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SECTION 03310

STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Item No Title Page No

PART 1 GENERAL............................................................................................................ 1

1.01 DESCRIPTION OF WORK .................................................................................. 1

1.02 SECTION INCLUDES .......................................................................................... 1

1.03 RELATED SECTIONS ......................................................................................... 1

1.04 REFERENCES..................................................................................................... 2

1.05 SUBMITTALS....................................................................................................... 5

1.06 QUALITY CONTROL ......................................................................................... 11

1.07 HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS.................................................... 15

1.08 CLASSES OF CONCRETE ............................................................................... 15

1.09 DESIGN CRITERIA............................................................................................ 16

1.10 DELIVERY, HANDLING AND STORAGE ......................................................... 17

PART 2 PRODUCTS ....................................................................................................... 18

2.01 GENERAL .......................................................................................................... 18

2.02 MATERIALS ....................................................................................................... 18

2.03 CURING ............................................................................................................. 24

2.04 DURABILITY ...................................................................................................... 25

2.05 MIX DESIGN ...................................................................................................... 26

PART 3 EXECUTION ...................................................................................................... 28

3.01 CONCRETE MIXING ......................................................................................... 28

3.02 FORMWORK...................................................................................................... 30

3.03 PREPARATION FOR PLACEMENT.................................................................. 30

3.04 CONCRETE ACCEPTANCE ............................................................................. 31

3.05 CONCRETE JOINTS ......................................................................................... 35

Rev 1 i Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd.)

Item No Title Page No

3.06 CONCRETE FINISHES ..................................................................................... 36

3.07 CONCRETE CURING........................................................................................ 41

3.08 DEFICIENCIES .................................................................................................. 42

3.09 REPAIR OF CONCRETE DEFECTS................................................................. 43

3.10 CONCRETE PROTECTION .............................................................................. 45

Rev 1 ii Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

PART 1 GENERAL

1.01 DESCRIPTION OF WORK

A. This Section covers the requirements for receiving, forming, placing, consolidating,
finishing, jointing, curing and all other work required for cast-in-place concrete.

1.02 SECTION INCLUDES

A. Cast-In-Place Concrete

B. Concrete Aggregates and Admixtures

C. Concrete Joints and Waterstops

D. Concrete Finishes

E. Section 03310-1: Portland Cement

1.03 RELATED SECTIONS

A. Section 01320 Construction Progress Documentation

B. Section 01330 Submittal Procedures

C. Section 01410 Regulatory Requirements

D. Section 01450 Quality Control

E. Section 01650 Product Delivery Requirements

F. Section 01660 Product Storage and Handling Requirements

G. Section 03105 Cast-In-Place Concrete Forms and Accessories

H. Section 03205 Reinforcement for Concrete

I. Section 03310-1 Portland Cement

J. Section 03930 Concrete Rehabilitation

K. Section 07110 Dampproofing

L. Section 07130 Sheet Waterproofing

M. Section 07910 Preformed Joint Seals

N. Section 07920 Joint Sealants

Rev 1 1 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

1.04 REFERENCES

A. The referred codes and standards are intended to provide an acceptable level of
quality for materials, products and workmanship. In case of conflict between these
standards and the text of this Specification, the Specification text shall govern.

B. The latest revision of the referred codes and standards shall be used wherever
applicable. In case of conflict, the Contractor shall propose equipment, materials and
processes conforming to one group of codes and standards.

C. SASO Saudi Arabia Standards Organisation

1. SASO SSA 226 Methods for Sampling of Concrete Aggregates

2. SASO SSA 1068 Ready-Mixed Concrete

D. AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation


Officials

1. M182 Burlap Cloth made from Jute or Kenaf

2. T259 Standard Method of Test for Resistance of Concrete


to Chloride Ion Penetration

3. T277 Standard Method of Test for Rapid Determination of


the Chloride Permeability of Concrete

E. ACI American Concrete Institute

1. ACI 117 Standard Specification for Tolerances for Concrete


Construction and Material

2. ACI 201.2R Guide to Durable Concrete

3. ACI 211.1 Standard Practice for Selecting Proportion for


Normal, Heavyweight and Mass Concrete

4. ACI 212.4R Guide for the Use of High-Range Water-Reducing


Admixtures (Superplasticizers) in Concrete

5. ACI 214R Evaluation of Strength Test Results of Concrete

6. ACI 224R Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures

7. ACI 232.2R Use of Fly Ash in Concrete

8. ACI 234R Guide for the Use of Silica Fume in Concrete

9. ACI 301 Specifications for Structural Concrete

10. ACI 302.1R Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction

11. ACI 304R Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting and

Rev 1 2 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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Placing Concrete

12. ACI 305R Hot Weather Concreting

13. ACI 308R Guide to Curing Concrete

14. ACI 309R Guide for Consolidation of Concrete

15. ACI 311.4R Guide for Concrete Inspection

16. ACI 318RM Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete


and Commentary

17. ACI 347 Guide to Formwork for Concrete

18. ACI SP 2 Manual of Concrete Inspection

F. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

1. ASTM C31M Standard Practice for Making and Curing Test


Specimens in the Field

2. ASTM C33 Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates

3. ASTM C39M Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of


Cylindrical Concrete Specimens

4. ASTM C40 Standard Test Method for Organic Impurities in Fine


Aggregates for Concrete

5. ASTM C42M Standard Test Method for Obtaining and Testing


Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete

6. ASTM C88 Standard Test Method for Soundness of Aggregates


by Use of Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate

7. ASTM C94M Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete

8. ASTM C109M Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of


Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 50 mm Cube
Specimens)

9. ASTM C117 Standard Test Method for Materials Finer than 75 m


(No. 200) Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing

10. ASTM C127 Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density
(Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse
Aggregate

11. ASTM C128 Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density
(Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate

12. ASTM C131 Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation

Rev 1 3 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

of Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and


Impact in the Los Angeles Machine

13. ASTM C136 Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and
Coarse Aggregates

14. ASTM C138M Standard Test Method for Density (Unit Weight),
Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete

15. ASTM C142 Standard Test Method for Clay Lumps and Friable
Particles in Aggregates

16. ASTM C143M Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic


Cement Concrete

17. ASTM C157 Standard Test Method for Length Change of


Hardened Hydraulic-Cement, Mortar, and Concrete

18. ASTM C171 Standard Specification for Sheet Materials for Curing
Concrete

19. ASTM C172 Standard Practice for Sampling Freshly Mixed


Concrete

20. ASTM C173M Standard Test Method for Air Content of Freshly
Mixed Concrete by the Volumetric Method

21. ASTM C192M Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete
Test Specimens in the Laboratory

22. ASTM C231 Standard Test Method for Air Content of Freshly
Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method

23. ASTM C260 Standard Specification for Air-Entraining Admixtures


for Concrete

24. ASTM C289 Standard Test Method for Potential Alkali-Silica


Reactivity of Aggregates (Chemical Method)

25. ASTM C309 Standard Specification for Liquid Membrane-Forming


Compounds for Curing Concrete

26. ASTM C494M Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for


Concrete

27. ASTM C579 Standard Test Methods for Compressive Strength of


Chemical-Resistant Mortars, Grouts, Monolithic
Surfacings, and Polymer Concretes

28. ASTM C595 Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic


Cements

29. ASTM C618 Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or
Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral

Rev 1 4 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

Admixture in Concrete

30. ASTM C881M Standard Specification for Epoxy-Resin-Base


Bonding Systems for Concrete

31. ASTM C1017M Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for


Use in Producing Flowing Concrete

32. ASTM C1107 Standard Specification for Packaged Dry, Hydraulic-


Cement Grout (Non-Shrink)

33. ASTM C1152M Standard Test Method for Acid-Soluble Chloride in


Mortar and Concrete

34. ASTM C1240 Standard Specification for Use of Silica Fume for Use
as a Mineral Admixture in Hydraulic-Cement
Concrete, Mortar, and Grout

35. ASTM D512 Standard Test Methods for Chloride Ion in Water

36. ASTM D516 Standard Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Water

G. BSI British Standards Institution

1. BS 812 British Methods for Sampling and Testing of Mineral

2. BS 1377 Purposes Methods of Testing Soil for Civil


Engineering

H. CIRIA Construction Industry Research and Information Association

1. SP 31 Guide to Concrete Construction in Gulf Region

I. COE Corps of Engineers

1. COE CRD C513 Rubber Waterstops

2. COE CRD C572 Polyvinyl Chloride Waterstops

3. COE CRD C621 Specification for Non-Shrink Grout

1.05 SUBMITTALS

A. The Contractor shall submit to the Royal Commission, under the provisions of
SECTION 01330, the following items for review and approval before commencing
Work:

1. All design mixes shall be submitted, using the Standard Mix Design
Presentation for each class of concrete.

Rev 1 5 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

STANDARD MIX DESIGN PRESENTATION

Supplier and Class of Concrete :

Cement Content and Type : (kg/m3)

Mineral Admixture Content & Type : (kg/m3)


+
Water - Cementitious Material Ratio :

Free Water ** : (L/m3) or (kg/m3)

Specified Strength @ 28 days : (MPa)

Current Mean Strength : (MPa)

Current Standard Deviation : (MPa)

Admixture Type :

Admixture Dosage** : (L/m3) or (kg/m3)

Slump @ 30 minutes (in laboratory) (ASTM C143M) : (mm)

Slump @ 60 minutes (in laboratory) (ASTM C143M) : (mm)

Air Content (ASTM C173M) : %

Chlorides (as Cl)* (ASTM C1152M) : %

Sulfates (as S04)* (BS 1377) : %

Method of Placement** : Pump/Other

Combined Aggregate Grading :

Sieve 75 50 38.1 25 19 16 9.5 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15 75


Size mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Micron
% Passing By
Washing

Los Angeles Abrasion Loss (100/500 revs value as per


ASTM C131) :

Clay and Friable Particles (ASTM C142) : %

Valid Hot Weather Trial Mix Report Attached : Yes / No (Required


between March and
October)

Rev 1 6 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

______________________________________

* Total in mix (including that contributed by mix water) expressed


as a percentage by weight of cement
** Encircle as appropriate.
+ Cement plus mineral admixture
2. Batch Plant Certification

a) A report on calibration tests of scales, weigh hoppers and volumetric


gages shall be submitted for review and approval by the Royal
Commission.

