S i 1ungkang Permi an 1. F u s i l i n i d s 1. K a t i l i (1969)
2. T e t r a c o r a l 1 ia 2. Fontaine (1981)
F. Lubuk Paraku U. J u r a s s i c - L.Cretaceous Lovceni p o r a Yancey & A l i f (1977)
G. Indarung Cretaceous Radio1 a r i a CPI I n t e r n a l Report
H. Muaro Kelaban U. T r i a s s i c Halobi a Krumbeck ( 1 914)



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+ + + + + +~
' " X. " " " B A T I K I N . . . . .
.4. 4- + + + ""-~-"~ ~ OIL SEEP
+ + + + + + + \ \

LEGEND 4- ~0 < . \
\ ~4'~o"\ \
~..2~.:,:~... -




!Z a

cf. primordlus
Mudstone with minor amounts
------- ---
sandstone, siltstone and ---- ----
----- ---- 1000' Globigeri na
claystone, mudstone -grey ----- ----. - ciperoensis
silty, med calcarews,sandstone - Ammonia /
w h i t e - oray, clayey,very Brizalina
Globorota l i a
* opima nana
Sandstone, mudstone and 2670 -5850
siltstone thio coals throughout. Poor f a u n a /
Sandstone, l ~ g h tgrey, m e d ~ u m
t o coarse g r a ~ n e d ~ v e rhya r d
slightly calcareous, glauconite
common, mudstone, light grey,
firm to moderately hard,

Ammonia I1
Helicasphaer a

6900 9 9 0 2
Mudstone, siltstonc, thin coals Poor f a u n a /
1 TOP SANGKAREWANG F M . ~ # -I---=-- barren
Mudstone, predominantly dark ~~-~-~-~.a,,ooL
brown to black, firm t o hard
- - - --
carbonaceous In part
- ---
slightly calcareous
8 73-0' -L-----Z

--. --
--- -,-9000'
Mudstone, as above with
increasing sand interbeds, -.- .--
- --
----- Florschuetz i a
bottom hole core recovered r e d :
<- tri lobata
a n d green mottled mudsfone ::' :. ' .' ..


x ?-~vvwwvvvvvvvvv~vwv~~~\~h
W i
P 8-
- - 9 4

FIG. 10