3. Material certificates signed by material manufacturer and Contractor certifying


material meet specification requirements.

a) Submit with each mix design, laboratory reports and mill or


manufacturers certificates attesting conformance of the ingredients with
requirements of this Specification.

b) In case the source, brand or characteristic properties of the ingredients


need to be varied during the term of the Contract, a revised laboratory
mix report shall be submitted to the Royal Commission.

c) A certificate shall be submitted stating that each admixture used is


identical in composition to the sample used for acceptance testing, and
is compatible with all other material in the design mix.

4. Hot Weather Concreting

a) A procedure shall be submitted for proposed methods for compliance


with hot weather concreting including delivery, placement, curing, and
other requirements of ACI 305R.

5. Delivery tickets shall be received from the concrete supplier for each delivery
truck and retained by the Contractor for inspection at any time by the Royal
Commission. The Contractor shall complete and sign the ticket and fill in those
items of its responsibility. Setting forth the following information:

a) Name of the manufacturer and/or trademark.

b) Contract number or Serial number of Delivery Note.

c) Date of delivery.

d) Name of Purchaser.

e) Registration number of delivery truck.

f) Drivers name or number and signature.

g) Name and place of worksite.

h) Class or Grade of concrete.

Rev 1 7 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

i) Slump ordered.

j) Air content.

k) Amount of concrete in truckload in cubic meters.

l) Type of cement and the manufacturers name.

m) Type and maximum size of aggregate.

n) Total water batch in liters (indicate also % of ice, if used).

o) Admixture type and dosage.

p) Time concrete mixing started (if dry, time cement added to aggregate).

q) Temperature specified (maximum) and temperature when leaving the


plant (actual).

r) Temperature of concrete (when discharged for placement).*

s) Time of arrival at worksite.*

t) Amount of super-plasticizer added.*

* To be completed by Contractor at jobsite

6. Reports for Inspection and Testing

a) During concreting operations the Contractor shall conduct inspection


and testing in accordance with par. 1.06 and SECTION 01450, and
submit all requested reports.

7. Crack Control

a) Crack control procedures and details including placement, curing,


construction, contraction and expansion joint requirements.

8. Summary of Submittals

a) Table 1A is the listing and frequency of reports that the Contractor shall
submit during the course of the work to the Royal Commission for review
and approval.

Rev 1 8 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

TABLE 1A: LISTING AND FREQUENCY OF REPORTS

No. Title Submittal Frequency


1. Sources of material a) 31 days prior to delivery a) One time
of concrete
b) Un-apparent change b) as required
2. Supplier Quality Inspection a) 31 days prior to delivery a) One time
Plan of concrete
3. Mix design for all classes of a) 31 days prior to delivery a) One time
concrete of concrete
b) When mix is re-designed b) As required
for any purpose

4. Name, location, equipment a) 31 days prior to delivery of a) One time


& personnel of test concrete
laboratory to be used by b) If changed b) As required
supplier (including own
laboratory)
5. Programs, methods and a) 31 days prior to delivery of a) One time
details of batching plant concrete
equipment

6. Proposed methods of a) 31 days prior to delivery of a) One time


complying with hot weather concrete
mixing and delivery

7. Certificates for cement and a) 31 days prior to delivery of a) One time


mineral admixtures from concrete
manufacturers and/or b) For each new delivery b) As required
suppliers from manufacturer

8. Certificate for admixture a) 31 days prior to delivery of a) One time


from manufacturer concrete
b) If any change occurs b) As required
9. Report of plant trial mixes a) 31 days prior to delivery of a) One time
with 7-day and 28-day test concrete
results for all classes of b) If any change b) As required
concrete required for the
work

Rev 1 9 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

No. Title Submittal Frequency


10. Report of the following test a) 31 days prior to delivery of a) One time
results on fine and coarse concrete
aggregates:
1) Los Angeles Abrasion at
100 and 500 revolutions
(as per ASTM C131)
b) During Production of b) Monthly (with
2) Sieve analysis
concrete independent
(ASTM C136)
check report
3) Clay, silt and dust
bi-monthly)
(passing 75 micron as
per ASTM C117)
4) Clay lumps and friable
particles (as per
ASTM C142)
5) Water absorption (as per
ASTM C127 and C128)
6) Percentage of sulfates
(SO4) and chlorides (Cl)
(as per BS 1377 and
812)

11. Report of the following: a) 31 days prior to delivery of a) One time


Tests on water for mixing concrete
concrete, washing and/or b) During production of b) Monthly (with
cooling aggregates and concrete independent
curing: check report
1) Sulfates (as SO4) (as per bi-monthly)
ASTM D516)
b) Chlorides (as Cl) (as per
ASTM D512)
12. Delivery ticket a) With delivery of each load a) Each delivery
of concrete
13. Calibration Tests, and a) Submitted to Contractor a) Annually
adjustments made to who shall also provide for
concrete plant equipment inspection on request by
with statement of accuracy the Royal Commission
of all measuring devices
for weekly tests
14. Total acid soluble chloride a) 14 days from production a) Every 100
ion of a concrete sample of concrete from which m3 or bi-
from crushed concrete concrete samples were weekly when
cylinder strength tests, from taken less than 100
concrete production mixes m3 in a two-
(as per ASTM C1152M) * week period
15. Rapid Chloride a) 35 days from production a) Every 100
Permeability (as per of concrete m3 or bi-
AASHTO T277) * weekly when
less than 100
m3 in a two-
week period

Rev 1 10 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

No. Title Submittal Frequency


16. Statistical Analysis Charts a) Starting 6 weeks after a) Weekly
on 28-day concrete commencement of
compressive strengths, concreting and updated
slumps and temperature weekly
from point of placement
17. Proposals, Reports (with a) 10 days prior to intended a) As required
recommendations) use
18. Working Drawings for forms a) 10 days prior to delivery of a) As required
concrete
19. Proprietary products (with a) 10 days prior to a) As required
proposal and placement of the product
recommendation) into permanent work
* To be submitted to the Contractor by his independent testing laboratory

9. Schedules

a) The Contractor shall prepare and submit working schedules for the
dates and rate of placing concrete for each item of work.

1.06 QUALITY CONTROL

A. The Contractor shall be responsible for the quality of work and shall develop and
propose programs and methods of construction and testing such as to achieve the
specified quality to the approval of the Royal Commission in accordance with
SECTION 01450.

B. Quality Control Supervisor

1. The Contractor shall at all time have a Quality Control Supervisor and one or
more inspectors on-site who are charged with the specific responsibility of
quality control as described in SECTION 01450.

2. During the placing of concrete, the Quality Control Supervisor shall provide for
continuous inspection of delivered concrete and other concrete construction
activities in accordance with ACI SP 2 Manual of Inspection and CIRIA SP 31
Guide to Concrete Construction.

3. The Quality Control Supervisor shall provide the following testing:

a) At the point of placement, provide consistency measurements, such as


slump by ASTM C143M, air content by ASTM C231, weight and cement
content by ASTM C138M, and temperature.

b) One set of 3 test specimens from each 50 m3, or fraction thereof, shall
be provided for each class of concrete placed. Provide at least 1 set of
test specimens for each class of concrete placed in each 8 hour shift.
Samples shall be secured In accordance with ASTM C172. Extra sets of
cylinders shall be taken by the Contractor as required.

Rev 1 11 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

1) The test specimens shall be made and cured in accordance with


ASTM C31M, and tested in accordance with ASTM C39M.
2) The standard age of concrete for test is 28 days. 7-day tests may
be performed using sample cylinder to predict probable 28-day
strength, provided:
(a) The relation between 7-day and 28-day test strength had
been established.
(b) The 28-day test is subsequently performed for confirmation.
3) The strength level of an individual class of concrete shall be
considered satisfactory when the requirements of ACI 318RM are
met.

c) In case of need for one sample testing, core samples shall be obtained
and tested in accordance with ASTM C42M.

4. The Quality Control Supervisor shall maintain reports and records for all
necessary inspection and testing including but not limited to those items listed
herein below:

a) Inspection and approval of the batching and mixing facilities and


metering calibration records.

b) Inspection, testing and approval of the concrete materials.

c) Inspection and approval of excavation, formwork, reinforcing steel,


shoring, falsework, bracing, supports, embedded items, joints,
waterstop, etc.

d) Inspection and approval of placement, consolidation and finishing


operations.

e) Inspection and approval of form removal operations.

f) Inspection and approval of curing methods and practice.

g) Inspection and approval of testing facilities.

h) Daily inspection reports and placement cards as per Table 1B on all of


the above shall be maintained by the Quality Control Supervisor.

Rev 1 12 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

TABLE 1B: CONCRETE POUR CARD AND PLACEMENT RECORD

CONCRETE POUR CARD

Pour Card Number:

Contract Number and


Contractor
Title

Location of Pour Description of Pour


Type and Source of
Amount of Concrete
Concrete

Contractor Inspection Approvals

Inspected and Date


Approved

Line and Grade

Formwork and Waterstop

Reinforcement

Embedded Metal

Embedded Pipe

Embedded Conduit and Grounding Wire

Preparation of Construction Joint

Water Proofing
Cleanliness and Access
Verification of Rate of Placement: M/HR
Provision for Hot Weather Concreting
Hold Point Released

Contractor Signature/Date/Time Name Printed Signature/Date


RC/SABCO Engineer
PLACEMENT RECORD

Date of Placement
1. Weather
2. Temperature
3. Rate of Placement

Rev 1 13 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

4. Curing Method
5. Type of Equipment Used
6. Quantity of Concrete placed
7. Type of Finish
8. Start Time
9. Finish Time
10. Slump-Specified/Actual
11. Was Water Added at Site?

12. If yes, Amount of Water Added &


RC/SABCO Engineers Approval Signature
13. Amount of Superplasticizer (SP) Added (If
applicable)
Slump at addition of SP
(If applicable)
14. Trip Ticket Conform to Approved
Design Mix?
15. Number of Trip Tickets Attached
16. Were Cylinders Taken?
If Yes, 28-day Test Result

17. Placement Breakdown and other


Remarks, If Applicable

_________________________
Contractors Q.C. Engineer

5. The Quality Control Supervisor or assistant/representative shall be authorized


to:

a) Postpone concreting operations until outstanding requirements are


corrected.

b) Reject materials or workmanship that does not conform to this


Specification.

c) Prevent the use of equipment that could cause improper construction


relative to this Specification.

d) Stop any work that is not being done in accordance with this
Specification.

e) Report within 24 hours and provide records to, and as required by, the
Royal Commission upon discovery of non-compliance.

Rev 1 14 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

C. Any concrete which is ultimately deemed by the Royal Commission not to comply
with this Specification shall be removed and replaced.

1.07 HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

A. All works undertaken in relation to this Specification are to be completed in full


accordance with the respective health and safety requirements established by the
following:

1. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

a) Legislation, Regulation, Standards and Codes.

2. Royal Commission Regulations

a) Standards, Contractual Conditions, and Health and Safety Systems.

3. Contractor

a) Health and Safety Standards and Systems as accepted by the Royal


Commission.

B. In the absence of any of the above, best accepted industry practice shall be
employed throughout.

1.08 CLASSES OF CONCRETE

A. Classes of concrete are denoted by the Royal Commission designations which


consist of the letter C followed by numeral indicating the 28-day compressive
strength in Mega Pascals (MPa) as determined by ASTM C39M, and as shown in
Table 1C.

B. Each class of concrete may consist of one or more mixes determined by the
maximum size of aggregate, slump and type of admixtures or special aggregates
used.

C. Each mix within a class shall be considered a specific type requiring approval of the
design mix.

Rev 1 15 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

TABLE 1C: MINIMUM CEMENT CONTENT AND MAXIMUM WATER-CEMENT RATIO

28-Day Grada- Minimum Content Maximum


Com- tion (kg/m3) Free
Class of Concrete
pressive Limits Water/Cemen
(Royal Commission Strength (Per -titious
Portland Mineral
Designations) (MPa) Table Material**
Cement Admixture*
2C) (By Weight)

Plain 300 0
C20*** Fly Ash 20 B 0 0 0.40
Silica Fume 0 0
Plain 310 0
C25a Fly Ash 25 A 248 62 0.40
Silica Fume 279 25
Plain 330 0
C25b Fly Ash 25 B 268 62 0.40
Silica Fume 297 26
Plain 350 0
C25u Fly Ash 25 A 280 70 0.40
Silica Fume 315 28
Plain 330 0
C30a Fly Ash 30 A 268 62 0.40
Silica Fume 297 26
Plain 350 0
C30b Fly Ash 30 B 280 70 0.40
Silica Fume 315 28
Plain 375 0
C35 Fly Ash 35 A or B 300 75 0.40
Silica Fume 338 30
Plain 400 0
C40 Fly Ash 40 A or B 320 80 0.40
Silica Fume 360 32

* Fly Ash or Silica Fume


** Cement plus Mineral Admixture
*** Lean Concrete (Cement Type V)
1. Water reducing admixtures shall be used as required to meet the limits specified in
this table and the required slump.
2. Class C25u concrete denotes concrete to be placed under water.

1.09 DESIGN CRITERIA

A. The design mixes for each class of concrete shall be in accordance with the
requirements of ACI 318RM and shall meet the requirements of Table 1C. The
design mixes shall be prepared by an approved design laboratory and accepted by

Rev 1 16 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

the Royal Commission to produce the result as specified herein. Concrete shall be
sampled in accordance with ASTM C172 and specimens made and cured in
accordance with ASTM C192M.

B. When a design mix for any class of concrete has been accepted by the Royal
Commission, it shall not be changed as to source, quality, proportioning, or grading of
materials, unless approved otherwise in writing by the Royal Commission.

C. Sampling and Testing

1. Prior to use, all concrete ingredients shall be sampled and tested by an


approved laboratory in accordance with the methods specified to determine
compliance with Part 2 of this Section.

D. The formwork shall be designed in accordance to SECTION 03105.

1.10 DELIVERY, HANDLING AND STORAGE

A. The Contractor shall deliver, handle and store materials in accordance with
SECTIONS 01650 and 01660, as well as the following requirements:

1. Aggregates shall be transported and stockpiled separately according to their


sources and gradations. Aggregates shall be handled in a manner which will
prevent segregation and contamination with earth or foreign materials.

2. Aggregates shall not be transferred directly from trucks, railroad cars, barges
or washing facilities to the proportioning bins when moisture content of the
aggregates is such that it will affect the accuracy of the proportioning of the
concrete mix. In such cases, the aggregates shall be stockpiled until the
excess moisture drains off.

3. Dry admixtures shall be stored in a dry, weather-tight, well-ventilated housing


or silos. Liquid admixtures shall be stored in clean, weather-tight tanks in
temperature-controlled areas.

4. For the delivery, storage and handling of portland cement, refer to


SECTION 03310-1.

Rev 1 17 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

PART 2 PRODUCTS

2.01 GENERAL

A. All goods and products covered by these Specifications shall be procured, when
available, from an in-Kingdom manufacturer. Procurement of all goods and products
manufactured out-of-Kingdom must be approved by the Royal Commission.

2.02 MATERIALS

A. Portland Cement

1. For portland cement material and specification requirements, refer to


SECTION 03310-1.

B. Fine Aggregate

1. Fine aggregate shall consist of clean, sharp, natural sand free from loam, clay,
lumps, or other deleterious substances with rounded or sub-rounded particles.
Fine aggregate shall be selected to comply with the requirements of
ASTM C33 and test requirements therein and with requirements specified in
Table 2A below. Natural sand may need to be washed with potable water to
achieve these requirements.

TABLE 2A: FINE AGGREGATE REQUIREMENTS

Test Description Standard Limit

Clay lumps and friable


ASTM C142 1% max
particles

Material finer than 75 microns ASTM C117 2% max

Organic impurities ASTM C40 Lighter than Standard

Water absorption ASTM C128 1% max

Acid soluble chlorides as Cl- BS 812 0.03% max

Sulphates as S04 BS 1377 0.40% max

C. Coarse Aggregate

1. Coarse aggregate shall be clean, uncoated, processed aggregate containing


no clay, mud, loam or foreign matter, and shall be as follows:

a) Crushed stone, processed from natural rock or stone.

b) Washed gravel, either natural or crushed.

Rev 1 18 of 45 Contract No:


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c) Maximum aggregate size shall be no larger than 15 of the narrowest


dimension between sides of forms, 13 of the depth of slabs, nor of the
maximum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or bundle of
bars.

d) Aggregate delivered to the stockpile prior to being washed at quarry


shall be washed with potable water and left to dry before charging into
the bins. Coarse aggregate shall be selected, re-crushed, finish
screened and rinsed as necessary. Coarse aggregate shall comply with
the requirements of ASTM C33 and test requirements listed herein and
with requirements specified in Table 2B below:

TABLE 2B: COARSE AGGREGATE REQUIREMENTS

Test Description Standard Limit

Los Angles Abrasion Loss (Gradation A ASTM C131 40%


or B) maximum
Ratio of Los Angles Abrasion Loss at 100 ASTM C131 0.25
and 500 revolutions (100/500 revolutions maximum
value)
Clay lumps and friable particles ASTM C142 1%
maximum
Material finer than 75 microns ASTM C117 1%
maximum
Water absorption ASTM C127 2.5%
maximum
Acid soluble chlorides as Cl BS 812 0.02%
maximum
Sulfate as SO4 BS 1377 0.4%
maximum
Magnesium Sulfate Soundness Loss (5% ASTM C88 18%
cycles) maximum
Flakiness Index BS 812 30
maximum
Elongation Index BS 812 45
maximum

D. Combined Aggregate Gradation

1. Coarse and fine aggregates shall be combined to require the least amount of
sand (passing 4.75 mm) and mixing water. The gradation limits for mix designs
and tolerances for the control of approved mix design gradations shall be as
specified in Table 2C below:

Rev 1 19 of 45 Contract No:


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TABLE 2C: GRADATION LIMITS

ASTM E11 Limits For Design Only (% Passing)


Sieve (mm)
Gradation A Gradation B
50 100 --
25 40 - 80 100
16 30 - 55 55 - 80
9.5 25 - 50 40 - 65
4.75 20 - 40 30 - 50
2.36 22 - 40 30 - 45
1.18 18 - 38 25 - 42
0.60 15 - 33 10 - 25
0.30 6 - 17 5 - 15
0.15 0-6 0-8
75 Microns 0-1 0 -2

E. Water

1. Potable water shall be used in the production, transportation, placement of


concrete, mixing concrete, production of ice used in concrete operations,
washing aggregates, cooling aggregates, curing concrete and cleaning forms.

a) Water shall be free from impurities, oil, acid, salts, alkali, organic matter
and other potentially deleterious substances when examined in
accordance with ASTM C94M.

b) In any case that potable water is not available, the use of water with
chemical contents in accordance with SASO SSA 1068, shall not
exceed the following limits:

Soluble solid materials 2000 ppm


Alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates 1000 ppm
Chlorides 1000 ppm
Sulphates 3000 ppm
Alkalies 600 ppm
pH (Minimum) 4

F. Mineral Admixtures

1. Silica Fume

a) Silica fume shall conform to the specifications and requirements of


ASTM C1240 and ACI 234R.

2. Fly Ash

a) Fly ash shall conform to ASTM C618 requirements for Class F fly ash

Rev 1 20 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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and ACI 232.2R.

3. General ranges as shown in Table 2D are based on the percentage of the


ingredients by the total weight of cementitious material used in the batch for
structural concrete:

TABLE 2D: MINERAL ADMIXTURE PERCENTAGES

Mineral Admixtures Percent by Weight

Class F Fly Ash 15 - 25%

Class C Fly Ash 15 - 35%

Natural Pozzolan 10 - 20%

Silica Fume 8 - 10%

G. Blended Cement

1. The blended cement shall meet the requirements for cement and shall conform
to all other requirements of ASTM C595.

H. Chemical Admixtures and Additives

1. All chemical admixtures shall be free of chlorides and shall conform to


ASTM C494M. Plasticizers may be used for all concrete to require the least
amount of mixing water. Retarding and accelerating admixtures shall not be
used without the appropriate justification and recommendation of the
Contractor and acceptance by the Royal Commission.

2. Chemical admixtures shall conform to specifications of ASTM C494M and


classified according to their effects on portland cement concrete as follows:

TABLE 2E: ADMIXTURE TYPES

Type Description

A Water-reducing
B Retarding
C Accelerating
D Water-reducing and retarding
E Water-reducing and accelerating
F Water-reducing, high-range
G Water-reducing, high-range, and retarding

3. Calcium Chloride

a) Calcium chloride or admixtures containing chloride salts shall not be


permitted.

Rev 1 21 of 45 Contract No:


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I. Air-Entrained Concrete

1. When specified, the total air content as measured in accordance with


ASTM C231 shall be 6 1% for gradation B and 4 1% for gradation A.
Air entrainment shall not be used when mineral admixtures are used. Air
entraining admixture shall conform to ASTM C260.

J. Form Materials

1. All form materials shall be in accordance with SECTION 03105.

K. Reinforcing Bars

1. Concrete reinforcement materials shall be in accordance with


SECTION 03205.

L. Waterproofing Membrane

1. All waterproofing membrane shall be in accordance with SECTION 07130.

M. Dampproofing

1. All dampproofing materials shall be in accordance with SECTION 07110.

N. Accessories

1. Non-Shrink Grout Materials

a) Prepackaged Non-Shrink Non-Metallic Cementitious Grout


1) It shall be effective at consistencies from extremely fluid to plastic,
and shall be capable of developing full strength without
confinement. It shall comply with ASTM C1107 and the following
additional properties:
(a) Minimum compressive strength, tested after 7 days at
20C in accordance with ASTM C109M, shall be 35 MPa
for both plastic and fluid consistency mixes.
(b) Hardened height change shall be in accordance with
ASTM C157 at 0 to 0.05% at 28 days.
(c) Maximum 10 mm size of aggregate shall be used for
repairs exceeding 75 mm in thickness.

b) Two or Three Component Prepackaged Epoxy Grout


1) Epoxy based moisture insensitive repair mortar shall conform to
ASTM C881M and the following additional properties:
(a) Minimum compressive strength, tested after 7 days in
accordance with ASTM C579 shall be 45 MPa.
(b) Bond Strength Pull-off Test shall be at Concrete Failure.

c) The non-shrink cementitious grout shall be used for static loading, and
the non-shrink epoxy grout shall be used for machinery and vibrating

Rev 1 22 of 45 Contract No:


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equipment.

2. Joint Materials

a) Waterstops
1) Waterstops shall be flat, dumbbell type or centerbulb type
waterstops at construction joints and other joints, as shown on the
Contract Drawings. Web thickness shall be not less than 5 mm for
widths up to 120 mm, and not less than 10 mm for widths 120 mm
and over.
2) Waterstops materials shall be as follows:
(a) Rubber waterstops shall comply with Corps of Engineers
COE CRD C513.
(b) Polyvinyl chloride waterstops shall comply with Corps of
Engineers COE CRD C572.

b) Preformed Expansion Joint Fillers


1) As shown on the Contract Drawings and in accordance with
SECTION 07910.

c) Joint Sealing Compounds


1) Joint sealing compounds shall be in accordance with
SECTION 07920.

3. Floor Finish Materials

a) Chemical Floor Hardener


1) Colorless aqueous solution containing a blend of magnesium
fluorosilicate and zinc fluorosilicate combined with a wetting
agent, containing not less than 240 grams of fluorosilicates
per liter.
(a) Applied to exposed concrete slabs not indicated or
scheduled to receive any finishes.
(b) Applied to wet concrete surfaces and finished as integral
part of concrete slab.

b) Aggregate for Non-Slip Finish


1) As shown and located on the Contract Drawings.
(a) Fused Aluminum Oxide Grits or Crushed Emery
(i) Abrasive aggregate for non-slip finish with emery
aggregate containing not less than 40% aluminum
oxide and not less than 25% ferric oxide.
(ii) Material shall be factory-graded, packaged,
rustproof, non-glazing, non-sparkling and unaffected
by freezing, moisture and cleaning materials.

Rev 1 23 of 45 Contract No:


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(b) Silicon Carbide Grits


(i) Abrasive aggregate for non-slip finish material with
sparkling appearance, factory-graded, packaged,
rustproof, and unaffected by freezing, moisture and
cleaning materials.

c) Colored Wear-Resistant Finish


1) Packaged, dry combination of materials formulated for producing
colored and wear-resistant monolithic surface treatments,
consisting of portland cement, graded quartz aggregate, coloring
pigments and dispersing agents.
2) Coloring pigments shall be finely ground, non-fading mineral
oxides, inter-ground with cement. Color shall be as selected by
the Royal Commission.
3) Types
(a) Mineral Aggregate Heavy-Duty Wear-Resistant Finish
(i) Recommended for heavy-duty rubber-tired traffic at
industrial applications, interior or exterior that are
subject to abrasion. Aggregate formulated with
portland cement for heavy-duty wear-resistant
monolithic.
(ii) Traprock: Packaged, factory-graded, crushed natural
fine to medium igneous rock, such as diabase,
basalt, or black granite; well-graded in size from
particles retained on a 5 mm sieve to particles
passing a 9.5 mm sieve.
(iii) Emery: Packaged, factory-graded, crushed natural
emery ore containing not less than 35% aluminum
oxide and not less than 25% ferric oxide; well-graded
in size from particles retained on a 0.32 mm sieve to
particles passing a 3 mm sieve.
(iv) Quartz: Packaged, factory-graded crushed natural
quartz with a fineness modulus of 3.80 to 4.15 with
98% passing a 5 mm sieve to 97% retained on
0.35 mm sieve.
(b) Metallic Aggregate Heavy-Duty Wear-Resistant Finish
(i) Recommended for heavy-duty steel wheel traffic
subject to impact and abrasion.
(ii) Packaged, ground and graded, cubicle iron particles
with dispersing agents formulated to blend with
portland cement for wear-resistant monolithic surface
treatment. Using iron aggregate free of non-ferrous
metals, oil, grease, rust and other impurities.

2.03 CURING

A. Curing Materials

Rev 1 24 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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1. Curing materials for concrete shall be as listed below:

a) Impervious Sheeting
1) Impervious sheeting shall be in accordance with ASTM C171.

b) Burlap
1) Cloth made of jute or kenaf, weighing approximately 290 g/m2 and
complying with AASHTO M182, Class 3.

c) Membrane Curing Compound


1) Membrane curing compounds shall be in accordance with
ASTM C309, Type 2.

d) Water
1) Potable water or water suitable for mixing concrete shall be as
specified in par. 2.02 E of this Specification.

2.04 DURABILITY

A. The following test shall be carried out, if so required by the Royal Commission, to
ensure durability of produced concrete:

1. Salt Limits

a) The total acid soluble chloride ion in hardened concrete as determined


by ASTM C1152M at 28 days shall not exceed 0.13% by weight of
cement.

2. The total soluble sulfate salt expressed as SO4, as determined by BS 1377,


shall not exceed 4% by weight of cement.

3. Chloride Impermeability

a) Testing of hardened concrete for chloride impermeability shall be as


follows:

Test Description Standard Maximum Charge Passed

Resistance of AASHTO T259 0.02% by weight of concrete


Concrete to
Chloride Ion
Penetration at
28 days
Rapid Chloride AASHTO T277 1000 coulombs for silica fume
Permeability at 28 concrete
days 2000 coulombs for fly ash
concrete
4000 coulombs for plain concrete

Rev 1 25 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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2.05 MIX DESIGN

A. Properties and Design of Concrete

1. Strength

a) The minimum structural concrete strength embodied in the structures


shall not be lower than the specified strength mentioned in the Contract
Drawings and Specifications, and in accordance with the classes of
concrete mentioned in Table 1C.

B. Laboratory Trial Batches

1. Laboratory trial batches in accordance with ACI 211.1 shall be used to select
concrete proportions, prepare test specimens in accordance with
ASTM C192M and conduct strength tests in accordance with ASTM C39M, as
specified in ACI 318RM.

C. Field Experience Method

1. When field experience methods are used to select concrete proportions,


establish proportions as specified in ACI 318RM.

2. After sufficient experience and test data become available from the job, use
ACI 214R methods of evaluation in accordance with ASTM C94M.

D. Adjustment to Concrete Mixes

1. Mix design adjustments shall be requested by the Contractor when


characteristics of materials, job conditions, weather, test results, or other
circumstances warrant, at no additional cost to and as accepted by the Royal
Commission.

2. Laboratory test data for revised mix designs and strength results must be
submitted to and accepted by the Royal Commission before using in the work.

E. Slump Limits

1. The slump of delivered concrete, as measured in accordance with


ASTM C143M, at the time of discharge from the truck shall not exceed the
working limit shown below:

Design Working Limit Margin for Error Rejection Limit

a) Without Superplasticizer

75 mm 100 mm 40 mm 140 mm

b) With Superplasticizer

75 mm 125 mm 40 mm 165 mm

2. The main margin for error can only be used for a maximum of 1 truckload out
of 10 consecutive truckloads of concrete. Immediately, when concrete slump

Rev 1 26 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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exceeds the working limit, the concrete supplier shall be requested to make
proper adjustment.

F. Choice of Slump

1. Unless otherwise shown on the Contract Drawings, the recommended slumps


for various types of construction as per ACI 211.1 shall be as per Table 2F:

TABLE 2F: RECOMMENDED SLUMPS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION

Slump, mm
Types of Construction
Maximum* Minimum
Reinforced foundation walls and
75 25
footings
Plain footings, caissons and
75 25
substructure walls
Beams and reinforced walls 100 25
Building columns 100 25
Pavements and slabs 75 25
Mass concrete 75 25

* May be increased 25 mm for methods of consolidation other than vibration

Rev 1 27 of 45 Contract No:


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PART 3 EXECUTION

3.01 CONCRETE MIXING

A. Job Site Mixing

1. Mix all materials for concrete in an acceptable drum type batch mixer, unless
job site mixing is permitted by the Royal Commission.

a) Mixer with 1 m3 or smaller capacity:


1) After all ingredients are in the mixer, mixing should continue for at
least 1 minutes but not more than 5 minutes before any part of
the batch is released.

b) Mixer capacity larger than 1 m3:


1) Increase the minimum 1 minutes of mixing time by 15 seconds
for each additional cubic meter or fraction thereof.

c) Exceeding the catalog rating or nameplate capacity for the total volume
of materials used per batch is not permitted.

d) Mixer shall be equipped with automatic controls or semi-automatic


control, if acceptable, for proportioning materials and the proper
measured quantities.

e) Total elapsed time between intermingling of damp aggregates and


cement to the discharge of the completed mix should not exceed
30 minutes.

f) Batch ticket for each batch discharged and used in the work shall be
recorded, indicating project identification name, number, date, mix type,
mix time, quantity and amount of water introduced.

B. Ready-Mix Concrete

1. Concrete shall be either batched and mixed at a central batching and mixing
plant, or batched at a central batching plant and mixed in a truck mixer. The
amount of concrete mixed in any one batch shall not be more than the rated
capacity of the mixer, nor less than the mixer manufacturers recommended
minimum mix volume. Batching, mixing and transporting of concrete shall be in
accordance with ASTM C94M and the guidelines of ACI 304R.

a) Batching
1) Batching of cement shall be by weight.
2) Batching of aggregates shall be by weight.
3) Batching of water and of admixtures may be by weight or volume.
4) The accuracy of the measuring equipment shall be in accordance
with ASTM C94M.
5) Batching accuracy shall be checked quarterly. All scales, weigh
hoppers and volumetric gages shall have valid certificates and

Rev 1 28 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

revalidated annually.

b) Mixing
1) Central Mixing Plant
(a) Measuring tolerances, and mixing capability and time shall
be in accordance with ASTM C94M.
(b) The quantity of water added to each batch shall be the net
water, excluding moisture content of aggregate and free
water, if any, but including water that will be absorbed by
the aggregate, dependent on absorption and moisture
content values determined daily and before any mixing
takes place.
(c) The entire mixed batch shall be removed before materials
for a subsequent batch enter the drum, unless the plant is
designed for continuous mixing.
(d) No re-tempering of concrete, which has partially hardened,
by the addition of cement, aggregate or water shall be
allowed.
(e) Concrete which has been over mixed to the extent that
addition of water is necessary to preserve the required
consistency during discharge or exceeded 300 revolutions,
shall not be allowed for use.
2) Truck Mixers
(a) Truck mixers shall be of the revolving drum type, watertight
and certified in accordance with the requirement of
ASTM C94M.
(b) Truck mixers shall be equipped with a tank containing water
solely for making concrete. Water from the truck tank shall
be measured by a volumetric gage. In no case shall the
total water in the mix exceed the design water to
cementitious material ratio. Any addition of water shall be
done once, in accordance with ASTM C94M and shall be
recorded on the batch ticket.
(c) Truck mixing shall be in accordance with the requirement of
ASTM C94M for truck mixed concrete. Concrete to be
completely mixed in a truck mixer shall be mixed 70 to
100 revolutions at the mixing speed designated by the
manufacturer to produce uniformly mixed concrete.
3) Transporting
(a) Temperature of concrete leaving the mixing plant shall be
such that at the time of placement the maximum
temperature does not exceed 30C.
(b) Concrete shall be so transported and discharged such that
contamination, segregation or loss of the constituent
materials does not occur.
(c) Concrete shall be compacted in its final position within
2 hours from the time of introduction of the cement into the

Rev 1 29 of 45 Contract No:


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aggregates, or before the drum has revolved


300 revolutions but in all cases at least 30 minutes less
than the certified initial set time of the cement.
(d) The slump of delivered concrete, as measured in
accordance with ASTM C143M, at the time of discharge
from the truck shall not exceed the working limit shown in
par. 2.05 E.
(e) Upon arrival of concrete at the place of deposition, the
Contractor shall receive from the driver, prior to
acceptance, a delivery ticket for the concrete, as shown in
par. 1.05 E. The Contractor shall verify if concrete, as
received, meets the requirements of the Specification. The
Contractor shall complete the delivery ticket and fill in those
items for which it is responsible.
(f) Where the slump is deemed inappropriate for acceptable
workability, the Contractor can recommend dosing with
superplasticizer, in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations and subject to the Royal Commissions
approval.

3.02 FORMWORK

A. Formwork design, fabrication, installation and methods shall be in accordance with


SECTION 03105.

3.03 PREPARATION FOR PLACEMENT

A. Concrete shall not be placed until all formwork, embedded parts, steel reinforcement,
excavated surfaces, lean concrete, elevation and joints, and other items specified
under other Sections or as shown on the Contract Drawings to be embedded or cast
with concrete, involved in the placing have been inspected and approved. Record of
this approval shall be submitted to the Royal Commission by the Contractor before
concreting commences (See Table 1B Concrete Pour Card and Placement
Record).

B. Concrete shall not be placed in water unless the method of depositing such concrete
has been proposed and recommended by the Contractor and approved by the Royal
Commission. Concrete shall not be placed in running water and shall not be
subjected to the action of running water until after the concrete has hardened,
normally 28 days after concrete placement.

C. Surfaces of forms and embedded materials shall be cleaned of all encrustations of


mortar, grout or other debris before the surrounding concrete is placed.

D. Rock surfaces, in addition to the foregoing requirements, shall be free from oil,
coatings, and loose or unsound rock fragments. Surfaces shall be cleaned by
brooming, high velocity water jets, or other approved means as appropriate for the
surface being prepared.

E. Earth surfaces which are absorptive shall be moistened to a depth of at least 25 mm.

Rev 1 30 of 45 Contract No:


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F. Provision at site of the required number and rating of vibrators needed for a specific
concrete pour including a standby power source shall be ensured by the Contractor.

G. All precautions related to concrete placement in hot weather shall be ensured.

3.04 CONCRETE ACCEPTANCE

A. Placement Acceptance

1. Upon arrival of concrete at the place of deposition, the Contractor shall receive
from the driver, prior to acceptance, the delivery ticket for the concrete. The
Contractor shall verify if concrete as received, meets the requirements of this
Specification and is in accordance with SECTION 03310-1. The Contractor
shall complete and sign the ticket and fill in items of his responsibility.

2. The concrete shall reach the job site such that it can be compacted in its final
position within the time duration as mentioned in par. 3.01 B.1.b.3.c.

3. Testing requirements as mentioned in par. 1.06 shall be met for final


evaluation and acceptance of concrete.

B. Concrete Placement

1. Concrete generally shall be placed in accordance with ACI 301 and ACI 304R,
unless otherwise shown in the Contract Drawings, or in this Specification.

2. Placing equipment shall be capable of providing a continuous supply of


concrete at site of final deposit without separation of ingredients and without
interruptions, sufficient to permit loss of plasticity between successive
increments.

3. Concrete shall not be dropped through congested reinforcing steel which may
cause segregation of the coarse aggregate. Restrict the free fall of fresh
concrete within 1.5 m. Employ spouts or flexible drop chutes to avoid nesting
of coarse aggregate.

4. Concrete shall be placed and consolidated in continuous layers of uniform


depth not exceeding 600 mm in thickness. Concrete shall not be allowed to
flow laterally a distance greater than 1.5 m from the point of deposit.

5. The following requirements shall apply where concrete is placed by pumping:

a) Pumping equipment shall be of a suitable kind with adequate pumping


capacity.

b) The placement shall be controlled to avoid segregation of the


discharged concrete.

c) Slump obtained at the point of final placement shall be as specified in


Table 2F.

d) Concrete shall not be conveyed through pipe made of aluminum or


aluminum alloy.

Rev 1 31 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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e) Minimum Inside Diameter (I.D.) of hose shall be:

Maximum Size of Aggregate Minimum I.D. of Pumpline

40 mm 150 mm

20 mm 100 mm

6. Lean concrete, 50 mm thick, shall be provided under structural foundations as


shown on the Contract Drawings. Where waterproof membrane is requested
between the lean concrete and bottom of foundation, a protective fabric shall
be used over the membrane.

7. After concreting is started, it shall be carried on as continuous operation until


the placing of a panel or section, as defined by its boundaries or pre-
determined joints are completed.

a) In order to allow for shrinkage or settlement, at least 2 hours shall


elapse after placing concrete in walls or columns or stems of deep
T-beams before depositing concrete in girders, beams or slab supported
thereon, unless otherwise specified or shown.
1) If the columns are structural steel encased in concrete, the lapse
of time to allow for shrinkage or settlement need not be observed.

b) Concrete in beams, slabs, and shallow T-beam construction shall be


placed in one continuous operation.

c) Concrete in columns shall be placed in one continuous operation and


allowed to set at least 2 hours.

8. Consolidation

a) Concrete shall be thoroughly consolidated (compacted) and worked


around the reinforcement steel, around embedded items and into
corners of forms, eliminating all air or stone pockets which may cause
honeycombs, pitting or planes of weakness.

b) Vibrators in adequate number and rating shall be employed to properly


consolidate and ease the placement of concrete. Refer below for
guidance (where vibrator manufacturers data is not available).

Maximum Size of Aggregate Minimum O.D. of Vibrator

40 mm 75 mm

20 mm 50 mm

c) Vibrators shall be employed with care so that the designed positions of


the reinforcing bars will not be altered.

d) Internal vibrators shall have a minimum frequency of 8,000 vibrations


per minute and sufficient amplitude to consolidate the concrete

Rev 1 32 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

effectively.

e) Vibrators shall not be used to move or spread concrete horizontally.

f) Vibrators shall be inserted and withdrawn at points at uniformly spaced


location not farther than the visible effectiveness of the machine. At each
insertion (minimum 150 mm deep), the duration shall be sufficient to
consolidate the concrete without segregation, generally from 5 to
15 seconds.

g) Vibrators shall be operated in near vertical position, allowing the


vibrating head to penetrate the upper layer under its own weight, and to
enter and vibrate the concrete in upper portion of underlying layer.

h) Vibrators shall not be inserted to lower layers of concrete that have


begun to set.

i) Concrete shall be vibrated in two stages as indicated below:


1) The initial stage of vibration shall be at the time of concrete
placement.
2) The second stage of vibration shall be as late as the formed
concrete will respond to the vibrator, where the running internal
vibrator will sink of its own weight into the concrete. Timing of re-
vibration is of particular importance in hot weather concreting and
especially in application on thin slabs.

j) Standby vibrators and power sources shall be available during all


concrete placement work.

9. Hot Weather Concreting

a) Hot weather concrete practice shall be adopted when the ambient


temperature (maximum air temperature during daytime) is 32C or
above.
1) Placement of concrete in hot weather shall be in accordance with
recommended practice of ACI 305R, unless otherwise specified.
2) Concrete shall be scheduled for placement during the early
(cooler) morning hours or at night.
3) The temperature of fresh concrete shall be maintained between
25 and 30C, and at the time of placement shall not exceed 30C.
Any concrete with temperature in excess of 30C at the time of
placement shall not be used. Before concrete placement starts,
maximum attention shall be given to the combined effect of
ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, in
accordance with Figure 2.1.5 on ACI 305R.
4) Water-reducing and set-retarding admixture conforming to
ASTM C494M, Type D, and possessing a reliable performance
history can be used, unless otherwise instructed by the Royal
Commission.
5) Part of the mixing water shall be substituted by an equivalent

Rev 1 33 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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amount of ice, when necessary, to obtain the allowable placement


temperature. The ice shall be finely crushed to avoid slump loss
and cold joints.
6) Temperature of concrete shall be measured 50 mm below the
surface immediately prior to placement in the forms.
7) Reinforcing steel and forms shall be protected from direct sun
rays. Whenever ice is used in concrete, reinforcing steel and
forms shall be cooled off with potable water, immediately before
concrete placement, unless arrangements are made for night time
concreting.
8) Concrete shall not be placed when the work will be affected by
wind blown sand conditions.

10. Placing concrete under water shall be done by Tremie method. This method
consists of placing concrete through vertical pipe, allowing the concrete to flow
from the bottom. This method shall be applicable for deeper work and confined
areas.

11. The dry pipe method requires a Tremie pipe that is watertight, including
gasketed and bolted flanges at the couplings. The pressure seal plate which is
at the bottom of the Tremie pipe keeps the Tremie pipe watertight, while
concrete is extruded from it under pressure and such that the discharge end of
the Tremie bottom moves gradually (upwards or away) and is always under
900 mm (approximately) head of fresh concrete. The equipment and
placement procedure shall conform to ACI 304R.

C. Bonding

1. Roughen surfaces of set concrete at all joints, except where bonding is


obtained by use of concrete bonding agent, and clean surfaces of laitance,
coatings, loose particles and foreign matter. Roughen surfaces in a manner to
expose bonded aggregate uniformly and not to leave laitance, loose particles
of aggregates, or damaged concrete at the surface.

2. Preparation for bonding of fresh concrete to new concrete that has set but not
fully cured:

a) At joints between footings and walls or columns and between walls or


columns and beams or slabs they support, and elsewhere unless
otherwise specified herein, dampen, but do not saturate, the roughened
and cleaned surface of set concrete immediately before placing fresh
concrete.

b) At Joints Exposed Work


1) At vertical joints in walls; at joints in girders, beams, supported
slabs and other structural members; dampen, but do not saturate
the roughened and cleaned surface of set concrete and apply a
liberal coating of neat cement grout.

c) Use neat cement grout consisting equal parts portland cement and fine
aggregate by weight and not more than 24 L of water per sack of
cement. Apply with a stiff broom or brush to a minimum thickness of

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2 mm. Deposit fresh concrete before cement grout has attained initial
set.

d) Commercial bonding agent may be used in lieu of neat cement grout.


Apply to cleaned surfaces in accordance with the printed instruction of
the bonding material manufacturer.

3. Preparation for bonding of fresh concrete to fully-cured hardened concrete or


existing concrete by using epoxy-resin bonding agent:

a) Handle and store epoxy-resin adhesive binder in compliance with the


manufacturers printed instructions, including safety precaution.

b) Mix the epoxy-resin adhesive binder in the proportions recommended by


the manufacturer, carefully following directions for safety of personnel.

c) Before depositing fresh concrete, thoroughly roughen and clean


hardened concrete surfaces and coat with epoxy-resin grout not less
than 2 mm thick. Place fresh concrete while the epoxy-resin material is
still tacky, without removing the in-place grout coat, and as directed by
the epoxy-resin manufacturer.

3.05 CONCRETE JOINTS

A. Construction joints are hardened concrete surfaces to which fresh concrete is to


adhere, and which have become so rigid that fresh concrete cannot be made
monolithic with the existing concrete by vibration.

B. Construction joints, expansion joints and control joints shall be provided at the
locations and in accordance with details shown on approved Contract Drawings.

1. In absence of such details, the practices of ACI 224R and ACI 302.1R shall be
adopted.

2. Surfaces for these joints shall be cleaned with exposed sound aggregate,
rough in profile and damp, but not wet, before adjoining fresh concrete.

3. Cleaning shall consist of removal of all laitance, loose or defective concrete,


coatings, scales, sealing compound and/or other foreign materials.

4. Joints shall be cleaned and washed thoroughly with air-water jets and the
hardened concrete surface shall be pre-soaked at least 8 hours immediately
before fresh concrete is placed.

C. All construction joints shall be carefully constructed as defined and shown in the
Contract Drawings at the designated locations.

D. Where construction joints have to be provided for any unanticipated reason, they
shall be located as follows:

1. In floors, within the middle third of spans of slabs, beams and girders.

2. Locate such that in girders, the joints shall be offset a minimum distance of two

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times the width of intersecting beams.

E. Construction joints shall be placed horizontally or vertically with keys and dowels.

F. Beams, girders, haunches, drop panels and capitals shall be placed monolithically as
part of a slab system, unless otherwise shown in the Contract Drawings or
Specifications.

G. Watertight joints shall be provided at locations shown on the approved Construction


Drawings. Unless indicated otherwise, PVC type waterstop of a practical width for the
application intended shall be used. Installation shall be as per manufacturers
recommendation.

H. Slab on Grade

1. Placing shall follow the guidelines in ACI 302.1R and shall be in compliance
with the following requirements:

a) Concrete shall be placed continuously so that each unit of operation will


be monolithic in construction.

b) Concrete shall be placed in alternate long strips, not exceeding 8 m wide


each strip. Time lapse between adjacent placement shall not be less
than 3 days.

c) Construction joints shall be located and as shown in the Contract


Drawings.

d) Control and Construction Joints


1) Unless otherwise shown on the Contract Drawings, the joints shall
be spaced as follows:
(a) For plain concrete slab, at intervals equal to slab width for
slabs up to 4 m wide.
(b) For concrete slab with shrinkage and temperature
reinforcement, spacing shall be in accordance with Royal
Commission Structural Design Criteria.

e) Concrete joints shall be filled with a joint sealant and filler shall be in
accordance with SECTION 07920, and or as detailed in the Contract
Drawings.

3.06 CONCRETE FINISHES

A. All concrete floors and slabs shall be classified by their intended use, tools and
finishing procedures for each class shall be in accordance and as specified in
ACI 302.1R.

B. Sidewalks and other outdoor areas subject to foot traffic shall receive a non-skid
finish by drawing a fine, soft bristled broom over the trowelled surface. Edges and
joints shall be tooled.

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C. Concrete surfaces shall be screeded and finished to the required tolerance class as
specified in ACI 117.

D. Surface irregularities shall be tested by the use of a template consisting of


straightedge or equivalent thereof for curved surfaces. The length of template shall
be 1.5 m for testing formed surfaces and 3 m for testing of unformed surfaces.

E. Finishes to Unformed Concrete Surfaces

1. Type U1

a) This is a screed finish for surfaces of roads, foundations, beds, slabs


and structural members to be covered by backfill, subsequent stages of
construction, bonded concrete, topping or cement mortar beds to
receive paving and exposed surfaces or paving where superior finish is
not required. It is also the first stage of Type U2 and Type U3 finishes.

b) The finishing operation consists of leveling and screeding the concrete


to produce a uniform plane or ridged surface, with the surplus concrete
being struck off by a straightedge immediately after compaction.

2. Type U2

a) This finish is a wood floated finish for surfaces of beds and slabs to
receive mastic paving or block or tile paving where a hard, smooth,
steel-trowelled surface is not required.

b) Floating shall be done only after the concrete has hardened sufficiently
and may be done by hand or machine. Care shall be taken to ensure
that the concrete is worked no more than is necessary to produce a
uniform surface free of screed marks.

3. Type U3

a) This finish is a hard, dense, smooth steel-trowelled finish for surfaces of


concrete paving, tops of walls, copings or other members exposed to
weathering, surface beds and slabs to receive thin flexible sheet and/or
tile.

4. Type U4

a) This finish is a broom finish for surfaces which are for foot traffic, e.g.,
walks and steps where a special finish is not designated.

b) A broom finish is obtained by motion in a pattern that is acceptable.


Workmanship is to be similar to that of adjacent areas.

5. Type U5

a) This finish is a non-slip (dry shake) finish for surfaces where slipping
could be hazardous. Apply as per manufacturers recommendation, and
as approved by the Royal Commission based on the Contractors report
and recommendations.

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SECTION 03310
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F. Finishes to Formed Concrete Surfaces

1. Type F1

a) This finish is for surfaces against which backfill or further concrete will
be placed.

b) Formwork shall consist of sawn boards, sheet metal or any other


suitable material which will prevent the loss of cement paste/mortar
when concrete is vibrated.

2. Type F2

a) This finish is for surfaces which are permanently exposed to view, but
where the highest standard of finish is not required.

b) Forms for providing a Type F2 finish shall be faced with wrought or


finished boards with square edges arranged in uniform pattern.

c) Alternatively, plywood or metal panels may be used if they are free from
defects likely to detract from the general appearance of the finished
surface.

d) Joints between the boards and panels shall be horizontal or vertical


unless otherwise directed. This finish shall be such as to require no
general filling of surface pitting; however, fins, surface discoloration or
other minor defects shall be repaired by approved methods.

3. Type F3

a) This finish is for surfaces prominently exposed to view where good


appearance and alignment are of special architectural importance.

b) To achieve this finish which shall be free of board marks, the formwork
shall be faced with plywood or an equivalent material in large sheets.

c) The sheets shall be arranged in an approved uniform pattern.

d) Wherever possible, joints between sheets shall be arranged to coincide


with architectural features, sills, window heads or changes in direction of
the surface.

e) All joints between panels shall be vertical or horizontal, unless otherwise


directed. Suitable joints shall be provided between sheets.

f) The joints shall be arranged and pitted so that no blemish or mark is


imparted to the finished surfaces.

g) Un-faced wrought boarding or standard steel panels will not be


permitted for Type F3 finish.

h) The use of internal metal ties shall not be allowed.

Rev 1 38 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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G. Monolithic Slab Finishes

1. Chemical-Hardener Finish

a) Suitable for interior concrete floors that are subject to light foot traffic,
and are not to receive an applied finish. Locations of use shall be shown
on the Contract Drawings or Schedule.
1) Apply liquid chemical-hardener after complete curing and drying
of the concrete surface.
2) Dilute the liquid hardener with water and apply in 3 coats; first
coat, 13 strength; second coat, strength; third coat, 23 strength.
Evenly apply each coat and allow 24 hours for drying between
coats.
3) Apply propriety chemical hardeners in accordance with the
manufacturers printed instructions.
4) After the final coat of chemical-hardener solution is applied and
dried, remove surplus hardener by scrubbing and mopping with
water.

2. Non-Slip Aggregate Finish

a) Used generally on interior and exterior for concrete treads, platforms,


ramps and others, subject to moderate foot traffic and shall be as shown
on Contract Drawings or in schedules.
1) After completion of float finishing, and before starting trowel finish,
uniformly spread 10 kg of dampened non-slip aggregate per
10 m2 of surface. Tamp aggregate flush with the surface using a
steel trowel, but do not force the non-slip aggregate particles
below the surface. After broadcasting and tamping, apply trowel
finishing as herein specified.
2) After curing, lightly work the surface with a steel wire brush, or an
abrasive stone, and water to expose the non-slip aggregate.

3. Colored Wear-Resistant Finish

a) Used generally on interior and exterior slabs requiring integral color,


subject to medium to heavy foot traffic and shall be as shown on the
Contract Drawings or Schedules.
1) Apply dry shake materials for colored wear-resistant finish at the
rate of not less than 30 kg per 10 m2, unless greater amount is
recommended by the material manufacturer.
2) Immediately following the first floating operation, uniformly
distribute approximately 23 of the required weight of dry shake
material over the concrete surface, and embed by means of
power floating.
3) After completion of broadcasting and floating, apply a trowel finish
as herein specified.

Rev 1 39 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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4. Heavy Duty Wear-Resistant Finish

a) Heavy-duty finishes of mineral and/or metallic aggregate shall be as


shown on the Contract Drawings or Schedules.
1) Premix aggregates with portland cement and required dispersing
agents, and deliver to the site in moisture-resistant sealed bags.
2) Service Floor Use
(a) For Moderate Service Floor Use
(i) Apply premixed material at the manufacturers
recommended rate to provide not less than 4 kg/m2
of floor surfaces.

(b) For Heavy Service Floor Use


(i) Apply premixed material at the manufacturers
recommended rate to provide not less than 7 kg/m2
of floor surfaces.

3) Immediately following the first floating operation, uniformly


distribute over the concrete surface approximately of the
specified weight of the blended dry shake materials and embed
with power floating. After the first dry shake application has been
embedded, uniformly distribute the remaining portion of blended
dry shake material at right angles to the first application and
embed by power floating. Comply with the manufacturers
application instruction.
4) After completion of broadcasting and floating, apply a trowel finish
as herein specified.

5. Exposed Aggregate Slab Finish

a) Special finish for slabs, stairs and other areas as shown on Contract
Drawings or Schedule, wherein the type and gradation of aggregates
shall be specified.
1) Immediately following the first floating operation, apply special
aggregate by broadcasting over the floor area and tamping to
embed the aggregate. Apply the aggregate at the required rate to
match the Royal Commissions sample.
2) After the concrete has taken its initial set, expose the surface
aggregates using a water fog-spray and fiber-bristle brooms to
remove the surface matrix. Expose the coarse aggregate
approximately 3 mm or more to match the Royal Commissions
sample, but not so deep as to displace the bond of the aggregate
to the matrix.
3) After the concrete has taken its final set, apply a weak acid wash
to clean the exposed aggregate surfaces. Thoroughly neutralize
and flush the acid wash from the finish surfaces. Protect all other
adjacent construction and finishes from damage due to acid wash;
repair to replace damaged or defaced work as directed by the
Royal Commission.

Rev 1 40 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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3.07 CONCRETE CURING

A. All concrete shall be cured with specified potable water, in accordance with
par. 2.02 E of this Section, and in accordance with recommendations of ACI 308R
and ACI 305R, immediately after finishing flat work or removal of forms. Concrete
shall be protected from premature drying, temperature extremes and mechanical
injury for the entire specified curing period.

B. One of the following methods shall be used to retain and/or supply water to cure
concrete:

1. Pond Curing

a) Ponding shall comprise of potable water covering the entire surface of


the concrete. The water shall be replenished to assure that minimum
depth is maintained.

2. Wet Burlap Curing

a) Wet burlap curing shall comprise of at least 2 layers of constantly


damped burlap laid tight against the pre-soaked concrete surface.

b) The burlap shall be kept uniformly damped, so that lighter patches or


drier burlap are not evident, by a clock valve regulated soil soaked hose
supplied with water at adequate pressure.

3. Membrane Curing

a) Application of this type of curing shall be restricted to non-critical


situation or structures and in keeping with compatibility of the
membrane-forming compound with a subsequent protective coating on
the cured concrete.

b) Whenever used, member curing shall be preceded by saturation of


concrete sprayed water. This water shall be sealed against evaporation
from the concrete surface, by application of a white (reflective) curing
membrane in strict accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations.

C. Water curing shall be used strictly on the following cases:

1. Silica fume modified concrete.

2. Mass concrete.

3. Pozzolanic concrete.

4. Critical situations or structures.

5. Hot weather conditions.

Rev 1 41 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

D. Alternative Methods of Curing

1. Any alternative methods of curing shall require approval of the Royal


Commission before use.

2. The choice of methods employed shall be combined as required to provide


adequate thermal protection.

3. The curing methods for hot weather shall be part of the hot weather concreting
submittal, where due emphasis shall be laid upon an extended curing period
and an increase of thermal protection.

4. Protection shall be provided to concrete from heavy rains, flowing water and
mechanical injury.

E. All concrete shall be continuously cured for at least 7 days, except as specified
below:

1. Un-reinforced Massive Concrete : 14 days

2. Concrete Blended with Pozzolan : 21 days

F. The Contractor shall maintain at the work site a formalized curing record for
inspection and verification by the Royal Commission. Minimum mandatory
information to be provided in the curing record are listed below:

1. Time duration between concrete placement and actual start of curing process.

2. Type of curing.

3. Conformance of curing materials to specifications.

4. Physical arrangements including frequency of replenishment.

5. Duration of curing process.

6. Satisfactory compliance statement from Contractors Quality Control


Supervisor.

3.08 DEFICIENCIES

A. Formed Concrete Dimensional Tolerances

1. Formed concrete having any dimension smaller or greater than required, and
outside the specified tolerance limits, shall be considered deficient in strength
and subject to additional testing as required.

2. Formed concrete having any dimension greater than required will be rejected if
the appearance or function of the structure is adversely affected, or if the larger
dimensions interfere with other construction.

a) Repair or remove and replace concrete as required to meet the

Rev 1 42 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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construction conditions.

b) When permitted, accomplish the removal of excessive material in a


manner to maintain the strength of the section without affecting function
and appearance.

B. Strength of Concrete Structures

1. The strength of the concrete structure in-place will be considered potentially


deficient if it fails to comply with any requirements which control the strength of
structures, including the following conditions:

a) Failure to meet compressive strength test requirements.

b) Concrete which differs from the required dimensions or location in such


a manner to reduce strength.

c) Concrete subjected to damaging mechanical disturbances; particularly


load stresses, heavy shock and excessive vibration.

d) Poor workmanship and quality control likely to result in deficient


strength.

C. Defective Work

1. Concrete work that does not conform to the specified requirements, including
strength, tolerances, and finishes, shall be corrected at the Contractors
expense. The Contractor shall also be responsible for the cost of corrections to
any work affected by or resulting from corrections to the concrete work.

2. In the event that additional testing is necessary, the Contractor shall cooperate
with and provide assistance to the Royal Commission in proceeding with the
test.

3.09 REPAIR OF CONCRETE DEFECTS

A. The Contractor shall, at all times, incorporate methods that will minimize the causes
requiring future concrete repairs due to construction.

B. Concrete shall be repaired if defective or if in the opinion of the Royal Commission


does not meet the specified requirements.

1. Repair of defects and imperfections shall be started within 24 hours of form


removal and shall be completed without delay.

2. For color matching, the use of a mixture of white and gray cement is permitted,
unless otherwise noted.

C. Listed below are various types of defects mostly encountered in newly constructed
concrete and methods for their repair. Other repair procedures shall be submitted to
the Royal Commission for approval. All repaired areas shall be properly moist cured
for a minimum of 7 days and as recommended by the repair materials manufacturer.

Rev 1 43 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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1. Surface Air Voids, Sand Steaking, Peeling or Blistering

a) Prepackaged cementitious repair products shall be mixed and used as


per manufacturers recommendations. Fins shall be neatly removed from
exposed surfaces.

2. Honeycombs

a) Concrete in honeycomb areas shall be chipped to a depth of 25 mm or


more, as needed to reach sound concrete, with edges perpendicular to
the surface. Any loose concrete shall be removed and the surface kept
clean and free from contaminants.

b) An area determined from a perimeter extending at least 150 mm beyond


the chipped region shall be presoaked for at least 8 hours immediately
prior to repair.

c) A mortar mix with strength not less than that of the original concrete at
28 days age shall be brushed into the cavity. Immediately after, a dry
pack patching mortar shall be applied, the mix composition being similar
to that of the parent concrete. The water content shall be the minimum
amount required for handling and placing. The mortar shall be
compacted in layers into the cavity and screeded off to protrude slightly
from the surrounding surface and then left undisturbed for 1 or 2 hour
before finishing.

d) During application, each layer shall be solidly compacted over its entire
surface by the use of a hard wood board and a hammer. Alternately, a
prepackaged non-shrink grout with strength equal to or exceeding the
parent concrete strength shall be used.

3. Tie Holes

a) Holes from removed ties shall be repaired using the same grout or
mortar mix as for honeycombs.

b) If the holes are limited in depth, then a dry pack consistency grout shall
be used.

c) Concrete surfaces shall be presoaked for at least 8 hours prior to repair.

4. Pop-Outs or Scaling

a) All the affected material which may have an area larger than that from
first visual appearance shall be removed.

b) The same procedure as for honeycombs shall be used.

5. Discoloration and Stains

a) Concrete surfaces shall be clean of all dirt and stains caused during
construction. The discoloration may be caused by the following
conditions and should be minimized by utilizing proper construction
practices:

Rev 1 44 of 45 Contract No:


SECTION 03310
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1) Change in Mix.
2) Aggregate Transparency.
3) Hydration Discoloration.
4) Segregation Discoloration.
5) Drying Discoloration.
6) Cold Joints Discoloration.
7) Improper Concreting and Finishing Practices.

b) The Contractor shall submit to the Royal Commission a procedure to


correct discoloration deficiencies.

6. Cracks

a) Any cracks detected shall be reported to the Royal Commission


immediately.

b) Depending on the cause and type of cracking and the need for repairs,
the cracks shall be repaired in accordance with SECTION 03930.

7. Defect with Exposed Reinforcing Steel

a) Repair of exposed reinforcing steel bars shall be in accordance with


SECTION 03930.

3.10 CONCRETE PROTECTION

A. To produce durable concrete of high quality in resisting corrosion and adverse


environmental conditions, the guidelines presented in ACI 201.2R shall be followed
during the construction process.

B. All concrete foundations and slabs-on-grade shall be laid on 200 microns thick
polyethylene sheeting as vapor barrier over 50 mm thick lean concrete.

C. All below grade concrete surfaces in contact with ground water and which terminate
less than 1 m above the water table shall be protected by waterproofing membrane
unless specified otherwise on the Contract Drawings and Specifications. The
membrane shall extend at least 150 mm above grade and terminated and finished in
a 20 x 20 mm chase in the concrete. The chase shall be pointed immediately with
bitumen flashing compound prior to backfilling. Waterproofing membrane and its
application shall be in accordance with SECTION 07130.

D. All below grade concrete surfaces in contact with soil and which terminate more than
1 m above the water table, shall be protected by single application of dampproofing
or liquid waterproofing material from below grade concrete surfaces in contact with
soil until 150 mm above grade or top of concrete, unless otherwise specified in the
Contract Drawings and Specifications. Dampproofing application shall be in
accordance with SECTION 07110.

END OF SECTION

Rev 1 45 of 45 Contract No: