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In order to save students the trouble and loss of
time incidental to searching for and consulting
scattered authorities, a body of trustworthy in-

formation will be found here collected, and
arranged upon those processes which have been
more or less used in Mural or Monumental Deco-
ration, viz., Fresco, Encaustic, Water-glass, Mosaic,

and Oil-Painting ; information too, which it is

hoped will prove not altogether uninteresting to
the general reader. The author having studied
Fresco-painting in Munich under the direction of
Professors Cornelius and Hess, was enabled to
furnish the Koyal Commission on the Fine Arts
with information on that special process, which was,
together with other materials, carefully supervised
by its Hon. Secretary the late Sir Charles Lock
Eastlake, and printed and published in the Com-
missioners' Eeports. It may he recollected that
the Royal Commission on the Fine Arts was in-
stituted for the special purpose of promoting and
encouraging a more extended practice of mural
painting in this country.



By the moderns Encaustic painting lias been
less practised than Fresco ; it is therefore in a more
uncertain experimental condition, no one method
being yet recognised and generally adopted. Various
opinions and descriptions of experimental pro-

cesses are consequently brought together, that the
study of them may some settled practice.
lead to
In explanation of the new method of Water-glass
adopted by Director Yon Kaulbach in the execution
of the noble works in the Museum at Berlin, and
more recently by our great painters Herbert
and Maclise, in their pictures in the new palace
at Westminster, the writer has been graciously
permitted to reprint the pamphlet translated from
the German of Professor Fuchs, which was issued
and privately circulated by command of his Boyal
Highness the late Prince Consort.

As the final process in Mosaic is the province
of the artist -workman rather than the artist, the
subject is treated more in reference to its deco-
rative capabilities than technicalities. In the
chapter on Oil-painting, the writer has attempted
to give the theory of the use of colours, a theory
not specially confined to oil, but in some measure
to all methods of painting. For the contents
he is entirely responsible.
of this chapter
In the Appendix will be found a copious List of
English and Foreign Works upon Art, published at

various dates ; Lists of Painters chronologically
arranged, their ages and styles ; and of the princi-

Perspective. that the information thus brought together. and in order to promote a more widely spread and accurate knowledge of them. . PREFACE. Proportion. V pal mural works now existing. and by what process. conveniently together for im- mediate reference. by whom painted. A second volume. where. which was to bring all the useful subjects in connection with the practice of Painting. &c. containing Treatises upon Anatomy. One advantage in carrying out the original scheme would be. would com- plete the writer's original project. might from time to time be revised and gradually perfected.


The Antiquity of the use of Wax against Atmospheric Corro- sion — The Nature of the Ancient Encaustic Painting— The Researches of Count Caylus and M.— FRESCO-PAINTING. Methods — — resembling Fresco in Effect Works on Fresco-Painting . The Nature of Mosaic — Its — Durability Dr. Bachelier Experiments— — of Chev. Hooker's Method — — Recent Method Works upon Encaustic Painting . &c. Lorgna Count Caylus's Explanation of a Passage in Pliny— — Caylus's Method Preparation of Grounds Pre. .— MOSAIC. .74 . — paration of Tints — Retouching— Mode of Developing Pic- — ture by Heat Virtues of Encaustic Painting— Comparative Power of Colours in Oil and Wax to Resist Change — Werner of Neustadt's Method — Mrs. —A CONTENTS. PAGE Introduction . 49 CHAPTER III. Salviati's Revival of the Art— Mosaic — used in the East The Art amongst first the Greeks and Romans — Preserved by the Byzantine — — Greeks Italian Mosaics Remains of Ancient Mosaics — List of Artists in Mosaic Works upon Mosaic . 17 CHAPTER IL— ENCAUSTIC. . Its Revival — by the German Painters Why it should be pre- ferred to Oil — Cartoons and Sketches of Colours necessary — The Construction and Preparation of the Wall Selection — — of the Lime Constitution of different Limes Reduction — — of the Causticity of the Lime The Nature of Lime— Slak- — ing and Preparation of the Lime The Composition of the Plaster or Mortar for the Ground— Implements Colours — — Process of Painting Preparation of Tints.1 CHAPTER I.

Report of D. Spanish.. Ger- man — On the History of Painting in General — On the State of Painting amongst the Greeks and Romans — The Lives of Painters — On Taste — Dictionaries — Preservation of Pic- tures — List of Painters — List of Existing Mural Paintings 187 . Why — Introduced in a Work upon Mural Painting The Effect of the Invention of Oil-Painting upon Art—The Gradual Decline of the Influence of Architecture upon Painting The Method of the Old Masters Lost— Want of System in its Present Practice — — Transparency in Oil-Painting Opacity or Solidity in Oil-Painting— Painting into Wet White and — into a Glaze upon White Grounds Impasto— What to avoid — Painting upon Distemper Grounds — Works upon Oil- Painting 106 CHAPTER V—WATER-GLASS. 1. — Viii CONTENTS. Inventor's Preface — Sec. Esq. R. English.Glass. Italian. CHAPTER IV.. Dutch. and their Manufacture — Sec." or — " Stereochromic" Method of Painting Works upon Paint- ing — Latin. 2. on the "Water. Maclise. French. Various kinds of Water-Glass.— OIL-PAINTING.Special Application of the Water-Glass 123 APPENDIX.A.

The Aim of Mural or Monumental Painting. commerce. Architectural magnificence has invariably been the exponent. and pyramids — constructed of the most enduring materials — its lavish hieroglyphics painted and incised. no less than the custom of embalming dusky generations. a basic character correspond- B . exhibits that love of perpetuation which consistently belonged to a nation teaching the doctrine of the Immortality of the Soul. INTRODUCTION. which sways the whole thoughts and activity of a people. and Roman monumental art too. be it religion. or arms. in its ponderous temples. Egyptian art. tombs. because national art is inevitably stamped by the ruling influence. as well as one of the most enduring monuments. ON MUEAL DECOBATION. of a nation's tendencies — the inva- riable exponent. There is about Egyptian relatively to Greek.

harmony. There still remain triumphal arches. baths. which made its Temple to Wisdom a beacon seaward. arenas. and balanced propor- tion of Grecian monumental art indicate the nation's aspirations after the perfect idea. . and to form the rough plastic humanity into men-heroes. forced from its native purity. in its moderation. is indelibly branded. theatres. imperious in her strength. The whole product of Grecian thought bears the stamp of high cul- ture upon it. The simplicity. Rome. they either impe- riously compelled or corrupted their taste. which. 2 MURAL DECORATION. compelling us to confess that the ancients. with all our boasted progress. temples. military roads. How different the Pioman to the Grecian monu- ments ! for although the Eomans frequently enlisted Grecian artists in their service. camps. its completeness and the intellectual precedence of antiquity is given to the nation which enthroned the Parthenon on a rock. in this respect at least. and mural deco- rations on which lust of conquest. attained to an excellence which we. . seem only doomed to beat about and fall short of. its belief in the Phidian power of education gradually to mould a people intellectually and physically to an ideal standard. and to the ages a very palace of art. ing with that which Egyptian teaching bore to the philosophies and civilizations which sprang out of it. became ostentatious and florid in its adopted expression.

to the mysteries of the faith. In the magnificent monuments of this epoch one . however. which showed itself slightly in the painting. springing from the same fashion. even those of taste. losing a more intellectual control. hated for her iron hand — is dead. The architecture of the Middle Ages. Her very faults. which is commonly spoken of as the Gothic period. but by a certain conformity in its proportions. ruling by arms instead of moral force —was living. from the pseudo-classical fashion which took possession of the time. disposition. a greater national sensibility. 3 imperious in her fall. to mar in after-ages a new art-development . but wiiich. re-asserted itself to the full in the later Eenaissance of the Netherlands. a wonder to the antiquary. and most in the sculpture of that period. and embellishments. upas-like. not only by the great purposes to which its principal creations were consecrate. fell into the coarsest re- dundance in its application and forms. INTRODUCTION. Her example has been a false light to the nations who have steered by it. but the taste of the cinque-cento had Christianity and the power of several colossal intellects to preserve the grandeur and simplicity of Christian art from that entire perversion which threatened it. cropped up. and precipitated by the wonderfully facile genius of the Dutch painters. unmis- takably reveals the dominant influence of the Church. The ancient Roman taint. more in the architecture.

It should be recollected that monumental art. in its highest development. exercises a dominant in- fluence over the arts of design of a country. adopted a chaster style of ornament. gives them a certain unity of action in conformity of motive. the two most important reasons for encouraging the highest forms of art : (1) as a memorial of national existence .4 MURAL DECORATION. made room for higher forms of painting and sculpture. which spasmodic art. in a greater or less degree. cannot fail to observe that the best art-intellect of the period was endeavouring to surround Christian worship with the beauty of mystery. among rude uncultivated peoples scarcely emerged from Paganism. and (2) as the record of the aspirations of that existence. binds them together. originating in individual and dis- connected culture. and gradually rose towards a finished simplicity and purity. the Gothic was marred by gro- tesqueness of detail : in another direction — as in Italy — it found a keener artistic sense plastic to its use. mural painting and sculpture have. till stopped by the classical revival. never can. played a conspicuous part in monu- mental art . but in the conviction that the encourage- . and we may learn from the remains of the past. In all these periods of architectural magnificence. that these remarks are penned . It is not in the prejudiced spirit which would banish all forms of art but the highest. In one direction struggling with imperfect resources.

The con- stitution of the perfect humanity. Education and Art must necessarily have a common ideal. 5 ment and cultivation of the highest favourably influences the subordinate forms of art. not be to educate for specialities or technicalities. therefore. and science the knowledge of that Divine order in nature . therefore. intellectually and physically. under- . The which poets and painters pertinacity with resent the notion of poetry and art being amenable to rules or science isvery remarkable. for order is Heaven's first law. should. if we con- sider that they urge " inspiration" as their claim to exemption. the former strives to make a living fact.' . can be the only real criterion of the " heaven-born. should be the great study of both. and that which the latter seeks either to depict or model. but were the products of minds stooping from loftiest work to imbue common objects with grace and beauty. and raises them to a greater perfection than they would otherwise attain. Thus. the working according to correct prin- ciples. INTRODUCTION. but up to the most general or the loftiest idea. that of Proportion. There is a science. The object of a National School of Art. we find some of the most valued and characteristic specimens of orna- mental art did not emanate from designers educated for the special purpose. whether it be done consciously or unconsciously. like a National College.

& Co. modera- tion. where the figures are colossal — it may be observed that the small picture. The universal application of the " Theory of Proportion. Quantitative Theory of the Good and the Beautiful.6 MURAL DECORATION. lying all things.. to be represented upon a colossal and on a small scale. it may be 1 "The Science of Moderation. for it will enable him to discover a common principle of rectitude in nature. The antiquity of the insistance on the observance of the "golden mean. Elder. and one requiring a variety of minute accessories. the general tendency of thought being to seek for truth in some complex and recondite enun- ciation. besides being executed with delicacy." and the testimony of the ages to its correctness and wisdom. which the artist ought to inves- tigate for himself. rather than in the simple word." — Smith. Even as- but is suming the same subject. capable 1 of simple enunciation." requires that many minds be yet directed to the subject before it can hold that important place and consideration in the curriculum of education to which it is destined. . or. are in themselves no unimportant evidences that quantity is the fundamental form of phenomena. In comparing the treatment of a cabinet picture with that of a work of the largest size — for example. Moderation. or of Definite Quantitative Kelation. lying at our very feet. viz. composed of fewer parts. generally exhibits a certain fulness of detail. while the large work is not only less elabo- rate.

it must still tend to exclude certain refinements of imitation which are appreciable in pictures requiring to be seen near — refinements capable of conferring an interest on details that may be unimportant in themselves. by increased dimensions and by appropriate style and treatment. if not always. where such detail would be inad- missible under any circumstances. In a grander and more ideal subject. the comparison could be less fairly made. the larger the figures in a picture the greater the . requires less. although the indistinctness arising from distance may be counteracted. on the other hand. but generally. assuming these conditions to be common. The inference is at once applicable to the question proposed. it may be remarked that. excel- lence must be a consequence of the habitual adoption of such dimensions . Thus. and with respect to an advanced state of art as regards imitation. but a similar influence would be more or less apparent. The familiar subject. Without entering into the examination of this question as connected with the laws of vision. 7 safely affirmed that the degree of detail which would be admissible iu the small picture would be objectionable in the larger. INTRODUCTION. must be best displayed in dimensions fitter for near inspection . being fullest of accidental cir- cumstance. the greater space never allows the introduction of more detail than the smaller. as regards the most important qualities in art.

increased dimensions. as regards the question of taste.8 MURAL DECORATION. considered with reference to technical results . when elaborate in detail and full of accidental circumstance. but not with equally good results. distance at which the work must be seen . respectively corre- spond. The general relation thus defined has often been reversed in works of art. on the other hand. diminu- tive historical works. Such appears to be the relation of dimensions to style and subject. is suf- ficiently apparent. and between minute circumstance and familiar incidents. Thus again. for it may be remarked that large works. by involving the sup- pression of detail. and as the omission of detail is a consequence of that reduced scale of gradation which distance supposes — as the absence of minute particulars is felt to be the attribute of distance without reference to the size of objects — so the accessories in the larger work of art require to be few and important. and by the opposite qualites. have the unpleasing effect of mag- nified cabinet pictures. when treated with the breadth belonging to the grandest style. suggest subjects of corresponding dignity. must give the im- . With these analogies the im- pressions produced by magnitude and its attributes. The analogy between grandeur and the absence of detail. it may be observed that the involuntary conclusions derived from the influence of association agree with the practice of art.

but the instances of such subjects being treated on so minute a scale are not fre- quent. INTRODUCTION. but nevertheless. It may be sufficient to have dwelt on those plainer principles which result from the technical and external conditions that have been considered. The loftier aim of imitation. but . thus defined. 9 pression of large works diminished. under the circumstances. but which may afford a criterion with regard to some of the more arbitrary conventions of works of art. are strictly conformable to the authority of the grandest examples of art. The small pictures by Raffael and Corregio are of this description . The last- mentioned inconsistency can hardly be an objec- tion . inasmuch as the vague generalization of a distant or ideal effect is submitted to close inspection. or to refer to larger works in which a just adapta- tion of style may have tended to obviate an in- congruity between subject and dimensions. It is unnecessary to enumerate other exceptions. the abstract breadth of imitation which is indispensable in elevated subjects is. grandeur of conception and treatment must unquestionably be acceptable in any form. and can only be so viewed. may seldom be literally compatible with the usual range of subjects . supposed a kind of con- tradiction. It may be added that even extreme conclusions which might be deduced from the conditions re- ferred to.

In the highest style of painting. are precisely those which. the criterion. On ordinary occasions the imi- . the display of the nobler qualities still obtainable becomes more necessary. But in proportion as the subordinate excellences of imitation are excluded by the nature of the existing technical conditions. It will also follow that the treatment of subjects fitted for such dimensions must tend to ennoble the style and taste of the artist. are no longer fitted for the dimensions.10 MURAL DECORATION. therefore. render it least objectionable. it is important that mural painting should be encouraged in churches and national municipal public buildings. may be admissible. as such. and the styles of art in which the living form can be least dis- pensed with. details of costume. by the abstract characters of their imitation. and even the more delicate varieties of colour. As. the artist's aim becomes elevated. As the resources of art become cir- cumscribed. in this instance again. the representation of inanimate substances ceases to be satisfactory when they no longer directly assist impressions of beauty or grandeur . assuming the representation to be dilated to its full measure. Thus. works of such magnitude cannot be often in demand for ordinary dwelling-houses. as in sculpture. illusion. The foregoing considerations may warrant the conclusion that the grandest style of art is best displayed in large dimensions.

It was thus that it was employed in the best ages of Greece and Italy. an important addition to the evidence of older works of art. form. therefore. and the opinions that have been expressed thereupon by competent judges. 1 INTRODUCTION. The architect. 1 tativo arts may be considered as adventitious embellishments: but in proposing to adorn an im- portant national edifice. and may assist in the examination of the subject. has been considered and practically answered with various results in Munich and Paris. The same question which is now proposed for solution. This ap- plication of the imitative arts has prompted in- quiries into the principles which may regulate the adaptation of those arts (especially of historical painting) to architecture . The union of painting with architecture sup- poses a principle of adaptation or selection in the style of one or both. have in almost every case been embellished with the productions of painting and sculpture. not without reference to the examples of success and failure which the decorated buildings of former ages present. and it was thus that its highest development was insured. The ex- periments that have been made by in those cities artists of eminence. in arranging . painting should appear as the auxiliary of architecture. The numerous public edifices which have of late been completed in France and Germany. where it is essential that a characteristic unity of design should be maintained throughout.

This mistake. the result might be a mere gallery of pictures. with a view to certain subjects. the spec- tator would look in vain for any evidence of a similarity of aim. the pro- ductions of painting should appear as adventitious ornaments. for if. An essay in the " Eevue Generale de l'Architecture " may be quoted. seems to have been committed in the Church of the Madeleine in Paris. Paul de la Eoche. the essential princi- . . his spaces. in such a combination. 12 MURAL DECORATION. " When first the architect opened to the painter the doors of a recently finished edifice. according to the concep- tion of each painter. to a certain extent. who. varying according to the taste or caprice of each artist employed. an elevated art arose. painted in oilon a semicircular stone wall in the School of Fine Arts at Paris. The defect is said to be the more striking as the sub- jects of several of the paintings relate to the life of the Saint. In such an assemblage of pictures. might find it advisable to adapt their size to the distance to which the spectator could conveniently retire to contemplate the paintings or might be induced to vary the form of such spaces. The remarks of the writer are suggested by the cele- brated work of M. The principle of adaptation is most indispensable for the painter . whatever might be the degrees of merit. is represented very dif- ferently. and showed him the walls which were to be adorned by his skill.

however ingenious. of reality in its most limited sense. There can be no difference of purpose between these two exponents of one and the same thought . in decorating the same interior. INTRODUCTION. the indispensable characteristic of great works. it is that of the painter. 13 pies of which were at once defined by the conditions of this union. his art is employed together with the work of the architect. by com- paring the durable walls of a temple with the fragile stretching-frame under which the easel trembles. Hence arises the especial condition of excluding from mural painting all that may interfere with grandeur and effect — all that aims at literal imita- tion and illusion. not alone . or Monumental Painting. Its characteristics are so pronounced and so distinct from easel-painting. and to this. This art may be called Mural." Painting being employed to decorate large and solid surfaces. that perhaps the relation between the two might be aptly expressed by the circumstances attend- ing their respective modes of execution. A dignified subject is essen- tial . in this case. It is to be remembered that the painter is. simplicity. and if one art is dependent on the other. Lastly. It is further to be remembered that the walls must always be felt to exist under the decorations . the artist is no longer intent on the reproduction. genius is required to add ideality or elevation of treatment. must be apparent in the composition and the execution.

down to Pietro da Cortona. had reason to call easel-painting an oc- cupation for women.14 MURAL DECORATION." differing only from the decorations of the theatre by better studied forms and a more . from Giotto to Michael Angelo. simple. that cover them. To complete the decline of monumental art. foreseeing the decline of the grandest style. from the beginning of the seventeenth century. and Michael Angelo. and unaffected. produced what the Italians called vast " machine. perspective. Accordingly. and the artists looking on this mode of painting as an opportunity for dis- playing the effects of foreshortening. and colour. From this period (the middle of the sixteenth century). They painted in fresco . in which the qualities of fresco became useless. covered the walls of the palaces and temples of Italy with their works. Succeeding painters. commonly on walls. it remained only to neglect the process itself. It is thus that its style was defined by the great masters who. poured over vast sur- faces their crowded compositions. par- ticularly in France . where all is grand. Thus. and the superior energy and self-denial required of its votaries. the tradition of elevated art was unstable. and the skilful and magical effects by which the painter gets rid of the sur- face would here be out of place. under whatever point of view this ques- tion is considered. oil- painting was introduced. monumental painting must still be limited to an elevated region.

15 finished execution.. and politics tend- ing ? Has England any part to play in the World's history. whither bound to what end — are art. and what ? If we cannot answer these questions satisfactorily. extended. and thus. that the genius and labours of the band of German painters who revived mural painting in Munich ought to be estimated. but it will make a greater mark in the future. but never a grand manifestation of art. contributed more than even their countrymen are aware to its recent realization. The art developed under such circumstances may lack some of the syren qualities of a purposeless people displaying its intellectual eccentricities. viz. may it not be said that we are merely beating the wind. Do Englishmen ever ask themselves. literature. one simultaneous throb . for they identified their art-revival with a newly awakened yearning aspiration towards a more im- portant. — INTRODUCTION. being far-sighted patriots. There may be a clever. and united national existence . till all talent is concentric to a common purpose. till a people be moved by one pulse. We have no right to consider modern artists responsible for this practice : it is to be dated from those painters who first lost sight of the conditions which regulate the style of painting when that art is applied to architecture. They were great artists in the best sense of those words. It is from the point of view which has just been indicated. . the union of painting with archi- tecture.

and which gradually raises a cha- racteristic and enduring national monument. like all aimless trifling. . which. literature. which consti- tutes greatness.16 MURAL DECORATION. and politics. will bring us into mischief or contempt? It is unity of purpose alone. in art.

in ignorance of what properly constitutes and distinguishes fresco from other methods of painting. unless executed in the manner we are about to describe. of course. The art of Fresco . And as we have shown that architectural display is indi- cative of a concentric national development. And it should be dis- tinctly noted that when fresco is roughly stated to be the method of painting upon fresh-floated mortar with water-colour. people. all kinds of mural pictures. and in the dome of St. FBESCO. I have heard the paintings on the ceilings of Greenwich Hospital. generally speaking. and has been alter- nately practised or neglected as magnificence in architecture has prevailed or declined. In this country. Paul's. can be correctly styled fresco. it may be concluded that the practice of Fresco- Painting points to the same fact. or of painting upon fresh mortar with colours simply mixed with water. thus denominated. This is. is of great antiquity. have very confused notions about fresco. that this is neither with the " cake " nor " moist " colours in common . in short.Painting. No work.

Kaulbach. For although fresco-painters may be seldom called upon to spread the mortar ground. and other eminent painters at Munich and the revived interest in . and to become plasterers as well as painters. at least art-Europe. or hydrate of lime. use. and compel them to mount rough scaffold- ing into the mid-air of unfinished buildings . and the reasons given for the pre- ference and substitution of fresco. 18 MURAL DECORATION. in the execution of pic- tures for public edifices. but with the raw pigments either mixed with pure water. The rich and varied effects which characterize . to deny themselves the comparative luxury of oil-painting. Some years ago Europe. they ought to be able to do it dexterously. the process was further heightened in England by the decision of the Eoyal Commission of Fine Arts. was aroused to an interest in fresco by the fame of the works executed in this method by Cornelius. Hess. It may reasonably be inquired why the more familiar process of oil-painting on canvas should be abandoned for colours mixed with water. Schnorr. in fact. before de- scribing the process itself —reasons which have been sufficiently cogent to withdraw the great painters from the convenient easel and the quiet studio. and a fresh mortar ground. This question shall be answered. that fresco should be adopted for the mural decorations of the new palace at Westmin- ster.

for even if we could suc- ceed in rendering oil-paintings on walls durable. especially when the artist has long been accustomed to them. the finish of details. have already suffered in some places. who has made science avail- able for so many practical objects. FRESCO. be admitted that fresco is not better fitted to resist the action of a humid climate yet the frescoes of Mignard. Darcet. and which caused that . pre- pared under his direction. in the dome of the Pantheon. perhaps. although the re-touches in coloured crayons. have faded. but the paintings of Gros. the question of durability need not be con- sidered so all-important . are resources easily abused. it would be impossible them those quali- to give ties fitted for architectonic decoration which spe- cially belong to fresco. thought he had remedied this defect by preparing walls with new grounds for painting. The brightness of tints. added by the artist after the work was completed. 10 oil-painting are ill applicable to a severe style of architecture. M. It may. are well preserved. chemist. To these objections it may be added that oil-painting applied to walls has no principle of durability or solidity. in the Church of Val de Grace. especially when employed on large The experienced surfaces. to be subdued and simplified. so as not to transgress the limits of a well-understood style of decoration. powerful relief. on the contrary. at Paris. After all. Such means require.

and renders fresco more directly appropriate for strictly decorative purposes. It is. The same depth of shade is not in the artist's power. indeed. it must be confessed. a broad and simple treatment of colour. indicates the appropriate limits of effect. yet in its ulti- mate execution it is not an art for the hesitating and timid. but this very circumstance. It requires a grand style of drawing. so as to make one har- monious whole. The absurdity of painting in oil upon walls into the composition of which lime has entered. 20 MURAL DECORATION. while it compels attention to composition. But although fresco admits of the design being studied to any extent in cartoons. is so evident that it can scarcely be attempted again. method to be preferred by all the great masters of the Italian schools. whereas fresco has the reverse ten- . The Italian masters were always fully impressed with the necessity of adapting their works to the effect of their architecture. are rare in these days. The inclination of oil-colour on plaster is always towards the dark and heavy. impossible to pro- duce that illusion which is considered so desirable in oil-pictures. colour. The nature of fresco fits it for such a purpose. The lime and its salts are certain to cause the rapid decomposition of such works. and an ener- getic and rapid hand . and form. an eye steadily fixed on the whole effect. which usually end in becoming perfectly black. all qualities which.

must recollect the dismal appearance of its walls : where once. The portion of the work undertaken in the morning must be com- pleted during the day. it must be admitted that it is the lesser evil of the two. and heavy as its decorations now appear. in which condition it must be painted upon. 21 dency — or to become lighter. FKESCO. in consequence of its absorption of carbonic acid from the atmosphere. The British Museum. brilliant colour existed. and thus to impair both the apparent so- lidity of the architecture. pro- bably. and although this is also a defect. this heaviness must continue to increase. It being the nature of mortar to set after it has been rendered a few hours. and those who may remember it. Of English palaces painted in oil. Hence every part of the design must be defined preparatory to painting. or old Montague House. nothing but dark- ened masses were latterly apparent — a decorative experience which it is hoped will be remembered for the future. The tendency of large surfaces of canvas to bulge. This necessitates the execution of a finished draw- ing of the design to be painted : sometimes this is . was another instance of the darkening tendency of oil-colour on plaster. and the effect of the painting is a sufficiently obvious reason for its abandonment. Hampton Court is one well known. it must be assumed that it is impossible to re-touch a fresco -painting to any extent.

spoils the cartoon. done to the full size of the intended work. an exact work- ing drawing. A steaming apparatus is used to set the finished drawing . To render this operation more certainly and speedily effective. this causes the steam to be condensed more rapidly on the other side. are executed in char- coal. the back of the cartoon is sponged over . some- times very much smaller. it softens the size. and as the jet of steam impinges on the sized paper. but requires increased care on the part of the operator. In the cartoon the artist determines his compo- sition. prevents them from being dusted off or easily erased. makes a work complete in every respect but that of colour. and running down. on paper which has been pasted to stretched calico or canvas. studies every portion of it from models. otherwise moisture accumulates too rapidly. Charcoal is used in preference to chalk on account of the facility with which it may be dusted from the car- toon if any alteration in the design be required. These drawings. this is passed slowly over every part of the artist's work. and afterwards sized. and the limited half-tint it affords for the masses of shadow. It was the practice of most of the great mas- . which now receives the particles of charcoal. carrying the charcoal with it. and when dry. These preparatory drawings are called cartoons. draperies. &c. in fact.22 MURAL DECORATION. if large.

is finally converted into tracing-paper by oiling. for after the fresco is done. it is de- sirable to have a coloured sketch of the whole composition. This figure was added to fill up a vacant space. follow this practice. which. FRESCO. The artist having finished his cartoon and sketch of colour. and thus the change (a considerable improve-- . 23 ters to make cartoons the full size: the German painters. to the full size. It has been already observed that the fresco is a final operation . it is almost as impossible to change colours as forms. on thin paper. these are afterwards reticulated and enlarged in outline by his pupils. or rather upon additional pieces of paper upon fitted it. for the most part. however. Besides the cartoon. any considerable alterations that may suggest themselves when the cartoon is completed. leaning his head on his hand. Hess is. is wanting in the cartoon. One of the most interesting examples of the nature and the extent of the alterations that may be introduced in a composition prepared for fresco. must be made on the cartoon. when the outline is completed. is the cartoon of Raffael's School of Athens. and to proceed with certainty. in which the forms and general light and shadow are determined. The figure of Epictetus represented in the fresco sitting in the foreground on the left. an exception : his cartoons are very small and most beautifully executed in pen- cil. is prepared to commence the fresco.

in speaking of the cartoons of Michael Angelo and Kaffael. the better to hold the rough coat of mortar. that artists had become impatient of so much toil. as the risk of bulging is thus increased. laths with wattling and copper nails are not approved of. with the painting. re- ferring to the methods taken by more modern practitioners of the art of fresco-painting to evade the study and care which it demands. is proved by the exact conformity of every part.24 MURAL DECORATION. and of equal hardness. without any change in the drawing. observes. such as covering the head of Aspasia with drapery. instead of showing her flowing tresses (for thus she ap- pears in the cartoon). Walls intended to receive frescoes should be built of bricks. ment) involved no inconvenience. but a brick ground . All the frescoes in Munich are painted on the plastered brick walls . Palomino. having found that their enthusiasm evaporated before the period arrived for the exe- cution of their work. the surface of the bricks should be chipped. in his work on fresco-painting. except the additions above mentioned. might have been made on the wall. The use of laths is sometimes necessary for certain surfaces. That this cartoon was the identical one which served for the execution of the fresco. The Preparation of the Wall. Some less important alterations in the same fresco. well dried.

The brick ground absorbs superfluous water. not only on account of its solidity. the liability of saline matter making its appearance was much increased. It grows to the length of about eighteen feet. and is rather . the practice of lathing walls is unknown. cut to the shape of the ceiling. The material is the reed. The painting-ground dries much quicker on laths. and used in so many ways. is preferable to paint on. A wall of a brick. Most vaulted ceilings. In Italy. or principal floor of every palace. The lathing in this case is not attached to single thin pieces of timber. but to a strong grating . are constructed of wood. that where the walls in the lower portions of the great public edifices were five or six feet thick. FRESCO. The walls ought to be thoroughly dry. but many of the finest Italian ceiling-frescoes are on lath. Professor Hess once ob- served to me. and keeps the plaster longer in a fit state for painting upon. and are in perfect condition. in some cases the ribs and transverse pieces of this grating are four inches thick each way. which is cultivated so extensively in that country. but also because it is better adapted for the execution of the paint- ing. as the mass of brickwork remains longer in a humid state. 25 is to be preferred wherever it is practicable. The lathing in Italy is a very peculiar process. in what is termed the piano nobile. or a brick and a half in thickness. as two surfaces are exposed to evapora- tion.

and thus a perfectly level ceiling may be formed of the most durable kind. To guard against damp from roofs. Polonceau. more than one inch and a quarter in diameter at the base. and now that the use of cast-iron is so well understood. asphalte might be necessary in walls.26 MURAL DECORATION. The damp from exterior stone walls may be guarded against by lining them with brick. M. it has been recommended that a false wall should be built. When these reeds are used for lathing. leaving a small space between it and the stone wall. A French architect. battens and laths are obviously perishable mate- rials. should be of iron arched with brick between. In the preparation of walls and ceilings for fresco -painting. or even occasional wash- ings of upper floors. and therefore ought to be avoided. they are split. For the more effectual prevention of damp. This plan might also be adopted where the brick- work of the main walls is very thick. effectually checked the progress of damp from a humid soil in several . The result of this somewhat complicated contrivance is a framework of great strength. the girders or joisting of houses where fresco -painting is contemplated. In some cases. it has also been suggested that a coating of asphalte might be applied on the upper sides of the arches of ceilings. no expense should be spared . to which it could be bound at intervals. and not being strong enough for the purpose in this state they are wattled upon the grating.

If the wall to be painted is covered with old mortar. this. and the mason should avoid leaving cavities in it . while the coldness of the more solid wall causes in humid weather the rapid condensation of moisture. com- posed of river-sand and lime. this coat should be entirely removed till the solid materials are laid bare. 27 instances. applied with a brush . and the building then pro- ceeded with. and is therefore less likely to be affected by external damp . This evil might perhaps be guarded against by due precautions with regard to temperature and venti- lation. was covered with a layer of coarse dry sand. by covering the horizontal surface of the masonry a few inches above the level of the soil with a coating of liquid asphalte. it is not to be forgotten that the battened wall sooner adapts itself to the temperature of the atmosphere. when dry. In considering the question respect- ing the comparative fitness of laths and bricks as a ground-work for fresco. then the rough coat. The thickness of the coat is such as is generally used in preparing the walls of dwelling-houses. the ingredients of which are unknown. In Italy it appears that two parts of sand were added to one of lime. but not unequally so . should be applied.and the working builder and mason are sufficiently experienced on this point. FRESCO. The surface of this first ap- plication should be rough. The proportions of the sand to the lime may vary in different climates.

Among the essential conditions of fresco -painting must be mentioned the preparation and seasoning of the lime. The qualities of the lime of this country have been questioned as to their fitness for fresco-paint- ing. In that case two or three years even should elapse before any subsequent operations are undertaken. The wall thus prepared. — a moderate admixture of small flint pebbles in the rough cast is the practice in Munich.28 MURAL DECORATION. It is not here intended to observe at any length on the qualities of foreign limes. If the rough cast be uneven in its surface. and the re- medy be sought in the after-coats. should be suffered to harden perfectly : the longer it remains in this state the safer it will be. The selection of the lime intended as a ground for fresco -painting is a matter of great importance. but perpendicular. but it is satisfactorily shown that a material is obtained even superior to any other yet known to have been used in the preparation of grounds. which will now be described. which takes place to some extent when the surface is even. but only to . dust will settle in patches on the finished painting. and if the inequali- ties of the rough cast be followed in spreading the intonaco. especially if the lime used was in the first instance fresh. It has been proposed that the entire surface of a wall to be painted should be inclined (slightly) forward to prevent the lodg- ment of dust. the intonaco will crack where it is thickest.

to fall into a coarse powder.99*4 . although Carrara marble. and other ancient and modern edifices in Eome are constructed. with a trace of oxide of iron 6 - 100-0 During the best period of Italian art. recommended by It is Vasari. FRESCO. A limestone consisting of as few foreign ingre- dients as possible is generally esteemed the fittest. and was probably used for this purpose by the ancients. affording in a hundred parts Carbonate of lime . while even a much less pure lime has been employed without any bad results. the lime of Genoa was highly esteemed. . and thus the inconveniences at- tending the burning and slaking render it unfit for use. 29 mention them comparatively. The limestone used by all the great artists who painted in Rome in the beginning of the sixteenth century was Travertine. from its granular and crystalline structure. and remarkable for . is liable when heated. It is almost a pure carbonate of lime. the Colosseum. of which St. and in such a manner as at once to show that it is not necessary for the painter to seek at a distance from home a mate- rial for grounds which afford the experimental maximum and minimum qualities whence to deduce an average for himself. . which is a pure carbo- nate of lime. Peter's. Alumina.

In analysis this lime yields Carbonate of lime . 100-0 . . .20 100 Although the purest lime has always been sought and recommended. .97 Impurity. . alumina. 3 100 And by Mr. David Scott for that used a fresco at Edinburgh some years since.. affords Carbonate of lime . . . . . . The analysis is Carbonate of lime . . .1 100 The lime used by the Florentine painters is found to be almost pure carbonate of lime. . chiefly oxide of iron .80 Ditto of magnesia .36 Earthy matter. . A fresco was executed about five -and -forty years ago at Bath.. . it is yet shown that impurity to a certain amount is not injurious to the work. Thomas Barker. and bitumi- nous matter . 5*5 . .63 Carbonate of magnesia . . . the lime was procured from the Wick stone. . Silica. Frescoes on the exterior of that city have resisted the effects of sea-air. .. a little oxide of iron and 94' bituminous matter . and of that used at Munich the proportions are Carbonate of lime .30 MURAL DECORATION. which I believe still remains in good condition . . oxide of iron. . its whiteness. . by Mr. . .

Italian writers do not insist upon its being kept a very long period. Hence exists. for a certain time after being slaked.. and even equal to the Eoman materials this is the limestone procurable on Durdham Down. upon the length of time elapsing from the period of its being slaked to that of its use.. that it blisters — fact mentioned by Italian writers on art. it is also known that it may be employed after periods of much shorter duration. FRESCO. is unfit for use. it is not considered . a variety of opinion. With respect to the length of time necessary to subdue its causticity. authorities vary. . Some pictures executed in this country without this precaution had the effect of a snow-storm. .. The effect of its being employed too soon is. 99*5 0"3 Earthy matter 02 1000 To reduce the causticity of the lime is a main object in its preparation . 31 We have yet. both in Italy and Germany. this depends. in a great degree. . It is known that lime is available after having been kept some years . By some authorities. It is well known that lime. however. limestone preferable to these. upon this subject. the blisters flaking off and leaving innumerable white spots. . near Bristol : it is composed of Carbonate of lime Bituminous matter .

acquire that which renders it non-caustic. found objectionable. or some other source of carbonic acid. The non-caustic state of lime is arrived at when. but if buried and kept from such sources. As regards incidental ingredients. by exposure to air. because. It appears. Cornelius had the lime prepared for the frescoes of the Ludwig Kirche eight years before he painted them.32 MURAL DECORATION. provided it be not exposed to atmospheric air. however. it has regained its maximum of carbonic acid . . in any considerable degree. three years at least is insisted on before it is used for the pigment or intonaco. the presence of magnesia does not diminish the whiteness of the lime and in other respects it has not been . however. would be to know in how short a time it may be employed with entire safety. Other matter found in asso- ciation with carbonate of lime might diminish its 1 Vide memorandum at end of this chapter. Time has no effect on pure lime. to this certain degree of causti- city it is indebted for the quality of induration which is exerted on exposure to air when in a moist state. that some degree of caus- ticity is indispensable to give adhesive firmness. it cannot. 1 A desirable and valuable end. whether slaked or unslaked. and to render it fit for the purposes of the fresco painter. or by some other means. necessary to keep it longer than a few months by others.

and which far surpassed honey or marrow in consistence. iron would operate on the colours silver . besides reducing its caus- ticity. having seen there was reason to suppose. by a mechanical alteration in the arrangement of its particles. and alumina would probably cause the lime to set too fast. There is no danger of it becoming dry even if buried in the mere earth. but some recommend that the pits intended to hold the lime should be lined with brick. as if mere lime could vary in its quality : it o . it has been chemically shown that. With respect to burying lime for a long period. thus. It is common to talk of more or less caustic limes. in order to preserve it from im- purities. insisted on by most fresco authorities." it is the opinion of our first chemists that no chemical change whatever can take place. instead of rendering it mild. advantageous to the fresco-painter. may be the result. this preserves it in a caustic state. had lain neglected for more than five hundred years. fresco. An Italian writer (Leon Battista Alberti) asserts some ancient lime which. 33 might be otherwise objectionable causticity. long keeping has been supposed to give value to it as increasing its quality of consistence. but that an improved consistence in the paste. Thus preserved in a state of "putty. All artists and writers are agreed that lime when too new is unfit for use . but .

solely of Lime .. as at first Lime . . in atomic proportions.... . and the result is. the addition of more water either mixes with the lime mechanically.. and the result is a compound of— Lime Water . Carbonic acid ... The purest limestone con- sists.44 56 100 . is the same in all limestones. whether in its original state or reproduced by chemical agency.. the water is expelled by car- bonic acid. 56 Let there be added to this lime as much water as will combine with it. .. or dissolves it. . it loses the carbonic acid. and is only greater or less in quantity. . . Carbonic acid . ..44 56 100 Thus constituted. ... . 34 MURAL DECORATION. 56 18 Hydrate of Lime ..74 It is to be observed that this proportion of water in combination with the lime does not apparently moisten it.... it is not at all caustic. Let these seventy-four parts hydrate of lime be exposed to the air..... If the limestone be subjected to sufficient heat.. ... Hydrate of lime is a dry powder . . and there is left Lime .

and mixed in a grouting-box. however. comes only to within an inch and a half of the bottom of the box. which may have sunk. The lime is received into a pit. The process of mixing in the grouting-box is repeated till the pit is well filled. the box being washed out with clean water every third or fourth mixing. hair is The lime of which the " intonaco. but small stones or impurities. On being drawn up the sluice allows the lime to escape . The lime is worked with this. The burnt limestone is slaked. 35 This is. dug in the earth. The instrument used in mixing it is similar to that used by our masons. according to its ascertained strength. are prevented from passing by the ledge under the opening. and water is thrown in till the substance is of the consistence of cream. the opening of which. chemically speaking. is left in the pit from eight to twelve months. the original lime- stone. FRESCO. allowed to dry perfectly before the next coats are applied. Noused in the mortar. At the end of the box is a sluice. The lime being thus prepared. The lime for the first rough coat need not be kept more than two months this is ." or coat of . Preparation of the Lime for Painting and the Mortar. although the original state of cohesion is never regained. to the depth of several feet and of any convenient size.

36 MURAL DECORATION. is. and is quite as smooth. it is then allowed to escape through an open sluice. to be sub- jected to a much more careful preparation than that used for the rough cast. The lime is allowed to settle. Great pains are taken in Italy to find a suitable sand : it must be perfectly clean and sharp . and when the water which rises over its surface is clear. and again tho- roughly mixed with water. its colour favourable. No plaster of Paris should be mixed in the mortar of the rough cast in the finer coats it is never employed as a pre- . This accounts for the very careful preparation which all the materials used undergo. and to pass through a fine hair- sieve into earthenware jars . and each is filled to within a third of the top. This is repeated till there is no more water to pour off. fine mortar. it is taken from the pit as it may be wanted. It is now thrown into troughs. is composed. till it is not thicker than milk . great care being taken not to take up any clay or earth with the lime. however. which consists as usual of two parts sand and one of lime. it is poured off. It is now ready to be mixed for the intonaco. The presence of any earthy particles in the plaster would inevitably ruin the fresco. as the intonaco should not be too dark. After it has been kept for the requisite time. and the lime remains in the jars of the consistence of the white paint commonly used. a number of these jars is required. and the grains of equal size .

The rough cast should not be too compactly laid on." Marble dust and pozzolano have sometimes been substituted for sand in the preparation of the mortar for the intonaco. and must depend upon the nature of the lime. and easily cracks . the successive patches (as the fresco proceeds) are not to be spread conveniently in dif- ficult situations. FKESCO. In Munich small flint-pebbles are moderately used in the ground-coat. not in too caustic a state. as its porousness is essential to the convenience of fresco-painting. should be sifted : thus the mortar will be uniform in its texture. With regard to the lime. it should be well and uni- formly manipulated. In like manner the last finer coats should be lightly floated on. The sand should be very carefully washed. to cleanse it from clayey or saline particles. If the mortar contains too much lime. and pure quartz sand. writes : — " The mortar for painting on is composed of lime. Professor Hess. is too smooth in surface. 37 paration for fresco. or unequal in grain. The proportion of sand to the lime is best learned from experience. if it contains too little. and should afterwards be dried in the open air —sand that is coarse. and the mortar is not so lasting. to insure their power of absorption. it is not easily floated. . and should be entirely free from any small hard lumps. it becomes in- crusted too soon. in the memoranda which he gave me on the subject.

oxides of iron. . The most generally used are white. They are mixed with or ground in water. it may be well to observe that it should be kept free from rust. The Colours. and mix the colours for the day's use. and kept in jars. a trimming-knife . colours that is. palette-knives .38 mukal decoration. of steel and bone . lime which has been long kept. and iron trowels should not be too forcibly pressed on the surface of the intonaco. a bone or ivory stylus to run over the outline on the tracing- paper. brushes of hog and otter hair — any other kind becoming burnt and curled by the lime. the brightest particles selected at different stages of the burning. Yellow. and lake -coloured burnt vitriol. or which has been boiled as recommended by Ar- menini. The implements used are wooden and glass floats trowels of wood and iron . all kinds of ochres — burnt terra di sienna (according to Cornelius. no vege- table and few mineral preparations can be used with safety. In using iron in connection with fresco -painting. Implements. The colours are chiefly simple earths. A num- ber of tin palettes with raised edges are also re- quired. in order to transfer it to the mortar ground . and a stone slab on which to grind the white. furnish very brilliant reds). or rendered less caustic by repeated manipulations and drying.

cannot be used at all. pour on it the water that boils up when lime is slaked in it . the water. The quantities and changes of the various pigments used in fresco. and chrome green (oxide of chromium). Colours prepared from animal and vege- table substances. admit of being mixed in any way. Green — Verona green (terra vert). as this. such as chrome yellow. and having placed it in an earthenware vase. but have not in every case been found to stand. and for the most part. and burnt terra vert. and the best modes of employing them are minutely described by Palomino. — Purple burnt vitriol. Pozzo gives the following directions for preparing ver- milion for fresco. cobalt green. affords a pure black. These colours have been well tested. Black — burnt Cologne earth. and lake- coloured burnt vitriol. will stand if passed over terra rossa. and the imitations of ultramarine. but does not always mix well with other colours. Blue — ultramarine. the same authority says. Vermilion. as the lime destroys them. raw and burnt. being freed from its vegetable ingredients. Take pure vermilion in pow- der. cobalt. have be entried in various ways. 39 Brown —umber. Other more brilliant colours. &c. The last is most safely used for flat tints. cobalt blue. vermilion. which should be as pure . FliESCO.

as possible. and adding fresh for eight days. as a white. pouring off the water as the lime settles. This operation once or twice repeated. If the lime be too fresh. that the artist has finished his cartoon. divided into small cakes. is then placed in the sun to bleach. covered with the rough coat. We may now suppose that the wall to be decorated has been built according to the fore- going directions. and sketch of colour . is as follows. In this manner the vermilion is penetrated with the quality of the lime and always retains it.40 MURAL DECORATION. Preparing to Paint. is or more technically the " rough cast. renders the lime perfectly white. a large jar . distinctly say that vermilion will not stand in fresco. is then poured off." and that both are thoroughly dry and seasoned . on the other hand. that at some convenient spot a bench is placed. an admixture of finely ground marble - dust is recommended to moderate its causticity. and mix it well with water. To shorten the process. and the operation is often repeated. may be again moistened with water and well ground. Cennini and Aronenini. Take some of the " putty " from the lime-pit. on which are arranged the covered jars containing the colours ground in water. The lime. tracing. the cakes. when dry. being precisely the same as that prac- tised by modern fresco-painters. Cennini's mode of preparing lime.

several marble slabs. An interval of about ten minutes should elapse before the second or finishing coat is laid the thickness of the two coats together should not exceed 3-1 6th of an inch." that is to say containing a less proportion of sand. that a plentiful supply of boiled or distilled water 1 is provided . The surface of the rough cast which is now ex- posed is wetted again and again by the plasterer till it ceases to absorb . the intonaco is then lightly floated on in two coats. that the plasterer is ready with the fine mortar for the intonaco and the process may be commenced. that an ample supply of hog and otter-hair brushes are in the drawers of the bench . . The painter now removes the tacks from the upper and left hand corner of the tracing. the assistant may pass a roll of soft wet linen over the surface to get rid of the extreme smoothness. the last being somewhat " fatter. and 1 The tin palettes with raised edges may be painted over with a coat or two of lime white. that a number of palettes such as have been described are clean and ready for use . FltESCO. that the tracing has been tacked exactly in the place the painting will occupy . so that a portion of the tracing a little larger than the area he intends to paint may be turned down. to remove the traces of the trowel. After these are well spread. 41 of the prepared white. with steel and bone palette-knives close at hand some large pieces of dry umber and several sponges .

at others. the tracing- paper is raised to its previous position. The surface is next to be lightly passed over with a handkerchief. the outline upon the tracing- paper is punctured and pounced. which leaves an indented trace upon the mortar . for unless the stylus or ivory point be cautiously used. slightly to stir the sand. if the tracing be on stout paper — as it generally is — for every puncture turns up a projecting edge on the reverse. so that if the finger be passed lightly over the smooth side of the punctured outline it leaves slight indentations corresponding with the punctured outline on the soft intonaco. but I have found pouncing unnecessary. While the intonaco is in course of preparation the painter should mix all the gradations of tint .42 MURAL DECORATION. which become more evident when the first thin wash of colour is passed over it. and the outline is traced upon it —sometimes this is effected by a stylus. it leaves unequal grooves in the soft intonaco. it appears that the old masters were in the habit of pressing and smoothing the intonaco by passing a trowel or float over paper when the day's work was completed. and in pouncing through thin tracing-paper the outline may be washed out and lost too soon. and which in painting ceilings might get into the eyes. As soon as the mor- tar of the intonaco has sufficiently set. I prefer this mode of transferring the outline to any other . to remove any loose particles of sand which may adhere to it. which are very unpleasant to paint to.

if he be not systematic his labour will be thrown away and the cause of endless vexation and disappointment. after a short time the work should be gone . just bearing the pressure of the finger. the pieces of dry umber before referred to. The next proceeding is to indicate the light and shade faintly with the shade-tints —warm or power- ful colour should be avoided in these first opera- tions. using plenty of water. If the same tints be required in several successive days' work. are used as tests. These. suf- ficient of them should be mixed at once to execute the entire piece of drapery. The painter now 7 passes a thin wash of one of his tints over the intonaco. this should be done with great care. as the colours dry much lighter than painted. for. it is then left for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour. In order to judge of the true value of the tints when dry. either of flesh or other tints . The intonaco may now be supposed T sufficiently set. otherwise the different days' work will show as somany patches. FRESCO. they can better be added as the work pro- ceeds. or whatever else it may be. by rapidly absorbing the water from the tints touched upon them show pretty nearly what they will be. this discovers the outline and cleanses the surface. and the day's work traced. With his coloured sketch near him. 43 required for kis day's work. and each gradation tested on a block of dry umber. he prepares seven or more grada- tions.

A board is padded on one side. the cushion being covered with wax. a wet piece of fine linen is then spread over the fresh mortar and painting and pressed to the surface of the wall by the cushioned side of the board. When the painter is unable to finish a portion at once. over again. the pencils are instantly sucked dry. after a few days it will be found as dry powder on the surface. The work should again be left for twenty minutes or half an hour. the superfluous . Thin glazing tints are now used with . these the artist gives the last delicate finishing touches. &c. Clean pans of distilled water for diluting the tints should be supplied from time to time by the assistant.cloth . Water is sometimes sprinkled on the intonaco to retard the approach of this condition. As the mortar approaches the condition when it will no longer be safe to paint upon. The day's work being finished. quality of the lime. while the other is buttressed firmly with a pole. the Munich artists have a contrivance which arrests the drying of the work. and if the painting be continued after this rapid absorption ceases. which varies with the state of the weather. and puts in the high lights. and laying in the middle tints solidly — the tints may be softened into one another with a moderately moistened brush. or is compelled to leave it during the day for a considerable time.44 MURAL DECORATION. darkening and modelling the forms with greater care.

which is unavoidable. it will be almost impossible. FRESCO. the patchwork. but always where drapery or some object or its outline forms a boundary. Thus the painting pro- gresses like the filling up of a child's puzzle-map. and care must be also taken . the edges of the finished portion being bevelled off to the ground or rough cast. the flowing portions of hair and the freer parts of foliage are executed with the background. otherwise the edges of the dry portion of the painting are liable to show stains. the portion of the tracing-paper done with is then cut away — a fresh portion is turned down. but by making these junctions correspond with the outlines of the composition. for if this be not attended to. In the next day's operation the rough cast is to be wetted as before. Bound the intricate outlines of flowing hair and foliage it is impossible to make good joinings. to match the tints so that the junction be imperceptible . and the next place to be filled with plaster indicated by the painter with a piece of chalk or charcoal. 15 mortar is cut away with a knife. piece by piece. It is always better to follow up the portions most recently executed. or of an unbroken light. in continuing the work the next day. is success- fully concealed. In cutting the mortar away care should be taken never to make a division in the middle of a mass of flesh. and the joining made at some con- venient place within these.

When any defect in the first operation is irre- trievable. for the reasons before given. so as to make one whole in the execution. whereas Distemper and crayons have also been used for this pur- 1 pose. is of great importance in fresco-painting. in order to secure the sufficient moisten- ing of every part. the colour in this. slight imperfections in the joining of the plaster or any other trifling defects. the 1 medium being vinegar and yolk of egg. This attention to the nice adjust- ment of the successive portions of the work.thought. but here again care should be taken that the portion cut out should be bounded by definite lines. the spoiled portion is carefully cut out. When the painting is thoroughly dry. The same remedy is possible in reviewing the finished work.46 MUEAL DECORATION. to wet the edges of the intonaco previously painted. may be remedied. to a middle tint of the colour required : its advan- tages are. and the process above described is renewed for that particular part. to mix some of the intonaco before laying it on the wall. This requires to be done delicately with a brush. The decoration of public buildings in England is unfortunately too often an after. case being incorporated with the mortar. . that painting can be more rapidly exe- cuted and that accidental scratches are less evident. Another practice of fresco-painters is. but it should be recollected that no retouchings of this nature are enduring.

All these modes of painting are free from the glossy surface which is incom- patible with mural decoration. I am aware that fresco has of late somewhat fallen into disrepute with our painters on account of sundry failures in the palace at Westminster. enabled to commence their designs and cartoons before the foundations of the edifices were laid. such as Fresco Secco. 47 the great Italian and Munich mural decorations were portions of the architect's original concep- tions. which is only fit for temporary works. for it requires consider- able experience in properly preparing and using the material. in some instances. or when circumstances preclude the adoption of the more ancient and durable means. FRESCO. The most enduring processes . in which the usual fresco colours are used on a completely finished and thoroughly dry intonaco. and oil flat- tened with turpentine. but are. but English painters are not exceptional in this respect . Italian and German painters also failed in their first use of fresco. and the painters were. the ground being merely resaturated with water previously to painting upon it. There are other modes of painting which more or less resemble Fresco in their general effect. Never- theless these methods may occasionally be substi- tuted for fresco. distemper. in other respects wanting the virtues of pure fresco. for works of the moment. but it lacks the brilliancy of Buon Fresco .

directed their attention to this point. . and is a colour in itself. by continuity of practice. an old mason. and I feel assured. When this eminent artist. in Rome. and to use boiled water in moistening the surface and thinning the lime. The works alluded to. have stood perfectly well. that English painters only require a longer experience. and it so happened that they were then supplied with lime which had been preserved twelve years. it is desirable to let the building itself dry well before painting upon the walls. Other German and Italian fresco-painters do not consider it essential to keep the lime longer than ten or twelve months. to make them willingly ac- cept fresco as the best method of executing works of art for important public buildings. - 48 MURAL DECORATION. Cornelius used to lay the greatest stress on the necessity of using lime that had been long kept. Mem. though the first executed by the modern German fresco painters. unless the silicate of soda or water-glass method be found superior to fresco. painted the house of the Chevalier Bartholdy. Among other pre- cautions. generally require the most patience and perseve- rance in their study and acquirement . who had been employed under Mengs (a not un- skilful fresco-painter). in conjunction with others. since this comes immediate contact with the colours.

to elucidate the ancient method of encaustic painting. But at present there is no general consent as to the true method of using wax as a vehicle. may ultimately be found an unnecessary operation by our advanced chemical science if so. however. on this account it is used in the process of etching. ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. there- fore. the application of heat. encaustic will have to be changed. With wax a vehicle may be composed nearly as free from gloss as fresco. the title. and the Greeks satu- rated their marble sculptures with it to preserve them from atmospheric corrosion. Paintings executed with vehicles in which wax is combined in certain proportions. rank next to frescoes in architectonic propriety of effect and durability. from the wonderful power it possesses to resist the action of acids . and it should be borne in mind that painting with any of its preparations is not properly encaustic unless heat is applied in the process . I may. and re- E . perhaps render the arts some service by bringing together the records of inquiries and ex- periments instituted at different times. Wax is very enduring.

which. were the first in modern times who made experiments in this branch of art about the year 1749. signifying " executed by fire. At what time. and to be a less encumbered process. a more powerful effect. Bachelier (a painter)." used by Pliny and other ancient writers. although it appears to have been practised in the fourth and fifth centuries. Ancient authors often make mention of en- caustic." " pictura encaustica. as it promises a somewhat richer range of colour. But the expressions. Whatever be the method ulti- mately adopted. In 1754 the Count had a head of Minerva painted by Mons. " encausto pin- gere.50 MURAL DECORATION." one might suppose have been a species of enamel- to painting. and by whom. and therefore the precise manner adopted by the ancients is not completely developed. make it clear that some other species of painting is meant. We have no ancient pictures of this description." "picturam inurere." " ceris pingere. Some years after this. this species of painting was first invented is not determined by antiquaries. it will probably be preferred by many in this country to fresco. Count Caylus and M. if it had been described simply by this word. Vien after the process . vive its practice. though many moderns have closely in- vestigated the and described their pro- subject cesses. Count Caylus presented to the Academy of Painting at Paris his ideas and experiments on the subject of the ancient manner of painting in encaustic.



described by himself, and presented it to the
Academy of Sciences in 1755. This induced
Mons. Bachelier recommence his experiments,

with better success but his manner of painting

in encaustic differed from the ancient as described
by Pliny, he did not therefore discover the real
ancient manner ; after this he made other ex-
periments with the same object, all of which
differed from the process as described by Caylus
and others.
Pliny, in a passage relating to encaustic paint-
ing, distinguishes three species. 1. That in

which they used a stylus, and painted on ivory or
polished wood (cestro in ebore), for which pur-
pose they drew the outlines on the wood or ivory,
previously saturated with some certain colour
the point of the stylus or stigma served for this
operation, and its broad or blade end to clear off

the small filaments that arose from the outlines
made by the stylus in the wax preparation. 2.

The next manner appears to have been where the
wax, previously impregnated with colour, was
spread over the surface of the picture with the
spatula, the wax-colours being previously pre-
pared and formed into small cylinders for use.
By the side of the painter stood a brazier, which
was used to heat the spatula with which the
colours were smoothly spread after the outlines
were completed, and thus the picture was pro-
ceeded with and finished. 3. The third method


was by painting with a brush dipped into wax
liquefied by fire by this method the colours at-

tained considerable hardness, and could not be
damaged either by the heat of the sun or the
deleterious effects of sea-water. It was thus that
they painted their ships with emblems, which de-
corations were finally smoothed and polished.
This kind of encaustic, therefore, was styled
" ship -painting."
The following important observations are trans-

lated from the Italian of the Chevalier Lorgna,
who deeply investigated the subject in a small but
valuable tract called "Un discorso sulla Cera
Punica." The ancients (says this author), ac-

cording to Pliny, used three species of painting,
and in all three they used heat.
We have never thoroughly known the nature of
the Punic wax, which was anciently used, and
which, after all, was the essential ingredient of
the ancient painting in encaustic. The Chevalier
having praised the genius and industry of M. Ee-
queno 1 and M. Bachelier, who also treated upon
the subject, but who did not fully succeed in finding
out the true way of making the said wax, quotes
the passage in Pliny :
" Punica fit hoc modo," &c,
see Pliny's Nat. Hist. i. 21, c. 14; and asserts
with many other writers, that Pliny's nitre is not
the nitre of the moderns, properly so called, but
Saggi sul Ristabilimento dell' antica Arte de Greci e
Rwnani Pitfcori. Parma, 1787.


the natron of the ancients, viz., the native salt
which is found crystallized, in Egypt and other hot
countries, in sands surrounding lakes of salt water;
it must not, however, be mistaken for the natron
of the new nomenclature of the College of Physi-
cians, which is the new name of the mineral alkali.

From the plains which were once covered by
the sea, and from the environs of the salt lakes
of Lower Egypt, from Tripoli and Tunis, as also
in the adjacent parts of ancient Carthage, the
natron, that same natron which, under the name
of nitre, the Carthaginians, according to Pliny,
used in preparing their wax, is to this day ex-
tracted, and hence it was called Punic Wax.
" I began now," says Lorgna, " successively to
try my experiments, first with three parts of wax
and one of natron, and then with four of wax, and
so on, till I used twenty parts of white melted wax
with one only of natron, with as much water as
w as
just sufficient to dissolve the natron. I held
the mixture in an iron vessel over a slow fire,

stirring it gently with a wooden spatula, till the
two substances thickened by evaporation ; and, in
closely uniting, the mass by degress assumed the
consistence of butter and the colour of milk. I
then removed it from the fire, and put it in the
shade to let it harden and perfect itself in the
open air. This natron was extracted from the ley
of kali of Malta, evaporated till it was dry ; it

may also be extracted from the kali of Spain,


Sicily, Sardinia, and from that of Tunis and of
Tripoli, which may be procured without much
difficulty. The wax being cooled, it liquefied in

water, and a milky emulsion resulted from it like

that which could be made with the best Venetian
Pliny, in another place, c. 7, 1-23, gives further
directions for the manner of using encaustic paint-
ing on walls ; but as it concerns the antiquary
more than the artist, I have forborne making the
quotation. It begins at these words, "Ut parietis

siccato cera punica," &c.
As to making use of this wax in painting in
encaustic, the Chevalier says, that magnificent and
repeated experiments were made in the apartments
of the Count Giovani Batista Gasola, by the Italian
painter, Signor Antonio Paccheri. He dissolved
the Punic wax, when it was not yet so much
hardened as to require to be " igni resoluta," as ex-
pressed by Pliny, with pure water slightly infused
with gum arabic, instead of sarcocolla, mentioned
by Pliny. He afterwards melted and mixed his
colours with this wax so liquefied as he would
have done with oil, and proceeded to paint in the
same manner ; nor were the colours seen to run
or alter in the least ; and the mixture was so
flexible that the pencil ran smoother with it than
it would have done with oil. The painting being
dry, he used the caustic over it, and rubbed it

with linen cloths, by which the colours acquired a



peculiar vivacity and brightness which they had
not before the caustic and the rubbing had been

Many years since, Count Caylus,
a member of
the French Academy, to whom w e T
have recently al-

luded, undertook to explain an obscure passage in
Pliny (xxxv. 39), who somewhere records in his
works that " the ancients painted with burnt wax,"
and we have traditional evidence that pictures of
this kind were very durable. The passage which
the Count undertook to explain we may suppose
to be the following :
—" Ceris pingere ac picturam
inurere quis primus excogitaverit non constat
quidam Aristides inventum putant, postea consum-
matum a Praxitele; sed aliquanto vetustiores En-
caustics picturae existere, ut Polygnoti et Mcanoris
et Arcesilai Pariorum. Lysippus quoque iEginae
picturae suae inscripsit IvIkcivgzv, quod profecto non
fecisset nisi encaustica inventa ;" which has been
translated — " Who first invented to paint with (or
in) wax, and burn in (or fix) the picture with fire,

is not certainly known. Some think Aristides in-
vented it, and that Praxiteles brought it to per-
fection; but there were pictures by masters
of a much older date, such as of Polygnotus,
Nicanor and Arcesilaus, all artists of Paros.
Lysippus w rote
upon his pictures, burnt in,

which he would not have done if the encaustic
method had not been invented then."
Phil. Tran. Vol. 40, Part II.



This was the passage which the Count under-
took to clear up, by trying all the different pos-
sible ways of painting in wax, and after many
experiments he hit upon a very simple method, of
which, in order to excite the curiosity of the
public, he made a secret.
The several artists who were desirous of know-
ing by what means the Count made the discovery,
tried a great number of experiments, of which

only two are worth mentioning.
The first was to melt wax and oil of turpentine
together, and use it for mixing the colours. But
this method does not at all explain Pliny's mean-

ing, because wax, in this way of managing it,

is not burnt; besides, this method is defective,

the oil of turpentine dries too fast, and does not
allow the painter sufficient time to blend and unite
his colours.
The second method is very ingenious, and seems
to tally with Pliny's description very well ; it is

as follows : the wax is melted with strong lixi-

vium of salt of tartar, and with this the colours
are ground. When the picture is finished, it is

placed before the fire, and heated by degrees
the wax melts, swells, and is bloated up upon
the picture ; the picture is then gradually re-
moved from the fire, and the colours, without
being injuriously affected by the operation of the
fire,become unalterable spirits of wine having ;

been burnt upon them without doing the least harm.

and is that by which the head of the Minerva was painted. and will bear washing . are firm. by rubbing it simply with a piece of beeswax. it is put near the fire. It must be allowed that nothing can be more simple than this process . and it is thought that this kind of painting is capable of withstanding the weather and lasting longer than painting in oil. 57 The following. ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. — The cloth or wood designed for the picture is waxed over. however. The effect produced by the surface of this kind of painting is very singular. . which is Count Cay- lus's method. there can be no dazzling reflection from pictures painted in this manner to baffle the eyes of the spectator : the colours. is much simpler. in short. whereby the wax is melted and absorbs the colours. First. but as these colours will not adhere to the wax. Secondly. nor can one have any notion of it without seeing it. so that the picture may be seen in any light . The colours have not the gloss of oil-painting. the whole ground must be rubbed over with chalk or whiting before the colour is applied. when so secured. Thirdly. and have a property which is perhaps . —When the picture is dry. — The colours are mixed up with pure water. so much admired by the connoisseurs of that clay.

. the head of the Minerva be- came as clean as when first painted. however. could not have been enamelling in the strict sense." and who in speaking of ship-painting " resolutis igni — ceris penicillis utendi " — bears silent proof that the Latin verb " urere " ought not to be understood in so strong a sense as applied to enamelling. viz. and that " encausto pingendi ' could be nothing else but enamelling. These. with slight alterations.. But whether the Count's method fully corresponds with Pliny's description or not. By simple exposure to the dew. nor could it have been painting produced in the same manner as by encaustic tiles. " Ceris pingere ac picturam inurere. are all the con- tents of the letter laid before the Eoyal Society by the Abbe Mazens. who accompanied it with a series of acute and learned observations which. but that it must have been something akin to the Count's process would appear from the clear and expressive words of Pliny. with an extensive knowledge. that exposure to smoke and foul vapours merely leaves a deposit on the surface without injuring the work. or encaustic tesserae . more important still. any discovery tending to establish an effective and simple method of painting with wax valuable to the mural is painter. show an inclination to prove that the Count's method could not be the encaustic of the ancients. The " encausto pingendi " of the an- cients.58 MURAL DECORATION.

It is said that encaustic painting is susceptible of all the freedom and delicacy of any other what- soever . Their ships must have had either iron or copper sides at least. and out- fog Pliny in obscurity. written by practical men. Arts and trades abound with special jargon. and merely used the tech- nology in vogue. but trusted to the description of others. might not have the finest language. we should have clearer notions upon most subjects we . but if a guide leads us the right way we need not mind the style of his dress. Writers who pay no regard to this. and it is difficult to imagine a Eoman first-rate man-of-war enamelled. Hence it is that most of our dictionaries on arts and sciences. We have daily instances of such a kind. to have withstood the process of firing such as enamel undergoes. and very many books upon painting. if taken literally. which. are so perplexing. If all books upon arts and sciences had been. you may leave off or cherish your work . and relate without scru- tinizing what they are told. must of course often be unintelligible. 50 We can scarcely suppose the Latin tongue to have been so defective in Pliny's time as not to afford distinct names for such opposite things as enamelling and ship-painting. or could be. ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. would prove any- thing but analogous to its subject. Probably Pliny knew nothing at all about the matter from his own experience.

you cannot fatigue your colour. it was said. must be spreading the wax. fixed with wax. All the effect and sweetness of oil-painting (it is said) may be obtained — the colours are not liable to fade or change . or plaster. at pleasure . The groundwork of the painting. By this it happened that oil- colours were often painted over a waxed ground . at least it was imagined that dead colouring in colour and water. whether linen. in order to judge better and with greater precision their variations. oil-colours were compared with those fixed with wax. and afterwards finished in oil this. In experimenting on this system. no damp can affect it. no corrosive will hurt it . waxed over either by canvas. and finishing in oil. by rubbing. or some other convenient method. was an experiment worth trying. nor can the colours crack and fall in shivers from the canvas. in this case they always appeared brighter and cleaner than the very same colours painted upon an oil ground . far surpassed in . brilliancy a copy of the same head painted entirely in oil. and care should be taken that the picture does not exceed the size of the inner margin of the stretching-frame in using linen or canvas. and that battens do not come too near . For this pur- pose a head by Sir Godfrey Kneller was copied in colour and water.60 MURAL DECORATION. nor are you subject to the inconvenience attending oil- painting — of waiting till it is dry.

or after it has been thus fixed . bring one half of each near the fire. wax them as before- mentioned. There are a few of these even that ought to be omitted. for this purpose the fol- lowing expedient may be adopted : Take two slips of cloth. about a foot long and three or four inches wide. it will be necessary. — ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. cut your cloth across all the tints. and the colours dry. simply with water . From the colours so ground compose all the dif- ferent principal tints which the nature of your intended work will require. This done. and of what the tint is composed. would injure the effect of the portions of the picture immediately over it. Colours used in oil-painting are fit for this manner and no others. write down upon paper every number. to have a guide for retouching (as in fresco) either when the picture is finished and dry. allot to each colour a distinct vessel. do the same on the other piece of cloth. and by . and some deeper still when fixed with wax. As most of the colours acquire a deeper hue when moistened. then upon the one slip range pattern stripes of the colours already mixed . mark every tint with a number. by absorbing the wax in the after processes. according to their order and degradation . to prevent perplexity in the execution. 01 the surface in painting upon plaster. before heat is applied. Let all the colours be very finely ground. as the wood.

deepen or heighten any tint. and deficient in force. While the picture is wet. and repaint till the -eye is satisfied. it has to be fixed by heat . this part of the process must be performed by brazier or hot iron.62 MURAL DECORATION. with great ease and security. halves unfixed. either before or after the colours are fixed. in the case of small works. when dry. may be done by holding the pictures before a clear fire. . like distemper. So that by rejoining and com- paring the fixed and unfixed colours together. and by their reciprocal references you will with certainty be enabled to alter or imitate. melting the wax. it may be judged what strength every tint will acquire. or the whole picture. this. never closer. If the portions of the picture which require to be retouched be large and already dry. bringing them gradually to within a foot of it. it appears grey. When it is perceived by the hue and shining of the painted surface that all the colour is imbued with the wax. remove the . The experienced encaustic painter can retouch without resorting to this ex- pedient. When the colouring is finished and dry. kept damp by moistening it from the back with a large brush. take a large soft hair-pencil and moisten the portions to be altered. how- ever. In large pictures on canvas the picture may be. it appears very nearly what it will be when fixed . them keep the remaining fix . In mural works.

If. and diffuse it with a hot iron. be fit to paint upon. or per- pendicularly before a fire (at a distance propor- tioned to its intensity). but that water-colours roll on such a surface. There is no danger in applying moderate heat to the work over and over again. it has been brought too much to the surface. 03 picture gradually from the fire and it will be com- pleted. The canvas thus prepared would. nor cool it too suddenly. put a little finely scraped on the back. however. and holding it horizontally over. and rubbing it with wax till it is saturated. ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. and be partially re-absorbed by the ground. temper and use the mixed tints with a little spirits of wine . repaint and again apply heat. it is therefore necessary to rub it over first with chalk or whit- ing. for the point to achieve is not to bring the wax too forward. But if a certain temperature be exceeded bubbles will appear on the surface. is not . and the picture will be rendered rough and uneven. But it is thought that painting upon the wax by the intervention of the whiting. when cool. Count Caylus's method of preparing the linen or canvas ground consists in stretching it upon a frame. Never heat the wax too hastily. the gradual cool- ing allows it to retire. If any spot be observed deficient in wax. To retouch the encaustic picture when the colours have been fixed.

A steel palette-knife should be avoided. The virtue of the intervening whiting is in a great measure destroyed after the first painting. which in the other method is easily moved and difficult to repair. Upon canvas the picture may be entirely finished before fixing . but canvas. the colours are fresh and vivacious without being glaring. thus escaping the defects of both. as in other painting. and colour will be intimately incorporated. —A picture may be looked at in any light . first laying in the subject broadly and fixing before finishing it. the Count's system must be practised : the rough grain of the plaster will take and retain a sufficient quantity of colour to ensure solidity. By painting immediately on the cloth or canvas the work will be more solid and last- ing. so convenient as upon the cloth or canvas before it is imbued and filled with the wax. —The colours have all the airiness of water-colours combined with the strength of oil. as it then holds the colour firmly in its fibres. it is said that Van Dyck never used other than a spatula of horn. wax. The distinguishing characteristics of encaustic painting are First. but in painting upon plaster it would be better to proceed as in oil-painting. because the colours will not simply lie on the surface of the wax. . Second. For painting upon walls or plaster where the wax cannot be applied at the back. — 64 MURAL DECORATION.

The following experiments were tried in order to test the durability of encaustic colours and their power of resisting the effects of time and weather. Fifthly. —One piece of each was nailed to a kitchen ceiling. Fourthly. and scratches may easily be repaired. simple beeswax is considered prefer- able to bleached wax. First. near the chimney. For large works which may be much exposed to the air. as compared with those of oil : The same colours were prepared in oil and encaustic. Secondly. and after being washed. —The colours are firm without being brittle. —A piece of each was nailed to the side of an ordinary dwelling-room. — — ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. These were left in their various positions for twenty-seven months. and rain. Thirdly. and the strips of canvas bearing them were each cut into five equal pieces. the results were . compared with the same tints freshly painted in encaustic and oil . where a fire was kept the year round. —One piece of each was put between several quires of paper and placed in a close drawer. wind. dew. 65 Third. —One piece of each was exposed in the open air to the influences of sun. when they were collected. —One piece of each was nailed to the wall of a damp cellar.

the original hue in nearly all was re- gained . 1. were just as bright as the new. remained bright. some entirely gone. No. not to be washed off. and the verditer duller. inclining towards red orpiment . The first of these was sensibly decayed . 1. yellow orpi- ment. —The tints were weak. 2. but where mixed with Prussian blue. the terra di sienna. the second had grown darker. the encaustic tints recovered a little. which had not suffered in beauty. lake. but not so the oil. crude. — Freckled with all sorts of hues. 5. 4. —The old tints in encaustic seemed to have suffered when compared with the new. smalt.66 MURAL DECORATION. dull. yellow orpiment. The encaustic was brought near the fire. Nos. Both sets of old tints were then washed with a brush and pure water. verditer was dark and dull. and verditer. 3 seemed to have suffered by smoke. terra di sienna. and most of the tints recovered their brilliancy — pinks. the second had become whiter. the first of them was what remained was partly gone. No. 2. No. the third dull. the lake. rough. No. lighter . and dirty . The oil-colours did not so well withstand these tests. and verditer excepted . dull and dim. . but in respect to the contemporary oil-tints. the exceptions were pinks. but after washing the tints with a stout brush and soap and water. became as bright as new .

From which it may be conjectured that the priming ordinarily worked upon is more . some entirely gone. stood better in the open air. no such fermentation could be perceived. 3. which continues till dry. undergo great fermentation. upon cloth prepared with com- mon yellow beeswax. spotted. By this operation the oil-colours were entirely destroyed . and by degrees the surface is covered with a yellowish- grey substance. not to be washed or rubbed off. a solution of sea-salt. that the same tints. . painted at the same time. —Yellower and duller. dull. 5. only the smalt grew darker . The foregoing tints were afterwards washed with a strong lixivium of potash. as if varnished with gall. however. No. It having been perceived that oil-colours painted upon a waxed ground always appeared brighter than upon one of oil. (57 No. spirits of wine. No. and aqua fortis. and it was found that oil- colours upon an oil-ground. but after scraping and exposing it to the fire it recovered its tone. five or six hours after their application. —Darker some . Among the very same colours painted upon an encaustic ground. observations were made with the microscope. 4. others dirty. vinegar. —Yellow. ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. when they begin to overcast. the encaustic suffered nothing. The encaustic tints were fixed with virgin wax it was found.

and thus mix with. . being triturated with water. found the following process very effectual in making wax soluble in water : —For each pound of white wax he took twenty-four ounces of potash. Another advantage of this preparation of wax is. and may be applied to well-cleaned pictures. or leather. which is generally composed of the coarsest oil and colours. the cause of the colours changing than that the colours themselves suffer alteration . of Neustadt. and other materials coated with it to assume a peculiar brightness. 68 MURAL DECORATION. is the opinion of Muntz. cut into little bits. Werner. which will cause the pictures to have a better effect. and consequently be 1 This. which he dissolved in two pints of water. and frequently half chalk. after which he removed it from the fire and allowed it to cool. In this ley he boiled the wax. at least. warming it gently. that it can be mixed with all kinds of colours. In an hour after the application the article should be rubbed with a piece of woollen cloth. the new oil and colours . for half an hour. which he called wax-milk. which. produces a sort of emulsion. as to the super-abundant salts of the priming. or encaustic wax. furniture. The wax rises to the surface of the liquor in the form of a white saponaceous matter. very likely owing to the dessicated saline particles of the oil which are dissolved by. 1 Mr.

stir in.) applied in a single operation. accompanied with specimens of this mode of painting. in the county of Sussex. she painted very successfully several pictures in her own method. and having some practical know- ledge. Hooker appears to have been indefatigable in her pursuit for in the year 1807 she made a further com- munication to the Society of the result of no less than fifty experiments per day during more than four months . Hooker. ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. of Rottingdean. who united practice with theory. when the gum is dissolved. This lady. received a gold palette from the Society of Arts for her investigation in this branch of art. of cold spring. Her account is printed in the tenth volume of the Society's Transactions for the year 1792. and eight ounces or half a pint. wine measure. over a slow . was made in the year 1786 . — . It is also useful to fix water-colours. Mrs. which may be entitled —A method of preparing and applying a composition for paint- ing in imitation of the ancients : Put into a glazed earthen vessel four ounces and a half of gum-arabic. The following is the purport of this lady's two communications to the Society. under the name of Miss Emma Jane Green- land. Her first communication. to establish a method of paint- ing in wax. ( . At the end of the last century many experiments were made by Mrs. a specimen was preserved in the Society's rooms in the Adelphi.water .

when mixed with the composition. may be laid on either thick or thin. on a china palette. it should be beaten hard whilst hot (but not boiling) in the glazed earthen vessel . should be like a cream. a pint or sixteen ounces more of cold spring-water. and the gum-water and mastic are quite boiling.70 MURAL DECORATION. The colours. they may again be rendered fit for use by putting a little . The composition. add five ounces of white wax. by degrees. continually stirring and beating hard with a spoon. in order to dissolve the gum-mastic. and bottle it. as best suits the subject to be painted. any colours in powder which may be required. then paint with fair water. then take the composition off the fire. mix with it. As soon as this is the case. "When the composition is taken off the fire. to the usual consistency of oil- colours. If the colours should dry when mixed with the composition. and the colours when mixed with it. but will become opaque and stiff. then strain the composition to get rid of impuri- ties. as boiling it longer than necessary would harden the wax and prevent it afterwards mixing so well with water. broken into small pieces . stir and beat till the wax is perfectly melted and boils . The method of using the composition is to mix with it. as smooth as with oil. without taking them off the fire. if properly made. like a paste. fire. When suffi- ciently boiled the mixture will no longer appear transparent. seven ounces of gum-mastic.

but it saves trouble to keep them moist. and which will not " hiss" when put to the usual test. if when cold the painting should not appear sufficiently clear. with a hard brush cover the painting with the wax . but the contrary effect w ould T be produced if too sudden or too great a degree of heat w ere T applied. but. The painting being finished. such as is used for ironing linen. in any way uneven. for the oftener heat is applied to the picture the greater will be the transparency and brilliancy of colour- ing . and draw it lightly over the wax. take a moderately hot iron. it may be remedied by drawing a . 71 water over them . when cold. ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. Should the coat of wax put over the painting appear. as it would draw the wax too much to the surface and probably crack the paint. In painting with this composition the colours blend without difficulty when wet. it may be held before the fire at such a distance as will melt the wax slowly. when finished. or the wax may be melted by holding a hot iron at a proper distance from it. and when melted. put some white wax into a glazed earthen vessel over a slow fire. or for too long a time. especially before such portions of the picture as should not appear sufficiently transparent or brilliant . and even when dry the tints may be easily united by means of a brush and a very small quantity of water. The paint- ing will appear as if under a cloud. but not boiling. till the wax and the substance the picture is painted upon are per- fectly cold .

canvas. Should the composition be so made as to occasion the ingredients to separate in the . and four ounces and a half of gum-arabic. Paintings may be executed in this manner upon well battened panels.72 MUEAL DECOKATION. as by remaining in the hot earthen vessel the wax would become rather hard . When the picture is cold. or three quarters of a pint of cold spring-water. rub it with a fine linen cloth. and should the wax. moderately hot iron over it again. It would be equally practicable to paint with wax alone. dissolved in gum-water in the follow- ing manner : —Take twelve ounces. they may be made to subside by a re-application of moderate heat. with the gum-water and wax. Put the earthen vessel. add eight ounces of white wax. paper. or plaster. and stir them until the wax is dissolved. or even by scraping it with a knife . upon a slow fire. Plaster and other surfaces require no other preparation than a coating of the composition. and when the mixture has boiled a few minutes. form into bubbles at particular spots. and when the gum is dissolved. take it off the fire and throw it into a basin. As there is but a small proportion of water in comparison to the quantity of gum and wax. or by passing some smooth hard substance over them. put them into a glazed earthen vessel. by too great or too long application of heat. beat the gum-water and wax till quite cold. it would be necessary to use some fair water in mixing this composition with the colours.

in which time it had grown dry and become as solid as w ax. add turpentine. 23. ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. Arte de Greci e Eomani Pittori. returned to a cream. . if too thick. This vehicle may be used with the ordinary oil-colours. as a safeguard against its peeling from the stone. when cold. it should be just consistent enough to stand up on the palette. Lorgna. Saggi sul Ristabilimento dell' antica c. < 3 bottle. as much gum 1 damar as it will take up. in a pint of this varnish . 7. is the most recent addition to my list of encaustic processes : — Dis- solve in a large pipkin. 1 | lb. 1. The following. by Yicenzo Eeque- no. it may be rendered equally serviceable by being well shaken before used. by Chev. and became again as mix fit to with colours as when it was first compounded. Another very serviceable quality in the vehicle for painting was discovered by Mrs. however. Un discorso sulla Cera Punica. and add wax. half full of hot turpentine. 21. c. Before commencing your work heat the wall. Parma. Melt from two to two and a half of the wax tablets sold by chemists. 1. and after the work is finished it should be re-heated. by putting upon it for a short time a little cold water. that the composition which had remained in a bottle since the year 1792. heat it again. which was. £uin makes about 1| pints varnish. 1787. Hooker. and rub in as much vehicle as it will absorb. 14. Works upon Encaustic: Pliny. If too thin. T like consistence.

A modern specimen of this method. . The more minute the tesserae. University College. MOSAIC. is inserted in one of the spandrils of the cloisters. of coloured marbles. which consists in inlaying coloured marbles. for square or even cut coloured tesserae cannot be subtilly blended to rival the chiaro-oscura and colour of pictures. of course. These tesserae are carefully laid. . the closer. glass. is the possible approximation to the effect of painting but as these are diminished the cost of the work 1 There is also another species of Mosaic termed pietre dure. and fixed with mastic. or Musaic. called tesserae. 1 terra-cotta. The preliminary designs. porcelain. either on the walls to be decorated or upon some portable ground or back- ing. are called cartoons. &C. is a method of executing deco- rations with small slabs or cubes. conformably to the drawing and colour- gradations of ornamental or pictorial designs pre- viously prepared by some experienced painter. Mosaic. In comprehending the means and method. enamel. it will be perceived that mosaic can but imperfectly render highly finished. complete art . generally executed upon paper. Lon- don. by the Baron Triqueti.

" Vide Layard's Lecture. in fact. by his renderings of some of that series of designs for the portraits of the Great Painters in the arcades of the South Kensington Museum. for the labour of both the painter and the skilled workman 1 have to be highly paid. and it is. Dr. after designs by Watts and Stephens in St. an expensive mode of decoration . and at distances sufficiently remote from the spectator's eye. — MOSAIC. and done much to popularize. £5 for the finest. . Paul's. the price of the cartoon. or any elaborate mural decoration . But as a counterbalance to its imperfections. would receive for the execution of a great fresco. mosaic work in this country. Royal Insti- tute of British Architects. the square foot to £4. 75 increases. at the utmost." says Sir 1 " Taking the various qualities of Mosaic which may be fitly used for decorative purposes. with what the artists engaged on the wall-paintings in the Houses of Parliament have received. of course. for it is only fit to render designs made with reference to its tech- nical limitations and incompleteness. it is perhaps the most durable of all the methods of mural decoration. has recently introduced. Salviati. This method of executing works of art should only be employed in large public buildings. When these prices are compared with what an artist of eminence. This includes the fixing. or. and of Clayton for the Al- bert Memorial and Wolsey Chapel. " The combined action of the moisture and severe frost of any northern climate. and fully employed. they will be found I think very moderate. but not. the price would vary from about 30s. of Venice. under any circumstances.

archi- tects will have to look upon it as an internal. which entails simplicity . the extremely vivid way in which it reflects light and exhibits local colours partially. a protected embellishment. or 1 'Plic principal of these will be found at the commence- ment of the article on Fresco-painting. It is. the expense of mosaic. and it is better that I should refer to what he has so well written. 1 The chief exceptional conditions are — firstly. To a great extent. render but little durable any extensive application of mosaic in small tesserae as external decorations. and its appropriate design may be strictly determined by very nearly the same laws which should govern the distribution of polychromatic decoration. which lead to the prudent avoidance or sparing employ- ment of many of those pictorial elements. therefore. or at any rate. secondly.76 MURAL DECORATION. . " is such as must always. as a means of artistic expression. and thirdly. Matthew Digby Wyatt. such as perspective. a coloured incrustation applicable to any structural surfaces which it may be desirable to enrich . its limitations. executed through any other medium upon similar surfaces. lively action. I fear. demanding judg- ment to adapt the design to the mode of lighting. under ordinary circum- stances. foreshortening. of course. than attempt to give now any paraphrase of them. The rationale of these laws has been by no one better illustrated than by Sir Charles Eastlake in his invaluable reports to the Fine Arts Commission .

will. by convexity or concavity. which are proper and agreeable sources of effect in mural paintings executed with more tractable vehicles. prove a ready and most essential means of height- ening his The jointing is effects. as the regular ruling or cross- hatching of an engraved half-tint is made to give value to the broken lights and shades of the lead- ing figures. diminish the brilliancy of a mosaic background. Again. to a mosaic designer exactly what the lines and reticulations of an engraving or etching are to an engraver : and the rules of taste which apply to the one equally apply to the other. the arrangement of the cement-joints which attach the tesserae to one another. say. when once he has mastered the principles upon which they should be disposed. or above or below the spectator's eye. as the engraver's lines. That which the designer will probably at first feel to be his greatest difficulty. so precisely should the directions of the jointing of a piece of pictorial mosaic. express the undulations of drapery and modelling of sur- faces advancing to or retreating from. a white or golden background. to which by these vivid contrasts attention has to be attracted. so should the uni- formity of the jointing. with even-sized tesserae. as to quite kill the effect of the figures or ornaments to be relieved . For instance. breaking up the light which would otherwise be so strongly reflected from. MOSAIC. 77 complicated chiaroscuro.

78 MURAL DECORATION. Another point which should be care- fully attended to in arranging the jointing. Salviati's.shaped tesserae next to leading forms. is to allow a row of tesserae of the same colour as the ground to always follow every leading contour profiled upon the background. despite the most perfect mechanical execution. upon it. thought. which was invariably followed by all good mosaicists. Hence it is far better to spend time. and money in getting really first-rate cartoons than in endeavour- ing to bring the tessera3 to fine joints or micro- scopic minuteness. or distracted by the occurrence of irregular. has almost the effect of the lead-line in stained glass. and is not much less essential to good effect. but that artistic mistakes betray themselves. of mosaic outline. It is highly gratifying to observe the degree of judgment with which the mosaicist has emphasised the designer's intention by a judicious treatment of the jointing in the Eussian. It is always to be remembered that at the distance from the eye at which mosaics are usually likely to be placed. This re-duplication. which the eye should be allowed to follow without being led off into other channels. is to prevent the directions of the generally horizontal and vertical jointing lines of the background from cutting awkwardly against the profiles. The use of this rule. In mounting to the summit . mechanical defects disappear. as it were. and the South Kensington specimens now exhibited.

' and in virtue of its intimate and permanent union. it is something more in its relation to the structure it decorates it has become ' bone of its bone . length where length is needed. Owing to its judicious design. ' ' It may be well to remember also that although mosaic is. As a good wife should make conspicuous the virtues of the husband she adorns. as it were painting. so should a well-devised system of mosaic give. by predominant horizontal lines. ' faint with excess of light/ may be refreshed by a preponderance of cool. from below. and. will find that the work is of the coarsest description. Peter's glimpses are caught from time to time of the nature of the mosaic work . height to a structure in which height is wanting . archivalts and imposts. Brilliancy may be wrought out of darkness by allowing gold grounds and luminous colours to prevail : while the eye in another building. — MOSAIC. with joints in which often a good-sized pencil might be laid. however. String courses and borders. by predominant vertical lines. may have fancied the whole to have been wrought with great exactness. is especially bound to live in peace and harmony. should enhance his virtues and screen his defects. should be treated as permanent frames to perma- . 7') of the great dome of St. bands and friezes. and the observer who. and quiet tones. the effect of the whole is eminently satisfactory when viewed from the floor of the cathedral. deep.

essential by their rect angularity or other simple geometrical character. In the same way in mosaic the rigid saints of the early Byzantine school. or upright staves placed between them. while the more serene compositions of the early Florentine and Siennese schools look best when separated from one another by little else than narrow bands of flat and softly tinted ornaments. - 80 MURAL DECORATION. but there are other and more abstruse details to be mastered before perfect success can be achieved. to afford the eye a ready means of testing all adjoining and more complex forms by contrast. while the later corresponding figures oi the Italian school. but upon these I cannot with propriety enter in this report. with their swaying lines. with their evenly balanced limbs and perpendicular draperies. a stronger boundary of more vivid and contrasted hues must inclose it as a corrective. than when the motive power of the picture is of a quieter and simpler structure ? That is the reason why the great Venetian pictures demand such massive framing. Need I say that where the skeleton of the picture's com- position is tossed about in lively action. to keep them archi- tectonic . Such are those which arise out of . nent pictures. need little else than vertical palm-trees. " Such are a few of the most important theo- retical points which have occurred to me. require often actual insertion into recesses to keep them even reasonably quiet. or inscriptions.

Pliny has spoken of no express style. but that we may rather concur in doing the very best any of us can with this art without pedantry or a slavish deference to the past. an ignorance of. symbolising nature and the most highly per- fected form of imitative art. or an indifference to them. express a hope that it may not be considered necessary to retain the defects and mannerism either of too much or too little academic know- ledge peculiar to ancient. but to the Greeks its perfection and glory are to be attributed. or modern times. MOSAIC. — then. nor has he particularized any of the artists who wrought in it. as it were. be sought in the East. From Greece it passed." The same authority concludes the previous remarks with the following wisdom: "Let me. will lead him into great trouble and confusion. While an intimate acquaintance with the specific conditions of each of these stages —which are to the designer what keys are to the musical composer — will be a great assistance to the mosaicist. 81 the different artistic conventions which form gra- duated stages between the crudest mode of." Although this branch of art was well known and much practised by the ancients. into Rome towards the end of the G . the rich carpets of which were imitated in hard stone. The origin of mosaic-work must. apparently. with other ornamental points of knowledge. It is probable that the art was known to the Phoenicians. mediaeval.

Towards the conclusion of the thirteenth century an Italian of the name of Tafi learnt to work in mosaic of a Greek called Apollonius. but after a while the walls and arched ceilings also. as Suetonius reports of the tent of Julius Caesar. Sylla was the first Koman who caused a piece of mosaic- work of any magnitude to be executed. The tents of the generals. Since then. 2 and equally bad in colouring. at least a great portion of it.82 MURAL DECORATION. in Italy. But in general these works are wanting in design. 1 Barbermi palace. The invention of coloured glass was a great discovery for the purposes of mosaic. who decorated the cathedral of St. still 1 exists. in time of war. 2 Per contra. . where is still preserved an admi- rable pavement executed by him. which they could discover. for the Temple of Fortune at Prseneste (now Palsestrina). Bepublic. mosaic-work. was preserved a considerable time amongst the Byzantine Greeks. vide Layard's remarks. as well as painting and sculpture. which mosaic. were also paved thus. &c. Mark at Venice. are in bad taste. to keep off the humidity of the ground. the Italian conquerors of Greece trans- porting from that country into their own the most beautiful specimens in the shape of pave- ments. At first the Eomans ornamented in this manner the pavements of buildings merely. When the dark ages had driven the elegant arts out of Italy. who used it to adorn their churches.

at the commence- ment of the seventeenth century. and which are commonly described as tesselated pavements.. Classical .. The name of the artist (Diascorides of Samos). In the villa Albani is a beautiful mosaic discovered in the terri- tory of Urbino. besides. MOSAIC. innumerable others which at sundry times have been dug up. Pope Clement VIII. near Tivoli . . in a villa near Pompeii. we may particularize that found in a chamber of Hadrian's villa. which represents a school of philo- sophers. Sir Digby Wyatt considers the historical phases of pictorial mosaic to have been seven : viz. contributed much to this end by adorning with mosaic all the in- terior part of the dome of St. Latin. and which is remarkable for the light which its delineations throw on the history. second. local and natural. and another depicting the history of Hesione. There are. 83 the art has been brought to a high degree of per- fection. fourth. Peter's. third. first. In 1763 was found. Byzantine . the Palaestrina mosaic before alluded to. of Egypt. Among the most beautiful mosaics preserved in the pavements or walls of ancient buildings. and playing on various instruments. probably that of the Emperor Claudius. a mosaic representing three females with comic masks. Among the earliest artists employed thereon were Paul Ptossetti and Francis Zucchi. daughter of Priam. was engraven thereon in Greek charac- ter. exhibiting more or less merit and excellence in the art.

To this day the remains of mosaic pavements are the most usual indication of Eoman sites in England and in many countries of Europe. of different substances. 84 MURAL DECORATION. Greco-Italian . and in those countries which derived their civilization and arts from Borne and her Eastern successor. Mosaic in pietre dure.cotta. and was extensively used. fifth. Italian monumental . It took its chief development after the spread of Chris- tianity. Italian portable . that the art of putting together small cubes or tesserae. by the Greeks and Eomans in their public and private buildings. "It is sufficient to say. as they are tech- nically called. is of very ancient date. seventh. —mosaic has defied the ravages of time probably more effectively than any other architectural decoration. sixth. was first used for the decoration of public buildings during the later days of the Boman empire. especially for the latter purpose. and in the decoration of Christian edifices. But pictorial mosaic. so as to form patterns or figures in one or more colours. such as the Egyptians. and during the supremacy of Byzantium. Assyrians. . or glass and terra. on a really large scale. so that we may call it essentially a Christian art. Owing to the durability of the materials generally employed. and was even known to ixV the earliest civilized nations. and Babylonians. enamels. Mosaic was applied to the decoration of walls and pavements. as well as in parts of Asia and Africa. — such as hard marbles and porphyries.


The most magnificent examples of ancient times
were to be found in the churches of Christian
Rome, Constantinople, and Ravenna.
" The chief features, then, of this Christian
mosaic are the vast extent of wall -surface to
which it was applied ; its most frequent use on
domes, apses, and curved surfaces ; and the repre-
sentations of figures and ornaments on a gold
ground, although a gold ground was not always
used, as in the early mosaics in St. Pudenziana
and St. Prassedo, and in the baptistry of St.
Giovanni Laterano, in Eome. In Italy, to this
mosaic the epithet Byzantine is indiscriminately
though wrongly applied. It is true that the art
flourished in the East when it had almost died
away in the West, and that Italy owes, to a great
extent, to Byzantine artists its revival ; but a
direct Konian influence, as Sir Digby Wyatt has
well pointed out, may be traced in Italian mosaics
up to the eighth and even ninth century. The
art, however, flourished contemporaneously in the
eastern and western parts of the empire.
" The extreme richness of this mode of deco-
ration, and, at the same time, its grand and
solemn character when used on large masses,
made it especially applicable to religious purposes ;

and it appears to have been generally used for the
embellishment of churches, although there are
several recorded instances of royal palaces having
been very profusely adorned with it. A vast mass


of ancient mosaic work has perished : no small
amount in the East is still covered with white-
wash and plaster. There scarcely seems to have
been a church or baptistry of any importance built
within the precincts of the Byzantine empire that
had not more or less mosaic decoration. The
fashion spread across the Alps, and we find
Charlemagne decorating his basilicas and palaces
with mosaic.
" This general use of mosaic led to improve-
ments in the materials employed. Marbles and
porphyries could no longer be exclusively used,
and earthenware did not promise the required

durability. Enamels or vitreous substances,
which the Italians call '
smalti,' and which had
not been unknown in earlier times, were mixed
with them. The art, too, of enclosing gold leaf
within layers of glass, a very difficult one, and
requiring great nicety of manipulation, was also
discovered (there is no evidence, I believe, that it

was known in classic times) ; and thus the gold
ground, one of the peculiar features of this mosaic,
could be effectively executed. Of these early
mosaics, the most remarkable now preserved, are
those of St. Sophia, a church at Salonica, the
baptistry of Constantine, or St. Costanza, at
Eome, which show a curious mixture of Pagan
and Christian figures and symbols, and the style
of which almost approaches that of the painted
ornaments in the baths of Titus ; of the apse of


St. Pudenziana, also of the fourth century ; of the
monumental chapel of Galla Placidia, and of the
baptistry of Ravenna, and of St. Maria Maggiore at

Eome, of the fifth century ; and those of St.

Vitale, of St. Appolonaris in Clesse, and of St.

Apollison Nuovo in Kavenna, of the sixth century.
Unfortunately, few of the early mosaics at Piome
and even Ravenna are free from considerable re-

storation, and their original character is in many
instances much destroyed : frequently these re-

storations are even made with coloured plaster.
" I will now direct your attention to those
edifices which furnish the best examples of mosaic

decoration and are most deserving of study, with
a view to the use of mosaic in this country. I

exclude St. Sophia, because the mosaics on its

walls are for the most part concealed by plaster.
In its original state must have been, as far as

the interior is concerned, one of the most glorious
buildings the world ever saw. In no other, pro-
bably, were such vast spaces covered with the
richest mosaic decoration ; and every part that
was not so covered seems to have been panelled
with the richest and most beautiful marbles. I

had the good fortune to see St. Sophia when
under repair, and when the plaster had been
removed under the direction of an Italian architect,
Sig. Fossati. The effect of this partial revival
was truly magnificent. Some idea of the vastness
and richness of the details may be obtained from


Salzenberg's work. I would particularly dwell
upon the extraordinary preservation of these
mosaics. They had been covered since the
Turkish conquest, and probably had not under-
gone much restoration in previous times. The
examples, therefore, of mosaic, which I would
most particularly point out for imitation, if the
time should ever come, as I hope it will, when
people in this country will be duly impressed with
the value of internal decoration, are St. Mark's,
Venice ; Monreale and the Capella Reale, at
Palermo ; and the basilicas of Ravenna. I do
not place these buildings in order of date, but
according to importance as illustrating mosaic
"St. Mark's, taken as a whole, is the most
perfect example of internal decoration in the
world. In other edifices you probably find in-

stances of details and detached mosaics more
beautiful than any in St. Mark's ; but you will
nowhere find an example of one grand and noble
conception so thoroughly and completely carried
out. It furnishes, too, the richest and most
valuable chapter in the history of mosaic, for in
this one building we have specimens of mosaics
extending over a period between the eleventh, or
certainly the beginning of the twelfth, and the
end of the thirteenth century, and consequently
comprising a variety of styles and showing many
different modes of employing mosaic. Every


square foot of the church, the baptistry and the
vestibule, domes, apses, sides and pavement, is

covered with mosaic work, except where the
richest marbles panel the lower parts of the walls.
There is no uncovered or naked space. The eye,
I may say the mind, is completely satisfied.

Nothing looks as if it were unfinished, or as if

there yet remained anything to be done. I cannot
imagine any one to enter this glorious edifice

without being impressed with the solemnity and
majesty, and at the same time, with the exquisite
beauty and harmony of all around him ; without
feeling that, if we are to have decorations in our
sacred edifices on a large scale, and so as to add
to their religious character, and at the same time
to produce a sense of enjoyment of the purest
description, mosaic is the most appropriate of all

decoration. The lustrous surface of the enamels,
the large masses of gold ground, the richness of
the colour, produce an infinite variety of the most
beautiful effects, ever changing as the sun changes
its place. St. Mark's is never the same. Enter
at any hour of the day, in summer or in winter,

and whether the sky be clear or overcast, and you
will ever be surprised and delighted by some new

and unexpected effect. In the morning, the
recesses of the nave-end, the grand solitary figures
of Christ, the Virgin, and the Evangelists, will be
revealed to you. At midday, when the full light

of a southern sky is equally diffused over the


interior, the many domes and vaults are so illu-
minated that every detail in the vast maze of
figures and ornament can be plainly detected.
And when the rays of the setting sun stream
through the western window upon the grand apse
above the high altar, the majestic form of the
enthroned Saviour seems to float in a sea of
burnished gold. Even when the shades of night
are fast gathering over the lower parts of the
building, a mysterious and solemn light lingers
for a time on the golden domes and vaults of the
upper, like the bright clouds which float in the
sky after a Venetian sunset."
was calculated by the Duke of Serra di Falco,

that no less than 97,973 Sicilian palms (rather
less than a foot each) of enamel mosaic (opus
Alexandrinum), and 13,041 of pietra dura mosaic
cover the basilica of Monreale, near Palermo,
requiring, for three years, 150 mosaicists to execute
them. The mosaics in the basilicas of Eavenna
deserve the most careful study, as belonging to the
best period of early Christian mosaic art. They
are especially valuable to the artist as affording
some of the finest examples of the treatment of
pictorial mosaic, and of the technical qualities of
the material. The tomb of the Empress Galla

Vide Lecture on Mosaic Decorations, by The Rt. Hon.
A. H. Layard, M.P. Sectional Papers, Royal Institute of

British Architects, Nov., 1868 ; and The Builder of the 5th
and 12th December, 1808.

and for ancient costume and architecture. there is no reason why it should not with equal propriety be employed in secular buildings of sufficient scale. espe- cially the church of St. If mosaic then can be used effectively and advan- tageously in sacred edifices." . The elaborate mosaic-work. Fresco-painting and mosaic have distinct and separate attributes and capabilities. 91 Placidia. chiefly practised at Eome. should. much of its ancient character and beauty. MOSAIC. which aims at the production of easel-pictures and altar-pieces rather than at architectural decoration should be avoided. be made subservient to the architecture. All that is required for this purpose is a knowledge of the principles which regulate its proper appli- cation. at no period were the use and capabilities of mosaic so thoroughly well understood as in the fourth and fifth and early part of the sixth cen- turies. For the processional treatment of subjects. in the very first place. Indeed. as a whole. like all true architectural decoration. and the capability of the material. the basilicas of Ravenna furnish most excellent examples." one of the most perfect specimens of the art that can be found. and when both can be employed under equally favourable con- ditions. still maintains. Apollinare Nuovo. they need not interfere with one another. and contains the mosaic of the " Good Shepherd. " Legitimate mosaic decoration.

later it has at- tempted all the variety of pictorial effect attained in a more facile material. like those on an Etruscan vase. a mode- . where the imperfections of the method become in- visible. the vaults and domes of public edifices. Nothing can well be more disagreeable in the decorations of a building than the maintenance of one bald plane in its de- corations. At the present moment. One clear and well-defined conception should cha- racterize a national monument. in his first experiments in the Sistine Chapel. as all mural decoration. especially in the earliest times. and not aim at subtle gradations of colour and perspective . in the first examples it is too bald. its technical difficulties. in the latter too florid. The use of mosaic should be confined to the loftiest spaces. " When this identity of conception is apparent in a building. have confined it to single figures and processional compositions .92 MURAL DECORATION. There is a simi- lar disparity between the earlier and later works in fresco." Mosaic. should be simple in its design. it will always be far superior to it in the general effect that it will produce. and Michael Angelo. however inferior it may be in certain details to another edifice in which this homogeneity is wanting. and the broadest and simplest treatment may be adopted. found that he had attempted too great a perspective in the arrangement of his figures. The cartoons of Baffael would appear to hit the mean between redundancy and baldness of design for architecture.

harmonizes completely with the surrounding architecture. without considering that the first efforts of art are always meagre. simply and somewhat rudely treated. seeing that in the decadence of the art the mosaicists attempted too much. for with our usual English one-sided tendency. does not harmonize with . its last redundant. and the lunette over the adjoining exterior entrance. viz. The mosaic of the adjoining lunette represents the Doge and Venetian magistrates venerating the body of St. The extreme modes of treatment are perhaps those instanced by Mr. Mark. In the first instance. " The semi. we immediately conclude that the opposite style is right. 93 ration of ideas on this subject is very necessary. Mark's Church. especially the blues. The subject. Layard. to St. however admirable in design and execution. both as regards execution and the wonderful beauty and richness of the colours. and is probably one of the finest known examples of enamel-mosaic. But this mosaic. Mark to the church. and that there is between these ex- tremes a period of true reserved power of design and execution. a view of which as it appeared when the work was executed is seen in the background. purples. It was executed from a car- toon by Rizzi. : dome over the most northern. and golds. the original mosaic of the thirteenth or fourteenth century (its precise date is doubtful) represents a procession of figures bearing the body of St. MOSAIC.

Layard adds." And Mr. and to control both the construction and . monu- mental edifices were raised in that country.94 MURAL DECORATION. the width of which depends on the elevation and position of the mosaic picture. and will not make the mere architect competent to superintend the decorations of a building. entirely consistent. the architecture. should be immediately under the superintendence of an artist . No one will doubt that it was superior to that produced by the modern mosaicists. It looks like a fine picture sus- pended on the facade. as it appeared in the fifteenth century. with almost photographic minuteness. almost all good pictorial mosaic with which I am acquainted is surrounded by a band of appropriate orna- ment. consequently its effect is infinitely less pleasing than that of the earlier. and which might have been hung anywhere else . and ruder mosaic. The possession of all the mere constructive skill in the world does not constitute an artist. simpler." The designs for mosaics. Mark's is repre- sented. "that in order to increase its effect. in which the fagade of St. The great desidera- tum is the artist. it was because the painters and sculptors in Italy were also archi- tects that such grand. whether pictorial or simply ornamental. "What the effect must have been before the original mosaics were removed to receive the later. he alone is fit to be the master- builder. may to some extent be judged of by Gentil Bellini's great picture in the Acade- mia.

is greatest . and the proper selection and matching of the tints form the duty of the mosaicist. sculptor. and passion. such as a gold ground. public offices. 95 decoration of an edifice. courts of law. so as to avoid monotony of tone. picture gal- leries. but our museums. action. And he is the greatest artist who. or architect or three combined. yet I by no means . much is left to the skill and judgment of the mosaicist who executes it." I quite agree with the eminent authority quoted that pictorial decoration might be introduced into our monumental edifices much more exten- sively than it has hitherto been. . in the knowledge of human form. &c. very much to the public advantage — not only into the Houses of Parliament. These things. He is either the great painter. it is immaterial what kind of material he has to conform. and by the dexterity with which the arrange- ment of the tesserae is made to follow leading lines and the undulations of flesh or drapery. railway stations. by the mixture of tints in large masses of one colour. The interval between the tesserae must be regulated according to the distance. — mosaic. "Although the chief merit of the mosaic must depend upon the designer of the cartoon. and can also be made to contribute to the general effect. It is surprising how much ef- fect may be produced by a judicious selection of tesserae of different sizes for different parts. town halls.

Dusting and breading is usually sufficient with good fresco. think that mosaic is the material to be brought into close proximity with the eye ." But Buon Fresco and Water-Glass paintings ought to bear cleaning with water. or Water-Glass . viz. that there have not been opportunities for gaining that breadth of experi- ence which is absolutely necessary to learn how to paint with certainty. that the following is an important con- sideration in the use of mosaics in England. dating from the fifth century.96 MURAL DECORATION. I must confess. the decora- tions of such spaces as can be conveniently con- templated by the public should be executed by some more complete method. The few specimens of ancient mo- saics that we possess. and to secure durability by the preparation of the materials. the public employment vouchsafed to painters has been of so desultory a kind. I am sure that the first and last of these have not yet had a fair trial. and especially in London. " In England we have never had a school of mosaicists. " The facility with which dirt and the discoloration produced by smoke and soot can be removed from its surface either by simple washing or by the employment of an acid. without the least detriment to its brilliancy.. I understand some of the most ancient mosaics at Eavenna. En- caustic. such as Fresco. and that they are as bright in colour as when first executed. however. such as those in Westmin- . have been cleaned.

as they are technically called. 97 ster Abbey. An attempt was made. those in terra-cotta and other materials (for such were 1 The President of the Royal Institute of British Architects. it has been found that. Cole. four or five years ago. and they can never equal the effect of the gold of the Byzantin^ mosaics. Minton and Co. — or. against the indiscriminate use of terra-cotta. As regards the durability of ceramic mosaics. but the attempt does not appear to have been altogether successful. I will only mention this fact. were executed by Italians. whilst the ancient tesserae inenamel are perfectly preserved. cannot be produced. MOSAIC. H . and luminous quality of enamel and certain colours. brilliancy. is liable to tarnish and to injury. Simpson and Co. with his usual zeal for the promotion of Applied Art in this country. to found a school of workers in mosaic. but they lack the richness. the gold being applied extern nally.. and not protected by a film of glass. For certain purposes these terra-cotta or ceramic tesserae are sufficiently effective. who were to employ tesserae of terra- cotta.. that in repairing the mosaics of St. principally by Messrs. ' ceramic tesserae. Mark's.' — instead of enamel. I hesitate to give an opinion after the solemn warning of our Pre- 1 sident in his opening address of the session. and Messrs. such as reds and . at least for external decoration. for figures and orna- ments. Moreover. Some very creditable specimens were produced. by Mr. purples.

98 MURAL DECORATION. mixed with the enamels) have either perished or have greatly suffered. owing to the demand for elaborate mosaic in the reproduction of pictures. but the greater part were. where. yet it has never altogether died out in the Peninsula. Some of the enamels used were. which has produced some remarkable works. of Whitefriars . but still the ancient traditions were not lost. Bust and Co. At Monreale certain families of mosaicists have been employed from generation to generation in keeping up and repairing the mosaics of the cathedral. and for furniture and personal ornaments. under the direction of Sig. I believe. I am informed. But mosaics in enamel have been executed with considerable success by several eminent firms in this country. by Messrs. the skill of the mosaicist was almost exclusively directed to those objects . and by Messrs. was founded by the Imperial Government. I may particularly mention some of the full-length figures in the principal hall of the Museum at South Kensington. as is well known. and indeed was scarcely practised at all. Petersburg. who is only recently dead. Powell. produced in England by Messrs. Harley. At Rome. obtained from abroad. "In Italy the traditions of the workers in mosaics have been handed down through centuries. Bonefede. a manufactory of mosaic.. and . although at times the art has been very low. Fisher and Co. mostly from St. and. a distinguished Roman mosaicist.

but the sad condition to which the mosaic art had been reduced may be judged of by the restorations and reno- vations which. and a gentleman of much ability and ingenuity. Salviati. MOSAIC. applied himself with that singular intelligence and perseverance which are not uncommon among Italian artists. and foresaw that they might be applied to the revival of mosaic decoration. 99 workmen were without difficulty found to execute the series of mosaics which adorn the walls of the new basilica of St. In former times mosaic work. A few years ago a poor glass-blower of Murano. havino- . Mark's. and to the application of some of those secrets which were traditionally preserved in the island. which had been celebrated since the twelfth and thirteenth centuries for the beauty of its manufac- tures in glass and for its enamels . He accordingly entered into an arrangement with Radi. The success which attended his experiments attracted the at- tention of Dr. during the last century and the early part of the present. At Venice the old secrets were still preserved in the island of Murano. obtaining artists from Rome to instruct Venetian youths in this art. Paola. and opened an esta- blishment at Venice for mosaic work. who perceived the value of his discoveries. to the improvement of the manufacture of enamel mosaics. a lawyer of Venice. He particularly turned his attention to the manufacture of gold mosaic. named Lorenzo Kadi. were executed in St.

. and the brown paper is then removed from the face of it. When the work is finished. it has only to be fixed with cement upon the wall destined to receive it. on which the cartoon is traced. and cannot be used where much delicacy of work and extreme nicety in the gradation of tints are required. however. Dr. required consider- able time and labour. fixing the tesserae one by one in the cement prepared to receive them. and was consequently very expensive. Having thus found the means of executing mosaics in the establishment at Venice. This process requires considerable skill and practice. The tesserae are fastened with common paste to sheets of coarse brown paper. he endeavoured to intro- duce this mode of decoration into foreign countries. Salviati succeeded in avoiding the necessity of working upon the spot by an ingenious process. to be executed upon the walls. Thus the decoration of many hundred square feet of surface can be forwarded from Venice to any part of the world — to America or to India —with safety and at little cost. The mosaicist had to copy the cartoon on the wall itself. but is perfectly successful. and much improved the quality of his enamels. and having trained a number of young Venetians to the art. the face of the mosaic being downwards. which. is only applicable to decorative mosaic. especially when figures have to be executed. He taught the workmen to execute the cartoon on the reverse side. 100 MURAL DECORATION.

figures require. and that of the Albert Memorial in Hyde Park. As regards the relative cost of tints. that Dr. is more costly than common tints. The increased feeling for colour and deco- ration.500 tints have been brought together. under all circum- stances. I may point out that any quality or tint of gold may be obtained by darkening or lightening the colour of the glass upon which the gold leaf is laid. for the most part produced on the company's premises at Murano. To show the requirements of a mosaic establishment. that in order to execute in a satisfactory manner the cartoons which have hitherto been confided to Dr. were very favourable to his attempt. more careful execution and more skilful workmen than mere ornament. a stock of nearly 1. Salviati. the reds and purples are the most expensive. "Of course. which is more difficult to obtain than the gold. MOSAIC. but especially the silver. 101 It was chiefly in England that he met with suc- cess. chiefly through the enlightened influence of the Prince Consort. It was principally through the knowledge of art and well-known taste of the Queen.The gold mosaic. Salviati obtained his first important commission — the decoration of the Wolsey Chapel at Wind- sor. and the gradual improvement in the public taste which had taken place in this country. on account of the materials used in them. I may mention. or by using a film of coloured .

Sabattini. and Franc. Cosm. Tom. or. Brandus. 1493 Pietro Oda. ." Among the most distinguished artists in this style may be enumerated the following : — Gaddo de Gaddis. Mercanti. P. Giov. and Caesar Torelli. The architect or painter can. Bottini. Louis Cajetano. Birnasconi. the bright- ness of the gold may be deadened by roughing the surface of the outer film of glass with the wheel. Cruciano de Maceratta. who departed this life towards the end of the fifteenth century. died 1500 Franc and Valerio . Ciachetti. and who died about the middle of the seventeenth century. Centinelli. in 1545 Alex. Calandra died 1644. choose the quality of gold which best suits his work or 1 his taste. Oraz. Giov. consequently. Carlo. Giov. died . died 1336 Dom. P. Ambr. Bottini. called Giotto. ] Layard's Lecture on Mosaic previously referred to. Scalza. . Chermar. Spina. Zuccha. Ferd. Bianchi. 1559 Ang. Giosio. Merlini. At the same epoch flourished also Marc. instead of transparent glass over it . who 1312 Angelo Bondone. Tratini. Ghirlandajo. Manetta. Kossetti.102 MURAL DECORATION. having invented a mastic for fixing the pieces in a manner more solid than had hitherto been practised . towards 1550. . Gab. died in . . Cataneo. Louis Eicci. Giov. Lor. Sermei. Zuccari. Giov. Giorgi. Fr. Giov. Vitalde Massa. Lambert de Cortona. Giov. and others whom Baldinucci cites as the first artists employed in the fabrication of the mosaics for the Gallery of Florence.

La Valette. Phil. Borne. Bonefede. on the different methods of the Greek artists. has inserted an intelligent paper on the subject of mosaics. Piccioni. 1699. 1752. Franc. have become famous. Profane Buildings. Belloni. The principal works which may be consulted on the theory and practice of mosaic are the follow- ing : — On the Mosaics of Sacred and Ciampini. 103 and Matth. two vols. MOSAIC. 1768. the former under the direction of Sig. Brocchi. The above works were written in Latin a French . who died 1693. On Mosaics. so likewise has Buona- rotti in his Observations on the Glass of the Ancients. par M. 1710. Borne. in his book De Sacris Romanorum Balneis. Tor. Onuphrio. directed by M. Nic. translation of them appeared in Paris in 1768. Piacenza. Furietti. Funo. 4to. 4to. Fougeroux de Bondaroy devotes a por- .. Palat. Salviati. in his first vol. Rome.. 1690. in 8vo. Cocchi. Since when. 4to. Guil. and the latter of Dr. on the etymology of the word. Piegolo. of his edition of Xotizie dci Professori del Disegno da Cimabue in qua. entitled Essai sur la Peinture en Mosaique. Bern. 1748. Fiano. Some thirty or forty years since. Nic. France possessed in Paris a school of artists in mosaic. folio. Provenzale. ensemble line Dissertation sur le Pierre Speculaire des Anciens : which work compre- hends treatises on the origin of mosaic. Paciaudi. Marcel. 1713. by Baldinucci. Florence. 1716. has also treated of this subject. the Piussian and Venetian manufactories. de Yielle .. &c.

Expli- cation de la Mosa'ique de Pakestrine. 1760. Paris. xxix. 89. 4to . in the Comment. The most curious works containing descriptions and explanations of antique mosaics. gives an analysis of that celebrated monument of art. 1779. in the fourth vol. vol. has published a dissertation on the same subject. Flo- rence. 1788. and MontfauQon. in the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscrip- tions. Histor. Salzenberg's work. su due Musa'ici antichi istoriati. Mannheim. Mosa'ique d'ltalica. vol. De- scription de la Mosaique trouvee a Seville. by the Abbe Hseffelin. by the Abbe Barthelemy.d V occasion de quelques Tableaux en Mosa'ique. 1770. p. qui se trouvent a la Galerie des Peintures de VElecteur Palatin. v. Gurlitt. This author compares mosaics in glass and stone with the pictures executed among the native Americans in feathers of birds. vol. Kircher. Osservazioni di Ennio — Quirino Visconte. 3. 8vo. Observations sur la Mosaique des Anciens.. No. tion of his work Eecherches sur les Buines d'Hercu- lanum. The . Paris. a German author. Parma. to a treatise Sur la Fabrique des Mosa'iques. 1802. of his Supplement de VAntiquite expliquee. and also in the Memoirs of the Academy. and also with tapestry. by Alexandre la Borde. Academiee Theodoro Palatini. contain- ing excellent plates. 4to. xxx. — 104 MUKAL DECOKATION. are : Opus Musivum erutum ex Buderibus Villce Hadriani. in his Latium. 1783. Caylus has also treated of them in his Essai sur la Manure de Peindre en Marbre. 4to.

Nov.. ii.A. by Matthew Digby Wyatt. and Matthew Digby Wyatt. March. 1868. 1862. H. M. . MOSAIC. F. 105 Lectures of A. 1867. On Decoration. F. Layard.A.S.P.S. at the Royal Institute of British Architects. . vol. Beports on the Paris Universal Exhibition.

and others. Domenechino. within well-defined limits.was preserved in the oil-pictures of Raphael. Da Vinci. Pictures on panel and canvas gradually increased in number as architecture and mural painting declined. and gave that distinctive largeness of character which has been designated the " grand style. Until the invention of oil-painting. or slight depth of perspective in the grouping of the figures. which is suited to compositions designed for the wails of large buildings. Even- ness of plane. The introduction of oil-painting. OIL-PAINTING. the " motives " which influenced the great mural painters in their monumental works. and re- leased him from those limitations. were transferred to their easel-pictures. painters were chiefly occupied in deco- rating the walls of public buildings. for it rendered the painter independent of the architect. attributed to Van Eyck." . by architectonic condi- tions and method of execution. For a time. and were re- strained in the treatment and effect of their works. gradually changed the whole character of pictorial art . however.

as well as of any common tendency and grand aim in art. till at last. however widely they may differ in subject and treatment. and would not only raise the aim and style of pictorial art. for. but improve the very practice of oil- painting itself — for a temporary abandonment of the more facile method might be profitably occupied in considering whether the true method of oil- painting has not been lost. they diverged from its simplicity. the variety of ways in which oil-colours could be manipulated. would be highly beneficial. I am now merely referring to the method of paint- ing . seeing that the old masters produced. x\t this juncture a return to mural painting and the simple style of design and execu- tion which it involves. from Lely's time there may be observed a w ant T of that well-sustained solidity and determi- nateness of execution which mark his own and his predecessors' works. The solidity and determinateness alluded to. is . dissipated all system in their use. lapsed about the time of Lely. I am inclined to think. the greater became the excesses of the painter in composition. much more potent and magical effects than since. colour. and effect. 107 But as painters gradually withdrew from mora] decoration. and availed themselves of the greater license which is possible in oil-painting. with even a more limited scale of pigments. The more the in- fluence of architecture over the painter waned. The traditions of oil-painting. OIL-PAINTING.

evidently strove to recover the old soli- dity. and over-haste in using them. The most brilliant effects of colour are those derived from jewels and painted glass. This splendour arises from light itself passing through a coloured transparent medium. may have been partly the reason . namely. combined with transparency. painters appear to have commenced oil-painting de novo. not his taste. very manifestly felt when a collection of the old is brought into juxta-position with one of com- paratively modern painters. delapidated state. in actual brilliancy. all that remain are the wrecks of many of his fine intentions. Strange vehicles substituted for older and sim- pler ones. The consequence is. but there was pro- bably a deeper-seated error than these. Transparency in Oil-Painting. a want of a scientific perception of the causes of the brilliancy and solidity of colours on prepared grounds. and doubtless did so temporarily . however. that the execution was still more at fault. There is nothing that can compete in art. After Lely's time. with painted glass. an ignorance of the true process of oil-painting.108 MUEAL DECORATION. but his mode of working. for the painter's white ground is but . was at fault. Sir Joshua. and to have fol- lowed their own devices in practising it. The works of some of his immediate successors show by their cracked.

and transparency of colour in oil-painting. OIL-PAINTING. imagining the source of brilliancy to be his lightest pigments. affords the clue to the best mode of obtaining brilliancy in oil-painting. if it be well considered. if spread out in films between two pieces of white glass and held to the light. thus used. especially white with the transparent colours. which is in fact the only way to obtain fulness. But the novice. however. Now. 109 a poor substitute for light itself. and he very seldom probes to the root of his failure. as it has been suggested. and would. The pigments used by the oil-painter may be broadly divided into transparent and opaque colours . If he. The following question then may very naturally occur to the reader. Could a picture be entirely painted with oil-colours transparently used over . on canvas or panel. experiment. transparent colours laid dexte- rously over such a ground exhibit their greatest fulness and perfection of colour. only to find his aim frustrated by leaden tones. closely approximate the effect of paintings upon glass. seeks to obtain brightness by mixing them. produce similar effects. This fact. the transparent ones may be considered the representa- tives of the coloured glass. the oil-painter's only substitute for the light of the sky behind glass being the purest white ground. the cause will soon be discovered as well as the importance of allowing the ground to shine through the colour. and. richness.

this is not the case in water-colour painting. are actually in advance of the lights in emboss whereas the reverse ought . but this mode of oil-painting requires great care and skill to preserve the colours clear . it is almost impossible with the greatest skill to surmount the difficulties of execution which it presents. because the surface of the paper and the pigments are free from gloss. and if rendered in thin films from the brush may derive an advantage from the white ground shining through them. But as opacity as well as transparency in nature has to be represented. The opaque pigments are only relatively so. the extreme depths of shadow too. Opacity. and the difficulty of expressing diversity of texture . from requiring more colour.110 MURAL DECORATION. The former process . we turn to its opposite. Although a great degree of richness of colour is attainable by this transparent method. to obtain. a white ground. Having considered Transparency. Opacity or Solidity. for there are im- purities in the pigments which interfere with even painting and there also is great difficulty in managing the half-tints between the lights and shades . as water-colours are used upon paper ? It is possible to a certain extent. we have also to enquire how this quality is attainable. Another drawback is the glazed ap- pearance throughout the work.

the light is not required to shine through. Painting into Wet White upon a White Ground. —Having described the means for pro- ducing the two opposite qualities in oil-paint- ing. or messing the colours which inevitably ensues upon uncertainty in placing them. who " prime " walls darker than the pro- posed final coat. OIL-PAINTING. Between the extremes of trans- parency and opacity. vexatious if not futile. Ill no longer helps us. 1. we shall have to revert to the pure white ground on which it may be supposed a design is correctly outlined. by the propor- tioned adjustment of the two means just described. And consequently the process for producing solidity is the very reverse of that which produces transparency. or by passing light opaque colours over a transparent dark ground of a different tone. but there is a much better method of . would render trans- parent painting. and into a Glaze on a White Ground. as from opaque bodies themselves. The value of this means of pro- ducing even solid surfaces is well known to house painters. as in the present case. Painting into Wet White. all the intermediate grada- tions may be produced. but to be reflected from the surface. In the prefatory obser- vations on transparency. For that fatiguing. or the following modifications of it. in painting. the use of thin glazes of colour without any admixture of white was re- ferred too.

and the processes of oil and water-colour painting brought into close resemblance. a final " tapping " with the same brush will completely effect the even distribution of the white. Then with a brush filled. advance as far as possible the . The difficulties of painting in en- tirely transparent colour are obviated by this means. take a dry brush and " work it off" till a thin film only re- mains. if it should happen to be spread with too great a prodigality at first. on a similar though some- what modified principle. with white. begin to paint the lights and shades of green with tones rather lighter than finally required . taking care to remove any fulness or superfluity of vehicle from the canvas with a clean brush. The design then being carefully outlined on the canvas. The layer of white forms a most agreeable surface to work upon. using the white ground.. are easily manipulated. by painting into a film of wet white. The space to be painted being thus pre- pared. so that the thinnest possible film only remain. the trans- parent colours ride. the outline appearing sufficiently distinct through the white.112 MURAL DECORATION. but not coated. as it were. let us select for an example for practice a piece of green drapery. spread the pigment over the same space and in the same thrifty manner . and rub or " work it out " over that portion of the surface to be painted. upon it. Take a brush contain- ing a little vehicle. viz. and form charming greys in combin- ation with it.

Then spread a half-tone of the shade of the green. or over any portion of a work already painted painting into a glaze is another mode of using the white ground. The opaque white spread over the surface in the com- mencement. Let the outline be drawn in on a canvas thus prepared. Spread the vehicle over. Painting into a Glaze on a White Ground. &c. and bring up the shades to their proper strength. rather cooler than that ultimately required. — . or a little beyond the space to be painted. recommended in the description of the former process. When dry and properly cleansed. but the white ground with the transpa- rent colour over it in the shades has considerably the advantage in oil. when this too is thoroughly hard. A glaze in oil-painting is a film of transparent colour spread over the ground to be painted upon. having previously taken the precautions of cleaning. as before. complete the modelling and finally. and work the colour evenly and thinly from the brush. Great care should be taken that each day's painting should be thoroughly dry. glaze the hue required over the masses of light. and then well washed before attempting to ad- vance the work. The outline will in this process i . OIL-PAINTING. 2. and let the object to be painted. 113 modelling of the forms at one painting. renders the white oil -ground a very fair equivalent for the white paper in water-colour in the lights. be a piece of green drapery. over the space to be painted.

hap-hazard. they yet leave the important quality of impasto undeveloped. Although very pleasing results may be obtained either by painting into wet ivhite or into a glaze. Both methods may be followed. Impasto. but chiefly for the clear preservation of the lights. to almost identical results. from the deepest shade up . but that painstaking and scientific adjustment. and the pleasant working of the wet white. which is now reversed. also show through the glaze. but not so clearly as in the former process. or graduation of emboss.114 MURAL DECOBATION. This will be better understood after a description of the following method. The successive paintings are so similar to those of 2 and 3 of the former process. as not to require separate descriptions. the lights are painted into the dark glaze. and the modelling completed by darker transparent tones in the depths. the process then gains in quickness. however. plastering of paint upon a canvas is implied. A variation upon this method may be adopted after the half-tone is spread. but loses somewhat in im- pasto. with a little experience. that by the word impasto. But perhaps the former on a fair trial will be preferred for several reasons. for instead of painting the darks into the white. Let it be well understood. by wiping out the lights before painting. no careless.

re- quires great patience — a waiting for results not much in accordance with the flurried. Again. Upon this. to glaze it all over. rich. Let us. previously studied in a full-sized drawing. is materially assisted by the graduated super-position of opaque colour in the successive paintings of each portion of the work. com- petitive haste of the present day. gives most completely that solidity. say with a dark. We have shown both the value of transparency and opacity. the one into the other. and if varnish can be depended upon. Experience proves that the appearance of roundness and relief in objects. The greatest emboss within the legitimate limits of painting is indeed trilling. roundness and relief which is only to be found in consummate works of art. Begin by in- . and a perfectly executed oil-painting exhibits these qualities passing by subtle grada- tions. again paint a piece of green drapery. 115 to the highest light. transparent brown. eager. draw in the outline of your compo- sition. however. this should be used in combination with the oil in mixing the colour for this purpose. however. yet the preservation of a certain relative grada- tion within those limits. we commence upon a canvas having the lightest possible prepared ground . but the first proceeding is now. for mere experiment. Let this coat of glaze get thoroughly dry and hard before proceeding. OIL-PAINTING. To make use of impasto to this end.

for the sake of the advantages it was shown to possess. In this manner every fresh painting lies within narrower and narrower limits. till the full roundness of effect is attained. and more opaque than the dark ground. use no lighter tone in the first paint- ing. it will be better to complete the modelling in. a much up to white itself. the natural gradation of tone from light to shade is more 1 That is to say. high lights now.116 MURAL DECORATION. with a brighter hue in each successive painting. By the means just described. even and finally "glaze up" the work to richness. working the colours out towards. repeat the process. In fact. the light and shade. 1 By this method the peculiar excellences of the two former may be united and enhanced by the special virtues of the impasto. and increases in emboss till the final high lights are touched in . dicating the light and shade with a tone a few degrees lighter. lighter key. . When great brilliancy of hue is required in the lights. in an actual as well as a metaphorical sense. and thoroughly into. the primary white ground may be thus recovered. If too light a tone of green were to be used in the first painting it would appear like haze over the dark ground. indeed. which completes the desirable cycle of qualities. the shades. or form may be completed prior to colouring. but the brush fuller in the masses of light.


by any other method. The
truly rendered than
process itself assists the production of
in gradation, and enables the
dexterous hand to
what even the keenest eye can
effect easily
scarcely follow. This method, with perhaps slight
should be rigorously carried out
under all circumstances. Experience alone can

teach us how to modify a system. I have only
endeavoured to generalize the various qualities
volved in oil-painting.
An intermediate system, however, may be
adopted, that of laying the ground of each
the design to be painted in a tone
tion of
shade studied from, and adapted more
to, the object to be painted,
instead of covering the
canvas with one even shade, or half-toned
as recently recommended. But however this

slightly modified, is that best
method may be it

great works. The surface should
adapted to

be cleansed before every painting,
and a slight

film of vehicle passed over
the space to be
adhesion of the
painted, to secure the intimate
super-imposed work. "When any portion of the
picture is to be finally wrought up with glazing,
it is better that all the tones should be cooler
for, as a general rule,
than ultimately intended ;

colour produces a
a warm passed over a cool
than the reverse, for this reason,
better effect

that the warmer are generally more fluent, and
therefore more easily and clearly spread, opaque


colours, on the contrary, have a tendency to mar
the transparency of, and to cloud, the under-
painting with their solid particles.

What to Avoid.

The use of a stronger drying vehicle as the
work proceeds, as it will inevitably contract more
than that used beneath, and probably cover the
picture with cracks in years to come. For the
same reason varnishing is hazardous, more es-
pecially at too early a date, before the work is

thoroughly dry and hard. As a rule, the strength
of the vehicle should be adjusted, so that each
successive coat or painting should be rather weaker
in its drying quality than that immediately be-
neath. On no account should previous work be
painted on without thoroughly cleansing the sur-
face ; otherwise the intimate adhesion of the two
will be prevented, and the upper one will be liable

to displacement by washing or varnishing. To
prevent the rolling of colour over paint which has
not been cleansed, a lazy practice is sometimes
adopted of rubbing the fingers, moistened with
saliva, over the work ; this also endangers the
displacement of the paint over it, for if the picture

be exposed at any time to a thorough washing the
moisture will penetrate the oil-paint and soften
the thin film of saliva ; and the next passage of
the sponge over these endangered portions will


probably remove the paint in flakes. For the
same reason the laying in of a work with water-
colour is to be denounced ; it is also open to
another objection, for the water-colour, after a
time, partially detaches itself from the oil-ground,
and, contracting, cracks the oil-paint above.
Never indulge in the use of complex and new-
fangled vehicles, the simplest, and those which
have been longest in use are the best. The
same may be said with reference to the choice
of pigments. Painting over, instead of com-
pletely erasing a piece of condemned work, a
practice of careless painters, is to be censured ;

its injurious effects may require time to develop,
but the condemned under-painting will infallibly
re-appear, sooner or later, to mar more or less
the corrections over it.

It may have been observed that we have in no
instance based the theory of the process of oil-

painting on what either the old or modern masters
may have done. With regard to the methods
adopted by the former, there are many specu-
lations. The qualities to be achieved and the
means of producing them are the same now as
when oil-painting was first introduced ; we have
preferred, therefore, to analyze these qualities

and reduce them to their simplest enumeration
and most absolute form, as Transparency and
Opacity ; and finally to show how these two
extreme qualities may be graduated, the one into


the other, in the method we have entitled

Oil-Painting upon Distemper Grounds.

One mode of oil-painting which has recently
found favour, is that of painting upon distemper
grounds. This is even declared to be after the
manner of the Venetians. No method can sup-
ply the place of intellect, whereas intelligence,
having a clear perception of the true ends to be
achieved, often produces similar results by slightly
different means. The practice in this case is
either to commence in oil immediately on the
absorbent distemper ground, or to advance the
design itself in distemper, and then to tone it by
glazing, and heighten it with lights. But dis-
temper, unless used very thin and weak, will
crack with bending or rolling, and, as a vehicle,
when great delicacy is required it is not so
manageable as oil. Its adoption, therefore, would
only be justified by the importance of the ends to
be achieved. Now, the ground or the under-
painting in distemper no longer takes the place
of the white ground as a means of reflecting
through, and rendering transparent the colour
imposed, because oil-paint penetrates the pores of
absorbent grounds, deepens and darkens them,
but produces a different effect to the same colour
used over a non-absorbent white ground. The
former produces a sombre, solid, but somewhat


opaque mass of shade, similar to that of woollen
textures, and very absorbent of light, but not at
all resembling the shades of satin or silken fabrics,
velvet excepted. As a method of producing a
certain gravity of effect, and of relieving oil-paint
from its obnoxious gloss, it deserves consideration.
But it must not be forgotten that distemper is

absorbent of moisture, and that it loses its tenacity
and perishes under exposure to damp. Consider-
ing, therefore, the position of Venice, this inherent

weakness would appear to somewhat invalidate
the theory of its being the Venetian method. An
absorbent ground may possibly be invented, which
shall be unaffected by moisture, and possess all

the virtues of a distemper ground without its de-
fects. With the reservations just made, the tem-
pera ground would appear to be that best suited
to oil-pictures intended for mural purposes, as
being thus executed they are comparatively free
from gloss, and are perhaps less liable to blacken

than oil-pictures executed with an excess of
turpentine. But the painter has to guard, on
all occasions, against adopting a process which
exclusively aims at one special quality ; but
he should nevertheless make himself acquainted
with any special method of execution, and then
his judgment will easily determine when, and
within what limits, it may be used. Students
who desire to study the history of oil-painting

are referred to the late Sir Charles Eastlake's


able and careful work, " MaterialsTowards a
History of Oil-Painting." Other works may be
profitably consulted with reference to pigments
and varnishes, such as " Field's Chromatogra-
phy," " Bachofrher's Chemistry of Colour," and
" Tingry on Varnishes."

including a Process of Ste- reochromic Painting. Properties. are always ready to condemn those of others upon the faith of a single experiment in which they failed. . without the necessary knowledge or understanding. 1 On the Manufacture. to faulty ma- nipulation. By Dr. themselves unable to carry on experiments. but abandoned as soon." and consequently. as they were. Failures. I860. as I have experienced myself more than once. auguring well for its future. N. and Application of Water- Glass (Soluble Alkaline Silicate) . A few voices only were raised in its favour. undertaken. which at that time. WATEK-GLASS. greater often than in the nature of things could be realized. frequently caused it to be abandoned before it had been put to a fair test. Great were the expectations raised by the discovery. was nothing new. who. There are always persons to be found. Some experiments on its intended application were made. I had an opportunity of publishing a paper on water-glass. Translated from the German. as they did not lead to satisfactory results. did not meet with the attention which the subject well deserved. J. however. 1 In 1825. owing perhaps. It was even stated that it differed in no respect from the well-known " liquor silicum. Von Fuchs.

The manufacture and the properties of the water-glass have been described at some length in Kastner's Archiv. 1 See Kastner's Archiv for Natural Philosophy of 1825. By Dr. and it has been thought since that the water-glass. Fuchs. 385—412. An inert love of the customary and habitual almost invariably exerted the usual adverse in- fluence . . and have had a share in several applications and experiments made with a view of advancing this affair. after all. and that few other bodies were capable of being put to so many various applications. in order to render the experience gained by myself and others. p.. did not belong to the class of superfluous things.124 MUKAL DECORATION. of Nuremberg. and was therefore induced to write this pamphlet while life is still spared to me. and to treat more amply of things which at that time met only with a short in- dication. vol. v. Separately printed by Leonhard Schrag. 1 I have. available for further investigations. thought it desirable to reproduce the more essential parts of that paper. however. since I am able to introduce many improvements. Johann Nep. Professor of Mine- ralogy. A few years has changed much. I have naturally taken considerable interest. for it seems to be the fate of anything new to be looked upon with aversion for some time before it is appreciated. with the title On a New Product from Silica : and Potash.

and of the best quality. b Soda Water. chemical Saxony. however. 1 The name " Water. and as nearly all the experiments which I shall have to mention were made with it.Glass.Glass. x At first. We have to distinguish four kinds of water- glass : — a Potash Water.Glass " is. Fikentscher. c Double Water. if required. manufacturer of Zwickau. d Fixing Water. He would no doubt manufacture soda water-glass also. a generic name employed when speaking of the above four varieties. for which purpose lepidolite could be conveniently employed. I do not know whether a lithia water-glass might be obtained.Glass. 125 SECTION I. cases might. of an equally good quality. I may as well state that potash water-glass is meant whenever the expression water-glass is employed. in fact.Glass. and their Manu- facture. This double water-glass would no doubt be rather expensive . WATER-GLASS.Glass. in F. 2 M. and at a cheap rate. was the to manufacture water-glass on a some- first what larger scale. and for some time afterwards. . Various Kinds of Water. my attention was merely directed to potash water- 2 glass. occur where expense would be a matter of secondary importance. Perhaps a good double water-glass of potash and lithia might be produced by replacing a part of the potash by lithia.

1 „ powdered charcoal. until the whole fuses uniformly and steadily . and con- tinuing to boil for three or four hours. pulverized. and dissolved in about five parts of boiling water. replacing the water as it evaporates. or pure quartz sand. In this state it is sufficiently liquid to be used in many operations . It is then broken up. when the liquid is stirred. well purified potash. These ingredients are to be well mixed and exposed to a strong heat in a fire -proof melting- pot for five or six hours. in order to obtain the solution in the proper state of concentration. and the melting-pot immediately re- filled with a fresh quantity. A mixture of 15 parts of pulverized quartz. until the whole is dissolved. and until a pellicle begins to form on the surface of the liquid. — 126 MURAL DECORATION. by adding hot water from time to time. when it has a specific gravity of from 1*24 to 1*25. a slimy deposit excepted. 10 . which indicates that the solution is in a state of great concentration . by introducing it in small por- tions into an iron vessel and constantly stirring the liquid. much heat is required as as is necessary to melt common glass.. and the boiling may then be continued for a short time. The melted mass is then taken out by means of an iron spoon. it disappears. may be conveniently employed. in some . however. Manufacture of Potash Water-Glass.

or copper scales. the best and most convenient means of ascertaining whether a sample of water-glass is completely saturated with silica by introducing it in small portions into the boiling liquid. and left to clear in the well-closed iron vessel. to have a water-glass which is entirely neutral. The solution is allowed to cool. When evaporated to a syrupy consistence. WATER-GLASS. but requires to be added with great care. towards the end of the boiling. and it becomes neces- sary to add a little oxide of copper. Litharge may also be employed instead of oxide of copper. whilst an incompletely saturated solution takes up more or less. in order to remove the sulphide of potassium. when a saturated solution will dissolve no more. it requires to be boiled with freshly precipitated silica as long as any silica is dis- solved. which liberates a small quantity of potash. The clear . it can be employed with advantage in but few cases. Freshly precipitated or gelatinous silica offers. Very frequently it is found contaminated with a little sulphide of potassium. but which renders it rather more suitable for many practical purposes than otherwise. in fact. If it is desirable. however. since an excess causes the w ater-glass to T coagulate. 127 instances it will be necessary to dilute it with more or less water.

Soda water-glass is prepared in the same way as potash water-glass . Alcohol furnishes even a more ready means of preparing it in a solid state. chloride of sodium. but since soda is capable of saturating more silica than carbonate of potash. which very frequently contains a little carbonate of potash. the water-glass is obtained in a solid and very pure state. it is evident that an equal quantity of quartz requires less carbonate of soda. . for better transport. a gelatinous precipitate is produced. liquid is then decanted off from the deposit (which may serve as a good manure) and filled into stoppered bottles or carboys. If the supernatant liquid. and the deposit slightly washed with cold water and squeezed. and kept for use under the name of potash water-glass. It may also. By adding one- fourth volume of rectified spirits of wine to a concentrated solution. traces of chloride of potassium. and then packed into tinned iron vessels. Manufacture of Soda Water-Glass. and is deposited on the bottom of the vessel in a solid mass. which strongly contracts after a few days. and sulphite of potassium. Water dissolves it easily and completely. and completely satu- rated with silica.128 MURAL DECORATION. be decanted. be evaporated to a gelatinous mass by constantly stirring the liquid.

The mixture fuses somewhat easier than potash water-glass.) A mixture of 45 lbs. This deportment enables us easily to distinguish it from potash water-glass. Professor Buclmer has found that it can be prepared cheaper by means of Glauber's salt. Potash and soda w ater-giass are miscible in T all proportions. A mixture of equal equivalents of potash or soda. or when slightly diluted. Manufacture of the Double Water-glass. Rectified alcohol does not precipitate it com- pletely like potash water-glass. 23 .. or sulphate of soda. may be employed for a large charge. powdered charcoal.. charcoal dust. merely converting it into a gelatinous mass. and giving no precipitate. at all.. it gives with water a somewhat more opaque liquid than the glass prepared from potash in a like state of concentration. 15-20 . anhydrous sulphate of soda. WATER-GLASS. of quartz. must be considered to furnish the normal double water-glass. which is invariably obtained when 100 parts of quartz and . anhydrous carbonate of soda. When the mass is completely saturated with silica. or only after a short time. however. in the proportion of 100 parts of quartz. when it is not completely saturated with silica. 60 . I '2'.. 3 .

28 . after being completely satu- rated with silica.. It may also be prepared by fusing together quartz. forms the best and the most suitable for all purposes. This method being too expensive for all practical pur- poses. showed itself in its application to stereo- chromy : in the last operation.. I was for a long time of opinion that the ordinary water-glass. carbonate of potash. that of fixing the colours. — 130 MURAL DECORATION. producing a soluble double water-glass. A serious inconvenience. and the corresponding amount of quartz. neutral anhydrous carbonate of soda. 22 . nitrate of soda. will be found to answer for all practical applications. Fixing Water-glass and its Manufacture. purified potash. This mixture is much easier to fuse than any of the previous ones. 121 of seignette salt are fused together. which furnish a cheap glass suitable for all technical applications. however. and carbo- nate of soda in the following proportions : 100 parts of quartz. powdered charcoal. the pictures assumed a cloudy and dirty appearance in consequence of the rapid partial . may be modified by employing equal equivalents of nitrate of potash. A mixture of three measures of concentrated potash water-glass with two measures of con- centrated soda water-glass. 6 ..

and by adding a portion of soda liquor silicum. In order to prepare the soluble silicate of soda (liquor silicum). There is no reason why its use should be restricted to stereochromy. and why it should not be employed for various other purposes with great advantage. three parts of pure anhydrous carbonate of soda are fused together with two parts of pow dered T quartz. and suggested the idea that in this case the water-glass ought not to be completely satu- rated with silica. completely saturated with 7 silica. 131 decomposition of the water-glass. and one part by measure added to four or five parts of the concentrated potash water-glass. A few experiments proved this opinion to be correct . without perceptibly altering its other properties. completely saturated with silica. silica and an excess of alkali are added. By this means. The water-glass which was dull or opaque is thereby rendered perfectly clear and a little more soluble. I shall call this mixture fixing icater-glass. It is kept in a rather concentrated solution. WATER-GLASS. This drawback caused Herr von Kaulbach and myself much anxiety. which is sufficient to prevent its rapid decomposition. . I obtained a w ater-glass which perfectly T answered the purpose. to the ordinary w ater-glass. or soluble silicate of soda.

earths or oxides of the metals. &c. also. but completely in boiling water . especially the alkaline car- bonates or chlorides. and separate silica in a gelatinous form. in the cold. and its Deportment mth other Bodies. however. have been mixed with it. It is important to study thoroughly its action upon other bodies. if pure. Properties of Water-glass. Acids — carbonic acid not even excej)ted — de- compose the solution. when other bodies. frequently. such as many mineral compounds and common glass itself are composed of. has the appearance of ordinary glass. viz.132 MURAL DECORATION. the solution proceeds so slowly. and dissolves gra- dually. cause viscous precipitates . Solid or fused water-glass. which form double or triple silicates. Salts of the alkalies. or when a portion of potash has been withdrawn . that one feels inclined to believe that it is entirely insoluble in cold water. in order to prevent errors. for I have always noticed that silica combines more readily with two bases than with one. It becomes entirely in- soluble only much larger quantity of silica when a has been added and made to combine with it. and silica is separated in the form of a powder. or drawing erroneous conclusions from certain changes or phenomena.. Solid water-glass is readily acted upon by dilute acids.

and produces gradually a slimy deposit. which w as found by Professor T Buchner to contain potash. it is therefore neces- sary that the quartz which is used in the manu- facture of water-glass should not contain any alumina. On washing this precipitate with water acidulated with nitric acid. 133 from a concentrated solution. is probably owing to the alumina which the glass has taken up from the glass-pot. with the rest of the pot- ash. The alkaline earths set free more or less potash on being brought into contact with a solution of water-glass. ammonia being simultaneously evolved. WATER-GLASS. In dilute solutions. which are quite insoluble in water. it swells considerably. Heat accelerates this decomposition. and combine. and forms a product insoluble in water . which causes it to co- agulate sooner or later. even in a very dilute solution of the water-glass. pure silica is left on the filter. If the w ater-glass T is dissolved and exposed to the air in open vessels. Alumina combines likewise with it. . a pre- cipitate appears only after some time — Sal-ammo- niac acts most powerfully by producing. it attracts carbonic acid and suffers decomposition. and the whole solu- tion seems to coagulate. a flaky precipitate. If the liquid is evaporated and the dry mass made anhy- drous by further heating. The insoluble residue which is left be- hind when the fused mass is dissolved in water. to form double salts.

owing to a partial decomposition. By calcination it is brought back to its original state. If a drop is allowed to fall on the table or on the floor. this residue becomes again soluble. it soon loses its transparency and becomes opaque. The same precaution must be observed when fused water-glass has to be dissolved. If the liquid glass is kept in a bottle which is only half full and badly stoppered. and is only partly soluble in water. and thus to allow the access of carbonic acid. a white deposit or ring is formed after a short . which are difficult to efface. . and will then be almost entirely decomposed. in order to prevent the carbonic acid from penetrating the mass. and a drop runs down outside the vessel white streaks. and acids produce strong effervescence. The same takes placewhen it is poured from a bottle. Water no longer dissolves it. When solid or pulverized water-glass is exposed for some time to the action of the atmosphere. and becomes again com- pletely soluble in water. it undergoes the same change as during the eva- poration.134 MURAL DECORATION. On being strongly ignited. It effervesces strongly on addition of acids. and care must be taken always to add boiling water in order not to interrupt the ebullition. It is evident that constant boiling is required to obtain the soluble water-glass in a solid state by means of evaporation. make their appear- ance. leaving a heavy deposit.

or thick paper. "That the dried and pure water-glass undergoes no palpable change by exposure to the atmosphere. WATER-GLASS. and of a somewhat pulverulent appearance. . whilst it contracts more and more. 135 time. I have stated in the above-mentioned pamphlet. and that it attracts from it neither water nor carbonic acid. and is gradually entirely decomposed. opaque. but becomes gradually dull. This gradual change is caused by water. When concentrated w ater-glass T is brushed upon a solid substance. 396. does not keep long. such as glass. which the air-dried water-glass retains in rather considerable quantity (about 12 per cent. and acquires consider- able hardness. and which it loses but slowly. however. although it is decom- posed and converted into a stiff jelly by passing a current of carbonic acid through it. it soon dries up and forms a shining trans- parent coating." I herewith correct this error. owing to a partial decomposition of the water-glass — a fact which I did not become aware of for some time. and a more or less heavy deposit is found on the bottom of the vessel. which adheres so firmly that it cannot be removed entirely even by acids. and sometimes fissile and cracked.). marble. which. A dilute solution becomes turbid on exposure to the air. p. on account of insufficient ex- periments and observations. A concentrated solution is likewise not perceptibly affected by the atmosphere.

it may be employed for imparting solidity and greater cohesion to loose masses. is its binding and cement- ing 'power. but which are converted into a stone-like mass. whilst others are only mechanically combined. or with substances which can be crumpled up between the fingers. by which bodies are rendered hard and insoluble. and when it is brought together with pulverulent dust or sand-like bodies. Its action resembles that of glue. form with the water-glass a chemical compound . that a few. and one which renders it most suit- able for practical purposes. for joining separate parts of bodies or small particles to form a large hole. for filling up cracks or fis- sures. The intensity of the effect produced depends upon the nature of the substance with which the water-glass is brought into contact some possess . &c. be called a mineral glue. One of the most important properties of the water-glass. however. and many more applications. and it might.136 MURAL DECORATION. because an insoluble double silicate is formed by the combination with a . and consequently are more powerfully cemented than others. from which the water-glass can no longer be dissolved. will be readily understood. such as magnesia and oxide of zinc. Its effects are most apparent when it is applied upon solid porous bodies which absorb it. in fact. a stronger affinity than others. The former action. this essential difference. There is. owing to mere adhesive action.

It has been shown. r Thus. that the carbonic acid of the air promotes the con- solidation of the water-glass. entirely upon itself. w ater-glass T exhibits a much greater power of adhesion for pow dered marble than r for powdered quartz. moreover. and cohering so intimately with the particles of the body with which it is brought into contact. for instance. especially since the water-glass shows a slightly different deportment with different bodies . a body does not readily cement with water-glass. passing. and it is therefore not immaterial which body is chosen in order to obtain an intimate solid mass which resists the action of the w ater. no doubt. I call a mixture of pulverulent or sand -like . according to its peculiar nature. and for which it possesses a strong adhesion. loosens the slight tie which exists between silica and the alkali . Carbonic acid. be- coming itself active. but then the former does not re- main passive. it will only be necessary to add a material which combines chemically with the latter. so to speak. that the whole mass becomes petrified. because it is partially decomposed when exposed to the air: however. when the desired end is sure to be obtained. therefore. WATER-GLASS. retiring. If. The latter is more difficult to ex- plain. 137 second base. this is not sufficient to explain the striking change which frequently becomes perceptible after the lapse of a few days. through various states of cohesion.

and state the experiments which were made to ascertain their deportment. It may be advantageously employed in various cases instead of the common chalk-cement. plates. which absorb it. it is found to be entirely soaked with it. When chalk-powder is made into a paste with water.) Carbonate of Lime. (a. . Water-glass imparts considerable hardness to porous bodies. It has been stated that water-glass does not cement all solid bodies equally well. and it will be interesting to know which bodies are more or less inclined to combine with it. Chalk. Powdered Marble. bodies with water-glass. on drying. I will mention only those which are available for practical pur- poses. and to timber. it forms a compact mass. According to Buchner. and acquires. which cements well. such as vessels of baked clay. if a piece of chalk is plunged into a moderately concentrated solution of water-glass and left for about two days in the solution. as also to porous limestones. sandstones. tiles. and capable of a good polish. 138 MURAL DECORATION. &c. water-glass cement. Water . and then well dried and saturated with water-glass. Calcareous Sand. bricks. as will be shown hereafter. and again put into a somewhat more dilute solution. dried. then taken out. such an even hardness that it is very little inferior to marble. pottery-ware.

such as carbonate and phosphate of lime. Chalk. i. and on the other carbonate of potash. The question w ill be asked. though it assumes a slight alkaline reaction . by numerous carefully conducted experiments. what produces T this remarkable change in the otherwise soluble water- glass ? Is it in consequence of a chemical pro- cess. WATER-GLASS. so that on the one hand silicate of lime. which do not possess the power of decomposing the water-glass. p.e. that when it is evaporated with them it loses its solubility in w^ater. the chalk is also increased con- siderably in density.. does an interchange of the elements of carbonate of lime and water-glass take place. 139 does not soften it. either partially or wholly. forms an excellent ingredient in order to render water-glass cohesive and insoluble in water. 400 : — " Several insoluble salts. as I have already stated in the pamphlet referred to. however. therefore. Baron Liebig and Professor Buclmer have confirmed this remarkable deport- ment of water-glass by their own experiments. have so strong an attraction for it. and that not . are produced ? The change of the w ater-glass is no doubt of T such a kind that Professor Kuhlmann may well be excused for holding the opinion that it is based upon a chemical process. This is not the case. that no chemical interchange of elements takes place." Baron Liebig and Professor Pettenkofer have lately proved beyond all doubt.

especially a very good cement. moreover. such as is met with in the mineral known by the name of " cancrinite. so firmly to the latter. to all purposes.140 MUEAL DECORATION. Powdered marble exerts the same action upon water-glass as chalk. without a mutual decomposition. i. however. which. as well as the analogous mass of chalk and water- .. Is then this extraordinary change merely caused by adhesion ? I think that the water-glass and carbonate of lime combine directly. even on long. forming a weak chemical compound. which may be prepared of more or less coarsely powdered marble. I will only mention iron-flint. in little or no way inferior to chemical action. is a mixture of oxide of iron and quartz. This cement." which is composed of nepheline (silicate of soda and alumina) and carbonate of lime." Cases are known. of undoubted ad- hesive action. and called by him " didymite. in Tyrol. the former adhering. may find use- ful application for many practical purposes. A silicate of analogous composition has been discovered by Professor Schafhautl. as has been shown by the experiments of Bucholz. and forms a very compact mass with it. that the strongest hydro- chloric acid does not dissolve the whole of the iron from a finely powdered ferruginous quartz. even a partial decomposition of the water-glass is perceptible.e.continued boiling.

scarcely differing in con- sistency from that with carbonate of lime. since it adheres to wood as well as to stone. it may be obtained without incurring any great expenses. because it is sometimes formed by the com- bination of phosphoric acid and lime. and to render it insoluble in water. action. Phosphate of lime also gives a very compact mass with water-glass. it is interesting to know its deportment with water- glass. It may be classed with the best means of cementing the water-glass. without under- going any chemical action or change of its con- stituents. (c. A mineral consisting of carbonate of lime and carbonate of magnesia. 141 glass. and. (b. appears to surpass even limestone in its cementing power. which. Although it is not likely that phos- phate of lime will be much employed. and as it is con- siderably harder than limestone. according to ex- periments lately made. Bone-ash. mechanical as well as chemical.) Dolomite. and brought . a mixture of its powder with water-glass imparts a stronger re- sisting power against external. and since it occurs frequently in nature. WATER-GLASS. as far as has been ascertained.) Phosphate of Lime.

only little can be added. Basic Carbonate of Lime may conveniently be added to water-glass by rubbing the two substances together : it does not set rapidly. and potash is liberated. as will be further illustrated hereafter. Slaked lime forms a useful addition to other masses. since it will soon be converted into carbonate of lime by the action of the carbonic acid of the air. Slaked Lime. It is evident that water has no action upon this product. be impregnated with water-glass in order to cement them better. . but dries up gradually to a solid mass. however.) Caustic Lime. (d. lest the solution sets and prevents the water- glass from penetrating. (e. It may serve advantageously as an admixture to other masses which do not cement so well .) Lime Acted upon by the Atmosphere. into contact with water-glass. after a short time. if a sufficient quantity of water-glass be present. A chemical combination takes place be- tween the lime and water-glass. and walls coated with mortar may. Water-glass sets rapidly when caustic lime is mixed with it.142 MURAL DECORATION. which is a chemical product consisting of silicate of potash and lime. and dries slowly to a rather hard mass.

A compact mass which leaves scarcely anything to wish for. and becomes as hard as a stone on the surface. which will only bind if repeatedly moistened with water-glass. The water-glass only combines superficially with them. and then the mixture treated with water- glass. and leaves underneath a porous powder. Eepeated soaking in water-glass is necessary to render the mass homo- geneous. Quartz may be powdered as finely as possible without exhibiting any strong adhesive power or inclination to form a cement with the water-glass.) Pulverulent Quartz. sand. and placed upon a tile moistened with water-glass. These two bodies do not belong to those which bind w ell with T water-glass. We observe the same action as with powdered quartz. There exists a remarkable difference between . it is found quite disintegrated and void of water-glass. ] 1 3 (/. (g. and the inner part examined. WATER-GLASS. The same takes place when water-glass is added to mortar made with quartz. and slaked lime.slaked lime is mixed with the powdered quartz. is. it dries up to a solid mass after a few days. after the mass has been well dried. and resists rain. however.) Burnt Clay and Burnt Porcelain Clay. the w hole T of which has been drawn to the surface. If it be made into a kind of cement. But if that surface is pierced. obtained when a little dry.

) Zinc White (Oxide of Zinc) and Magnesia. and hereby show the same close analogy. for in- stance. a burnt plate of potter's clay. which we notice in several others. vessels made of different kinds of clay. as is usual. (h. Thus Professor Kaiser prepared a plate of tile-clay about half an inch thick. so that they absorb the water-glass readily. provided they take up the water- glass readily. Oxide of zinc may be ground together with . If. is saturated with moderately concentrated water-glass. which become. and can easily be broken to pieces. it is rendered so hard that it resists both chemical and mechanical action which is made to bear upon it. which possesses no particular hardness. which was so friable that it would have fallen to pieces under the slightest pressure before being saturated with water-glass.144 MURAL DECORATION. and if the soaking is repeated after it has become dry. and although vapours of all kinds have been passing over it for the last twelve years. porous by burning. It is evident that potter's ware of various kinds can be rendered as durable as a plate of clay. they have not produced the slightest change. of their natural as well as artificial chemical com- pounds. and used it as a covering plate in an evaporating oven . These two bodies combine most energetically with the water-glass.

to which a colour may be added if desired. they impart a weak alkaline reaction to the water. When treated with water. and tends to increase the solidity. at all events. by themselves. do not bind readily with water-glass. from the w ay T it is prepared (by igniting pure carbonate of magnesia). Even to those that do. If this mass is spread rather thickly upon a slab moistened with water-glass. sets more rapidly than a mass of oxide of zinc and water-glass. WATER-GLASS. or. it adheres firmly to them and gives a good coating. and becomes gradually harder. when ground together to a paste with concentrated water-glass. a small ad- mixture of the salt can be advantageous. This powerful action of the oxide of zinc makes it a very useful article to add to those substances. 145 water-glass without setting too rapidly. these pieces retain their hardness and are no longer dis- integrated . Pure magnesia also called magnesia usta. which detach themselves from the support. it contracts slowly. which. and dries up to a very hard mass. It is evident that oxide of zinc forms an intimate chemical compound with water- glass. If the mixture of oxide of zinc and w ater-glass T is brushed in a thin layer upon objects. prevents the water-glass from making its way to the surface. till it breaks up into many small pieces. but it is liable to crack and peel off when it is put on a solid body L .

. 146 MURAL DECORATION. or merely a trace. is dissolved. but gives no cloudiness with sal ammoniac. This kind of carbonate of magnesia was made into a paste with concentrated water-glass. which have proved perfectly satisfactory. I have no doubt that magnesia as well as oxide of zinc combine chemically with water-glass. A few pieces were put into water and digested for a short time . since it has been fonnd that common glass is slightly soluble in water when ground for some time in an agate mortar. and that when water is boiled for some time in a glass re- tort. and adhered so strongly to the plate that it could only with difficulty be detached by means of a knife. and that the former may conveniently be employed as an additional ingredient to other masses which possess less binding power. in a layer a little thicker than card-board. and placed upon a glass plate . The pieces which peel off exhibit considerable hard- ness. as was first observed by Scheele. it dissolved a little carbonate of potash but no silica. 1 but no silica. the glass is acted upon. A part of it 1 It isby no means remarkable that a little potash is dissolved on grinding this or a similar mass with water. which would have been indicated on the addition of sal ammoniac. The consistency of the mass was not perceptibly altered. a proof that only a little potash. Experiments have been made with magnesia alba as an admixture to water-glass. Water in which they have been boiled has an alkaline reaction. it soon acquired considerable solidity.

there- fore. dissolving magnesia and the rest of the potash. 3 Hijdrated Sulphate of Lime (Ca. a chemical action has taken place. Another portion was treated with dilute sulphuric acid. according as potash water-glass. + 2 H. whilst silica. therefore. O. however. WATER-GLASS. and leaving behind silica as a gritty powder. Xo doubt. which gradually produced a slight effervescence. because it does not penetrate into the . 0. much sulphate of potash or sulphate of soda separates. with a part of the potash. GrTPSUM. one of the most important cementing ingredients which can be added to water-glass. which was perfectly and easily soluble in caustic potash. a chemical action. It follows that objects made gypsum cannot be impregnated with of water-glass in order to render them more solid and capable of resisting the action of the atmo- sphere. scarcely more solid".O. when again traces of carbonate of potash only were found to be dissolved. 147 was powdered and boiled with water. than the ordinary gypsum.. by forming a little car- bonate of potash. When gypsum is ground together with water- glass it solidifies immediately. The mass is. or soda water-glass has been employed in the experiment. Magnesia alba forms. and on drying. combines with the magnesia. 8. Magnesia alba and water-glass. undergo.).

fluor spar. as the experiments have not yet been brought to a conclusion . if it is too diluted and made into a paste with pulverulent bodies. Anhydrite. 148 MURAL DECORATION. One part. I think. may form the maxi- mum : and one part of the same water-glass to half a part of water. care must be taken to avoid such bodies as might form gypsum in the operation. basic salts of iron. lead-white.. viz. but I am unable to speak so definitively on this point. the minimum of dilution. but will be found more or less friable and loose after a few days. Gypsum must therefore be avoided in selecting admixtures for the water-glass . and repeated impregnation with water-glass . or anhydrous sulphate of lime. accord- ing to circumstances. strongly ignited gypsum. and I hope to be able to publish some interesting results with regard to the action of that and other substances upon water- glass. &c. promise a better result . and still more so in its practical appli- cation. If it is too concentrated it does not penetrate those bodies easily and sufficiently which it is desired to impregnate . of concentrated water- glass to two parts of water. more- over. heavy measure. and. sometimes even less. oxide of iron. The state of concentration of the water-glass is a matter of considerable importance in these ex- periments. litharge. pores. or as might already contain gypsum. this mass may appear coherent enough when first dried.

we gain the advantage that colours or a coating of paint can be put on at any time. which sets more rapidly than soda water-glass with powdered substances with . that a body which has been com- pletely saturated with water-glass can be again rendered porous by warming it. WATER-GLASS. Dilute water-glass interposes too much between the particles of a body. especially on exposure to rain. and to adapt it to his purpose. which dis- solves part of the alkali. we attain the greatest possible solidity . The question will be asked. All depends upon how far the saturation of such bodies with water-glass is to be carried on. or only to a certain degree. It is possible that the potash water-glass. 149 only can impart to it the desired solidity. so that numerous small inter- stices are left. It must be left to the operator to modify at w illT the state of concen- tration. which weaken the cohesive power when the water-glass contracts on drying. and is the most suitable for practical purposes ? Nothing definite can be stated as yet. by burning alcohol once or twice on it. In the first case. The pores open a little more in the course of time. in the second. Which of the several kinds of water-glass answers best. and leaves principally silica. and fixed by means of water-glass. I will merely state. so that at last complete petrifaction takes place. and the desired object is attained. —whether they are to be completely saturated with it. what is easier. or.

the soda water-glass has the advantage of being more liquid. however. to its parting readily with the silica. 1 Soda does not combine so strongly with silica as potash. He could not employ potash water- glass equally well since it was not so liquid. by dropping a few drops of soda water- glass into the crevices. therefore. may impart greater solidity to them than soda water-glass . and has a strong inclination to effloresce when combined with the carbonic acid of the air .150 MURAL DECORATION. the difference. and did not penetrate into the fissures. and penetrating more readily into the smallest spaces. and thus accelerating the silicatization of the mass. 1 The Maier told me that he was late sculptor Professor enabled to employ a faulty stone in a few days as if it had contained no fissure. are required to prove its superiority. and one of the advan- tages of soda water-glass might be due. cannot be considerable. a property which is of some importance to the sculptor and mason. The fixing water-glass is used for the particular purpose already stated. . especially in painting. pores. and fissures than the slightly gelatinous and difficultly soluble potash water- glass. and merits preference for the very reason that it contains two bases (potash and soda) with which silica (which prefers to form double compounds) combines more powerfully. On the other hand. The double water-glass seems to unite the pro- perties of the other two. but it can also be employed in many other cases. how- ever. which it is mixed. Fur- ther experiments.

owing to undissolved and very finely divided silica. and to allow them to stand for about a day. after some time a dust-like efflorescence. and the liquid becomes perfectly clear. which no doubt forms the principal binding element. But this efflorescence is far from being obnoxious. stirring them occasionally. it proves rather that the process of hardening pro- ceeds favourably. WATER-GLASS. when com- pletely saturated with silica. and which acts so . are always more or less cloudy or opaque. it will be found that the solidity of the body thus treated is not only not impaired. by which a little alkali is ex- pelled. to act more freely upon the bodies to which the water-glass is applied. In order to deprive them of this opacity. thus enabling the silica. This efflorescence has frightened many and caused the water-glass to be looked upon with suspicion. it is sufficient to add a little liquor silicum. If the efflorescence is removed by means of a wet sponge. 1 but even increased. This efflorescence is by no means identical with that 1 which frequently occurs on damp walls. sometimes of slightly crystalline appearance. The opacity disappears completely. I have further to remark that. provided it be not accidentally coloured by some other (organic) substance. 151 Tlie first three kinds of water-glass. takes place upon bodies which have been impregnated with water-glass.

All commercial pot- ash derived from the ashes of plants — and such was the potash employed in the manufacture of this water-glass — contains more or less carbonate of soda. Another source of the decay of walls is to be found in the damp or saline soil upon which the walls are built. put on after care- fully cleaning and impregnating the damaged wall with con- centrated water-glass. . but more careful examination by M. I thought at first that this efflorescence con- sisted of bicarbonate of potash. orby de- taching it altogether.152 MUKAL DECORATION. can alone efficiently stop the destruction for a longer period of time. because it was derived from potash water-glass . and from which the wall absorbs the salts unceasingly. and which most appropriately called is " Manerfrass. but only in order to furnish fresh material for slow de- struction. most fre- quently by saline bodies found in the spring water which is used in preparing it. will improve the appearance of the wall. A coating of water-glass cement." The latter is caused by salts which are con- tained in the material employed for building walls. after care- fully removing the old. proved it to be carbonate of soda mixed with scarcely a trace of potash. This evil abates only when all the salts pre- sent in the mortar have effloresced. assistant in the chemical laboratory of Professor Pettenkofer. destructively by loosening the plastering or cement. and thus the occurrence of carbonate of soda can be easily accounted for. A fresh coating of cement. Feichtinger. Not unfrequently saltpetre is formed simultaneously.

For monumental painting it rivals and will even- tually supersede fresco-painting. and of imparting to paintings. In England also this method is reported to receive great encouragement. and that mural paintings which are in course of execution are done by the stereochromic method. The applications which water-glass has found are based upon its properties. as illustrated in Section I. colour). It designates that method of painting in which water- glass serves as the connecting medium between the colour and its substratum. and xpu/ma. based upon its property of causing colours to adhere well. solid. that fresco -painting has in several cases been aban- doned. no doubt. By paying due regard to these pro- perties. no serious difficulties will be met with in its special applications. Special Application of the Watee-Glass. I call this kind of painting stereochromy (from (jrepzbg. that for painting. One of the most important applications of water-glass is. WATER-GLASS. great durability and indestructi- bility. The so-called encaustic painting cannot be com- . I am told that it has gained considerable ground in Prussia. firm. as well as to coats of paint. 153 SECTION II.

Before I proceed to the application of water- glass in stereochromic painting. would render them more durable without depriving them of their freshness ? Car- bonate of soda. This led 1 The paintings excavated at Pompeii were formerly thought to be of an encaustic nature. the metropolis of German art.. 154 MURAL DECORATION. especially as to their want of stability in our severe climate. no doubt." of January 6 and 7.1845. 76. Zeitung.) Nevertheless endeavours have lately been made at Munich to carry out large and expensive paintings in a certain en- caustic style. since they were. as hautl (see " Augsburger Allgem. xcv. vol. fol. because it was first discovered there. 49. How great a retrograde step in monumental painting was this ! The paintings brought to light at Pompeii cannot be pre- served long. than by means of lime. In order to protect them. . I was first induced to investigate the aoluble silicates by the many complaints which I heard in regard to fresco-paintings. it has not met with much favour. which effloresces. 42. but without result. after which the painting can be washed with distilled water without fear of injury. I speculated as to whether colours could not be made to adhere better and more firmly upon the walls by means of water-glass. which deprived them of much of thenvoriginal beauty. in fact. I should like to make a few more preliminary remarks. they have been impregnated withwax and brushed over with sandarac. Would it not have been better to impregnate them with water-glass which. and various efforts were made to imitate them. p." p. might be wiped off with a wet sponge. and Dingler's Polytech- nical Journal. was conclusively shown by Professor Schaf- real frescoes. 1 pared to it. "Berlage. although first discovered at that place — perhaps. At Munich. but gradually decay.

Had I been able to paint myself. and the lively interest shown by him in the new discovery. which sometimes confirmed. that stereochromic paintings and coatings of paint may be put upon certain grounds directly. for. much valuable time was lost. expen- sive. until I arrived at the desired end by the aid of Herr von Kaulbach's unceasing co-operation. c. some- times negatived. and that even easel-pictures of moderate size can be advan- tageously executed . 155 to experiments. To produce a stereochromic picture of great beauty and permanence upon a wall. without a substratum of cement. owing to delays. so that five years were spent over a great number of experiments. moreover. caused by submitting the various water-glasses to the judgment of others. — WATER-GLASS. that so much time and labour should have been occupied upon a dis- covery which in reality is so very simple. Mural or Monumental Painting upon a Ground of Mortar-Cement. It appears strange. indeed. Many difficulties had to be over- come. the opinion I had conceived of its applicability. i. it is chiefly . as will be seen from the following description : It was found in the course of this investigation that stereochromy can be employed upon other substrata as well as upon walls. it would have saved me much unnecessary labour . though for the most part unsuccessful.

and will some- times cause it to crack. — . Errors which are committed in their preparation throw obstacles in the way of the painter. and a perfect adhesion to the wall. which consists of a lower and an upper layer of mortar. neither too coarse nor too fine. and it may be either calcareous or quartz sand. if the lime in this cement be perfectly caustic.cement. its object is to equalize the unevenness in the wall. The sand ought to be of medium grain. It is. The lime must be properly slaked and sparingly employed. so as to render the cement —which must be made up with distilled or rain-water rather poor than otherwise. at the same time rendering it capable of absorbing the water-glass in all its parts with equal avidity. The plaster covering thus prepared requires to be well dried and exposed to the air for several days. The first layer or substratum is formed of ordi- nary lime-mortar . A rich cement would not absorb the water-glass readily. in order that it may absorb carbonic acid and be converted into basic carbonate of lime for. the water-glass would subsequently be . and injure the beauty of the painting. The principal and most important operation in forming the ground-work consists in imparting to the mortar-cement a thorough and stone -like solidity. necessary to look to the foundation of the picture. 156 MUEAL DECORATION. and to cover well the stone. however. necessary to wash either kind well before using it.

in order to insure r their penetrating to the w all. owing to unevenness in the wall . and it will be necessary to treat the thicker parts of the substratum separately with water-glass so long as it is absorbed. When it is dry. 157 decomposed by it. and since a thick layer requires more water-glass than a thin one. When the lower ground has been thus pre- . WATER-GLASS. allowing the surface to dry each time. water-glass may be employed to make it adhere to the wall. and could not penetrate to the wall — a matter of necessity if a good cementa- tion is to be effected. because they are absorbed more easily. The application is repeated several times. Soda and double water-glass are preferable to potash water-glass. The saturation of the lime with carbonic acid may be accelerated by moistening the wall seve- ral times with a solution of carbonate of am- monia. treated with as much liquor silicum as to render it perfectly clear. the latter will be saturated long before the other is. The thickness of 7 the plaster will be dif- ferent in different places. and the ammonia evaporated. The water-glass used must be either the soda or the double water- glass. and continued almost to the point of complete saturation. They ought not to be used in a concentrated state. in order to render all parts equal. but diluted with equal parts of w ater.

This is to a certain degree rather . may be added soon after. the coarser the grain the rougher the ground. by means of a fine or sieve. on the other hand. in order to obtain the right grain. and consists of lime-mortar. of a grain which does not exceed a certain size. and with not too much lime to prevent cracks and insure complete absorption. pared. because the latter consists of round. which is to receive the picture. is preferable to the natural sand. sand obtained by grinding marble or dolomite. the certainty of success and the facility of the execution are mainly due. is to be avoided. It is better to run the sand through a sieve. smooth little grains. i. because it renders the mass too compact and less absorbing. and should be re- moved by decant ation.158 MURAL DECORATION.. which ought to be made with distilled or rain-water and well-washed sand (calcareous or quartz sand). e. fine powder. which do not set so well as the sharp -edged fresh grains of Very artificial sand. To the careful preparation of this layer. The condition of the surface of the ground for painting is chiefly dependent upon the size of the grains of sand . which would set still better. In its composition it does not essentially differ from the lower one. I am of opinion that artificially prepared cal- careous sand. I repeat it. the upper layer. The thickness of this upper layer is about one- tenth of an inch.

viz. approve of this method. and also to impart the required roughness to the surface. the sand used may be much coarser than in the second. it is impregnated with water-glass. I cannot. which have to be filled in again. which binds well with the water-glass. 159 advantageous than otherwise in painting. so that the plaster does not suffer in the least . A difference must also be made according as the pictures are to be viewed at a great or short dis- tance . by dilute phosphoric acid (1 part of concentrated acid to 6 parts of water). and leaving small cavities.. if mecha- nical friction is resorted to. When the ground has been thus prepared and well dried. and I think it far better to destroy the calcareous incrustation by means of a simple chemical reac- tion. in the first case. and which would prevent the water-glass from being absorbed. it is sometimes rubbed over with a sharp sandstone or iron straight-edge. The surface ought to feel to the touch like a rasp. whereas. Phosphate of lime is formed. there is a risk of detaching small pieces. The acid is brushed over the surface by means of a sponge or brush. as Kaulbach expresses it. When this coat of mortar has become dry. in . however. provided that water-colours adhere sufficiently until the water-glass be added. in order to remove the thin layer of carbonate of lime which has been formed during the process of drying. WATER-GLASS.

After the upper ground has been thus prepared. after allowing some time for drying. till the further contraction of the water-glass renders the ground again sufficiently porous. It is advantageous to employ for this purpose double water-glass. order to give it sufficient consistency and to cement it well together with the substratum. painting may be. but need not be immediately proceeded with. which would throw considerable obstacles in the way of the painter. and diluted with its equal bulk of water. either by rubbing or by the action of phosphoric acid. exhibiting a good and even absorption everywhere. Too much water- glass would only tend to close up the pores. Delay will only increase the capacity of absorption which the ground already possesses. and cemented with double water-glass to which a little liquor silicum has been added. . or by applying heat.160 MURAL DECORATION. The artist has to observe no further precau- tions. It will be found sufficient to repeat the operation twice. either the whole layer of plaster must be removed or the oversight may be made good by waiting- some time. in such a manner that the water-glass is equally spread over the whole surface. which is best done by burning alcohol on it. and the necessary practice will soon be acquired by painting a few easel-pieces on such ground. clarified with liquor silicum. If too much should have been used.

Echter observed. Great care must be taken not to wet too much those parts which have been painted over. This inconvenience is greatest in places which have to be painted over repeatedly. M. after they have got dry and before the picture is fixed. to which end the fixing water- M . with a very fine brush. as M. Nothing more remains now but to fix the colours properly. and only as often as is necessary. WATER-GLASS. will meet with the best advice at the hands of Herr von Kaulbach and M. doubt the efficiency of the water-glass. 1 f> 1 Artists who should. Echter. because. and have to be moistened each time. He brushes away these fine par- ticles of colour. however. taking care to moisten the wall frequently with pure water in order to displace the air from the pores and to insure more completely the adherence of the colours. the colours are liable to lose their freshness . and he thus restores the picture to its original freshness. I am sure. will be pleased to give the desired explanations and assistance. who. Echter. This syringing with water must be done with moderation. and used by the artist upon the prepared surface. it appears that the water washes the finest and least powerful particles of the colours up to the surface. and who should hesitate to undertake a larger work. has found a remedy. The colours are ground with pure water. nevertheless.

the friction of which detaches parts of the colour that indirectly smudges the pocket handkerchief. glass is more specially employed. It suffices to dilute it with half its volume of water. Professor Schlott- hauer. so as not to displace the colours or to cause them to run one into another. whilst some are sufficiently fixed. The operation of alternate besprink- ling and drying is continued until the colours adhere so firmly that they cannot be rubbed off with the finger. and for which stereochromy is much indebted. who has bestowed much time and labour upon stereochromic experiments. The same is experienced in fresco-painting. which leaves nothing to be desired. Baron Kaulbach told me. Experiments made with regard to the durability and solidity of colours have shown that. The colours which adhere but slightly do not allow of the brush being used. has invented a syringe for this purpose. This refers more espe- cially to the so-called meagre colours. others are more or less loose.162 MURAL DECORATION. be smudged. in the form of a fine shower or mist. . These require more water-glass. because rubbing with great force loosens grains of sand. If white pocket handkerchiefs. which are sometimes employed as tests. like black. and soil the finger. and it is necessary to besprinkle the painting with water-glass. which is added by means of a fine brush. at first very care- fully. it does not prove that the colours are not possessed of the desired durability.

and they all. It was soon found that water-glass could not be employed in stereochromy as oil in oil-painting. especially the last. meet with unqualified approbation among all impartial artists and lovers of the art as to the increased perfection in the technical execution. WATER-GLASS. whether w ater-glass r is to be rejected in all cases as an admixture to colours. 1 03 however.. as an . the colours could not be ground with water- glass before applying them. or when pictures which have been fixed are to be painted over in some parts in order to restore harmony between these and the other por- tions of the picture. It remains to be seen. A very dilute solution even rendered the brushes soon stiff. Echter. i. since it can easily be guarded against by properly mixing the colours. I am therefore of opinion that it may render good service in painting. a short time ago. that this occurs now but very rarely. I have to make a few additional remarks. There now doubt that such a mixture cannot be is dispensed with when damaged pictures have to be renovated. This is a general outline of the method by which Director von Kaulbach. has executed four painter large stereochromic paintings in the new museum at Berlin . assisted by the excellent M. however. and caused the colours to harden on the palette. Before proceeding further. and they are generally acknowledged to be a real advance in the art of monumental painting.e.

I am not speaking now of the usual potash water-glass. especially to the meagre ones. although it has been much knocked about. This little picture exists still. addition to many colours. When the brush begins to become somewhat stiff. it has only to be put into pure water. . the trial of its applicability. and which is used for the fixing of pictures. and is well preserved. and could no longer be softened in water. The hardening of the colours on the palette may easily be prevented by adding from time to time a drop of water by means of a dropping-glass. that he felt at once strongly in favour of the new method of painting. which served him as a ground for painting upon. These must be considered as a few hints only. The brush must not be left exposed to the air before washing it. A second and larger picture. upon a broad tile covered with a layer of plaster prepared with powdered marble. to which I had added a little caustic potash. The trial succeeded so well. 164 MURAL DECORATION. It is well not to put too much colour upon the palette. however. I might mention here that Kaulbach executed the first picture by means of dilute water-glass. whilst another may be employed in the mean time. but of that which has had liquor silicum and water added to it. upon this subject . or else it would become quite stiff. must be left entirely to the artist. which is inapplicable. and after a short time it will again be found fit for use.

Soon after. and that the colours adhere suf- ficiently well with water alone. Should the surface be so much saturated with water-glass that an addi- tional layer remains unabsorbed for a whole minute. Formerly. particularly when more water-glass was used than was absolutely necessary for the fixa- tion. but even these have been known to disap- pear spontaneously after a little time. which. was destroyed by an accident. when potash water-glass was used for fixing the colours. He thought it too tedious and inconvenient. 165 similarly executed and well finished. A few trials were made. and I gave him a paste-like mass. it is better to blot off the excess with blotting-paper. lie expressed a wish to obtain a more tractable admixture to his colours than mere water. for the most part. and he convinced himself that no admixture is required when the grounds are rough. But this also was not found to answer sufficiently. and adding a little of the well. such as is obtained by precipitating a dilute solu- tion of alum with water-glass.washed precipitate to the colours. . as it might dry into greyish -white spots . The " fixing water-glass " above described has the advantage of allowing more freedom to the operator without any risk of staining the pic- ture. WATER-GLASS. An excess will only help to make the plaster coat more durable. it was often found to dry unevenly and to give a dirty appearance to the pictures. succeeded well — some very well.

My advice is. for the more silica can be added to a stereochromic painting. which is set free . ought to be carefully examined in the course of a few months or a year.water. because an hour's exposure might destroy what required weeks to execute. Although a second fixing operation is not absolutely necessary. care must be taken not to expose it to a heavy rain before the colours are fixed. the firmer and more durable will it become. If a painting is to be executed on the outside of a building. in order to remove any dirt or dust. as well as a little alkali. which is apt to deposit carbonate of lime. not to neglect the after fixing of these paintings. without any risk of damage to the colours or fear of injury from exposure to the rain. to ascertain whether it has acquired any power of absorption. and at the end of a few more days it may be washed with pure water. If so. wherever it is feasible. It is well to wash the picture with spirits of wine after the lapse of a few days. therefore. . it will improve the picture .166 MURAL DECORATION. The painting is finished when the colours are fixed. it is evident that more fixing water-glass is required to fill up the pores caused by the gradual contraction of the original layer of water-glass. especially of those on the outside of buildings. must not be used for washing. The finished picture. Spring. especially when it is exposed to the open air.

WATER-GLASS. on a wall which was much exposed to the action of the atmosphere. built about twenty years previously. Our wish of trying the execution of a stereo- chromic painting on the outside of an old build- ing. If the plaster has been rubbed with a rough sandstone and well smoothed. 1G7 In the preceding lines I have spoken of the preparation which a fresh wall requires in order to render it fit for receiving a stereochromic painting. and if it then absorbs the colours well and is w ell cemented T to the stones of the wall. This is shown by the experiments which I made with Director von Zimmermann and the late Professor Krotz. the wall is quite sound . thoroughly dry and free from efflorescent salts . which has frequently been addressed to me. the plaster firmly adhering to the stones (of which w e convinced T ourselves by striking the wall with a small ham- . w as met T half way by M. there is no reason why it should not be used for painting with success. Himbsel. and I have now to answer the inquiry. The walls were found sound. whether old walls which are already covered with a layer of plaster can be used for stereochromic painting. as is said in common parlance. to which question I can only give a conditionally affirmative reply. after it has been duly impregnated with water-glass. who desired to have two images of saints executed at his country-house on the Lake of Starnberg. or if.

The success which accompanied the first experi- ment naturally led to the idea that perhaps fresco- paintings could be converted into stereochromic paintings by a judicious use of water-glass. yet sufficiently so to enable Von Zimmer- mann to begin his paintings without delay. and thus rendered equally solid. which are still being executed in spite of the discovery of stereochromy. The picture would first have to be washed with rain-water. The fixing was repeated after the lapse of a year. When dry. For want of experience. I can only give my opinion as to what might be the best method of procedure. mer). phosphoric acid diluted with ten parts of water. even after rubbing it with a very rough sandstone. which was brushed twice over the wall. therefore. - 168 MURAL DECORATION. I leave it undecided for the present whether this could be done suc- cessfully. although it must appear highly desirable to discover means of protecting fresco paintings. the wall was not very ab- sorbing. They are now five years old. and at the same time so little porous that it did not exhibit sufficient power of absorption. and satisfactorily fixed. slightly acidulated with pure vinegar. The two pictures were executed without any difficulty. We employed. in order to remove dust . by way of besprinkling. and have remained quite intact ever since. I shall have to speak once more of these pictures. as I have not had an opportunity of trying experiments.

Nothing remains now to be done but to saturate the dry picture with fixing water-glass. Stronger acid would discolour the ultramarine. representing the entrance of the Emperor Lewis. the acid must altogether be employed very sparingly. which was painted nearly twenty years ago. and preventing the absorption of the water-glass. Our climate is. And yet this picture is placed in a rather favourable situation. and which would interfere with the sub- sequent action of the water-glass. and slight brushing with a sponge. WATER-GLASS. soaked in the dilute acid. 1(>9 and dirt. The besprinkling is repeated with pure water in order to remove the acetate of lime which has formed. Careful manipulation is required even with the dilute acetic acid . We have a proof of this in the deplorable state of a large and fine picture on the Isar gate at Munich. as the evolution of carbonic acid gas might otherwise loosen the colours. principally. covering the colours. after the battle of Ampfing. and turn the chrome -red to chrome -yellow. might sometimes conveniently be substituted for the sprinkling . and which has already suffered so much that it is likely to be destroyed before long if it is not protected. not very favourable to fresco -painting. . and must therefore be avoided. in order to remove the thin coating of carbonate of lime which has formed upon the surface. the Bavarian. and detach them from their underground. however. as is well known.

there- fore not much exposed to bad weather. be protected from further decay. it will no doubt be improved. the latter to fill up cracks and cavities. It must be left to the judgment of the renovator as to what course ought to be pursued with regard to the injured painting. and whether parts of the plaster have become detached. nevertheless. Although the picture may not be restored to its original perfection. Once taken up by others. which then have to be painted over again by the artist. and suffi- ciently elevated to be protected from the moisture and saline matter of the soil. . And is there no guarding against the destruction of this work of art ? It is important to ascertain how far the decay has been allowed to go on : whether it is merely superficial. being painted on the east side of the gate. and saved from final destruction. I can only say so much. and promises many advantages which may have been over- looked. Stereochromy is but a child of late birth. and has yet to struggle for its existence. it would. or whether it goes to the very depth whether fissures or cracks exist. 170 MURAL DECORATION. and it must not be supposed that it has already reached the highest degree of perfection. the first to fix the colours and the ground. . that I know of no other remedy but the water-glass and the water- glass mortar .

and have fre- quently been the source of failures. endeavoured to obtain a still better and surer method for preparing the painting- ground. which is subsequently to be impregnated with water-glass. once decided upon. This cement is laid on equally thick over the first plaster coat. or quartz sand mixed with a little dry slaked lime. . as the material. a mortar in which the lime is replaced by water-glass. It possess many considerable advantages over the lime-mortar. WATER-GLASS. mistakes can scarcely be made. I have.e. Its preparation is simple. and I think I have succeeded in obtaining one which answers in every respect.. [The addition of a little lime or white of zinc may also be of advantage when marble or dolomite are used. I propose to prepare the upper coat of nothing but water- glass cement. errors are easily committed. it suffices to state that so much water-glass should be added as to give to the mass the consistency of ordinary mortar. as it ensures a more perfect and powerful combination with the water- glass. properly smoothed and allowed to dry.] The mixture must be very intimately made. 171 The chief attention must be directed to the upper layer of plaster or the painting-ground . The sand to be mixed with it may either be powdered marble or dolomite. in this. and every experienced mason will easily render himself master of it . As to the proper proportions. i. therefore.

so as to ensure equal cementation and silicatization. it exhibits little or no power of absorption. because all the pores are filled up with water-glass. which is easily accounted for. in order to impart to it the proper consistency. During the repeated moistening of the picture no lime will be drawn to the surface and disturb the colours.172 MURAL DECORATION. Lastly. and it becomes necessary to saturate it once or twice with water-glass diluted with half its volume of water. remains always the same. It acquires. but loses considerably in solidity by the contraction of the water-glass. This must be done cautiously. because no soluble lime is left in the mass . becomes as hard as stone. This cement. whereas the other method always leaves it uncertain whether the water-glass will penetrate the upper layer entirely and evenly. The water-glass is equally spread through the whole mass. At first. moreover. when dry. so as not to stop up the pores by employing too much water-glass. especially when the air is warm and dry. which can scarcely be obtained when the water-glass is added at a later stage. no encrustration of carbonate of lime will ever form. and no rubbing with a stone will be required to render the surface absorbent. this property in a satisfactory degree by exposure to the air for a few days. however. which would . the water- glass is here in immediate contact with the lower substratum and ensures perfect adhesion to the wall.

M. con- sisting of water-glass cement. and is now in the possession of the King of Bavaria. Painting may now be pro- ceeded with in the usual way. the plate was once more thoroughly impregnated with water- glass. was laid on and well smoothed. Painting upon this ground proceeds so well that M. &C. it is a sign that the plaster has set well. Echter assures me he could not wish for a better one. a painting- ground of one-tenth of an inch in thickness. to which water-glass was added so as to produce a mass of the usual plaster consistency. After saturating the plate with water-glass. remedy the evil. and the work promises well. 173 obstruct the painting considerably. 1 1 This picture has since been successfully finished. The water-glass cement employed for this plate was made of pulverized dolomite (from which the finest powder had been removed by means of a fine sieve) and a little dry slaked lime. [The burning of spirits of wine on the surface would.] If carbonate of soda effloresces on the surface. Echter is at present engaged upon executing an easel-piece on a layer of water-glass cement. The efflorescence can easily be removed by means of a wet sponge. diluted with its own volume of water. He uses a plate of burnt potter's clay. and the ground will then be found harder than before. no doubt. WATER-GLASS. three feet four inches high and three feet wide and half an inch thick. When dry. and may be .

" I have already mentioned the service which water-glass is capable 1 of rendering to hydraulic cements. consists in the application of water-glass solution after the cement has slightly contracted. The artist has chosen for his subject the Madonna della Sedia. and since we have it in our power to prepare it most successfully." . Small pieces put into a very dilute solution of water-glass became in two or three days so hard that they could no longer be scratched with the finger-nail. water has no longer any effect upon it. especially as it seems to be difficult to obtain it of uniform composition. one part of solid water-glass is sufficient for fifteen parts of hydraulic lime . therefore. and imparting to it considerable hardness.174 MURAL DECORATION. in which the lime sets sooner than in the hydraulic cement. "When the water-glass has been brushed over its surface. and the result will therefore always be doubtful. on " Chalk and Cements. remained perfectly clear. It becomes coated with a hard crust. seen on a wall in the Royal Winter Garden. by Raffael. In my pam- phlet. Feichtinger. — In page 49 of that pamphlet I said " A very good 1 method of protecting this or any other hydraulic cement from decay. because with a little water-glass. it forms a mass of considerable hardness and great absorbing power. The liquid. generally rendered cloudy by dissolved lime. A method so in- expensive might. But since water- glass cement responds to every application to which it can possibly be put. Hydraulic lime has also been recommended as a suitable substratum for painting. amount would be a larger rather injurious than otherwise. find more frequent application. I have ab- stained from experimenting further upon the hydraulic lime. According to the experiments of M. behind which the lime and the cement quietly continue their mutual action.

It will. suitable for paint- ing. The plates should not be thicker than three -fourths of an inch and not too much burned. which ensures more readily a flat and equally coarse surface. Should they lose their absorbing power by the addition of too much water-glass. so that they may absorb well. The further treatment is self-evident. but not smooth. after being sufficiently saturated with water-glass. they have only to be warmed for some time. by burning spirits of wine on them. Frequent saturation with double water-glass.. &c. diluted with half its volume of water. 175 It has already been stated that stereochromy may be applied to a variety of subtrata. ornaments. can be painted upon directly or indirectly. When moderately burnt. Objects made of burnt clay. especially to the meagre ones. . Their surface should be flat. such as figures. and that even stereochromic easel-pictures can be success- fully executed. be well to givethem first a slight coating of water-glass cement. stoves of clay. how- ever. plates of clay. If it is required immediately to paint upon such a ground. imparts to them a solidity such as strong burning could not do. vessels of potter's clay. e. g. Easel-pieces of considerable size may be painted upon plates of clay. so as to ensure good absorption. WATER-GLASS. The only limit to their size is the difficulty of managing plates of great weight. it is well to add a little fixing water- glass to the colours.

In order to convince myself of its feasibility. thus offering to art a means of embellishing our rooms and awaking the sense for the beautiful. viz. Attention would. the colours began to loosen. to impart to our stoves. however. which was first sufficiently saturated with water- glass. I would draw attention to an application which might be made of water-glass. After the stove had been heated several times.. The colours stood very well for two winters. can likewise be painted. and finally fixed.176 MURAL DECORATION. and I should have done better by saturating the tile repeatedly with water-glass and heating it. and a new one of the same clay put in. and they adhered so firmly that . and then painted with band-like streaks of various colours mixed with a little water-glass. goblets. which are generally made of burnt clay (Dutch tiles). and this fixing process had to be repeated several times. It is evident that heat increases the contraction of the water-glass. I had a tile taken out of the stove of my labora- tory. have to be paid to the quality of clay which is used for such vessels. vases. in spite of being daily exposed to a strong heat. and I would advise complete saturation in any fresh experiment which may be made. and would gain considerably in beauty and durability. a more agreeable appearance. &c. in order to impart to it the greatest possible quantity of water-glass . and they had again to be fixed.

in order to ensure x . he ordered the cast-iron stoves in his offices to be painted on the flat parts with so-called caput mortuum. especially to the temperature which the water-glass itself possesses. It is very important that the water-glass should soak in evenly and deeply. it falls off when the stove is heated. upon which the colours are still preserved undimmed. Director of the Telegraph Office at Munich. This leads me to draw particular attention to the temperature at which the fixing of the painting- ground and of the stereochromic picture is per- formed. no doubt. so that the water-glass penetrates better. but that it adheres well if applied while the iron feels warm to the touch. made an end to all further observations by accidentally breaking the tile in pieces. WATER-GLASS. with zinc-white. has shown that cast iron may success- fully be painted stereochromically. The stoker. Herr von Dyk made the interesting observation. such as frames and decorations. the air being slightly rarefied or partly displaced. The paint has stood well up to the present time. in the pores of the iron being somewhat more open at a slightly raised temperature. that if the colour is applied while the iron is cold. however. Herr von Dyk. The cause of this difference lies. and on the raised parts. 177 they could only be detached with great difficult)'. At the instance of Professor Pettenkofer.


everywhere equal and strong cementation. For
this reason the water-glass ought to be diluted
with water. Like other fluids, it is rendered much
more liquid when heated — say to between 100° and
120°, and penetrates therefore more readily into
any porous mass, by displacing more easily the air

than it would do at the common temperature.
Heat produces in this instance the same effect as
dilution could produce at the common temperature,
and renders it much more suitable for fixing colours
upon porous objects. This action of the heat will
be the more perceptible if the objects themselves,
as well as the water-glass, are slightly heated, so
that, with care and attention, a solidity and dura-
bility may be obtained, such as mosaic works only
If a syringe be employed for fixing the water-
glass, it is most conveniently warmed by plunging
it into warm water. Mural surfaces which have
to be fixed with water-glass are best heated by
burning alcohol on them, which process, however,
can only be resorted to when the colours, which
adhere but loosely, have once been fixed with
water-glass in the usual way.
The rooms in which the fixing process has to be
carried on ought evidently to be kept warm during
this operation.

Plates of lithographic limestone may likewise be
used as a ground for stereochromic pictures ; the
first trials in stereochromic painting were, in fact,


confined to such stones. They require, however,

to be coated with a thin layer of water-glass
cement mixed with somewhat coarse sand, in order

to ensure the adhesion of the painting-ground.
When the cement is quite dry, the upper coat is

put on, and painting may be proceeded with.
If the lithographic stone is treated with phos-
phoric acid, it takes the colours well which are
mixed with water-glass ; it is therefore probable
that in that state they may serve for stereochromic
painting without any further preparation.
There is no doubt that plates of clay-slate can
be painted upon stereochromically, after having
received the proper preparation. This material
has the advantage over clay or limestone plates,
that it is less brittle, and need not, therefore, be
so thick. made no experiment with
I have as yet
Porous sandstone and porous limestone, when
well saturated with water-glass, must likewise
furnish a good ground for stereochromic painting
either directly or indirectly ; there is at least no
reason why they should not.
No stereochromic painting has as yet been
directly executed upon wood. The water-glass,
mixed with colours, has, however, been success-
fully employed for staining wood. When wood
Paintings upon stone plates can be placed in walls in such

a manner as to make them appear to form part of the wall.
Once well fitted in, they are ensured against all accidents, and
yet may easily be removed when a change of residence be-
comes necessary.


has been properly saturated with water-glass, the
water-glass cement adheres well to it, and upon a
thin layer of this cement a picture might of course
he executed. In many instances this method may
prove very useful.
It remains doubtful at present whether a trans-
parent stereochromic painting can be executed
upon glass. There is, however, no difficulty to

paint indirectly upon glass, if ever it should be
thought advantageous, since water-glass cement,
upon which the painting would have to be done,
binds exceedingly well with glass.
It would be very desirable to employ such a
light and flexible material as canvas as a ground
for stereochromic painting, because easel-pictures
of some extent, such as altar-pieces, could then
readily be painted. Several experiments have
been made which have not yet led to satisfactory
results ; they are, however, being continued.
I have to make a few more remarks with regard
to the colours which may be employed in stereo-
chromy. Their number is so great that the new
kind of painting is not restricted in their use.
M. Ch. Buclmer, manufacturer of chemical pro-
ducts at Munich (Karlstrasse, No. 40), constantly
keeps a complete assortment of them in store.

They are :

1. Munich white. 4. Chrome green.
2. Munich black. 5. Cobalt green, light and
3. Munich brown. dark.



.;. Chrome red. lU. Ultramarine.
Hark ochre, the earne
7. Oxide of iron, bright red, 11,
reddish brown, violet, mi.
brown. 12. Flesh ochre.

8 Cadmium yellow, light 13. Gold ochre, *itto burnt.
and dark/ 14. Terra di Siena.
15. Umber, ditto burnt.
9. Chrome yellow.

No organic colour, such as lake, is

will sooner or later be found to fade.
because it

Vermilion must also be rejected, because,
exposed to the light, it darkens, and
turns black.
The ought to be ground as finely as
thereby more
possible, because they are rendered
manageable and more adhesive. Chrome red
alone forms an exception, because
grinding turns it yellow.
after fixing,
Cobalt blue shows a brighter blue
becomes darker.
ochre These two
and light

colours cannot, therefore, be
recommended for this
kind of painting.
fixing process
It must be remarked that the
colours of the
produces slight changes in all the
of a somewhat
painting, which appears afterwards
darker or more sombre hue but after some time

this effect disappears again.
The colours ought to be as pure as ;

contain anything
they ought especially not- to
which reacts upon the water-glass and produces a
to coagulate, such as
decomposition, or causes it

gypsum or sulphuric acid, which are


met with in red oxide of iron (kolkothar caput
mortmain), and in yellow ochre.
I cannot close this article without saying a few
w ords with
regard to the peculiarities, the con-
venience and advantage which this method of
painting promises in comparison with fresco-

painting and the so-called encaustic.
Its peculiarity consists in an entirely new vehi-
cle, differing from those employed in every other
method of painting, so that stereochromy must be
looked upon as quite a new method of painting. The
excellence of this method depends on the substra-
tum of the picture, which enables it to resist the

action of every climate, as well as the destructive
influences of smoke, acid vapours, quick changes
of temperature, hail, &c, which would destroy
frescoes. I have, therefore, called it stereochromij.

The new vehicle holds the painting-ground and
the colours, as it w ere,
fused together, silicated or
petrified, forming the material distinction of this
kind of painting, and rendering it far superior to

fresco- painting with its ordinary ground of lime-
The durability of fresco-paintings depends
chiefly upon this mortar, even more than upon the
skill of the painter, who is usually blamed when
his work does not succeed, or lasts only a short
time. The ruin of a fresco-painting is, in my
opinion, always caused by errors committed in the
preparation of the mortar ; the only error almost


which the painter can commit is the choice of
colours which fade, or become discoloured in the
course of time. Cornelius, when executing the
frescoes in the Glyptothek, at Munich, met
with several difficulties of this kind, and he was
accused of not understanding fresco-painting.
When I was called upon to report upon the case,
I found that the plaster was rotten, and contained
much sulphate of magnesia or bitter salt. I
ordered this ground to be entirely removed, and to
be replaced by a new one, prepared with washed
sand and distilled water. No further complaint
was made, and the paintings have stood very well.

Much depends, also, upon the lime used in the
mortar. If slaked and kept moist for some time,
it answers better than freshly slaked lime ; if poor
it acts better than rich ; lime containing magnesia,
oxide of iron, or manganese, is better than pure
Encaustic painting has two enemies ; the mor-
tar ground and the organic materials used for

painting, which are subjected to the natural laws
of decay and decomposition.
In more southern countries, as in Italy, fresco-
paintings withstand, no doubt, longer the ravages
of time than in northern climates ; they are, how-
ever, exempt from destruction,
not quite as is

proved by Raffael's frescoes in the Loggie of the

The preceding remarks are very important to fresco-
painters.— W. C. T.

has been preserved well. it certainly looked as if it had been completely spoiled . had scarcely any damaging effect upon the picture. whilst fresco - paintings treated in the same manner became quite friable. It deserves to be noticed. during this rather long period of time. A further proof of the durability of strrco- chromic paintings will be found in the two pic- . smoke and soot. the ice which had formed upon them was allowed to thaw in a warm room. upon being washed with spirits of wine. they were exposed for weeks to rain and frost . and it has been found necessary to take precautions to prevent the further spreading of the destructive action. proof-plates were submitted to the roughest treat- ment. and this freezing and thawing process was repeated without in the slightest degree damaging the plates. that the damp and the efflorescence of the wall. Vatican. which are said to have suffered consider- ably . A small stereochromic picture was exposed on the roof of the Royal Museum at Berlin. When taken down in spring. and covered with shrubs in summer. for a whole severe winter. near the chimney. close to the ground. but. it was found to be as fresh as it ever had been. although the wall is thoroughly damp. to the action of wet and cold. and crumbled to pieces.184 MURAL DECORATION. A small picture (two peacocks) on the west side of Herr von Kaulbach's atelier. In order to test the advantages of stereochromy.

. and that the observer can get a full view of a picture in whatever position he may be. The finest colouring. 185 tures of the country house of M. Stereochromy possesses that advantage which fresco-painting also has over oil-painting. and. and dashes the rain upon the walls with such force that it runs down in streams. whilst fresco -painting makes him a slave of the latter. which often sweeps from the west over the lake close by. on the Lake of Starnberg. the greatest perfection of a painting are in his power. Stereochromy offers considerable advantages to the artist . the slightest touch of light and shade. consecmently. I have given a description of the principles upon which stereochromy is based. and are still as fresh and unchanged as if they had just come from the hand of the artist. They are now six years old. that this one in- vestigation has cost me more time and labour. and I cannot help remarking. painting is quite in his power. He is able to interrupt his work and continue it again after a shorter or longer time . WATER-GLASS. in spite of storm and weather. forming sometimes crusts of ice in winter. to which I have already re- ferred. as well as the material. Himbsel. he can retouch his painting before fixing it as often as he thinks it desirable. that the colours are not shining. in conclusion. the harmony of colours.

than most of my other investigations put together. who never deceived others. I thank God. was not deceived in this presenti- ment.] x 1 Death has put an end to the labours of the learned philo- sopher. published in the March number of (he . 20th. 1855.'!. and its application. and he. Nov. But. He died eighty-two years old.186 MURAL DECORATION. Two of his pupils and friends have shown what Fuchs did for his country and for science — Professor Dr. von Kobell. . To the Giver of all good be thanks for all joys and sufferings experienced ! May His blessing be upon the work ! Omnia ad majorem Dei honorem et gioriam ! Munich. before all. on the 5th of March. so far that others may build upon the foundation I have laid. [A continuation of the various other applica- tions of the water-glass will soon follow. who graciously allowed His weak and aged servant to finish the preceding investi- gation of the water-glass. Pettenkofer. I rian Academy of Science. 1856. many of them assisted me materially in my diffi- culties. and I offer them my deep-felt gratitude at the conclusion of my labours. . Several of my friends could testify to the same . together with considerable outlays and expenses. in a commemorative oration delivered on the 25th of March. Fuchs had a presentiment of his approaching death when he wrote the above concluding lines. Dr. 1856. in a necrology.Journal of bhe Society of Arts and Manufacture of the Kingdom of Bavaria. Kaiser. the anniversary of the foundation of lie Royal bava. and the reader will not see the promised continuation. and Professor Dr. and rarely himself.

In order to explain by what conditions.. it will be necessary to bring here under comparison the leading features of both processes so as to estimate fully their respective merits. I became anxiously mindful of the many and various difficulties to be encountered. and owing to what results. Esq. which. on the " Water -Glass " or " Stereochrome " Method of Pa in ting.. My attention was directed to the new art of stereochromy. at the time when. . R. as successfully applied to mural decoration. and these seemed almost sufficient to dissuade me from the undertaking. such as they are. In preparing to effect this. Of those difficulties. 1 Being required to describe the nietliod of Stereochromy. APPENDIX. I was about to engage in the task of reproducing the picture in fresco. I. chemically as well as artistically. and to state my opinion of that process as adapted for mural or monumental painting. stereochromy is to be regarded as better fitted for the execution of mural painting than fresco.A. now that my daily practical experience confirms me in the belief that this process can supply to the artist a ready means for realizing some principal objects of his desire. having completed my cartoon illustrative of the meeting of Wellington and Blucher on the field of Waterloo after the victory. the fresco- painter of modern times is painfully aware. and so likewise 1 Fide Twelfth Report of the Commissi oners on the Fine Arts. I attempt the fulfilment of this duty the more willingly. hitherto. Report by Daniel Maclise. he could not equally attain even at the cost of much labour and anxiety.

Glass (soluble alkaline 1 A very small portion of these details could only be painted on the fresli-iaid plaster each day in the old 'fresco-process. that he ever inclines to adopt any other process. entitled ''On the Manufacture. Properties. his feeling aspiration subdued by the dishearten- in o. that the fresco-process is now carried oat in the same manner as it has ever been the artist — beino. The truthful delineation of a multiplicity of characteristic details 1 being necessarily required for my subject. the obstacles to be overcome are still in such obstructive force as to be posi- tively repellent to the artist. beyond question. might seem so neces- sary to be observed that any error would be judged as a culp- able anachronism — the reason will be very obvious why I despaired of being enabled to finish in fresco that particular subject above all others. and. therefore. and. since. And. doubtful as to their effect. with no small of satisfaction. and stereo- chromy means for expressing the offering the ready practical qualities I wished. a button. and colour of a buckle. or a tassel. and however simple in its design it may appear.iter. while working with these. whatever be the style of subject to be treated in fresco. considering the nature of the subject which had been — allotted to myself a subject illustrative of an event within the memory of many. and Application of W. that it would not be possible to gel a mason t>> execute them while the ground turn painting in Btereochromy is laid all at once. would neceE Bitate innumerable joinings of the plaster. must have been the greatest masters of that ancient art — for it appears. . the stereochromic method from the hopeful promises it held out. in the progress of the work. conviction that his art is the slave of his means . and give rise to such complicated and minute cuttings. therefore. and the work ean be left and resumed at pleasure. material.188 APPENDIX. was fortunate in being furnished with I a copy of a publication on the nature of that art (translated and issued for private circulation by direction of His Royal Highness the Prince Consort). It is not to be wondered at.confined within the limits of the applicability of very scant materials. and witnessed by not a few to whom the veracity of details even in respect to the form. and why I amount hailed.

how- plished. of either Nevertheless. rendering wholly unfit to effect the desiderata of fixity and it state of watery glass. the necessary pigments were severally mixed in for the a dilute solution of that liquor and with them so . Von Fuchs. rock crystal. with an alkali. which was to serveas a picture. petrifying the cause of its stiffening the brush. as authority it was a fact and the fluidity of ." 1 On perusing this pamphlet with that fixed attention which accompanies an interesting curiosity to abridge to know the value of a new discovery calculated the manual labour of the mural painting. L89 silicate). thinking that (while the realization state was in truth a triumph of the past mental labours of the philosopher) the purpose which water-glass was intended to serve might be effected in a very simple manner by any one. I tried to paint a simple figure. while the substance called water-glass. flint. Quartz. even by the most rapid ever. Having procured a bottle ground tabled unprepared milled-board. was still no less a cause for wonder than the state of stony water seemed impossible. The even while I was looking at it. and the various species of sand were only known to me by their sensible pro- perties. The result. indelibility for a painting on a wall. not comprehend the nature of. such as it was. that hope. never having seen it. including a Process of Stereochromic Painting. appeared to me a state of such matter potash. prepared for my first essay in stereochromy. be- and. painting could be accom- contents of the palette before the execution.truths are conveyed might have reason- ably anticipated. . almost from the first. APPENDIX. I. as it were. when. it of being used in became evident that the vehicle did not admit of varnish or mixture with the colours in the manner oil. artist in respect to I was destined to feel all the disappointment which one so little acquainted as myself with chemical facts and the nomencla- ture in which those . left no doubt as to the efficiency of the i Already given at full length. John N. I could A flint in fluid form was to a mystery. by Dr. such as having been effected by combination soda. in and a of the concentrated water-glass. dissolved. even though I was told on good me a flinty mass. or lime.

while all the rest — — the greater portion of it allowed of being disturbed by touch. it having been smoothly trowelled. a figure was painted in colours mixed with water-glass in a state of much weaker solution than that which was first used and the result proved that. On this finished superstratum appearing sufficiently dried and manifesting the requisite amount of absorbency. while the . were spread two coatings of mortar. and consisting of sand and lime in the proportion of one of the latter to two of the former. perhaps. it was reasonable to infer that the failure was due partly to its over-diluted state. The appearance which this picture presented after the lapse of a few weeks was still less satisfactory some por- . That these were the causes of failure the pamphlet.190 APPENDIX. secured the greater portion of the picture. which. also to the ground not being absorbent enough. when this had become thoroughly dry. and I gathered . on reperusal of it. an intonaco was spread. and especially so where the surplus fluid had run down over the surface. and the groundwork could be readily laid bare by a wet sponge. But though this trial of the fixing qualities of the fluid did not quite answer expectation. An attempt made to fix this painting by passing over its surface water- glass. n-iinent I resolved to test its assumed virtues in a mode that would more nearly resemble the conditions under Avhich I would have to paint in the compartment in the Royal Gallery as to — the materials of lath. fluid. was easily removable. ground of mortar. a small barred with laths. . fluid admitted of the painting being executed with more facility than in the former trial. in respect to its binding and fixing properties . one-tenth of an inch in thickness. Tn the next exp which I tried with the water-glass. plaster. On wooden frame. however. tions of it seeming to be discoloured. diluted with two parts water. on becoming quite dry. &c. showed that only a few parts of it were set. made with the ingredients recommended as proper for the fresco- works of the Palace at Westminster over the first rough . yet this was at the expense of the fixing qualities for the painting. but after a short time an efflorescence appeared on the dark hues. assured me. and. for the colours as laid on the tablet could not be expunged.

These works appeared to afford marked evidence of the success of the process —a sixth work to complete the series of the larger set is in contemplation . I would have felt on the whole not very sanguine in regard to the promise held forth by the author of the stereo- chromic method. who were also executing in the same style a series of designs under the portico of the same museum. where I afterwards saw it. painted in stereo- chromy. with more or less suc- cess. After making a c siderable number of such experiments. at least where its practice was said to be perfected in the new — museum at Berlin. APPENDIX. as I could not imagine how this condition was . while the concentrated water-el did not admit of stereochroinic application. his pupils Echter and Muhr. is to be viewed in perfection how . owing to faulty mani- : pulation. transcendantly imposing are the results when the two arts are harmoniously combined. by Kaulbach. With this object in view. painted also in the new material. I was much surprised at the excessive degree of surface-coarse- ness. frequently caused it to be abandoned before it had been put to a fair test." On this assurance I deferred any further trials until I could witness with what results the new method had been attended. I visited Berlin in the autumn of last year. but that by the following remark he removed my doubts in some degree — " Failures. On approaching those paintings to examine their (so to speak) structural qualities. the more dilated i' was. and with the assistance of others. indeed. and there I had the opportunity of closely inspecting five large and otherwise notable subjects. the more frequently its use became necessary in that state in order to ensure its desired effects. if not in the city of its discovery. and for this the cartoon is pre- pared. and owing their per- manency to having been impregnated with water-glass. I'M from the circumstance that. Between the larger com- positions above mentioned. safely be said that they form a embellishments of one of the grandest halls series of the noblest which architecture has as yet dedicated to the development of a kindred art and here too. and. there are collossal allegorical single figures. Of these works it may. being at present in the hall of the new Pinacothek at Munich.

was the answer made to my inquiries in this matter. had become stagnant. recourse was had to what. . the first laid hues of these became modified as by the fusion of tints observable in the rainbow blue passing into purple. and yellow into green. The works at present . in the interstices and the colouring matter. This treatment. and im- parted to the entire surface a fatiguing sameness of execution. did not. Another ill consequence of the roughness oT the ground was the settlement of dust on prominent points. but especially so in the shadowed ones. to the great deterioration of the pictures. evidences of which treatment were visible in all parts. I concluded that its object was an absorbent superficies for taking in to ensure the water-glass with which they had been imbued and such . however. was intrusively observable the washes of transpa- . perhaps towards its completion. is known by the term hatching or handling . does not result necessarily from coarse sand or gravel entering into its Another quality. oil-painting. in artistic phrase. at the time appear to me feasible. from having been so long undisturbed. — 192 APPENDIX. in agreeable conformity with the ob- jects delineated beneath. because of the colours having been laid on in long. red into orange. rent colour which had been passed 'over the work. and as these inequalities serve but as receptacles of the extra- neous matter. being there precipitated. The same causes of the same evil I had previously noted in all the old frescoes of Italy. and. such as the plaster- facing of a wall. transparent lines. the plaster surfaces of which are not uniform planes. necessary to their effect as works of art. and I have since ascertained experimentally that porosity of matter. for such an end. has incorporated itself with the substance of the plaster. gave the unseemly appearance of dark spots between which the calcareous prominences stood out almost wholly bare. as it were. was productive of an effect more pleasing than other- wise it served the purpose for which glazing is adopted in . and this so falsified the artist's intention as to appear incongru- ously light in shadows and vice versd. however. this. and composition. In order to disguise this blemish to the work. one which seemed to me as a consequence of this ruggedness of surface. This re- quirement of coarseness.

so as not to disturb the colours. All necessary colours and brushes being likewise supplied me. and allowed to dry before I commenced. I drops carried offwith them some delicate pencillings. confess that. all needful information as to the process in which they them- selves were engaged under the great portico of the Museum facing: the Lust Garten and as it is in this situation that the . liable to be incurred when the water-glass is being applied by that instrument. I availed myself of the oppor- tunities of my situation at the time to try its effects under their guidance . I had the satisfaction of hearing it pronounced as highly successful when its fixation was accomplished. likewise. I painted a figure. a mode- rately rough plaster tablet. using distilled water as the vehicle for the pig- ments. by too forcible an application of this sprinkler or syringe. I should not omit to say that the tablet had been previously very slightly impregnated with water-glass. Having become satisfied of the efficiency of the stereochro- mic method as practised by others. Director of the Museum. The picture having been completed under these observances. in presence of the artists employed on the Kaulbach designs and they gave me. to this end. and. as well by means of a large brush as by the sprinkler —an instrument constructed specially for this use. some of my work was obliterated. It was begun and completed on the scaffolding. . diluted. as . those qualities which are particularly expected from stereo- chromy as serving for monumental painting their indelibility — was accomplished and their flatted non-reflecting surface secured. and. as he recommended. for the same reason. lest the force of its jet spoil the painting . APPENDIX. 1 03 under notice displayed. by the kind offices of Baron Von Olfers. much caution is required in the use of the sprinkler. . in the greatest perfection. or stage. This essay was made with no diffi- culty. I had prepared for me. and tear. for giving to the colours a certain amount of adhesion but. instanced above. and this risk is. however. however. notwithstanding that it was required to wet the ground frequently with water. enthusiastically. for my purpose. The object for execut- ing the picture on a groundwork kept constantly moist is that of being able to match the tints uniformly.

for in such case I would be decided as to adopting the new process for performing my own projected work in the Palace at Westmin- ster. save that relating to the surface of the plaster-ground. In proof of the efficiency of this plan of operation. an opportunity for further experiment offered . in plain dis- agreement with the recommendation of the discoverer of the new process. that it was on no account necessary to saturate the plaster strata with that fluid in order to fix the painting . over the completed picture. In Munich. such as is approved of for fresco. the architect of the Museum. they pointed to the works so treated in our presence. and which were painted from the designs of Schinkel. artists who seem best conversant with stereochromy (many disregarded both the process and the result) assured me that any remarkable coarseness of surface for the groundwork was by no means an indispensable condition for insuring absorp- tion of the water-glass. and. stereochromic paintings will be exposed to the atmosphere. a want of the material necessary for fixing the colours obliged me to defer that operation." The figures painted on these have been indelibly fixed and the . The information I received from his pupils was repeated confirmatively by Kaulbach himself —when I saw him after- wards in Munich — in all particulars. however. I felt desirous of trying next whether or not a painting might be made with a like result on a smoother plaster . and that this object was sufficiently attainable by using the water-glass. I got prepared on two small tiles a plaster-ground. and he used precisely the . moreover. they will furnish a favourable contrast to the large frescoes situated immediately above them. Encouraged by the success of my effort in stereochromy. sub coelo. they will soon be tried as to the degree of their wea- ther-resisting stability. but with more sand. They stated. This he insisted should present a considerable degree of roughness. and the surface being evenly grained by the method called "floating. On a groundwork of kind I painted a figure with this very great facility : but this trial having been made at Dres- den. accordingly. Should they be found proof in this respect. with judgment. while Cornelius directed their execution.194 APPENDIX.

Pettenkofer and Professor liuchner. APPENDIX. and. as successful results of the smooth style of painting in that process. of Dresden. The artist. Thiersch. according to the taste of the painter. which were at the time being fixed. of a porch in the Garden of Liebig. they painted with colours mixed in distilled water as a vehicle. said that any kind of ground as to qualities. A kind introduction from Schnorr procured for me this opportunity for gaining information and Gruner. Central Gallerie. was never felt and the rule is. not followed. rough and smooth. previously to commencing the painting. Petten- behalf. and. such as are chosen for forming the groundwork for an ordinary fresco. thereby strengthening my belief that porosity. kofer he showed me a specimen of the same kind of work. the Director Zimmermann (Koenigl. Fuchs he recom- mends that both layers of the plaster of the wall. L. are considered to be sound enough in themselves for the stereochromate painting. exerted . after being so prepared. The necessity for this saturation of the wall with water-glass. they referred me to works before my eyes and likewise to two just completed. which evidently is so requisite for sucking in the water-glass. A very rainy week ensued but I found that : these freshly-painted and exposed pictures were not in the least affectedby the weather. was admissible. himself kindly in my In the laboratory of Dr. may and does exist to a sufficient degree in such a plaster. told me that such surface was not any stereo- requisite for chromic reason. The plaster strata (consisting of pure quartz sand and lime in union). should be well dried. . any further than inasmuch as the firmness and integrity of the substrata must conduce to that end. as well as Professor Dr. " but. On this kind of ground I saw the artists in Berlin at work . Munich). Recollecting that in the pamphlet of Dr. when become dry . should be impregnated with water-glass. in opposition to his opinion. on either side .surface as I con- sider is best suited for my purpose. I took care to make inquiries whether these measures were abso- lutely necessary to the stability of the picture. 105 same expression quoted from him by Fucks — " It should feel to the touch like a coarse rasp . therefore. I was assured. These colours.

as to their durability. admits of being re- touched. For these rea- sons Kaulbach regrets that stereochromy was not adopted in painting his designs (illustrating the history of modern German art) on the outer walls of the new Pinacothek. It is on this principle that the works of Kaulbach are rendered indelible and that they will endure . they assert that the works executed in the former method are indestructi- ble either by fire or water . propose to try this experiment on the comparatively modern one painted about 1833 by Neher and Kogel. The artists. as he feels that he might then have been able to exhibit graces which are unattainable by any other means. in itself bears cogent reason for the adoption of that process in preference to fresco . their fixation being left to be effectedby the water-glass when the painting was finished. as far as I could judge. The art of stereochromy being thus enthusiastically recom- mended for the adoption of the painter in preference to that of fresco. and carried out to any degree of finish which may be deemed desirable. and such recommendation being supported by actual proofs of its success in supplying him with a means he has liilhcrto been so much in need of. so the artists have every good reason to believe. bespoke his interest in furthering a knowledge of the discovery) in praise of stereochromy. representing the return of the Emperor Lewis from his victory over Frederic the Handsome of Austria. As a triumph of stereochromy over ordinary fresco-painting. the picture. and pupil of Dr. now very much decayed. and. on the Isar Thor. desiring an opportunity for imparting to the old frescoes the virtues of the water-glass. dying.196 APPENDIX. will necessitate great interference with the painting. I found to be readily disturbed by touch. even after having been fixed. but this. on the wall. Fuchs. I am sure the experiment can only prove a success by first carefully restoring the crumbling ground . One of the last observations made to me by Professor Pet- tenkofer (the eminent chemist. These pictures are now much damaged. who. speci- mens are referred to which have existed for twenty years without exhibiting one symptom of decay. it cannot but follow that he .

a similar result cannot be obtained for the stereochrornic painting because of the inadmissibility or rather practicable impossibility of subjecting the Avail to the influence of fire. the silica in it becomes fused by heat. and because this substance being capable of fusion at a certain degree of temperature. in both materials the sub- stance called silica exists . The fixation of the pigments by water- glass. It is. . therefore. while the art of fresco is not assimilated to either. and this is painted upon directly where it lies at the surface. except in a very remote degree. even though. or alkali. that the art of stereo- chromy mainly depends. the plaster wall is to the stereochromic painter . This art is new to mural painting. can in that state be infused into the wall through its facial painting. I have formed the opinion. while cooling down to a state of solidity. and so render the latter fixed. In both these operations it is owing to the presence of silica (quartz) in the materials of the ground- work that the painting can be rendered permanently indis- soluble. the matter of the colours laid in contact with itself. APPENDIX. I would say that what the slab or other form of potter's clay is to the ceramic painter. but the chemical fact is of long standing. in the process of baking the article of pottery. involves. he has to stoop from the region of fancy to the underlying domain of science. rendered soluble by boiling it with an such as potash. appears due to much the same cir- cumstance as that whereby the fixity of colours on an article of pottery is effected. to satisfy this sentiment. If such were conveniently possible. Without presuming to explain the process of stereochromy more exactly than what my limited knowledge of the chemical facts will allow me. lime. From what information I have gathered by aid of books and conversation. on a plaster wall. the result would of course be the same. and at the time the pigments become incorporated with silica. and all together afterwards set fixedly on cooling. upon the happy discovery that silica. that between the stereochromic and the ceramic arts there exists a close analogy. soda. Soluble alkaline silicate (water-glass) is but ordinary glass in a different form. 11)7 should feel inquisitive about the nature of the process itself. But while.

Hence seems reasonable to sup- it pose that the application of stereochromy to the preservation of ancient frescoes is but little likely to have this effect. commingling with them. It would appear. therefore. as we find it does if not well cared for. sand. . it becomes in time impenetrable even by simple water. in itself (as the chemist attests). and consequently the artist's work is more liable to fall with the wreck of chance or time. is silica the alkali (soda. that between the plaster and the soluble glass there subsists a natural appetency. potash. by the careless use of the water-glass for such a purpose. and. hardened into a superficial pellicle. while those of the plaster only hold together united by virtue of the common law of cohesive attraction. and gives its own consistency to them. The fixation of the pigments in fresco is simply due to the circumstance that the painter. the very plaster covering on which the painting is to be made and set is. and drinks into all its multitudinous pores its vitreous bever- age. The one is desired by the other the plaster thirsts. such as the water-glass. as at the close of a day's work. . disturbs a certain portion of 1 the lime. Quartz sand. and in the same proportions. in chemical . Avhile. formed of quartz. or very nearly so . therefore the plaster. Both are compounds of the same materials. in brushing his colours on the wet plaster. at the same time. a similar compound. The similar matters cohere as things physically suited for union.198 APPENDIX. the only difference between them being due to a chemical union of the ingredients of the glass. in fact. a danger to the pictures is incurred if that fluid be suffered to remain on the surface. union with quartz. and con- sequently must prove so against any fluid of greater consistency. becomes. but then it is less secure. is of the same matter as glass. represents glass . or lime). but one in a different state. and lime. The process of fresco-painting is conducted according to natural conditions of matter which are more evanescent. since by exposure 1 The fixation of colour can be effected when this disturbance is very slight. and therefore will endure. which. which forms the base of the plaster. and upon this fact the art of stereochromy is based. This pellicle of painted carbonate of lime is non-absorbent . by union with the carbonic acid of the atmosphere.

in regard to the painted work. Of this fact I have satisfied myself by making sections of fresco. from being oversaturated with the water-gl. but simply to enter the porous mouths of microscopic canals by the law known as " capillary attraction. for the result. its deserts. The same untoward effect will take place on the stereochromic surface if this. 199 to atmospheric influence it decomposes. Upon the know- ledge of this depends the confidence we may entertain. claims a very extended inquiry into. that certain appearances should strike us as being of no greater moment than they deserve to be accounted. though it is true that the pigments do not pene- trate this. APPENDIX. and turns opaque. It matters not. does suffer chemical disintegration by reason of the silica having a freater affinity for lime than for either the soda or the potash ." In these canals it undergoes a petrifaction or vitreous solidification . it unites with the lime of the plaster —forming a silicate of lime. is understood to take place between the water- glass and the painted plaster on the wall. and in this manner imparts greater density to the plaster and coherency to the particles of pigment through which it primarily passes. The pigments proper for stereochromic painting are of the same number and kind as those found admissible for fresco- . and of ceramic paintings and no doubt it happens by reason of the circum- . I would add a few remarks in reference to the combinative action which. By others it is believed that the water-glass. the plaster. of stereochromic. after being ab- sorbed. is the same its fixation is accomplished by cementation with . as the water-glass does. but remain as a scum or pellicle on the surface. which hypothesis is the more worthy of credit. and that. The water-glass on being absorbed by the plaster is con- sideredby some to undergo no chemical change. as I am informed. and a full recognition of. stance that the particles of pigment are severally of larger dimensions than the pores of the substratum of plaster will admit to enter them. in giving up the latter. however. bears out the surplus quantity of that liquor. Before concluding this brief notice of a subject which. from its importance to the artist.

but the oil or water-colour painter never sees the colour in its simple hue unsustained by. seems to impart to them a translu- cency not their own originally. and I have reason to believe it would present some difficulty to the painter. deeper tone by admixture with a vehicle. they assume a lighter. All colours what- ever are rendered of richer. He recom- mended me to see it. 1859. whether actual decomposition takes place or not by the action of the lime on every kind of organic colour. By the favour of the director. such as they present to the eye when in their dry powdered form. I had an opportunity of inspecting this picture. what is considered to be a fading of these colours is only due to a resumption of their original hues.200 APPENDIX. However this may be. I have found reason to believe that. whether animal or vegetable. Avhich. or if in a degree their own. as well as a new kind of ground. and without the enrichment of. richer tinge. on the contrary. Those which are of the organic class. December. Daniel Maclise. of Munich. especially when wet. and when either of these fluids becomes dissipated by evaporation or otherwise. are said to fade from decomposition when brought in contact with the lime of the plaster but for my . in the clois- ters of the Dominican monastery at Nuremberg. might not be suitablo . fainter tint. in consequence of the dark nature of the plaster. part. Baron von Aufsess. Herr Kaulbach has just completed a stereochromic painting of large dimensions in the month of August last. varnish. as he had been trying some few novelties in the process of painting. as is well known to the fresco-painter. It is the only instance as yet in which this cement has been employed for this style of painting. It has been executed on a ground of Portland cement and sand. such as is highly recommended by Professor Pettenkofer. or simple water. if I except a trial made with it myself. be this oil. oils and gums. but. in most instances. it has the enhancing effect of the shower on the rose dyeing — its native hue of a deeper. painting. it appears that the water- glass does not affect them in such wise to any appreciable extent.

carelessly. with a large flat water- colour brush . This specimen having been thinly painted. 201 for a subject requiring a light scale of colour. water freely . In one spot I wished to restore the ground after I had coloured it. this upper stratum has been hand-floated somewhat roughly. the painting is now perfectly fixed. that I could remove the colour. use a stiff" hog-hair brush to rewet what I had painted without risk of displacing the colour. I then again wetted an adjoining piece. or in any degree injuring what I had finished. and while it was wet I began the figure. The picture is painted on a tablet formed of laths covered with three coatings of mortar . My object has been to make this surface. this solution having been twice applied. as the sub- ject was one of gloom. and. The latest experiment I have made in stereochromy has proved the most successful. and the light of the picture artificial. finishing as I progressed. and as yet it remains without any apparent deteriora- tion. and so on to the end. a solution of water-glass was formed of 2 parts water and 1 of the concentrated liquor imported from Berlin. Before I commenced painting on it I wetted it over with a solution of lime-water. to resemble as closely as possible the large panel in the Royal Gallery. and only by frequent and for- cible use of a stiff brush and a sponge. When quite dry next day. I could see the effect of the portion I had completed. In the mode of working I found I could freely. of 1 part lime to 3 fine siliceous sand. and it was with some difficulty. the intonaco l-10th inch in thickness. and still in half an hour the ground having become dry. the two under-coatings of lime and river-sand consisted of 1 part lime to 3 of sand. so that it might fairly serve in regard to the process I shall have to adopt there. but for the work now noticed. it appeared to answer very well. such as is used by the artists in the New Palace at Westminster . I have also to remark that in this case the water-glass for fixing the picture had been freely passed over it. and the whole composition of the tablet. APPENDIX. and I may further add that I have tried to use in its full force crimson lake (said to be particularly perish- able).

A. 1. a. by which the valve C closes the air-holes in B. b. b. A. 1. piston. through a. C. I note these three conditions to be principal among the causes of the suc- cess of the experiment. fills this provision the retraction of B+ would cause the water E to rise into the barrel retrograding. On the piston being retracted from B to B-t-. and the body of the cylinder. F. E. head of water. glass bottle containing the fluid which under pressure of the is compressed air in front of B. B. vertical tube in which the fluid ascends with a force equal to that of the downward pressure of the air on the surface of the fluid through I. D. else the piston B could not be driven forward. through the neck of the bottle I. opens the air- holes b. which increase or diminish the flow) so that the fluid becomes jetted forth in a continuous stream as long as the pressure is exercised. Section. used. Water-glass Sprinkler. A. separating from B+ . and the ground rendered very per- forated and fitting into the nozzle H of the cylinder. a. so that B compresses the air in front of itself. and then the external air rushing in the piston. a.202 APPENDIX. Fig. valve and rod driven forward. the valve C+ . Fig. interior of cylindrical barrel accessible to air through the air-holes a. . while the external air is entering the barrel behind B through the holes a. which is also correspondingly perforated (and is acted upon by two screws K. But for b. G.

and when fixed. is extremely absorbent. and at best looks only dry. if attempted by loading the pigment. when spreading the ground. even in oil-painting. In both. It would appear to be a quality more allied to modelling than painting. Tracing over a red or black paper on the wall can scarcely be effected when the plaster ground rough is when smooth : the line effected is clear. I do not find that the hardened surface of the plaster wall (carbonate of lime) pre- vents either the colours from being sucked instantly dry. it is apt to fall away. or the water-glass from being imbibed.) can hardly be reached. appears many degrees darker than when first painted. where the sustaining nature of the vehicle se- cures for it an unctuous charm. however. arising from unequal distribution of sand with the lime. and exhibits every variety of bad plastering. be painted on and fixed again. the wall in question has been unfortunately pre- pared carelessly. The quality of " impasto " (not now much in favour. either in fresco or stereochromy. without any sand being mixed with it. and can be very easily made by the stylus. or rather it can . The extremely absorbent ground procured by rough plaster- ing does not appear to be so essential as I first supposed for the imbibing and setting of the painting by the water-glass. If. 203 Notes added after the Practice of Stereochromic Painting of a Year and a Half. even where the wall is smoothest . it would be safer to have it secured for him by the plasterer. Painting fixed by water-glass can. the painter should deem the raised surface of the impasto desirable. A ground of Portland cement. APPENDIX. Solid painting is very easily attainable. if necessary for alteration. The execution of the paint- ing is rendered difficult in consequence of the wet colour being instantly sucked dry from the painting-brush. Discoloration is here and there very apparent over the whole surface of the wall. but otherwise seems not to have any bad effect. yet a painting on it is very difficult to fix. After the lapse of a year and a half.

vitiated public taste. and by endeavouring to finish the portion at one painting. such as having a smooth Bpoi an area of rougher trowelling. while the contemplation of works em- browned by repeated varnishings has. If a uniform tint were required. is always selected for praise in preference to another painted in the same hues but of flatted surface. the uniformity of tint in could not be effected. in a certain degree. that such quality alone will secure admiration. In such case the picture should be painted of a lighter tone. which will. is attained very easily in stereochromy. How- ever. and gain for a picture the praise of fine colour. "Water-glass. achieved by passing transparent colour over a roughened ground. for even transparent colour in stereo- cliromy assumes a somewhat opaque and solid appearance. and the plas- tering treated in an unequal way. and consequently darken it. some approach to this effect may be arrived at by keep- ing the white ground pure. so as that the colour shall remain in the interstices. The granulated or ingrained surface. and both sur- . scarcely be avoided. I notice that one of my early experiments in stereochromy. I notice when the wall is unequally prepared as to rough- ness and smoothness that the same quantity of water-glass applied to it will show a tendency to shine on the smoother portions only. Although the unreflecting or flatted appearance of the picture is deemed an essential requisite for mural painting. it will have the same deepening effect. which shines under too lavish a layer of water-glass. will cause it to shine. if sprinkled profuselyand frequently on the picture. and the " luce di dentro " is not seen but in oil-painting.204 APPENDIX. so as to allow of the darkening glazing effect of the water- glass. perhaps. so popular in oil-paint- ing. If water-glass be applied to a fresco-painting. yet cases may be imagined when the shining surface would present no objection. giving also depth and lustre to the colours. interfere with its use to prevent the decay of such works. So general is the taste for the glossy surface. for the rough work looks darker because Of the innumerable j-hadows in its interstices.

both in fresco and stereochronry. the transparent colour may be passed over that lying beneath. recourse is sometimes had to rub- bing the surface with pumice-stone or sand-paper. can be practised (but in less perfection) by the artist in what I may call the old and new fresco styles. and where small is masses of the former predominate. is a source of distaste to the general public. after ten minutes. APPENDIX. or other substance while distemper-painting is enriched by size. This at least looks dark and rich enough. and the sur- face becomes broken and pitted. "a soluble alkaline silicate. but I cannot see that it is any degree prefer- in able to white of zinc. but in the old style of fresco it cannot well be practised until the close of each day's work. In doing so. honey. The last experiment I have made has been to varnish with mastic varnish a figure painted and fixed in the stereo- chromic manner. being produced by water alone as a vehicle for the colours. for two or three days. In the last. Colour applied to these spots will appear darker than the same tint applied to the un- disturbed surface. This true water- colour painting has the great advantage of being readily ren- dered indestructible by an after-process. the application of water-glass. great care must be taken. for the sand. in mixture with the lime sometimes unequally distributed. The surface of the plastered wall should be treated uni- . a much esteemed expedient of the painter in oil- colour. There can be little doubt that the dry unshining surface which the painter seeks with such painstaking. in consequence of the under-ground not being sufficiently dry. When the plaster surface becomes so indurated as that might not readily absorb the water-glass it in the process of setting. Glazing. While in oil- painting it is not safe to try the process. 205 faces will exhibit the above-named changes \\ hen the water- glass is applied." Barytes is a white pigment which I have made some experi- ments with. What we name water-colours are mixed with gum. they crumble. Stereochronry is the only method of painting truly de- scribed by the term water-colour or aquarelle. .

character of lime as a pigment. therefore. or floating. being wanted. acts readily on the colours. a greater or lesser amount of roughness might be desirable for the better expression of the surface of objects.white. For instance. should be all of the same uniform treatment. and so separated from the modifying qua- lities of the sand. allows the water-glass to penetrate through it to the wall. formly. ment of this pigment. even from the ground.206 APPENDIX. indeed. desirable . But all accidental varieties of plaster- ing increase greatly the artist's difficulties. seems to be. and this white (when used delicately over the warm white of the plastered wall. It has not the solid qualities. Zinc-white. In getting this smoothness the lime is worked out to the surface. In the case of an uniform tint. as it is called. and another transparently. the mortar of which is tinged agreeably by its sand. It has been objected to zinc. will be easily apparent through any amount of colour passed over it. If one colour be laid on thickly. but the artist soon learns to esteem it for the compensating qualities of delicacy and semi-transparency. for instance. the trowelling. making it neces- sary for him to deal with each change of surface by a different method of pencilling. leaving a rough or smooth course. even when used in considerable quantity but a thin treat. the white used for stereochromic painting. arid. from its delicate nature. . or any variety of surface be admitted it should be if with an intention. and taking into consideration the dangerous nature of this latter. for the above reason. that it is deficient in body. of the plasterer. any circular motion of it. say of sky. if only for the reason of receiving the fixing water-glass with the same facility. this last will be more readily set. as well as from its more inti- . All colours should be tempered by distilled water to as nearly as possible of the same consistency. and shows a very agreeable texture. exhibiting a very favour- when used able contrast to the staring. as well as of many others. The lime. The ordinary fresco-ground smoothly bandied with an is iron trowel. Any variation in the handling of the trowel.) bears well out. of lime or white-lead .

deal. and it does not tell for much. As regards lake. as well as to a piece of white marble. again thinned with water. the water-glass applied. if painted upon in the stereochromic method. although the pellicle of colour would be set and hardened. and subsequently by answering my inquiries respecting various practical details. in the process called floating. when the water-glass came to be applied. My experiments made during the course of a year and a half have not altered or deteriorated in the slightest decree. that amply supplies its place. For this reason the ground for water- glass painting is always more or less rough. and all have been rendered indelible . and plaster of Paris. delf. such as the two last-named. to glass. its colour in fresco or stereochromy can never be richer than as we see it in powder. with a wooden hand-float. and then modified by white. . The colours have been laid on in their full force. not having sufficient absorptive power. pipe-clay. requiring only a more frequent application. Ivory black and French ultramarine and lake have been treated as successfully as the more ad- missible colours on all of the above-named substances. Colours said to be objectionable have been applied to various surfaces of plaster. yet as the water- glass would not readily be received through the colour into the wall. 207 mate admixture with them. as well as a rich deep burnt sienna. Such a ground. a piece of oak. millboard. I take this opportunity of ex- pressing my acknowledgments to those scientific professors and artists in Germany who so readily and liberally assisted me in my researches during a visit to Berlin and Munich in the autumn of 1859. and is worked by the mason. In inserting some portions of correspondence on the sub- ject of the preceding report. some. a great liability would be incurred of the colour falling off in flakes. There is a sort of colcothar much more intense than lake. APPENDIX.

movement does not tire. In treading the bellows. and which. the centre of gravity of the person is changed in this way. which may be obtained by impelling the air out of the bellows direct into the sprinkling-bottle. by throwing the centre of viz. you will be able to create a stream which is continuous. you will best effect your object by causing experiments to be made in the following — manner: Spread on a wall of brick.) Munich. after all. —Excuse me that I only now answer your letter of the 12th October. This surface (not above half an inch thick). and. you soon acquire. in winding up the bellows. November 19. though it remits. on the right foot same time mounting on the bellows . and lead the air from this by means of the straight pipe into the sprinkling-bottle. that is. . at the as upon a The right stair. generally prefer to avail themselves of an intermitting stream. The painters here. Pettenkofer to Mr. In a few days I shall forward the bellows-sprinkler to your address. a mortar composed of three parts of coarse sand and one part of Portland cement. however. (Translation. and I hope it will arrive safely in London . or on a plate of burnt # clay. If you connect the bellows with the little air-vessel (wind-kessel). it shows that you have not attained the right movement. Letter from Dr. Sir. . The winding-up of the bellows in this case must not be done too slowly. which rests on the little footstool next the bellows . not arrived. when still fresh. 1 As to the preparation of the ground. iscovered with a thin coating of fine mortar. the so-called — — sweating-mortar which consists of three parts of fine sand. With regard to the use of this instrument I offer the fol- lowing remarks. which. with the necessary quantity of water. on to the left foot. by a peculiar motion of the knees and sway- ing of the body. 1 The instrument here described haa. If you tire. 1859. con- sequently emptying the air-vessel (wind-kessel). never intermits. however. with the rectangular pipe of the glass bottle in the stand. gravity. in pressing out the bellows. wished to wait till the sprinkler was ready I for you.208 APPENDIX.. Maclise.

After some time (a quarter of an hour) take off the sand with a sharp-edged iron ruler. composed of quartz powder and purified (gereinigte) potass 5 5 5. The wall is now prepared for painting. to obtain an immediate draught of air by means of open windows and chimney. it is necessary. throw dry sand again upon the wall. apply- ing it with a common sprinkler. As regards the water-glass. or. If the sand is thrown upon a dry surface it does not take effect. but two masons are requisite for larger spaces one to apply the sand . of 1*2 specific gravity. 209 —sand composed of carbonate of lime (kohl'ensaurem-kalk) is the best. sweep away the remaining sand with a not too stiff hair-broom. The sweating-mortar need not be thicker than between one and two-twelfths of an inch. it should be made even with the proper instrument. The sand and cement for the sweating-moi must be rubbed through the same sieve. APPENDIX. so that a drop of water cannot rest upon it. As the ammonia smells strongly. is P . Then wet the prepared surface with a saturated solution of carbonate of ammonia (kohlensaurem-ammoniak) in water. with Roman cement. and when this is done throw on with the trowel some of the same sand which has been used for the sweating- mortar as much as will stick to the wet wall. in preparing large surfaces. The solution of this kali water-glass. The sand .) and soft water. but is quickly absorbed. As soon as the upper layer has suf- ficiently sucked. to the parts the other has prepared. according to Fuchs' direction. Afcer that. for larger surfaces. must be as dry as possible. either by wiping it over with a large broad brush. and shave off at the same time as much of the upper crust of the sweating.mortar as to leave the surface rough to the finger. and let it dry out. as much as will stick. only kali water-glass should be used. so that it may easily suck up the moisture from the wall. Smaller surfaces can be prepared and treated with sand by one mason. The fineness of the sieve must be regulated according to the requisite quality of the surface of the wall on which you wish to paint. if yon wish the ground to be more absorbent. It is. After the wall has been well dried and the cement is hardened. and one part of Portland cement (or.

Maclise. you have only to use a finer sand. Should you have any doubts as to the process. This. 3. accord- ingly as the lime is more or less rich. Dielitz. 4. If you prefer a smooth ground for your work. M. I proceed to answer the questions you have addressed to me respecting some details in the stereochromic method of painting.) Berlin. who lives near you. Maclise. But the cement of the tablet afterwards (and before you began to paint) received a slight wash of water-glass. " If water-glass has been mixed with the cement spread on your tablet ?" 1.. Maclise^ (Translation. November 21.210 APrENDIX.. thus forming what may be called the fixing water-glass. or find any difficulty in trying it. is again covered with a layer of cement. to Mr. I beg you to let me know. in the actual fixing.. 1859. will perhaps clear up any doubt.A.The proportions which we commonly adopt in forming a cement are. . I). formed of ordinary mortar. Sir. Professor Hofmann. of the Berlin Museum. You ask.A. If you like a rough ground. which differs much ac- cording to the geological conformation of the quarries whence it is procured. — I have received your letter of the 15th. The degree of smoothness in the cement depends entirely on the taste of the painter. The tablet. use a coarser sand. Esq. F. Begging you to make use of me in any way in which I can Berve you. Everything depends on the quality of this last material. R. I am. D. which layer contains no water-glass. &c. &c. mixed with the fourteenth part of a caustic alkali (atzkali- lauge) of 1'33 specific gravity. R. 2. Pettenkofer. I have. one part <jf lime to two or three of sand. is generally diluted with one quarter part of water. Dr. With- out that operation the layer of cement would have been ill adapted to imbibe the colour. Esq. Letter from Herr Dielitz.

four making a gallon) remembering. Accept.. The sum of the explanation I have had is. DlELTTZ. in different cases. At present there is no water-glass ready in the ateliers of the Museum. Mr. the assurance. to prescribe invariable and certain rules on this subject. . however. On my observing that the lime which forms one of the ingredients of the ground of the painting ought on this account to be also opposed to the water-glass. and might consequently interfere with and hinder the success of the method. Sir. because the water-glass and the lime do not agree. &c. Lastly. 1800. There will be a supply in about a month. (Translation. I also inquired as to the quantity of diluted water- glass which would suffice to fix a surface of the extent you named. 211 Letter from Herr DieUtz to the Secretary. . is no longer exposed to the influence of the lime. Maclise's statement respecting the un- I then spoke of which I sent satisfactory result of his use of the water-glass him. the operator may have to contend. APPENDIX. The quantity reckoned would be about 30 Berlin quarts (the Berlin quart is very nearly the same as the Lon- don quart. Sir Charles L. September 3. without being present. I was answered that in the latter case the water-glass. assimilating with the sand.white in the painting. the other ingredient in the ground. — I have obtained the necessary information respecting the question of the employment of lime-white instead of zinc- white in mnral painting.) Berlin. I am too little initiated into the mysteries of chemistry to decide Jiow far this argument is well-founded but I believe it would be safest to abstain from the use of lime. . that the calculation would depend on many particulars of which it is impossible to judge without witnessing them on the spot. Experience alone can over- come the obstacles with which.white is considered decidedly inadmissible. and I have to acquaint you that the lime. Eastlake. sir. F. that the operation of fixing depends on so many circumstances that it is impossible.

[See a subsequent letter from Munich. . Dresden.] To make sure. Is much water u+rd with the colours? The painter may please himself. 2. when the artist pleases.. It seems that Professor Pettenkofer inclines to the latter. The usual mode is to dilute the water-glass. Much depends on the "ii of tin. Is it the practice of Kaulbach to leave the white wall when he considers it desirable . as securing more transparency ? The colours may be used without white in cases where depth is required." He gave me the address of some manufacturers who prepare the water-glass Kuhn. with two parts of water to one of water-glass. -Letter from the Secretary to Mr. September 7. Ore is the soda or natron water-glass . . In Berlin I did not omit to see Herr Dielitz. heim and Co. 4. the other is the kali or potass water-glass. according to his practice. BCaoliae. Maclise. which I can show you hereafter but I give you the substance now in the . Sec also 1 1 err Dielitz's written reply. for instance. consequently. a painting 50 feet long by 12 high would require about thirty quarts (English measure) to fix it . or two One others he replied to by a note. ten quarts of the concentrated water-glass. in a large mass of white drapery : or would he use the white pigment ? The painter may please himself. in short. Most him (from your list) he answered at of the questions I put to once. 1. 1 Suggested by . . Is the use unmixed with white of of colours zinc recommended. as prepared. enclosed " Queries and Answers. When so diluted. as. Linden Strasse. The white wall may be left or not. Queries 1 and Answers. 212 APPENDIX. year and the state of the atmosphere. . 3. . I fonnd him most ready to give to give me information. 1860. On going to them I found that they prepared two sorts. and. May lime-white be used ? No. I ordered a large stone bottle of each.Mr. 26.

may the artist wait till the painting is finished. The syringe alone is to be used. 5. the painter. before setting- it . so that the water-glass be every where equal. Is the process called "hatching " generally adopted p There is no objection to it it depends only on the habit of . 8. (Reference to the water-glass sent from Berlin. 10. In a painting which is to occupy a year in its execution. The former would be less liable to disturb the colour ? It is better to use a diluted solution repeatedly till the painting is fixed. all surfaces are alike. It does not appear to be the worse for time . or would it be well to fix it in portions. May not the process of imbuing the wall with water- glass previously to painting be dispensed with ? It is quite unnecessary . It has such a tint in a certain degree at first. 9. it only acquires a slight yellowish-brownish tint. When the work is fixed. it is better to wait till it is finished. 12. Kaul- bach' s practice in this respect is considered arbitrary and peculiar. If fixed in parts there would be a danger of the result of the operation being unequal. 6. Why does Kaulbach recommend a very rough ground ? Only. 11.) Would not one or two applications of a strong solution of water-glass be as efficient as three or four of a weak solution. and carefully. it is no longer done. as he progresses with his work ? If the painting can be kept uninjured. The painting must not shine. Many of the smaller paintings in the lower rooms of the new Museum at Berlin seem painted in stereochromy on a . which failed to fix a painting in three applications. APPENDIX. because the mere colour remains firmer. 7. How long will the water-glass keep before it loses its power ? Herr Dielitz has seen it used after three years. it is supposed. May not the water-glass be applied with a soft brush instead of the syringe in the fixing-process R No.

. the kali (potass) was anxious to see water-glass. or the natron (soda) water-glass. in this city I asked him which was to be preferred. such as the ochres. and again set the retouched portion ? Yes. The artists find that the sprinkler (when used for wetting the surface only during painting) tires the arm. While . Munich. if the setting is not too strong. 13. Had the artists any difficulties to overcome in consequence ? It not supposed that they had. I am. September 14. After setting the painting with water-glass.white. L. He says he is now convinced that the kali is quite safe. as preferable to the sprinkler. 1860. He thinks it better to finish the whole picture before fixing any portion. Maclise. The smoothness or is roughness of the ground seems to be matter of choice. Esq. such as cobalt. Eastlake.. The weaker the setting the easier the retouching. He says decidedly that lime must not be used for the white. C.. Maclise. so that it is not easy to execute with delicacy for a time afterwards. It is difficult to confine the re- fixing to the retouched portion. but only zinc. while the other is apt to come up on the surface of the painting. Some colours. Professor Pettenkofer I . . require a longer application before they can be fixed. D. Herr Dielitz remarked that experience alone must guide the artist or operator. receive the water-glass well others.A. 214 APPENDIX. as it is less fatiguing. . smooth ground. &c. and it is desirable that the fixing should be as equal as possible.. He recommends the machine which he described in his letter to you. can the artist return with water-colours. R. Letter from the Secretary to Mr. With reo-ard to the fixing process.

He admitted that. was fixed by the machine in two hours. that the whole work is about 15 feet high by about 8 wide. and steps in front. Though smooth. the brush might be used. APPENDIX. cobalt another. Portland cement he says is the best that can be used. because it can be smoother in surface than the ordinary ground. " Now no more will come away it . but cement. He says he recommended you. and he still recom- mends you. He assumes that your ground is composed of that cement (which he recommended you to use as the ground of the painting). 2lo He showed me a wall-painting in his rooms. beyond mere fancy can be assigned. to assist the absorption and this is the whole explanation of . after sufficient fixing. The whole. longer liquid. and after a time said. and nothing would have been gained to fix the superficial dust. He struck one of the flat red- painted compartments (round the central figure above de- scribed) with a white towel. (He now lives in the Residenz. it absorbs readily . and showed me that it was tinged a little with red. sky. He says you must not be alarmed if. occupies three or four feet in height the . in the proportion of 1 of caustic potass to 15 of water-glass. and I don't know whether you saw the painting. a little colour comes away.) The figure (a peasant-girl). whereas if the ordinary ground is used it should be rougher. after the first fixing. so that the colours cannot be easily disturbed. The ground was not common mortar (lime and sand). is fixed underneath. he says. . with the water-glass to use a little caustic potass in fixing. I asked him whether the brush might not be used every- where. In fixing such colours the pencil or brush may be used. with landscape. The caustic potass is to be added before fixing. chrome red a third. He rubbed his fingers over the same place. Kaulbach's rough ground at least so far as any reason . Black is one. But in order to fix the three colours above-named the caustic potass is to be omitted the water-glass then remains ." He showed me the colours (on the painted Avail) that were difficult to fix. wall beyond is painted in compartments and arabesques so .

Dunkel Oker. The fixing with the sprinkler is much longer than fixing with the brush. Dunkel Griin. Gebrannter Hell Oker. Hell Blaugriin. the propor- tion should be 1 of water to 2 of water-glass. C. Gebrannte Umbra. It seems that even in the open air here water-glass has lasted. Names of the principal colours used in Germany in the stereochrome or water-glass method of painting : Weiss. Hell Oker. R. if necessary. Braun Oxid. because the wall does not absorb so much but . Gebrannter Dunkel Oker. Hell Kadmium.. The question could be referred to Herr Dielitz. He was not quite sure whether the water-glass used in the Museum at Berlin is kali alone or a mixture of kali and scda. Mittel Blauo-riin. His answer was that for the ordinary- ground the proportion of 2 parts of water to 1 of water-glass was right. Dunkel Blau. 1859. Hell Oxid. Hell Grim. I asked him about the degree of dilution for the concen- trated water-glass. Eastlake. Hell Blau. while frescoes (on the same building) have decayed. I am. &c. Esq. as above described. L. [ believe. Braunsclnvarz. Hell Both. — 216 APPENDIX. Griin Oxid. Gebrannte Terra di Siena. Dunkel Blaugriin. Gold Oker. But whatever the mode of operation the liquid should not be allowed to run down. I have forgotten to . Dunkel Kadmium. Mittel Oxid. D.A. notwithstanding all my postscripts and added notes to the Beport on Stercochromy. when the ground is cement. Umbra. November 7. Maclise. Violett Oxid. Graue Erde.

APPENDIX. March 27. that the r it and render its use less fatiguing. from a detached receptacle. Maclise. a few days since. 1861. a spray of coloured water over any portion of the wall-painting where it might be deemed necessary. for the reception of the water or water-glass. I have said that if an ordinary syringe were provided with a mouth-piece. for the necessary smallhess of the apertures would prevent its imbibing: the fluid. Daxl. the colour of course being very much diluted so as readily to pass through the very small perforations of the instrument. I made. as in the manner of an ordinary syringe. perforated and constructed like those I pur- chased in Berlin. might be dispensed with. it would have the same effect. by means of the sprinkler. . When I conjectured this. I thought the glass bulb. some yvvy easy and pleasing changes in hues by this method. lluid must be supplied to the present machine in the way it is. There is another remark to make with regard to this instrument. and thereby lighten I find. which is affixed to the syringe and supplies it. how ever. at least in sufficient quantity. 217 was so pleased to witness in Berlin of allude to the effect I the power of shedding.

Tractatns de Arte Picture. Mosenio. Robert Fludd.. translated into . by Jean Martin. De Graphice sive Arte Pingendi which is the fifth chapter .. Auct. and of the Principal Exist- ing Mural Decorations. into French. or. Lists of Works upon Painting. 8vo. separately. Batav. 4to . into English. de Fluctibus. 1694. Amst.. 1553. 1627. de Pictura. . augmented and corrected by Gra3vius. J. 8vo. libri ii. 1637. printed in his Opuscula.. fol.. of the work of Ger. Jac. of Painters . Ludg. Speculum Imnginum Veritatis acculta) per Symbola et Em- blemata. translated into Italian. WORKS UPON PAINTING. 1624. Leovard. fol. Caes. Basil. 1657. L. 8vo. . under the same title. Bulenger. de Pictura. Venice. de Picturis et Imaginibus Sacris. Bapt. in Various Lan- guages. Paris. de Pictura Veterum. 8vo. Franciscus Junius (Dujong). libri. et Statuaria Vete- rum. fol. . by Leoni. Vosius. entitled de Natura Artium. 8vo. London. 1621. II. . 1681.. Molani. 1547. . 1726 and 1739. Francof. fol. 3 vols. 1661. Plastice. iii. LATIN WORKS. containing list of ancient articles in alpha- betical order. Jul. English. 8vo. fol. Rotter- dam. 1570 and 1594. Joh. Alberte. 1540. Col.

4to. 8vo. Mar. 8vo. Jen. Auct. Argcntincnsis. Dissert. Car. Yite de' Pittori da Yasari. Introduzzione alle tre Arte. con molte sogrete Alle- goric. Ven. de eo quod justum est circa Picturum. C. De Pictura contumeliosa. de Pictura. L'Aretino. F... 4to. da Mich. Yenice. Altorf. 4to. Brunguelli. Du Fresnoy de Arte Graphica. . De Inanibus Picturis. Jacobi. APPENDIX. Joh. trans- . Diss. de Arte Pingendi. 4to. in 4to. Franc. e della sua Arte. Yoita Berg. Jen. de' Getti. circa le Muse. Diss. Fr. de' Modegli. nel quale si raginao della Dignita di essa Pittura. 1703. Dialogo de Pittura di Paolo Pino. Discorso eruditissinie della Pittura. Car. 210 Joannes Schefferi. 4to. Fichtner. de Pictura Honesta ac Utili. Doni. Yenegia. Dissertatio Juridica. 1733. Hal. Zud. Trattatello della nobilissima Pittura. e Mod. Hodsby di Hoda. 1699. Milan. G. de Erroribus Pictorum. della Dottrina. Jungeri. con molte cose appertinenti a quest' Arti. de Pictura Famosa. 1703. Kluber. Muller. 1712. Hulderic. Nbrimb. Lipsia3. e nel Fine si fa menzione delle Yertu e delle Opere del divin Tiziano. dove si tratta della Scoltura. e del Modo per consequirla agevolmente. Job. Erl. 1787. Sigism.. Rothmaler. Ven. Pittura. Biondi. Ars delineandi Coloribusque Local i- bus adumbrandi. 1790. Boerner. 1766. Lips. Aug. Graphicc. II Disegno del Anton. id est. Dolce. e di tatte de Parte necessarie eke a perffeto Pittori si acconvengano . de Pictura. 4to. Paris. Martin Frisins. Hafhiee. Programma. ITALIAN WORKS. 8vo. 1658. 4to. 1751. 1557. 4to. Jen. super privileges Pictorum. 4to. Dialogo della Pittura. 1541. Adol. 4to. 4to. 1548. 1669 Upsal. Jen.. Equicola. con Esempi di Pittori ant. de' Colori. Theoph. 1549. 1549. 8vo. Joa. di Lod. del Disegno. De Lectione Poetarum recentiorum Pictoribus commen- danda. 1679. 1692.

Anmenini da Faenza. and a much later one. in vii. Venice. Lomazzo. . Parere sopra la Pittura. Another. 1584.'j a French one of the first book. div. 8vo. Architetti. 1598. 4to. Discorso d'Allessandro Lamo. di fare le Pittura che si convcngono alio Coudizionc do' Luoghi e delle Persone. in 3 vols. London. di M. Milano. antichi e moderni. 1649. 1730. 1G78. e Matematici. Another edition augmented and corrected by Ant. in cni si favella della Pittura e della Scoltura. Mil. 8vo. fol. Pitt. 4to. 1587. 1585 and 1590. con una Tavola de' Nomi de tutti le Pittori. 1571. de' Moti. 4to. 1782. Mar. libri. ni' quali si contiene tutta la Teorica e la prattica di essa Pittura. Ammanati. The same work is to be found under the following title Trattato dell' : — Arte della Pittura. Milan. AnEnglish translation by Haydok. 4to. 1584. 8vo . Pav. By the same author. Osservazioni nella Pittura. di M. intorna alia Scoltura et Pit- tura. Scoltura. London. Rome. sopra le Pittnre menche oneste. Aristofane Sorte. 1584. 1584. 1582. and Venire. della prospettiva della Prattica. in vii. 12mo. dell' Arte della Pittura. 4to. e fmalinente de le Storie d' essa Pit- tura. fol. 4to. Biscioni.. da G. 4to. Cremona. Milan. et Architettura. 1580. lated into French. Idea del Tempio della Pittura nella quale si discorre dell' Origine e del Fondamento della cose contenente del trattato. Firenze. Trattato dell' Arte della Pittura.220 APPENDIX. iii. into English. da Giov. libri. Firenze. Pittori. Modi principal) del disegnare e del dipingero. 4to. Lomazzo. ne' quali con bell' ordine d' utili e buoni A vvurtimeiiti per chi desidera in essa Farsi con prestezza cccellente si dimostrano . et de' piu illustri Pittori e Scultori. Ravenna. Scultori. De' vara Precetti della Pittura de Giovanni Bat. 4to.' lib. Lettera di Bartolomeo. P. Cremona. de' Colori. II Reposo di RafFaelo Borghini. •Mil. antichi e moclerni. 4to. della Pittura. Bernard Campi. Pittore Cre- monese. Firenze. div. de' Lumi. Toulouse. ne' quale si discorre della propor- zione.

1754. . 1716. del Cav. Trattato della Pittura. 4to. . London. e Prospettiva. vols. Amsterd. Venezia. with engravings after designs by Poussin.. Feder. 1651 . French of the author translation by Rol. Paggi. II Microcosmo della Pittura di Franc. Zuami. 8vo. di Valent.. 4to. Trattato della Pittura e Scultura. fol. di Crisp. di Giovan. si considerano alcune Cose d' alcuni Pittori morti e famosi del nostro Tempo. La prima parte della Luce del dipingere. Da Fresne. Gregorio Commanino. fol. Dom. D. o il Poeta. English. scono molte Historie antiche e moderne. in Dia- letto Venez. A new was published in Florence. in cui si risolvono motti Casi di Conscienza intorno al fare e tenere. 1607. de' Scultori. with life by Franc.. 1721.. 1657. 4to. 1651. 1591. de Pier. 1733. e si notano certi particolarita circa 1' operare secondo V Osserva- zioni fatte in alcune Opere. Fircnze. vii. Later. Fontani. Cesena. del Passo. Imagine sacre e profana si riferi- le . Antonio Barca.. 1G07. Yen. 4to. &c. Mobile Genov. edition 1792. e Architettura. da Marco Boschini. fol. in due libri. Ditinizione e Divizione della Pittura. in quarta Rima. Scultura. L' Idea de Pittori. com- posto da un Teologo (Pere Ottonelli). Zucclieri. and iSTaples. Batt. This work is to be found also in the sixth vol. la Pittura. de Liornardo da Vinci. da Fra. Trattato della Pittura. Avvertimenti e Regola sopral' Architettura civile e militare. Home. Torino. Francesco Bisagno Cavaliere di Malta. Dialogo del P. 1652. e da un Pittore (Pietro da Cortona). 8vo. 1724. 4to. dial. APPENDIX. Arta del Navigar pittoresco. 1660. Paris. dato in Luce con la Vita dell' estesso Autore. Ovvcro del Fine clella Pittura . o il Pittore. seritta da Raff. fatto a commune Beneficio de' Vir- tuosi. nel quales mostra qual siu I' imitare pin perfetto. 8vo. 1643. e Pittore. 1620. 'Ill II Fologino. Freart de Chambray. Scanclli do Forli. fol. Canon. Baccolta di Lettero sulle Pittura. Man- tova. uso ed abusu loro. Scultura. Milan.. Geneva. e degli Architetti. 1642. fol. 4to.

Bellori. 1730. Lucca. 1681. 1670. 4to. By the same anthor. di Franc.. Brescia.222 APPENDIX. 4to. 1763. 4to. Riflessioni sopra la Pittnra di Nicolas Poussin in the Vite de' Pittori. Pes. Ciocchi. . Yenez. Nuova Raccolta d' Opusculi scientif. . della Pittura "antica. English. In de Prodromo alle Arte maestra. Andrea Lazzarini. 8vo. 1697. ed Architette moderni. 1672. Minozzi. e scogliono varie Difficnlta pittoriche. and in the Raccolta di alcnni Opnscoli da Fil. 1664. 1684. Scnltnra. pittore Lncchese. Le Pittnra in parnasso. Rome. ii. in p. Lucca. 1739. di M. Fir. Lucca. 8vo. per le incami- namento di un Giovane alia Pittura. Saggio sopra Count Algarotti. Sfozamento d' ingegno. A new edition by Ant. Franchi. Franc. reprinted at Pesaro. 17s:l. Pittore. Bal. Avvertimenti di Giamp. 1754. Biscioni. 8vo. 1763. Cavezzoni Zanotti. Mar. Lnna. 4to. Florence. 1756. Baldinncci. dn Giov. La Teorica della Pittura. e che hanno per Fondamento il Disegno. 8vo. co' propri Termini e Voci non sola della Pittnra. 4to. 1783. Firenze. Lettera nella qnale si risponde ad alcnni qnesiti in Materie di Pittnra e Scnltura. Le Minere della Pittura. Venice. Baldinncci). 1765. la Pittura. a French translation by Piiigeron. 97. Firenze. ma ancora di altre Arti. Bellori. and of La Veglia. de Scnltori. e d' Archi- tettnra. Paris. 1725. 4to. vol. et file. in cni si dispntano. 4to. 12mo. Rome. . II Yocabolario Toscano dell' Arte del Desegno. 8vo. Boscliini. 1769. Baldinncci. 12mo. Dialoghi sopra le Arti del Disegno. fol. di Fil. Bottari. 8yo. 12mo. 4to. Yenice. Livorno. sopra la Pittura e la Scultura da P. Mar. Dialogo di Sincero Yero (Philip . 1739. and in Catalogo delle Pitture nelle chiese di Pesaro. 1681. ovvero Trattato delle Materie piu necessarie per apprendere con Fondamento quest' Arte com- posto da Ant. Dissertazione sopra 1' Arte della Pittura dell' Abbate Giovanni..

8vo. 4to. Storia della Pittura in Italia da Lnigi Lanzi. Acad. Roma. 4to. 4to. Rosignoli. 12mo. Calcutta. 1781. Firenze. 1549 and 1590. Qual sia piu nobile la Pittura. o la Scultura ? Gli Onori della Pittura. ed il Male delle Oscene. accresciuta della Maniera di dipingerc sopra la porcellane. Rome. abridged under the title. Pittore. 4to. Bologna. in vol. Varchi.Roma. ed Architettura. a second edition in two toIs. the latter entitled. saggi sul Ristablimento dell' Antica Arte de' Greci e Romani.. Santini. Sinalto. Lucca. Scultura. 4to. . Venice. ii. . 1809. Bassano. ed Architettura. of the same work. composto ad instanza della Venerab. secondo gli principi di Sulzer e di Mengo. . Vetro. Trattato della Nobilta della Pittura. Ben. 223 L' Idea del profetto Pittore del Servire di Regola nil Guidizio. et della Nob. Scultura. Parm. Discorso di Gianb. 1788. APPENDIX. 1787. six vols. written in Italian and English . clie si deve formare Intorno all' Opere de' Pit tori. di Vene. 1781. 1768. 8vo. de' Pit- tori diRoma. Venice. Zezioni (2) di M. Vicenzo Reqneno. Roma. Palletta. 1677. di Doni. Pregi della Pittura. Alberti. 1585. da Vine. iii. 1771. poem by Connt Ad. Storia della Pittnra e della Scultura dei Tempi antichi. . e Pietre. Lucchesini. Comp. Oraz. Orazione in Lode della Pittura. 1697. 8vo. Metalli. Rome. Gregor. Lucca. di S. Dell' Arte di vedere nelle belle Arti del Disegno.. Chiusole. 8vo. giovano per l'acquiste della Scienze. Bellori. 8vo. 1716. Le Lega con V Armi per difesa della Reli- tre belle Arti in gione. La Pittura in Giudizio ovvero il Bene delle oneste Pitture. Vic.. 8vo. di C. 1786. 1688. Orazione della Pittura. Precetti della Pittnra. e della Scultura. Venice. 12mo another edition. 8vo. Venezia. Dell Arte Pittorica. The History of Painting and Sculpture. da Rom. by Thomas Hickay. Prose degli Arcadi. da Nicolas Fontongueri printed in vol. 1696. 1718.

1667. Lion. Dial. 4to. Symmetria y Perspectiva. da Vinci. Origen. 1633. Carducho. Des principes de 1' Architecture. Discorsos apologeticos en que se defiende la Ingenuidad del Arte de la Pintura. 4to. 4to. au Mans. Scultura. fol. 4to. Pacheco. ed Architettura di Giambattista Alesandro. Napoli. Esame razionata sopra la Nobilita della Pittura e della Scultura. 1781. Modos. Madrid. 4to. Idee de la Perfection de la Peinture demontree par les prin- cipes de l'Art et par des Exemples conformes aux Observa- tionsque Pline et Quintellien out faits sur les plus celebres Tableaux des Anciens Peintres. 1724. su Defensa. Segovia. 1626. 1783. y DifFerencias. JulesRomain. Defini- cion. 1715. 1629. Seville. por D. Sieur de Chambray. mis en Parallele avec quelques Ouvrages de nos meilleurs Peintres modernes.224 APPENDIX. 1649. 1672. par Roland Freart. por Phil. 1615. Arte dei Pintura. Orazione in Lode della Pittura. de la Pintura. Essencia. por Franc. in 4to. Memorial Informatorio. por Vine. Madrid. avec mi IJaisonmincnt au Sujet de Tableaux. Raffaelle. por Ant. Trattato de la Pintura. Juan Xanregui. Regon De Silva. 4to. Bologna. Madrid. 8vo. La Pittura. Diego Ant. Lisbon. de la Peinture et de Sculp- . SPANISH. 8vo. et Le Poussin. three vols. Paris. a poem in three cantos. 4to. y escala Optica. Abr. Firent. El Museo Pintorico. que es liberal y noble de todos Derechos. 8vo. Mon- nez. Madrid. por Juan de Butron. su antiguedad y grandezas. 1662. Por el Arte de la Pintura. Paris. I Peintre converte aux Regies precises et nniverselles de i:i son A it. Moreschi. per Nicolas Passeri. 1633 and 1637. Palamino Velasco. FRENCH. BoBSe. 1788. por los Pintores. Madrid.

M. 1697. les vies des Peintres. 12mo. fol. 1708. 1766. Ant. Conference de 1' Academic. 12mo. two vols. Dialogues sur by Fenelon. This forms the second vol. Amst. 12 mo. par Phillipe de la Hire. Amster. Paris. par Andre Felibien.'. vol. 4to. Amst. 1696. 1706. 1766. Trev.. Paris. 1699. ix. Paris. 1684. of the CEuvres diverses. Paris. 1666—1669. They are joined to la Peinture... three vols. avec plusieur Discours academiques.. Toulouse. avec les Sentimens des plus habiles Peintres sur la Pratique de la Peinture et de la Sculp- ture. 1719. Amsterdam. 1720. Q . 1766. Reflexions sur la Poesie et sur la Peinture. which forms the third vol. This work has been erroneously attributed to Jean Baptiste Corneille. in l'Histoire de l'Acadeniie des Sciences de Paris. 12mo. Cours de Peinture par principes.. 8vo. 4to. par Barnard Dupui Du Grez. of Entretiens sur . 1731. Paris. p. Traite de la Pratique de la Peinture. 12mo. 4to. 12mo. by the same. 12mo. 1682. 16G9. 12mo. . pour en apprendre la Theorie et se perfectionner dans la pratique. Paris. by the same. Roger de Piles. of his CEuvres diverses. Ch. Testelin. 1708. APPENDIX. 1725. 225 ture. 12mo. Discours prononces dans les Conferences de l'Acadeniie royale de Peinture et de Sculpture. par La Fontaine. Paris. Jonibert has given an enlarged edition of it. Enlarged editions in 1733. L'Acadeniie de la Peinture nouvellement mise au jour pour instruire la Jeunesse a bien Piendre en Huile et en Miniature. avec un Dictionnaire propre a chacun de ces Arts. and 1740... et des autres Arts qui en dependent. 635. 4to. by Antoine Coypel. Livre de Secrets pour faire le Peinture. 12mo. by the Abbot Monville. 1721. Abbe Jean Baptiste Dubos. . par Henri. 1679. Traite sur la Peinture. Paris. 12mo. 12nio. 10» '>'. the Life of Mignard. Conferences de l'Acadeniie royale de Peinture et de Sculp- ture pendant l'Annee. Elemens de la Peinture-pratique. 1667.. and in the fifth vol.

1 766. Bibliotheq. by Cochin. . 1761. 1758. Brossard de Mantenei Observations sur la : Peinture.. Gautier. Letters sur la Peinture. 1757. Paris. F. Paris. three vols. 1736. Paris. Liotard. 8vo. p. by M. Paris. 4to. 8vo. de la Font De Saint Yenne. 8vo. 12mo. Traite de la Peinture. 4to . 12mo. two vols*. Sculpture. suivi d'un Essai sur la Sculpture. et Architecture. 12mo. vol. Paris. 1776. L2mo. In L' Amateur . Watelet. Reflexions ^uv La Peinture et la Gravure. 1769. par Louis Guillauine Baillet de Saint Julien. by Fredon de la Bretonierre. Jaq. Paris. Geneve. 4to. 226 APPENDIX. London. 8vo. which had already appeared in Mercure de France. 12mo. by C. 1752. two vols. by M. p. by M. by Andre Bardon. Observations Raisonnees sur l'Art de la Peinture. Observations sur la Peinture et sur les Tableaux anciens et modernes. Bssai sur la Peinture. Paris. Principes abreges de Peinture. ou. are some reflections upon colours. 1765. is a Memoire sur la Pein- ture. 167. 1750. Traite des Principes et des Regies de la Peinture. is a letter upon painting. ii. by the same. pour servir d' introduction a une Histoire universelle relative a ces beaux Arts. des Artistes et des Amateurs Abbe* Joan Etajr- mond de Petitz. 1781. Discours sur la Peinture et sur 1' Architecture. In the Recueil de quelques Pieces concernant les Arts. Dusseldorf. is to be found with l'Art de Peindre. Louis de Bachauniont. 121... Reflexions sur la Peinture. Nouvelles Pieces et Dissertations pour Bervir au Progres du Gout et des Beaux Arts. 8vo. du Perron. 1753. Geneve. 1762. by M. Joullain. appli- 1 1 are a la Gak'rie de Dusseldorf. 1746. Reflexions sur les differentes Parties de la Peinture. 1779. In the Choix de Mercures. Dutems. a un Amateur. 12mo. L785. 8vo. par M. Tours. 12mo.

Peinture. A proper treatise. M. Lyons. two vols. 1674. by Alex. to which are added thirty copper- plates. — APPENDIX. 1770. collected out of the most eminent Italian. 1769. Introduction to the general Art of Drawing and Limninsr. chiffres. ing. on. five vols. and Netherland authors. 4to. 1685. 12 mo. Paris. an Academy treating of Drawing. par Philipe Angele. German. 12mo. crowned at the Floral Games in 1767. 1767. 1755. London. M. 12mo. Ars Pictoria or. 'I'll Many French didactic poems have been written on paint ing snch are : La Peintnre. Logogriphes. ENGLISH.. wherein is briefly set forth the art of Limning. Watclet. Paris. &c. by . 1625. La Peinture. 1642. 4to 1785. together with the Lives of the most eminent Painters. 12mo. Painting Illustrated in Three Dialogues. Grand Livres des Peintres . cosmographiques. a poem.. . Paris. Paint- . ave • des Reflexions sur les Onvrages de quelques bons Maitres et sur les Defauts qni s'y trouvent. London. 1660. London. and most exact grounds and rules of symmetry.. Lettres initiates. 4to. ou. 4to . small fol. 12mo. . from Cimabue to the time of Raffaelle and Michel Angiolo. Ichnographie . Mich. 1671. Eloge de la Peintnre. containing some choice Observations upon the Art . Amst. Paris. consi- der e dans tontes ses Parties et demontre par Principes. L'Art de Peintnre. Limning. 1787. 12mo. London. 8vo 1669 and 1675. La Peintnre. 4to. 4to. La Mierre. neatest. with an explanation of the dif- ficult terms. Hebert. expressing thechoicest. Amst. Sculpture et Gravure. 4to 1719. 8vo. par Gerard de Lairesse. Paris. 1770. and Etching. . Discours snr les qnatre Arts d'Agricul- ture. d' Avignon. Brown. .. avec des Notes histori- ques. l'Art de la Peintnre.

by Richardson. Inquiry into the Beanties of Painting. second painting. Tindal has given an abridgment of it. London. 8vo . Essay upon the Theory of Painting. ancient and modern. Drapery. Aglionby. 1701. first painting or Dead-Colouring. 4i<>. London. with the method of Colouring . 8vo. and Method of Colouring. The Art of Painting of the best Italian. 1755. and into the merit of themost celebrated painters. Sculpture.. Copying. 8vo. Painting Backgrounds. Will. Elsnm. 12mo. 1728. concerning the Agreement between the Roman Poets and the Remains of the Artists. by Salmon. third or lasl painting. . The Principles of Painting. 12mo. by Charles La Motte. two vols. or. London.223 APPENDIX. by M. of a Treatise on Paint- . by John Spence. London. Etching. and the Lives of Painters are corrected after Yasari. 8vo forming the first vol. Amst. by J. 1773. four parts in three vols... translated into French by A. 1732. Lon- don. by Th. Polygraphice . two vols. 1756. Practice of Painting and Perspective which is contained . in the Art of Painting in Oil. 1692. by J. and 1782. 8vo. London. An Inquiry . Smith. 1678. London. fol. ing. with relation to the sacred and profane History. fol. Limning. London. and Sculpture. Painting. 1768. Rutgers. 12mo. I 'a luting. republished in 1786. &c. 8vo. 1 739. 1753. Engraving. 12mo. 1757. Essay upon Poetry and Painting. A Letter on Poetry. the Art of Drawing. by Dan.. and Landscape Painting. by King. 1744. 4t<>. 4to. London. 1777. and 1774. London. Smith. and 1779. Art of Painting in Oil. The Art of Drawing and Painting in Water Colours. Plan of an Academy of Painting. 1765. 8vo. London. Polymetis or. 1747. 1730. Bardwell. 1719. Washing. 1755. 1704. French and German Masters. London. Art of Painting after the Italian Manner. London. London. Webb.

1790. Natuurligk en schilderkonstig Antwerp der Menschenkunde : leerende niet alleen de kennis van de Ges- talte. The Artist's Repository and Drawing Magazine. 4to. 8vo a . &c. The Beauties of Painting. by Talbot Dillon. Van. tot de Teyken- kunde. Gasre. London. London. edited and conducted by Prince Hoare. In ley ding tot de hooghe School der Schilderkanst door Sam. Hoogstraeten. a Collection of Essays on Art. 12mo. . Passien en Welstand des Menschenbeelden. Staan. French translation was published in Paris. &c. Beldhonwery. 4to.. London. 4to. London. Acteen. 1678. Schilderkunde. by W. 1784. inserted as a preface to his translation of Du Fresnoy. Bewegingen. 8vo . by Pollinger Robinson. 4to. proportie. 1778. Arbeyden. 4to. London. Middelb. London. A Parallel between Poetry and Painting. 4to. Spreken en Andere gebeerden . West. Sketches on the Art of Painting. 8vo. The Artist . 1783. Barry. Willh. dutch. two vols. 1782. Loopen. London. 8vo. in allerhand Doeningh van Gaan. two vols. 1787. Regelen. The various editions of the Lectures of Reynolds. by M. exhibiting the principles of the polite arts in their various branches. by various English artists. Dossie. also in the School of Arts.. 1641. Several other Discourses of Reynolds were afterwards published in his collected works. Some detailsupon painting are to be found in the Hand- maid to the Arts. 1695. 4to. Torssen. A poetical Epistle to an eminent Painter. Esq. by khe President Sir Joshua Reynolds. 4to. Botseer en Giet-Oeffen- ing toe passen maar ook hoe sich een mensch na deselve .. Esq. 1764. APPENDIX. Schoonheyd. Fuseli. Hayley. two vols. Rotterdam. Opie. Dryden. Muskelen. Dragen. 1778. 1785. 22fl Seven Discourses delivered in the Royal Academy. 1809.

8vo. ib. Dauw. Dresden. Ouvrage dans lequel on montre 1' Excellence et l'Utilite de . Idees sur l'lmitation des Monnmens Grecs en Peinture et Sculpture. 4to. propre a apprendre a peindre et a dessiner d'apres les veritables Proportions et Divisions du Cercls a 1' Usage des Peintres et des Artistes. Scnltura. Leawarden. Jean Winokelmann. La Maniere d'apprendre a Peindre. 1712. Jena. en Fresque. 12mo. 8vo. 1755.. par J. et edifiant. par Guillanme Stettler.. habile. Epitre au Sujet de l'Ouvrage precedent. 8vo. Le Peintre montrant anx Amateurs comment il justitnteur. Nurembourg.. Strasburg. 1754 and 1756. Dresden. 1543. with engravings. two vols. 1721. Amst. Dissertations upon the work: Idees sur l'lmitation des Monnmens Grecs. fol. 4to. et Orfevres. 1682. 1675. Vienna. 4to. par Henri Vogtheren. galant. Der leermeester der schilderkonst. by Jean Melchior Croecker. ib. 1679. 1731. Scliilder. eertyds in rym. 1755. GERMAN. L'Academia tedesca della Architettura. weder aan't licht gegeeven en ontrymi'd door Wibrandus de Geest. 8vo. 1778.230 APPENDIX. 4to. en Pas- tel. faut s'y prendre ponr apprendre a peindre en huile. Le Mannel des Arts de Sebald Beham. bevallig en verstanclelijk aanstelen zal... Le Peintre curieux. Francfort. e Pittura. Berne. with fifty-seven wood engravings. Dresden. Le Peintre instruit. Le vrai chemin a snivre ponr apprendre a peindre. Copenhagen. &c. Principes de la Peinture et dn Dessin. an enlarged edition by Charles Bertrand. with many fine engravings. gestelt door Karel van Mender. 1679. Le Livre cnrienx des Arts a 1' Usage des Peintres. 4to. 8vo. 1679. 1605. Sculp- tenrs. par Joseph Widt- maisser. 1756.

a 1' Usage des Coni- mencans. and l'Academie des Beaux Arts. 1788. 8vo. L. Charles. Dissertations snr la Theorie de la Peintnre et du Dessin. two vols. Sculp- teurs. Principes de la Peinture. Leipsick. 8vo. suivi d'une Liste des plus celebres Peintres. par Chretien Frederic Pran- gen. APPENDIX. et comment on doit s'y perfectionner. 8vo. 8vo. Paris. 8vo. Platre. &c. Lessing. et Attribute allegoriques modernes. Lecons sur les Arts du Dessin. par Chretien Louis Reinholcl. By the same author. suivi d'une Introduction a l'Etude des Antiques. Instruction sur l'Etude dela Peintnre en tant qu'elle appar- tient aux Beaux Arts. ou on etablit les vraies Principes propres pour former le Gout dans les Arts. Vienna. D. 1' Architecture. 1756. 1773. Academie des Arts du Dessin. with forty-five engravings . amisi que des Academies et Ecoles. cet Art. destines aux Eleves des . et Architectes. avec un Appendix sur la Maniere de faire des Empreintes en Sonf- fre. Berlin. 1762. 1784. Reflexions sur la Peinture. 1766. Munster. Orestrio. 8^o. with fourteen engravings.. 8vo. Huch. 1' Usage qu'on doit en faire. et la Gravure. Par Christophe Scheyb.. Halle. Munster. Translated by Huber. Systeme des Arts du Dessin. with forty- five engravings. E. M. la Sculpture. 2 vols. Hieroglyphes. by the same. 8vo. des Limites respectives de la Poesie et de la Peintnre. 1775. &c. d'une Maniere pratique. 8vo. 8vo. by Chretien Louis de Hao-edorn. et graver en Pierres dures. Munster. 1802. 8vo. L'Etude du Dessin et de la Peinture. 1773. Der Laocoon . et la Peinture comme metier. Leipsick. Goetingen. Leip- sick. &c. Frankfurt et Leipsick. 1764.. Renouard. 8vo. G.. Sur la Nature et l'Art dans les Tableaux. with forty en- gravings. l'Ecole du Dessin et de la Peinture. 1788. prouv6e. Halle. Leipsick. Vanderbourg. 1775. 1769. ou. translated it into French. Zurich. par E. 1770. two vols. A continuation and Supplement to this work. par Junker. et Verre. 8vo. sur les Arts du Dessin. two vols. 1786. 8vo.

8vo. 8vo. 1742. Florence. 8vo.232 APPENDIX. Hamburg. Dessinateurs. A. 8vo. 1730. et Sculpteurs. la Gravure. or. 1779. de Sonnenfels. Gotha. Paris. la Sculpture. par H. 12mo. 1671. en Forme de Lettres. among his Miscellaneous Works. by H. Anecdotes des Beaux Arts. Instruction snr la Theorie et la Pratique du Dessin et de la Peintnre. Advice to Young Artists to apply themselves to Literature. ou il son Origine. Cremona. A History of the Origin. &c. Peter Ciner. Franef. Graveurs. 8vo. 8vo. 1785. Wurtzburg. 1768. The Perfect Painter . 1' Instruction sur la Peinture d'Histoire a l'Usage des Comraencans.. and Improvement of Painting. 1783. 1792. Academies ses Arts. 1763. Theorie de la Peinture . Delia Patria degli Arti del Designo del Gherardo d'Arco. Busch- ing. l'Architecture. 8vo. 8vo. par Monier. ou. A Dialogue by Herder. 1791 et 1792. et de son Retablissemen. par C. with engravings. 2 vols.. 8vo. included in his Dissertationes Litterariae. contenant tout ce que la Pein- ture. de sa est traite de Chute. Munich. Continued under the title of Lettres a l'Usage des Peintres. Eeplj to the question " Does Painting possess any : Influ- ence over a State ?" Hamburgh. 1778. Essai d'une Histoire des Arts du Dessin. Introductio ad Historiam Artis Delineatoria?. pour les Commencans de cet Art. F. ON THE HISTORY OF PAINTING IN GENERAL. 1785. 8vo. Magasin pour les Arts du Dessin. Leipsic. Progress. Erlanger. Vienna. et la Vie des Artistes off 'rent de plus curieux et de plus piquant chez tous . Dessinateurs. Histoire des Arts qui ont rapport au Dessin. de son Progres. An Inquiry whether Painting produces a greater effect than Music. Lang. Martens. divisee en trois Livres. par A. 1791. 1705. 8vo. Altona. Bibliotheque des Arts destinee aux Peintres. par Christophe Fesel.

and 30 of Memoires de l'Acad. 470. 1585. 4to (and to be found . Studemund. S. Paris. 1766. The Treatise of Count de Caylus on the Pictures of Poly- gnotus . 4to. Lettere dell' Origine. 1764. 8vo. Florence. et traduite en Francois par D. De 1' Amour des Beaux Arts. On the Origin and History of the Art. 4to. The third and fourth parts of the work Gallus Romas Hos- pes. Evang. 27. 1750. Florence. Antiquity. and History of Painting among Different Nations. par L. 19. pp. On the State of Painting among the Greeks and Romans. del vero Pittore Luca et del Tempo del suo fiorere. 1746. by the same author. des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres . APPENDIX. de Picture Usu et Origine. 233 les Peuples du Monde. Venice. 1 of Memoires de l'Academie des Belles Lettres. in Vol. Borne. may be recognized as a continuation of the former work. 8vo. 172. extraite de l'Histoire naturelle de Pline. avec le Texte Latin. Dell' Errore che persiste di attribuirsi le Pitture al. 1776. par Fraguier. Domenico Manni. . Uso. 2\). De l'Anciennete de la Peinture. 21 of Memoires de l'Academie des Belles Lettres. in the Lettere scelto del Abbate Pietro Chiari. On the Origin. Mont Josieu. London. Histoire de la Peinture ancienne. ed Abuso della Pittura. Nicolai Funeii. Durano. 8vo. three vols. corrige sur les Manu- scrits de Vossins et sur le premiere Edition de Venise. &c. on Several Passages of Pliny relating to the Arts on the Picture of Venus by Apelles. and Dissertationes academic®. &c. folio. Caylus. et de l'extreme Consideration que les Grecs avoient pour ceux qui les cultivoient avec Suc- ces. 1767. depuis l'Origine de ces differens Arts jusqu'a nos Jours. in Vol. Joa. pp. 1725. in vols. 8vo. Jena. Diss.

. du reste de l'Asie. Inquiry into the Causes of the Extraordinary Excellency of Ancient Greece in the Arts. 1675. In the Archeeologia Litteraria of Ernesti. in Vol. Paris. 1705. o Pittura. 10 of Nouveaux Choix des Mercures. . 1785. 4to. 1781. et de l'Egypte. by George Turnbull . in Vol. 1 of the Acadcniia tedesca della Architettura. 6 of his works. et le Progres des Arts de la Grece. in that of Mar- tini. anciens et modernes. Berlin.. 4to. 8vo. sur leur Connexion avec les Arts et la Religion des anciens Peuples de l'lnde. Venice. par Falconet. B. de la Perse. London. and Decline of that Art among the Greeks and Romans. 1784. adorned with fifty pieces of ancient Painting discovered in the ruins of old Rome. servant de Supplement a l'Historie de l'Art. ac- curately engraved from drawings of Camillo Paderni. de Pictura Veterum. 1740. containing Observations on the Rise. treat of Antique Sculp- ture and Painting. par A. by Cooper.. Riem. 4to. Nuremberg. Dalle Pittura Antica. Bellori. in Vol. 8vo. Works on the Lives of Paintei. 9 of the Tresor of Gronovius). Recherches sur l'Origine. 3 of the Memoirs of the Literary and Phi- losophical Socie'. Lousanne. and in that of Siebenkeer. l'Esprit. Lon- don. Andre Felibien. Progress. de l'Europe. 1 <>'•><. 8vo.>. De l'Origine de la Peinture et des plus excellens Peintres de l'Antiquite. 1790. are chapters on Painting among the Ancients. da G. 1660. Treatise on Ancient Painting. Observations on the Art of Painting among the Ancients. Fonseca.y of Manchester. Sandrart. Sur la Peinture des Anciens. London. and London. 4to. Scultura. folio. 4to.234 APPENDIX. Joann. in Vol. four vols. Part 2 of Vol. Paris. 1767. Sur la Peinture des Anciens. folio. 1697. Des Peintres anciens et de leurs Manieres. Entretiens sur les Vies et sur les Ouvrages des plus excel- lens Peintres. five vols.

Lezione detta neila Academia della Crusca in- torno a' Pittori. Orlandi. Extraits des difFerens Ouvrages public sur la vie des Pein- tres. Bullart. 1677. Paris. A. par A. F. ed Architetti moderni da Lionc Pascoli. Bologna. folio. 1707. Le vite de' Pittori. 4to. by R. Luc. 1742. Giardano. Baldinucci. 1747. scritte ed illustrate da Carlo Dati. Rotterdam. Table Historique et chronologique des plus fameux Pein- tres anciens et modernes. contenant les Vies et les Eloges des Homines illustres. London 1716. de Scultori. Greci e Latini. continued down to the present times according to the order of their succession. curiously engraved on . M. e sia serie degli nomini i piu illustri in Pittura. 1728.. Account of the most eminent Painters. 1704. Brussels. Paris. Fuseli. De Pictura Yeterum. 1776. 1695. con loro Ritratti al naturale. 1692. a degli Architetti moderni. de Filippo. 4to. 4to. Rome. 12mo. Papillon de la Ferte. ed Arcliitettura. Accresciuta colla Vita e Rittrato del Car. 1730-6. Harms. par J. folio. Brunswick. De Piles. 8vo. two vols. L'Academie des Sciences et des Arts. Orbis universi a Mundi Exordio usque ad annum 1611. Pet. folio. Rome. 1769. ancient and modern. 235 Noms des Peintres les plus celebres. Abrege de la Vie des Peintres avec des Reflexions sur leurs Ouvrages par II. da P. Rome. Graham. 1672. da Giovanni Pietro Bellori. Vite de Pittori. 4to. There is a catalogue of the Painters and other Artists of Antiquity in Vol. 1694. 1611. Scultura. anciens et modernes. Portraits of the most eminent Painters and other famous Artists that have flourished in Europe. 4to. 12mo. P. Zuric. Scultori. Dictionnaire generale des Artistes. 12rao. 4to. 4to. Abecedario Pittorico. 10 of Junius's work. Opmerii Opus Chronmogr. Yiti de' Pittori antichi. APPENDIX. Paris.

quelques Reflexions sur leurs Characteres et la Maniere de connoitre les Dessins et les Tableaux des grands Maitres. Museo Fiorentino. Paris. l'Abbe L. from original Paintings of Van Dyck. 8vo. 8vo. 1782. exhibiting not only Sketches of their principal Works and professional Characters. Pilkington. The Gentleman and Connoisseur's Dictionary of Painters. 1780. Dezallier d'Argensville. but a variety of romantic Adventures and original Anecdotes. Catalogue of the Disciples of the most famous Masters. London. Paris. Muratore under the fictitious name of published Lamindo Pritanio. a Discourse on the Actual State of the Spaniards in Literature. ON TASTE. 8vo. 8vo. Fontenay. A. Riflessione sopra il buon Gusto. A. Guido. three vols. dont les Tableaux conipo- sent la Galerie Electorate de Dresde. large fol. par M. from 1250 to 1767 to which is added a . above one hundred copper-plates. and in the first vol. and most considerable Works. avec leurs Portraits gravee en taille-douce. at the commencement of a translation of certain Comedies of Aris- . and other celebrated Masters . 1776. 1742. &c. Florence.. Jansens. Firenzc. A. Manuale de' Pittori 1792. Venice. 12mo.. 1708 and 1717. Dictionnaire des Artistes.236 APPENDIX. Abrege de la Vie des Peintres. two vols. Juan Sempre y Guarinos.. 4to. containing a Complete Collection and Account of the most distinguished Artists. che contiene Iritratti de Pittori. Delia pcrfetta Poesia. London. Dresden. Characters. London. Abrege de la Vie des plus fameux Peintres. 1767. with engravings. Teniers. who have flourished in the Art of Painting in Europe. J. 4to. Biographical Memoirs of Extraordinary Painters. 1739. par M. with an Account of their Lives. Madrid. L. 1745. Mademoiselle Dacier has a digression upon Taste. les Indications de leurs prin- cipaux Ouvrages. intorno le Scienze e le Arti.

. 4 of D'Alembert's Melanges. and in his Lettres Choisies de M. in his Lettres curieuses de Litterature et de Morale. Taste. Bodmer. sur les Moyens de le regler. 12mo. Essai historique et philosophique sur le Gout. 1751. B. Discours et Reflexions sur le Gout. Paris. M. Paris. Lettre de J. Batteaux. Discours sur le bon Gout by J. Paris. which she defines. and on the the Influence and perfecting of Good by J. Du Tremblay. et sur les Differences du Gout. 1713. by the Abbe Seran de la Tour. 4to. by Cartaud de la Yilate. F. 237 tophanes. 1736 and 1751. styling it the Clearness of the Reasoning Faculty inciting to a just choice the Enthusiasm of the Heart. de l'Academie Franc. 1764. et sur l'Abus de la Philosophee en Matiere de Gout. 1 of his Cours de Belles Lettres. by Vol- taire. Frankfort. by Le Cat. quam Artes sec- tantur. . sur le bon Gout dans les Arts et dans les Belles Lettres. The article Gout in the French Encyclopaedia. APPENDIX. J. de la Carne de Sainte-Palaye. in Vol. Lettres sur le bon Gout. Reflexions sur 1' Usage. in his Essais sur le Beau. Amst. On Use of the Imagination. Dissertation sur le Gout. Bach- aumont. in Yol. The Harmony or Agreement between Wit and Reason. Maniere de bien penser dans les Ouvrages d'Esprit. Paris. Gottingen. 1708. by Tormey . Reflexions generales sur le Gout. Gottl. L'Art de sentir et de juger en Matiere de Gout. 12mo. and 1771. 1763. Paris. Pere Bonhours. Thomasius was the first who wrote on Taste. Heyne. Paris. by Rollin. 1762. in the New Memoirs of the Academy of Berlin. in his Maniere d'enseigner et d'etudier les Belles Lettres. De Morum Yi ad Sensum Pulchritudinis. to M. 12mo. The Entretiens Galans (3rd) likewise treats of the same subject. by the Abbe Bellegarde. Of German authors. 1727. auctore Chr. 1684.

Gerard. in the second vol. Clio. in the Philosophical Inquiries of Harris. 1776. 1785. 1790. Attempt to show that a Taste for the Beauties of Nature and the Fine Arts has an influence favourable to Morals. by T. Edinburgh. Pollier. London. a Discourse on Taste. The third on the Faculty of the Judgment. 1784. The seventh section of Essays on the Intellectual Power of Man. Berlin. Essays <>n the Nature mid Principles of Taste. or. Treatise on the Influence of Manners upon Language and Good Taste. is almost entirely on the same subject. by A. In the Theory of the Fine Arts. Alison. Edinburgh. xix. Edinburgh. by G. 1783. of Criticism by I. Philosophy of the Fine Arts. London. on the Pleasure which the Mind . Chap. . The Discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds Inquiry into the — Principles of Taste and the Origin of our Ideas of Beauty. 1766. Zoelia and Hortensia. London. by C.238 APPENDIX. London. Kant. L790. Essay on Taste. Of Taste and its Improvements. Letters concerning Taste. Cooper. Of the Standard of Taste and of the Delicacy of Taste. London. vol. A Treatise on the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful. 1768. Percival. by S. 1782. in . receives from the Exercise of Taste in particular. in Beattie's Dissertations Moral and Critical. 1785. and Essay on a Taste for the Fine Arts. Hall and another tract. of Memoirs of the Literary and Philoso- phical Society of Manchester. Lon- don. Manheim. Schott. Essay on the Taste for the general Beauties of Nature. London. In the Revision of German Literature is a Treatise on the Taste of the Present Day. 1789. 1753. there is a chapter on Taste. the Essays and Treatises of Hume. I. London. Thoughts on Taste and Genius. Reid. 1772. by Alex. in his Moral and Literary Dissertations. Findeisen. treats principally of Taste. Kcenig.

by Richardson. Quelles sont les Sources de la Decadence du Gout ? by the Abbe Laserre. Dell' arte di vedere nella belli Arti del Disegno. . 1775. Paris. Pindemonte. 1785. to be found in his Volgaritz dell' Inno a Cerere. . Venice. Venice. Two Discourses and Essays on the whole Art of Criticism. et sur le Jugement qu'on doit faire des Tableaux. 230 Esprit des Beaux Arts . 1733. Sulzer also under the same . 1771. J. Herder. two vols. by the Abbe Zaugior. 1781. 1753. by P. title by Millm Dictionary of Painting. 12mo. Lettres sur la Naissance. 1784. Dissert. Dictionnaire des Beaux Arts. Estevc. in German. Bass.. APPENDIX. accompagnato da copiose Osservazione da Stef. 1768. Sentimens sur la Distinction des diverses Manieres de Pein- ture. Berlin. Milan. et Gravure. secondo li principi de Sulzer. in his Reflexions sur la Poesie. as it and in behalf of the Science of a relates to Painting. by Watelet. Conversations sur la Connaisance de la Peinture. Montpellier. L'Idea del perfetto Pittore. Dell Carattere nazionale del Gusto Italiano. by Rimond Sant-Mard. Maniere de bien juger des Ouvrages de Peinture. Causes of the Decline of Taste among different Nations. Paris. London. 1677. Bosse. &c. Discorsa sul Gusto presente della Bella Lettere d' Italia. De Piles. Histoire Raisom'e clu Gout. Arteaga. del D. Dessin. per servire de Regola nel Giudizio che si deve formare intorno all' Opere de' Pittore. Matteo Borsa. 1649. Paris. Zurich. et la Decadence du Gout en France. Paris. 8vo. 1785. Nismes. et des Originaux d' avec leurs copies. 1719. or. Thoughts on Beauty and Taste in Painting (German). 1762. le Progres. e de Mengs. Connoisseur. Del Gusto presente nella Litteratura Italiana. 1771. Winckelmann.. 4to. Venice.

Prezel. Estanipes. de Sculpture. &c. ou Ton trouve les princepaux Termes de ces deux Arts. collu Vita de' piii celebri Professori della medisinie Arte. Dizionario portatile delle Belle Arti. Paris. Sulzer. avec leur Explication. 1792.. Scultura. avec un Appendix de quelques Nonogranimes. par l'Abbe Marsy. Dictionnaire portatif de Peinture. 1758. Dictionnaire abrege de Peinture. 8vo. et Gravure. 1766. et d'Architecture. 8vo. Venezia.. five vols. pour acquerir une Con- noisance exacte des bons Tableaux anciens et modernes. Gotha.. soit antiques. Theorie generale des beaux Arts. 8vo. 1796. et une Description succinte des plus beaux Ouvrages de Peinture. 1746. 8vo. faites un sujet de la Conservation des Tableaux. Sculpture. avec un Discours sur 1' Incorruptible. la Yie abrege des grands Peintres et des Archi- tectes celebres. par Louis de Winckelmann. Dictionnaire des Arts de Peinture. par M. G. Sculptures. soit modernes. Nouveau Dictionnaire des Peintres. 8vo. redigee par Ordre alpha- betique. Paris. et 1' Architecture. 1793. four vols. par G. par Watelet et Levesque.240 APPENDIX. . (German. Paris. two vols.) PRESERVATION OF PICTURES. 8vo. 8vo. par Lacombe. Dagly. Leipsic. 8vo. Berlin. 1706. Recueil des Memoires et diverses Experiences. par J. che contiene quanto e di piu remarchevole nella Pittura. Dictionnaire portatif des Beaux Arts. Aug. LEXICONS AND DICTIONARIES. Intaglio.. 1758. (German).

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Carnbiaso . . Yilla Cambroso . Titian . Do Do. Methods. Perino del Yaga . Early Morazzone . . Luini . Taorrnino . Do. Gaudenzio Ferrari Devotional . Fn Novae a.. Spinola Fresco. Duomo . Sant' Ambrogio . Religious .. Veecellt. Bramante . Fresco. Painters' Names.. . . Historical Do. Mythological Palazzo M.. Religious . . Fresco. Mosaic. Do. Gaudenzio Ferrari Unknown.. . Kind of Subject. Leonardo da Yinci The Last Supper Luini . Antonio di Edessa . Cristofero . . ~ Lnini . Sant' Ambrogio ... 1).. Le Grazie D Maleotto .. IV. Fanciful . Relio-ious . Gaudenzio Ferrari Carlo di Crerna . St. . Gaudenzio Ferrari Religious . Fresco. Calisto di Lodi . Unknown .. LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. . Turin. . . Do Do. Locality. . Convent. f 1 Sacred and Legendary ) [ Duom ° " " Frescc Genoa. Milan.. Doria Panfili Do. NORTHERN ITALY.. Pavia... Perino del Ya°:a • Poetical .

Brescia. Gandino Rama Do. Gnodielmo and Alberto p. > Relig & ions Duomo Lodi di Lodi j Cremona. Luca Giordano . Fresco. Gandhi i Fiaminghiiio Mm rone . f . Methods. .. Malosso . I lit tucco Ferraramola Moretto f San Giov. Do. Gambara . Fiaminghino Do. Payia. . . Gandino Moretto Do. . . . Fanciful . }Santa Maria) Salmeggia . Giugno . Battaglia . San Faustino Foppa Do. Historical Catajo. San Guiseppe . . Bergamo.. ) 258 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Primaticcio Paolo Veronese . .. T . San Domenico . Sta. Bagnadore Rossi Religious Sant' Afra . ( Maggiore { Unknown. Mantua. Locality. . Palazzo del Fe . Maria del Pilati . . Ancient Santa Grate Padovanino Moretti . Sandrino . Carmini . . . . . Religious . { Maggiore Sandrino . . Religious Sant' Andrea .. San Pietro . Kind of Subject. Evan- Romanino Do. San Nazzaro . Giulio Romano . 1 gelista Ant. . . . — con. Grazzie Rossi . { Legendary Do and otliers Giulio Campi . Boccaccio Boccacini. Mantegna .

. (Palazzo della i Giotto Various . Do. 259 Painters' Names. ( della Fabrifin | Gambara . Anastasia Do. 1 Strada del lam I Classical . Eufemia Romanino . Veronese . Padua. . Caliari Do. Do.. . EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. Do. ( mi one- Verona. Paolo Farinati Religious . Venice... { Ragione Giusti . Doge's Palace Fresco. Do. Legendary . Gualtieri . Fianimingo II. . Sta. . Moroni Capella Pellegrini Do. Tintoretto . Fresco.. Kind of Subject. Allegorical . Locality. . Do Do.. Do.. .. Oil. Do.. 13th century San Fermo . Gambara . Do San Giorgio Do. Carl. Sta. Unknown. Do. Brescia. Do.. D<>. ( bara ( CasaMari Inengi i Ferrainniola I) . (San Pietro-Ser-1 Unknown. — con... Gambara . P. . . SS. Giotto . Elena Mosaic... Do. i Caroto Religious . 13th century Religious Do. ( \ Sacred and \ Legendary j Giotto's Chapel Guarienti . Sta. Euphemia. Religious Duomo . Nazaro e Celso Do. D . . 6th century Do. Tintoretto .. canvas. do. . Unknown . Sta. Eremitani ... . Palazzo Venezze Campagnola . Stefano de Zevio Do. Vicentino . . Allegorical Oorso del Mercanl i Do. Manteo'na . Pappafava Do.. Religious . Do.. Felice Aldighiero di Zevio Avanzi . . Aldio-hiero di Zevio Jacopo Avanzi Do. .and Gab. Fresco. Unknown. Unknown Sta. on Historical Leonardo Bassano . Giolfino San Bernardino Fresco. .

.260 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names.

Do. Tintoretto 1 Do. Salviati Salute P. San Pietro e San P. Tintoretto . . OiL Pal ma Giovini Tintoretto . Maria del Car. Tintoretto . Chiesa de' Ge. del Piombo Do. G. Bellino . Maria della Da Tiarini . . II Santissimo) Do. Veronese Historical Palazzo Pisani . . San Giov. . Do. . Campi . Veronese Titian Pamia . . Kind of Subject Locality. 10th century Religious cello sale ( J PlACENZA. Sta.suiti Da Titian . Sta. Tintoretto . 1 Rocco Cima da Conegliano L. St. Giov. Do. da Udine Do. Tintoretto . Crisos. della Do. Campagna Gavassetti . Venice. Do. Vivarini tomo P. San Sebastiano Do. . 1 EXISTING MURAL DEOORATIO 261 Painters' Names. Religious Santa Salvatore . Sta. Rocco . . Pordenone Giov. Do. F: MlJBANO Giov. Bellino . Lotto Do. Veronese . ( Scuola di San i Tintoretto . Maria . i San France- Malosso Religious -co. Sojaro . i Redentore Bassano St. — con. . T< - Unknown. Do. Grimani . Bellino S. Giorgio Mag- Do. Pordenone Do. Sant' AntoDio . Do. M Do. Grande Caniillo Gavassetti Do. . Titian . Do. Paolo Palma Vecchio Maria (Sta. giore Titian . Tintoretto mine Tintoretto Titian . . Do.

2G2 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. .

Ligozzi . Bartolomeo Sta. . Do. . . Fresco. Fra. Fresco Bern. Mosaic. .. Fresco. Veronese Prata. Agnolo Gaddi Do. . Gaddi Vecino . Gad. Religions j { Capella de Sacramento} I). Paolino . Do Fresco. ... Spinello Spinelli Benozzo Gozzoli Cigoli . Vasari . Locality.. Fra. Gliirlandajo . Portrait ( Communita.. Religions Duomo . Do. Crist. [ Duomo Unknown . San Paolo . Allori . Religions . Do. Crist. . PlSTOIA. Beccafunie Gliirlandajo Giotto . Caterina Oil. Allori . Buffalmaco Simone Menimi Ant. Tempesta . Mecliarino . . Collegio Puteano . Francesco Traini Fra. Unknown . . Do. Lanrate .. . Piet. Bernard Falconi Riminaldi .. Veneziano And. Jacopo da Empoli Bronzino Lod. Historical San Stefano . Campo Santo .. Do. Religions Do. 263 Painters' Names. Filippo Lippi .. Do. Frato Mino da Turrita A. * Palazzo della Paolo Uccello .. • lOiL Seb. EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. ( Capella della I ^ ( Sacra Cintola J Pisa. Cimabue . Orcagna Do. . Religions Duomo . Kind of Subject. Buti . .. Tasi .

Kind of Subject. Religious Baptistry Fra. Empoli.. di Casentino Santa Croce Vasari .. . . . Billiberti . Jac. del Castagno Portrait . Do. Do. Aurelio Lomi Religious . San Nicolo . Pisa. crament Martellini . Methods. Do. . del Sarto Do.. . . . Historical Do Tad. San Nicolo . Cimabne Tad. Locality. Orcagna Nanni d' Antonio Religious . Giotto . 264 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Unknown . . Gaddi .. Gaddi . Capella Guigni . . Pisano . Tad. . Gaddi . Tassi Gaddo Gaddi . ..Mar- . Religious Chapel Holy Sa- Tad. . Gaddi jDo. Do. Jacopo daTorrita Agnolo dc Gaddi D. Giotto . Crist. .. And.deiSS. Baptistry Volterano . And.. ( tiri Bronzino Sassoferrato Do... Santa ( Jroce . Giotto .. Fresco And.. Duomo De Banchi Vasari . Ricardi . San Matteo . Do Zncheri . Collegiate Church Cigoli Ligozzi . Do. Do. Ghirlandajo Ang. Do. Religions . . Allegorical Campanile Lnca della Robia Apollonius . Ghirlandajo Do. con. Jacopo da Empoli Religious . . Do. . . San Stefano Florence. Do. Paolo Uccelli . And. . . Allori ..

San Marco . JL Bronzino . Santo Spirito . Do. . . . Andrea del Sarto Franciabigio . Capella Ricci Mosaic.. Legendary . Unknown . . Pantormo . Dello . . Paolo Perugino Ulivelli . Dello Scalzo Do. Annunziata .. Kind of Subject. . Spagnnoli Beato Angelico Religions . Convent Fresco. Sacristy do. { Holy Sacrament Santi di Tito . Simone Mernmi Allegorical and Capella degli Do. Bronzino Do Refectory (old) Do. Santa I Cirnabne i Croce I (Santa .. . Do. Do. Ghirlandajo Daniele da Volterra Religions Santa Felice Do .. Sacred and Le. Met! — Florence. gendary Filippo Lippi . Do Santi Apostoli L.Maria No-) Dora. . Do. Rosselli . Masolino Masaccio . . . Cascetti Birnbacci . ( vella J Bernard Orcagna Do Capella Strozzi Do. Gaddi . Beato Angelico Santi di Tito . Tad. Do. Fresco. Do.. Bronzino Historical Convent do. Passignano ( Chapel of the \ Jacopo da Empoli Religions . Do. . della Robia Pocetti . Cos. Do. Religions . Capella de' Pittori rPietro Perngino Empoli . Legendary. ( Refectory. Beato Angelico Relis'ious Passages. Ulivelli . Vasari . Dom. . . . Do. con. And. .Carmine .. II Volterano . Do. . Religions . Giotto . Do. Paolo Uccello Do Chiostro Verde Do.. Ghirlandajo Do I). Santa Trinita . Fresco.. Legendary . Locality. ) EXISTING MURAL DECORATIo 265 Painters' Names. . Baldi . And. del Sarto Do.

Pocetti . . . Do. Do. . Do. Landi Marini . Passignano Lisrozzi . . .. Allegorical Palazzo Ricardi Do. Do. . "deiPatri' Do.. Gaddi . Historical Palazzo Vecchio . Gliirlandajo Religious Chapel do. Do j La Certosa Do. Do. Do. Maria Madcle- Angelico da Fiesole . Do. J . Colignone Do. Do.. . oftheEdu-^i Catani . I Fra. Do. Do. . Jupiter. Do. — con. Do. . I Sabatelli Do. . Marco da Faenza Arabesque and Galeria Imperiale j Cristofero Papi . La Petraja . . of Flora Do. ) Allegorical -. . of Justice Fedi . Do. II Volterrano . Portrait 1 Hallof Mars. i)o. J lena de' Pazzi P. j cation of J\\-[ Do.. Do. Pietro da Cortona Fresco. . Methods. of the Iliad Do. Do. .. - Ciro Ferri | .. Locality. Historical . . Do. J Martellini Do. . San Miniato ' Fresco. Do Fresco. ( del Bargello ) Luca Giordano . Pocetti . ( piter . Unknown .' ^^ i Chapel Saint' Spincllo Aretino Do. . Pocetti ) Santi di Tito . . Florence. (Chapel Palazzo) Giotto .. I gallery . Bartolomeo Religious ( Maria Nuoval i Mosair. of Ulysses Do. r Do. Vasari . Do. Sta. Do Duomo Fiesole Do. Perugino . James.266 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Do. . Marini . Campo Santo . . [ Religious . f Ospedale di Sta. ! Rossellino . Do. Kind of Subject. Strofa . Saturn.. Cigoli . ) Do. Do. . . Do. Do. Rabbinati Pocetti .

Campo Santo Bastaruolo . 267 CENTRAL ITALY. . Scarsellino Do. Garofalo D. Locality. J . Kind of Subject. Caracci f Casa Guercino. Religious i sario. Bonone . Maria del Vado Fresco Dosso Dossi Palma Yecchio Panetti . Fekbara. do. Cignaroli . Scarsellino . Guercino H. . Do. M< thods. ) I Chiesa del Ro- D( . . Carpi Vit. Cos. Dossi Bastianino . Carl. Parolini Dosso Dossi The Castle Fresco. Duomo Cosinio Tura Garofalo Scarsellino Do. Do Capuchin Convent Nic. San Francesco Mona Ortolano Carlo Bonone Do. Carpaccio Dosso Dossi Scarsellino . Sta. Bonone Bastianino . Caletti . Garofalo . Do. Rosselli Dielai . Tura . Bastiauino Religious . )) EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. San Benedetto Luca Longhi G. San Paolo Fresco. Religious Palazzo del Magis- Ortolano trate . Painters' Names. Do. . . Gue rcmo Various I Cento .

dell' Abate . ? Oil Dom. Sacristy. Freso< Guido . Do. Colonna Do. Calvart . . Brizzi . . Innocenzio da Imola Classical ) Do. Do. Duonio . . { Botan. Do. Fran. Fran. Clnipcls. Creti Ercole Graziani Alf. Costa Girolamo da Treviso Brizzi . Aretusi Don. . . Pellegrino Tibaldi . Ferrari . Fran. Lod. Ant. University . Fil. ( ilirrcilio . Dalmasio Pacini . Caracci Do. century- Religious San Stefano . Do. Oil. j Lecture Room. . Brizzi . Frescc Nic. Mazzoni Tiarini . . . Rossi Fran. . Frescc Tiarini . 12th and^ loth. Kind of Subject. Lombardo Guido . Francia Tiarini . Locality. Lor. .268 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Tibaldi Fiorini . Parmigiano Costa . I /on. Lip. Teresa Muratori GiosefFo Dal Sole Graziani Bigari . Gardens] Unknown. Do. Spada . San Domcnico . Method BOLOGXA. Mastelletta Do. Do. . . Francia Do. Franceschini Bagnacavallo Zanotti . .

Caracci .. Religious Chapels del Rosa. Do. . Do. Locality. Do. Francia . Franceschini .. Lod.Fresco. Do. S. Oil. — con. Bartolomeo Do. Fresco. Caracci . Spada Lod. San Benedetto Fresco. Vasari . Costa . 269 Painters' Names. Cavedone . S. Fresco Chiodarolo Mastro Amico Giac.. Giaconio Francia Legendary Sta. Lion. Gruido . Fiaraingo 3esi . Andrea Serani Galanino . Aretusi . Religious Corpus Domini I Oil. EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. Do. Giuseppe Mazza . Marcantonio Frances chini . An.. . Franchescliini Do... Metl Bologna... . Fiorini . Ferrantini .. .. Fran.. Caracci ALbani . Kind of Subject. Sacristy . Gia. Caracci St.. Dangiasi 5r. Do. Giaconio Mag. Passarotti . di Reno Lucio Massari Griacomo Cavedone Grab. Luigi Qnaini . . Colonna Do.. A. Delia Carita Aretusi . Bartol. Lod. Oil. .. . Francia Ercole Procaccini Do.. Francia . G-io. .. Guido . Fresco. riarini . Caracci . Fresco. Lod. Francia Lor. Do. riarini .. Lod. Caracci rio Gruido . Cecilia . Crist ina Oil. gfiore .

Costa . Anton. Oil. Lav. Giacomo Mag. Garbieri . Lor. Rambald Carl. Camillo Procaccini Do. Kind of Subject. Caracci . S. Costa . Locality.. . Lav. Simone da Pesaro Alboni . Tiarini . Dalmasio Do. Fontana . Sta. .. Lod.. — con. Fontana . Ercole Procaccini Carl. .. bano . Lor. Do di S.. di Bari . San Giorg'io Do. Madonna del Ba.Fresco. Lod. Caracci Do. Francesco Brizzi Lor. Francia . Do. Sabbatini Fiarnmingo Ag... Spada . Fiammino'o o Francesca Cossa . Guercino . Francia Lor. Lipp. Lucia . Prospero Fontana Inno. Cesi . Nic.. Do. .Fresco.. Gresorio Oil. Do. Antonio Caracci . 270 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Caracci . da Imola . Colom. Giovanni in Fresco. Bologna. S. Cignani. Methods. . Costa . Monte Samaccliini Lor. Pelegrini Tibaldi Religions S. Fiarnmingo Gia. Curacci . Fran. Caracci . Cesi . Do. Tiarini . . Fel. raccano Pros. Leonardo Lod. Annib. Lavinia Fontana giore Jacopo Avanzi Simone . S. Properzia de Rossi Do. Cignani .

Lod. EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. Religious lombano <li S. . An. Bartol. Bagnacavallo . Passarotti Giov. Procaccini e'iore Canonico Franches chini . M. Fran. Angelo Colonna i Girolami Domini Franceschini . Crespi . Cavedone ... Giuseppe Mazza . Cm. Metl Bologna. Taraschi . Dotti Do. Mastro Amico Asper tini . Lippo Dalmasio . Bartol. Madonna Alboni . Alboni . Tiarini . . Maria del la I Oil Simone de Crocifissi Vita Fresco. Sta. Caracci * J Gioaccliino Pizzoli Do. |<y. Elisabetta Serani Loci. Cavedone . Anrel.. Sta. Milani Ang.. Locality.. . Sicciolante Vicenzo Onofrio Do. Do Tib. Caracci . Lor. Guercino . Lucio Massari Paolo Caracci . Samacchini Carl. Maria Madda- Ercole Procaccini lena Gius. S. . Sta. Caracci Cesi . Do. Soccorso . Mauro Tesi .. Do. Teresa Muratori .. Do. Costa . Do. Passarotti La Maddalena . 271 Painters' Names.. Martino ^fag. Luigi Quaini . in Galliera . Passarotti . Do. Gir.. Kind of Subject. Do. Maria Mag- Erco. — con. Pio . Tamburini . Perugino . Do. Oraz. .

.272 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painter 8' Names.


Fontana Do. Dalmasio The Cesi . Grassi .. Donato Creti .. da Imola . Bonfioli Brizzi . The Caracci . . Do. Do. Sampieri Guercino . Erco.. Tomm. . Legendary Portico Dogana . Lod.. Gio. Do. Tibaldi . Canuti . .. Do. Colonna Colonna Canuti . Lucio Massari Lod. Bologna — con. Historical Do. Niccolo dell' Abate Do. Graziani. Samacchini Tibaldi . Malvezz Franc. Maria Tamburi ni\ Gessi ... Pepoli .. Do. Lip.. Santi . Classical . Palazzo Fava Alboni . Caracci .... .. Piella . Dom.. Misericordia (Environs) . Caracci . Locality. . Kind of Subject. Guidotti Lion. Tiarini . The Caracci . &c. Sedazzi . Lucio Massari Poetical . Caracci . Mares chalci Gnido . Spada . Lor.. . . Tanara . Do.. Brizzi . Ranuzzi Oraz. Do.. . Do.. . Colonna Passarotti ... 274 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Cesi Legendary Scuole Pie . Sabbatini Do. Guercino . Spanish College An. Pallavicini M. The Caracci .... . Pros... Pietro Desani Ang.. Guido . Lauretti .. Caracci . Inno. An. .. Classical Do. Do. Ang... Bagnacavallo . Do..


Kind of Subject. San Yitale . Fresco. . Duomo Mosaic. Do. pola) . linare Forli. Do..Apol-l Unknown. Nuovo Mosaic. Gal la Placidaj Unknown. Battista . Fran. Barbiani Cam. . Religious .. Pasquali da Forli Legendary San Vittore S. Chiara(con- vent) Fresco.. Procaccini . .>s. da Cotignola S. Longhi . Maria Madda- Tomm. . Ravenna — con. Ancient Do. Cignani Fran. . Do. . Do. . Mosaic. Ap-ata . j ( Sta. ( Santa Maria. Longhi Do. Giotto .. Do. Do. . Cesare Pronti 1 Fresco. . Gio- ( vanni Evang. Michele. Sta. in Unknown . P. Carlo Cignani Santa Croce (cu- Religions . J Mosaic. Unknown . 276 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Porto Fuori P>. Religious Cupola. mento do. .. Giotto . in Do. Guercino . Sta. Giainbat. | Fran. Legendary Sta. Do.ofSt. . Locality. Sacra- Franc. . And. . Chapel SS. da Cotignola Religious Sta. Carl. Do. S.. Do. Romualdo (Oil. Archbishop's Pal. Barbiani Luc. ( Cosmedin Filippo Pasquali Dom. Fresco. ( (mausoleum) j Do. Luca Longhi . Apollinare) Unknown . Palma Giovane . . Maria. Sciacca lena Franceschini . Affricisco Mosaic. Barbara Do. Giov. (Basilica S. . Maria. in Giotto Do. Gessi . Luca Longhi . Corvi . . Methods.. .. .. S. Franc. Ancient Religious . in Porto Luca Longhi . Fresco.

Do. Do. . S. j Axcona. . Capuchin Church Do. Tiarini Viviani . . SS. Bellini Do...Maria Nnova Oil. Domenico Girolanio da Cotignola Legendary Servites . Oil Giov. s. formati . 0iL Cantarini . Pronti . s Lod. Guido Religious . lity. di Ri-] Guercino . Pompeo Presciutti Do. d' Arpino . . Forli — con. S. Santi Guercino . . Marrati Guido . . Painters' Names. Sta. . Religious S. daImola Do. Sacramento S. S. Domenichino Cathedral Fre Relio-ious . Fran. Melozzo da Forli Spezeria (exterior. Fix San Mabixo.. Do. Do. Guido . Fr< Cesexa. Sassoferrato Giov. . Filippo Neri Carl. Do. Aless. Mercuriale . Cignani Gucrcino . Cav. . Paterniano . Paul Veronese Guercino . . Pietro Viviani . Giuliano [Oil. S.. t. . . terolamo ( Uil. Guercino . Claudio Ridolfi . . . . Kind of Subject.. Rimini. Relio-ious S. . Francesco . Yicenzo Severino Do.. Relio-ious Council Chamber Pesaeo. Cathedral . Carl. Tommaso Bartol. Franchia Religious Palazzo Publico Uil. . Giov.. da Pesaro Religious .. S. Geno-a . . Do. EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. S..Iimo. Do.. Caracci Perugino . . Guilio Romano . Kic. . . .

Maria del Legendary Oil. Guido Do. . Domenichino . ( Fresco.. Folfi College . Do. Do. . . Caracci Fred.. Locality. Religious Chiesa della Santa Do.. . . Agostino . Tibaldi . Francesco . Sta. . Oil. Mancini Ceccarelli . LORETO. Lor.. Guercino .. ( Sta. . do. Pietro da Cortona Pellegrino Tibaldi Baroccio Do. Bellini .. do. Palma Vecchio . . Do. 1 Piazza . Roncalli . S. Luca Signorelli . Roncalli Jacometti . Religious Agostino Albani ... Mosaic. . 278 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. ( Loggia de' Mer- Tibaldi Mythological Fresco. Pietro Lombardo Ulik nown Church Castel \ Do.. . Lombardelli . . Roncalli Marco Benefial . . Presciutti . S. Do. Do.. Fra.. Cristo. Santi Muziani /Oil. Guercino . Do. Lombardelli . Pelagia . Zuccari. . Mosaic. Chapels do. . S. Do. Do.. Kind of Subject. Fresco.. do. . Fresco. . Lotto . Religious .. Titian . Do. Nnovo . Ancona — con. Giov. . . . Methods. 1 canti . Lnca Signorelli .. . Andrea di Ancona Do. j .. . . . Muziano Gasperini . Guido . . Bartolomeo Simon Vonet After An. . . Casa Carlo Maratta After Domenichino Do. Crist.. Do.. .

. Do. Capuchin Convent Do. Religious Cathedral Oil. . Marco Benefiale Rosso Fiorentino Do. Do. . Alegretto di Nuzio Lanfranco . S. Fresco Citta Di Castelo. Palazzo Bufalini . Giovanni Uebino.. (sacristy) . Giov. Confraternita di Giulio Romano . San Giustino. Legendary Sta. Pomarancio . Kind of Subject. | S. Oil. Capellone do. . Do. . Sta. Do. .) . Do. Francesco di) Titian Do. Severino Do. S. Corpus Domini) i Tad. Oil. . Fresco. Baroccio . i Jnstns Van^ Ghent . Mace rata. ) EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. . . San Francesco Oil. Do. Do.. Do. . Serodine Rinaldo Rinaldi Religious . Paolo . Cater ina . Znccari . Nunnery Sta. 279 Painters' Names.. Bernardino Gagliardi Perino del Vag (?) Virgilio Ducci Legendary Cathedral . Perugino (Qy. Fresco. Do. Ant. Sguazzino . Methods.. . Doceno . Baroccio . Yasari. Circignani Giorg. . . > Church and \ Georgio Andreoli ( Do.. . * (oratory) .Agata . Raffaele del Colle Do. Tom. j S.Oil. Raffaelino del Garbo j [ \ Chiara . Urbania. )" ( Confraternita di 1 ) Lorenzo da S. Giovanni - Fresco. Guiseppe) Timoteo della Vita Do. .. Francesco . . Conca . Ghirlandajo . Religious Cathedral Raffaele del Colle Giovanni Santi . . Locality. S. Oil.

P. Oil. Bufalini . Gherardi Sguazzino . Angelico da Fiesole Do. . Kind of Subject. ) 280 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Religious . Palmo ( riovane . .. St. Gagliardi . Luca Signorelli . .w Sbpolcro. Relierious Cathedral Oil... do. Gregorio Pagani Crist. Lnca Signorelli Do. Do. San Domenico .. . S. Locality. Vent. Trinita Do. Virgilio Dncci Legendary S. Andrea Carloni Do. . Lnca Signorelli Do.. . Fresco.. Tommaso Conca Do. Various . Citta Di Caste llo- continued. Fresco. Virgillio Dncci . Paolo Vitello Do. . Cesare Mag-gaeri Legendary Do. SS. Francesco Mancini Religions . . Contra. Maria Mago-ic-re Do. Oil. Giov. Lignani . Oil. Pomarancio . Giovanni De- Do. Oil. Cecilia . Do. The Hospital . . f Oil. Do. Bernardino Dini . Pros. Pietro Do. Sta. S. . . Do. Ventnra Borghesi Do. (Fresco. Do. Caterina . . Palazzo Vascovile. Do. Vandyck . Do. .. Pomarancio . Raphaele da Reggio Franc. Doceno . collato . S'_:iiazzino . . Sguazzino . Sta. . . da Castello Rinaldo Rinaldi . 1 nale (gateway) Do. Raphael . Cav. . del Sarto Do.. (Palazzo Comu- Lucca Signorelli Fresco. Fon tana Gin. Bartolommeo Fresco. . Legendary S. . Giov. Do. Do Fresco. Pinturicchio .. Sebastian Fresco. Borghesi Raffaele de Colle Religious The Servites Oil. . da Pesara Am!. Do. clella Francesca (?) Circignani . Religions . Borgo S. Do. Oil. Santi di Tito . . . Methods. Do. Squazzino . . . .. . . Sguazzino .


(Sta. S. Francesco Gioballista Naldini . Taddeo Bartolo . Mascagni . Balducci . . Do. Antonio . Cennino da Colle 1 Croce di Giorno 1 Franc. S.. Cav. Kind of Subject. . Paolo Rossetti Religious The Camaldolese Volterrano . S. Pomarancio Do. Religious Duomo . Luca Signorelli .. Maria de' Pietro Peregino . Benozzo Gozzolo Chapel of the Do. Various Various Palazzo Gualtieri Citta Dell a Pieve. Do. ) Do. Cosimo Daddi Jacopo da Furenge . Giov. Masselli . . ( Confra. . Ghirlandajo . Ducciodi Buoningsegna Religious Duomo ... Monastery Volterrano . della| Do. do. Do. Do Daniele da Volterra Do. . . Orvieto. Benozzo Gozzoli. Do. Donato Mascagni . da Fiesole Do. Michele Giuseppe Zocchi Domenico Ghirlandajo Do. Unknown . do. . Don. Locality. Agostino Carlo Maratta Do.. 282 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Religious Duomo • Pomarancio Giov. &c.. Angel. Giovanni Luca Signorelli . . Curadi Volterano . ) Siena. Do. . randi Matteo Rosselli . Gio.. S. Do.. Dom. de G. S. Giovanni Domenichino .. . . Francesco Cur. Do. Mino da Fiesole . Balducci . . Giov. Religious 1 Bianchi . . . Do.. Casa Ricciarelli Do. VOLTERRA. f 1 Virgin Do. .

. . Kind of Subject. Franc. Yanni Casolani Religions San Quirico Oil. Bartolommeo Do. . Agostino . (Fresco.. San Spirito . . .. Franc. Painters' Names. ) EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS.. Salimbeni . Bernardino Fungai Frac. . Fra. Maria de' Servi Fresco. Oil. > . Salembeni . San Martino Do. do. . Sta. Do. Casolani Do.. Locality. Carmine . Franc. Siena — con.. Matteo di Giovanni Do. Do. Bernardino Fnngai Beccafumi . Gregorio Do. Pacchiarotto . Manetti . Historical Do. La Concezzione Do. . Perugiuo . Baldassare Pernzzi Legendary Fonte Giusta . San Cristoforo Do. . Do. Do. lis. Sta. Yanni .. Historical The Library . . Sta. ... . Maria di Rustickino Religions .. . Do.. Sodona . Bernardino Fnngai Francesco Yanni Do. Do. Andrea di Yanni Sodona . Provenzano j Gnido . San Francesco . Pinturicchio . Yanni . . Sodona . Matteo da Siena Yentnra Salimbeni (Oil.. Beccafunii . ]\Iatteo da Siena Religious S. Petrazzi Frac. Yanni . Dieti Salvi Bonaventnra da Siena .. Yanni . San Domenico . j I Fresco.. . .. Sodona . Do. Lorenzo Cini ... Do. Arcangelo Salimbeni Gnido da Siena .Oil. Lnca Signorelli . . Oil. Casolani Paccliiarotto . Gnercino . Lucia .

.. P. Sebas. Ventura Salernbeui Matteo di Giovanni Various ..) } . .. Historical Do. Giac. Osservanti . La Trinita . Pacchiarotto .. Salle delle Ba Ambrog. (Do. . . Do.. Siena — con. Lorenzetti lestre Do. .. Sodona . del Pioinlu> Religious . Marco Bcneiiiil . .Nastasi(Do.. . . Sodona . Pacchiarotto . da Vinci Do. Do. . Beccafumi J Sala del Consis Historical Spinello Aretino ( torio Do. San Viene . St. Taddeo Bartola . (exterior) .. e ) 284 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. j Casa Mensini Folli Legendary ( (exterior) . Locality. Historical Do. delCapanna Do. j Sodona . . Religious . Sebastiano Conca Religious . Romanelli -Urban o Do. . Franc. . .. . Do.. &c (Ceiling Palazzo) Petrazzi . . Bisentina VlTERBO. S. ... Do.. . Salimbeni. .. Sodona . Sano Lorenzetti . &c ena (oratory) . Sodona . Legendary Duomo . Porta Romana . Yanni . Catherine of Si- Vent. .) Domenico Bartolo Historical The Hospital .. Religious . . j Simone Memmi . Beccafumi . Kind of Subject. Francesco Do Do. Do. Do. Pollini .. Baldassare Peruzzi Castle of Belcaro The Caracci . Bambacini j Peruzzi . Do. Legendary San Bernardino Manetti (oratory) Francesca Vanni Vent. . Salimbeni. . . Palazzo Piccolo Bernhard von Orley mini ... Raff.. Leonard. Church. . Chapel Do. Do. Historical ( Publico . j Sala del gran Sermino di Simon Legendary j 1 Consiglio Do.

. Giovanni. Angelico da Fiesole Pietro Panicale .. Do Fresco. Do. Religious . . Kind of Subject... Unknown . . Religions Delia Morte Oil. Giov. The Cathedral .5 Painters' Names. Mark della . Religions . Badi di Padre Pozzi \ Flora (cupola) j Vasari . Baroccio Santa Marguerite Vanni .. Do. Locality. | Do.. Historical Castle Caprarola . . da S. Jacone . Pietro da Cortona Luca Signorelli. Sta.. Empoli . Caw Arpino d' . Lnca Signorelli . S.. Do. Cathedral . Religious S. stroyed) Cortona. Do. Do Do. { Pieve Giotto . . Legendary . Masaccio . Lorenzo Do. Taddeo Do. . S. . Gesii Oil. . Angelo (de- Spinello Aretino . Francesco . I Fresco. Fresco. Religions .. . Ottav. VlTERBO COn... . Lnca Signorelli . Maria della) Vasari Legendary Oil. Pietro della Francesca Historical S. Domenico . Oil.. Do. Legendary S. ... Frederico Zuccari . Marcello Venusti Do.. Benvenuti . Do. Angelico da Fiesole Religions . Sabatelli . Arezzo. r (Sta. Do. Religions . Balvator Rosa . Do. . . Palma Giovane . Cigoli . da Yiterbo | IV' Verita Baldassare Croce Palazzo Publico Do. Oil. .. 2 . Giovanni Religions Cathedral Fresco. — EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. 03. di Giac. .Lor. Caprarola. Ignazio . . Francesco . S.

Pietro) Do. . Giuliana . Baroccio . Pietro da Cartona Empoli . S. Sassoferrato Perugino . . . Carloni S. Sta. Pinturicchio . . Alfani . Girolamo Danti . Do. . Agnese Perugino .S. . . S. jConfra. Agostino Perugia. Salimbeni Andono Doni Do. Caracci . 286 LIST OP THE PBINCIPAL Painters' Names. Domenico Gian. Raphael S. S.. S.. Luca Signorelli . Giannicola Pietro Perugino . Do. Legendary Do. . Pietro de' Casi- Raphael .. . Religious S. Do. . . Do. Perugino . . Dom. . Bernardino . spoiled) Benedetto Bonfigli Perugino . Cortona — con. S. Religious . Perugino . Do. Francesco Cav. d' Arpino . Taddeo Bartolo . . . Benedetto Bonfigli Perugino . Benedetto Bonfigli Giannicola Do. Locality. Do. { Marti re j Aliense .. . Fiammingo La Spagna Vasari . Antonio (de-' Perugino Do. Agostino Guercino . And. . di Paris Alfani Vent. Religious Duomo . S. di Paris Albani Lod. Kind of Subject. Do. Oraz. Ercolano . Methods. Gimignani Oraz. . Do. nensi . Vittore Pisanello Fiorenzo da Lorenzo Do.

M. Fresco. Locality. Do. Parmigiano nensi . Oil. Caterina) Martinelli . da Melono Andone Doni L'Ingegno Giottino Buffalmaco Simone Memmi Giotto or Giottino Do. Do.-' I Perugia — con. S. . P. Sassoferrato . Raphael Perugino Legendary Casa Perugino . •JsT Painters' Names. . Tommaso Oil. . Andone Doni . Dosso Dossi . . Francesco del) ^ Perugino Religious . Do. . Do. (interior) . . Perugino . Do. Do Perugino. S. Raphael Do. Bassano Titian . (Sta. Pietro de* Casi. Giunta da Pisa Lo Spagna Pietro Cavallino Puccio Capanna Religious Sagro Convento . Sala del Cambio . . Kind of Subject. . Fresco Jacopo Gaddi Giov. Do. Giannicola Do. . Raphael Caravaggio Religious S. 1 (exterior) Matteo da Gualdo 1 Do. Paris Alfani . . Cimabue Giotto . Perugino . Chiara . Religious Cathedral Fresco. Monte j Assisi. S. Perugino . . Do. EXISTING MURAL DECORATION*. Antonio da Fuligno Spello. Oil. assisted by) Do. Guercino . Sta. Severo Fresco. . Bedetto Bonfigli Do. Palazzo Comunale Fresco.

S. . Monte falco. Fresco. Religious Cathedral Mosaic. Lo Spagna Palazzo Publico . Methods. Perugino (?) . Kind of Subject. Oil. Caracci . Pinturiccliio . Lod. . Do. Lorenzo FOLIGXO. Fortunato . Do. Religious Zoccolanti PONTE MOLLE. Spello — con. Pinturiccliio Religious . ( Casino della Re- Taddeo Zuccari . Lo Spagna . Locality. Do Fresco. . Religious S. Fresco. Filippo Lippi . Do. Do. 1220 . Spoleto. . Nicolo Alunno Do. 1 288 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Solsernus. . 1 verenda Camera J . Religious The Contesse Oil. S. Nicolo . Cathedral . { Porta Nuova j Naeni. . .) Benozzo Gozzoli . S. f Piazza della \ Crevelli Religious Do. Francesco . .

. jGuido. Giacomo della Porta Marcello Provencal. after . I Pietro da Cortona . after . jDomenichino. Unknown. d'Arpino j Francesco Vanni jGnido. Subleyra. after |Costanzi. after Francesco Ronianelii. Donienickino. 11th or} Religious . after . after Filippo Barigioni. iods. Roncalli. after . EOME. Ancient . do. after . after Pietro Bianchi. . Do. Ancient . ) Do. after (Pietro Cavallini . . Kind of Subject. Painters' Names. after Simone Memmi . Locality. after Raphael. Pierino del Vaga Sicciolante Giulio Roniano . {Guercino. . EXISTING MUKAL DECORATIONS. 12 rli cent. Unknown. after jCaroselli iPoussin . Girolamo Muziani .. ) after Cav.Lanfranco . Canmccini.

Do. . Arabesques. A. do. . dei Do. do. Commune . Unknown. .. B. do. ( Grotte Nuove Do. Sabbatini Do. . .. Do.GiovaneinFonte Carlo Maratta Andrea Camassei Do. Do. . Aisle Procaccini S... . Do. do. . d'Arpino B.. &c. Kind of Subject. . Nogari . Religions . Do. &c Do. . . Peter's. 1 nantius . John Do. Ricci di ISTovara . Unknown. do. . Do. Do. . .. Melozzo da Forli Do. j Ginlio Romano . Sagrestiaj L.. D. Giotto. Croce .. Lateran . . Portraits. Various . Sacristy Giotto . Legendary . . Do.Sagrestiadeij Mnziani Do. . Do. J 1 Beneficiali . &c.. after . Do.. after . 8th do. { House . Religious Scila SantaTribune . .. j Gnido. . 1122 .. I )o. Tdli cent. Chapel of) Unknown.. Giacinto Gemignani Religious S. . Jacopo di Camerino Cav. . Jacopo da Tttrrita Gaddo Gaddi Religions . Do. the Vault .. .. 7lli cent. ( Oratory St.. . Andrea da Pisa . after Legendary Do. J St. Conca . . 10th cent Religions . S.. Andrea Sacchi . Longinos Do. . . Chapter Giotto Do. Roncalli Cav. Caesari . the Confession] Do. . Lateran.. Sacchi. . . Chapel St. Legendary Do. do. . Canonici ( Do. Ve Do. Legendary Do.. Transept. . Nebbia . 290 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. . Locality. ... Chapel Mas- Scipione simo Gaetano Marcello Venusti Religions Do.. . Transepts C. d'Arpino Do.. . II Fattore . .

.. . . 13th or 14th cent. . EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. . S. . da Sermoneta Do.] M Unknown Legendary | (Basilica) . 293 Painters' Names. Do.. Do. 7th cent Legendary M< - 1 le Mura 1 Raphael Religious . (two small- Do. I Consoni Marianecci |Marioni . 8th cent Religious . . Basilica I Unknown. . . Do. . . Legendary S. . Passignani Do. Car. Agostino ! Baciccio I Carlo Maratta i Odazzi . Do.(Passageto Do. (Piazza Pn Baciccio Navona) (S.. Do. Bao-lioni 1 er chapels O | (Do. j Do. Agnese fti Unknown. Andrea al Qni- Mazzanti rinale Boro-oo-none . . Guido . Do. (Vault of Do. Sc. . . . Vault of Jacobus da Turita Do. I )>. .. 13th cent. . Gao-liardi lalbi . . Do. ( Ciro Ferri Corbellini Religious . 1 pel . Oil. Unknown. Do. d'Arpino lina Cigoli . Do. Lanfranco .De Sanctis Do. Sta. D< I Tribune) .. oil. . Fre Cloisters) .. j M< - ( Tribune) Canxuccini Do. . . Do. . . &c. Boghetti . San Paolo . Maria Mag- Philippus Rusutus Legendary giore. . Do. Do Fresco.. Agnese. (Lunette) . Do. . do. B.. Kind of Subject Locality. Croce ( Do. 1 Carta San Lorenzo.CapellaPao. Podesti . . . j Pozzo Cesare . . Graetani Do. 13th cent. (side walls) I )-.. . . I . (Sacristy) Fresco. Sistine ('Impel Nebbia.. Do. . S.. SforzaClia- Gir.

Carlo Maratta Do. Oonstanza . after . . Oav.. . do. Cosma e Do. Religious . Conca Do. Early Arabesques S. Do. after . Angostino Ciampell Do. Religious . 13th cent. .. . dei Scozzesi Do. &c Do Massaccio . Pietro da Cortona Legendary. SS.. . . S. (SS. . Apostoli . .. Andrea delle II Calabrese . Do Do Allegorical . Gavin Hamilton . ). . . S. . Giov. Do.. Do Giovenale da Orvieto ) Religious. ) I (Basilica) . &c. Do. Religious . Andrea Sacchi . Bibiana Pietro da Cortona Gnido . (Lower Unknown. Legendary Do. Benedetto Suti . Locality. do. Cecilia Seb. . Church) . 6th cent. . &c. . Cav. Andrea Camassei Domenichino . . Jamieson . Legendary to Pinturicchio .. in the Corso Francesco Mola . . 1 Damiano Pinturicchio . Domenico Muratori Baciccio Legendary. Guercino. Unknown. Do. . Crisogono . .. Do.. Lanfranco . . d'Arpino. . Early Do. Gnido . d'Arpino Unknown. . dell a Marca Antonio Abate Legendary . . S. . . Domenickiiio . Do. . 9th cent Legendary . 292 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Yalle. Do. Legendary S. S.. ) Do. . Gherardo della Notte Pietro da Cortona Religious The Cappuccini Donienichino . Kind of Subject.. Cosimato Unknown. S. Pomarancio . Carlo a Catinari Guido . S.. attributed) ( Santa Croce. after San Cesareo San C lenient e | Ancient (Excavations) Unknown.. Lanfranco . .

gendary . 9th cent. . iLuca Signorelli i Do. Gniseppe de'\ Carlo Maratta Do Falegnami . Altars . . and Le. Sisto Romanelli . . &c. Poniarancio Tempesta . Do. S. Religions. Do St. . . Francesco) Unknown. i Capalti . Giovanni e) Do Paolo Marco Benefial f . S. Legendary SS. Religious Mo Romano . 1 EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. Fresco. Sacclii . > ( S. Giovanni dei Oil.Zucchero . Etipa . Do. . i [St. Oil. Domenico and Alleo-rani . Passignani Sal viator Rosa Do. Do. ) ^ •Gnido . Lanfraiico . Do. . .. Do. . Franc Baciccio Do. . .. Lorenzo I Do. in Panis-^ Biccherai .. Carlo Maratta S.. ) Gnido . Baccio Carpi Fit Fiorentini Lanfranco . I S. . in Miranda . iGuido and Domencliino Do. Conca i ( S. Santa ( POCe. . . Giorgio in I Giotto . . ) Andrea Sacclii Oil. Isidoro .. j pola. Oil. Baklassare Peruzzi Religions (Basilica. Marco Benefial Pietro da Cortona Legendary Do. . S. Painters' Names. Do. . Do. . . A. i Oil. . Do S. I Roof) . (Cn- Do. Perna . Gesfi. . .. . Damaso F. Do. in Lncina Do. Kind <>f Subject. Gregorio . Luigi de' I SDomenichino Legendary Francesi . Locality. Velabro . . Do. j Fr i Carlo Maratta 'Seb. . .Trilmi. Pomarancio (SS. ) Canuti . .. j Santi di Tito Cig-oli .

. Do.. Luigi de Fran- gio . &c. Pierino de] Vaga . Constanzi .. geli Bianchini . (Chapels) Girolamo Sicciolante Do. Bassano . &c.. Do. Subleyras . j [ I rarcoli j Giulio Roxnana . . Do. Maria di Pinturicchio . Sicciolante Sta.. .. . Legendary S. M. S. . da Volterra . Marcello D. . . do. Do Pierino del Vaga Do. (do. Odazzi . do. .. Maria desli An- Musciano .. S.. Do. .. . . Benefial . . Frederigo Zucchero Religious Do. . Roncalli Mancini Do. Sta. . Niccolo da Pesaro . Do. di Monte) .. Do. . Do. . Battoni . Do. Sopra Mi- Rafiaelino del Garbo Giovanni de' Vecclii aerva Marcello Vennsti ( 'arlo Maratta Do.. P. d'Arpino Do.. Unknown . Delia Navicella . . do. Angelo da Caravag. . Domenicliino Carlo Maratta Romanelli . Do. . Luca Signorelli . do. S. Santo dei Mi- Gimignani. . &c.. Do. da Citta di Cas- tello Do. C Do.. ( 'esare Nebbia Filippino I j i j > ] >I .. S. . Legendary Ara Cceli Fran. Do. . . Do. Palma Giovane. .. Kind of Subject. Do. Francesco Salviati Anima . (Chapel) Taddeo do. Locality. 294 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names.... . Marco . . cesci.. Do. (roof) . Borgonone . . . Cav. . Maria di Lore to Musciano .. Trevisani . Do. . . . Do. Antony) Rossetti .. do. Maria delle Do..

. Do. I). Do. 1 Choir. D . Sicciolante Do..Lunettes [S. Giovanni Do. IIBolognese Pietro da Cortona Do.. Oil... . . Do. .. ) f Do. dei Crociferi Oil. Religious . Raphael Sibyls . Do. ... . ( Do. (Chapel) Pinturicchio Do. .. . > Lodovico di Pace. ility. do. . Do. Religious . . Rosso Florentino Carlo Maratta Baldassare Peruzzi Religious Do. Do. finished by Salviati J Yanni . I Navicella. Maria della Unknown. Do. do. Angelo da Cara. cheros .. D . M - tevere . . . do. da Pesaro . Do. 1 Virgin) .. Casi .. . . (Vault] Do.' I.. Do. Do.. Do.<fcc. . (Cibo Oil. Do. Tiuldeo and Pietro Do. (Van] . . . . . . . . do.&c. ( Cupola) . . . ) Sebastiano del Piombo.. .. Oil. . . (Chapel) Do. vag-o-io .. . del Popolo . ) Do. Do. .MariainT Pietro Cavallini . A. Nic. 9th cent.. Do.. Francesco Yanni Morandi Albano . . Do. . EXISTING MURAL DECOHATI' Painters' Names. . .. do.. after Raphael [ .. Do. Baldassare Pemzzi Pintnricchio . . .. I Ciampelli . >co. Do. in Yallieella Scipione Gaetano Do. Annibale Caracci If. .. . Lavinia Fontana C. do. Carlo Maratta Daniele . Legendary Do. . Morandi Chapel) (Do. . do. della Pi D.. . Kind of Sul.. Caravasfo-io . do. do. .. . . . Do.. (Do. do. Do. { nieri do. do. M. (Chapel) Oil. . Palma Yecchio . do. BaglioniandThe Zuc Do. do. do. . Do. Falco- Giovanni da S. Altar . ... . and Le- dell' Orto Zucchero gendary . Passio'nani Do. .

oristy) . S. i Romanelli . r Fresco. Pietro in) Oil. Sacristy. da Volterra Do.. Pinturicchio J . 8th and 9tli jSS.. . . Onofrio . Do. Do. Do. JSereo ed Religious . Poussin .. Fresco. Pietro in Vincoli Oil. Fresco. .. Locality. . Sebastiano del Piombo (St.. . Jacopo Coppi ...* Angelo l gherini Chapel J Do. Martina . Do. those in freseo well preserved. Pollajuolo's pupils . (Convent) Do. (Oratory) Do. Gaspar and Nicholas J St. . Kind of Subject. Methods. Unknown. . Do.. after . Guercino . Do. clella Vitto- Guido ria Sebastiano Oonca .) i Pietra da Cortona . ceil. do.) Salviati D. &o. . . . Oil. Do. ) Giovanni de' Vecclii Do. ' . Do... Do.Paolo alletre Raphael. S. Do. a ) . . . cent j ( Achilleo . Bor. Do. &c. . . Baldassare Peruzzi L . Do Fresco.. to Van Dyck .. Unknown. ( Monte . (Inner Sa-\ Domenichino . do. . (Tribune) . (do. d'Arpino Carlo Marat t Maria in Valli- Religious S. Roncalli Do. attributed } Do. Oil. Do. Mosaic • Th<> paintings in oil on stone blackened. Do.. Do. Legendary. after designs by M. . . Cav.. after . John) . . j S. Mosaic. Do S. Oil. Prassede. Do. j Fresco. Vaxmi Domenichino . Guercino . roof.. .. (next Chapel) Oil. Rubens . Leonardo da Vinci . Francesco Zucca Legendary Do. Religious .. Do. Mosaic. Martino di) Landscape. I >«>. Do. Paul) .. . S. ( Fontane . Do. .r Fresco. 296 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Mosaic. ) I hi known. St. . Domenicliino \ .. Allegorical Do Fresco. .. 7th cent. Religious i Montorio. of St. Mosaic. .. Do. Do. j Stellaert. Chapel . do. Do. Oth cent. do. cella Baroccio Guido. do. Do. (Chapel of Vasari Do.. ing.

Polidoro da Carava Fresco. B.. C.-'n (Santi Quattero Giov. Religious . Overbeck . Sassoferrato . 7th cent Do... & Fred.. . Do. ) j Do. Pudentiana . del Paradi* Fred. Giuseppe Porta . Odazzi . Giulio Romano . d'Arpino Do. Do. S. do.. do. Do. (Chapels) Oil. Unknown.. . Silvestro al Domenichino . di S. (Cupola) .. Giovanni Legendary Do. Kind of Subject. Do. Scala Regia Fresco. do. Do. do. Religious Do. Religious S. . Dan. Do. 8th cent. Lanretti Do.... ... Ancient Do. Unknown. Teodoro . Silvester) j Do. Do. L. EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. Cav. Oil. (Cupola) l. and pupils of Do. (Vicinity) . Nebbia . Zucchero . St a. Do. Poniarancio Legendary S. (Chap- Unknown. [). Quirinale j . I Fresco. &c. Mi- Poniarancio . Legendary. Matnrino . . . Stefano Rotondo Do Unknown. Zncchero . Locality.. Monti Pierino del Yaga Salviati Veit. . . La Trinita de Fresco. Cav. 13th cent. . Perngino . . Do. Do. . 297 Painters ' Names... Gnido . I'll 'SCO. Unknown. d'Arpino Religions .. Do. da Volterra Sodona . Mosaic. Scipione Gaetani Ricci da Messina Cav. Fontana . Croce Do. Sabina Mosaic. gio . Prassede( hrto cent. ( St. 9th cent. . Do. . The Znccheri Legendary Do. Susanna Fresco. . Historical Do. Fn Unknown. de Pelle- Borgonone grini Tad. I Incoronati . do. Fred. . Oil. S.. d'Arpino Do. Chapel .. 9th S. 5th cent S. Religious . . Mosaic. Zncchero Vasari .

Polidoro da Caravag. Do. gio Giulio Romano . Sandro Botticelli Cosimo Rosselli . Historical . Do. Ghirlandajo .. San Lorenzo) .. Fresco... Do.. Raffaele del Colle Sicciolante da Sermo-^ neta Do.. Great Hall) Pierino del Vaga Arabesques and Do.. Do. Do..(Museo Pio Daniele da Volterra Arabesques Do.. Do... Giulio Romano . . Religious ... Locality. (Loggie) .. G. j Raphael Religious . Do. Do.. Tempesta . Raphael . . (do. wings) Lorenzo Sabbatini.. Sala degli Do. (Great Hall) Fresco. Paris Nog-ari . Do. Pinturicchio . &c. . . Perugino . (theArazzi) T'pestry Podesti Legendary. (Pinacotheca) Oil. . aeroti . Legendary . Scipione Cajetani . (Ca-j Do. The Zuccheri Chiaroscuri Do.. Do. Pierino del Vaga Pelegrino da Modena Do. Do. | Sistina Dom. Franco Salviati / . da Udine .. .. (Capella di) Fra Angelico . . Religious La Trinita Capella Fresco. The Great Masters . Religious Do. Michelangelo Buon. do. (the other Do. Do. Do.. Borgia) .. (Library. do. (the Stanze) Do. Paolina) Do. .... Kind of Subject. Giovanni da Udine . I . Clementino) Raphael . Do. 298 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names... Arabesques . Do. . (Gabinetto Do. . Cesare Nebbia .... Raphael & his Scholars Historical Do... Do. Do. Prancesco Penni . Sodona Pierino del Yaga Giovanni da Udine ... Do. Lucca Signorelli . pella Sistina) [ Do..j Vatican. . (Loggie) . . .... Prancesco Penni Raffaele del Colle . Do. Methods. Perugino .


Mazzaropi . (Falconiere) Do. . Ludovisi Do. Velletrl Cathedral (pe- Perugino. Ph.Fresco. School of. Do. Methods. . Unknown . Unknown . Carlo Maratta Do. Oil. do. Religious Sta. Zucchero /Villa Lante (re- Giulio Romano \ moved to the Do. Fresco. I Borghesi) .Fresco. Massimo Do. Overbeck Fiirich . Giov. Legendary Do. Schadow cheri P. W. ( liosi . Giulio Romano Do. Do. Legendary Do. Poll Romano Giulio Villa Catana Fresco. Torlonia. . . Cav. Kind of Subject. terranean Cha. Tivoli. Religious . Balducci . Maria . Veit Religious House of the Zuc. Camuccini Pelagi . . Classical Villa Albani . Locality. Monte Casino. Monastery (Sub- Marco da Siena . decaying) .Basilio(Convent) Mosaic. S. Overbeck Ph. . Donienichino Do. Grotto Ferrata. Do. Donienichino . | Palazzo Rospig- Paul Brill Fresco. Giov. Cornelius Mengs . da Udine Koch . . .300 LIST OF THE PKINCIPAL Painters' Names. d'Arpino Religious Villa Aldobrandini Fresco. Guercino . Madama Do. . T. Landi . Veit Schnorr Poetic Do. . Religious . rishing) . pel. Fresco. .. Do.

EXISTING MURAL DECOKATIO :. .ul Painters' Names.

. Sanfelice \ Lanfranco . . Corenzio Oil. 23 Do Religious j near gate lead v ing to do. Seb. Do. (Chapels) | 1 Fresco.. .. Simonelli .) Tommaso degliStefani Gian. Marco da Siena ... Caterina a For- Marco da Siena . . Do. Silvestro Buono .. Vicenza Corso Do. Do. | 302 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names.. Do.. (Cupola) j Micheli di Napoli . Sacred and Le S. Historical Guiseppe Mancinelli Francesco Curia . Gessi . Siciliano Corenzio Solimena . Do. Do. Pietro da Cortona Spagnoletto .. (3rd Chapel) Fresco. Giordano '. Various . jS. . (Chapels) Lnca Giordano . (S. Methods.. .. Do. Legendary 1 Maggiore . Legendary Do. . Filippo ISTeri Do. Locality. Solimena . and chapels) J Cesare Fracanzano Roncalli Santafede . Andrea da Salerno . (7th do. Do. . (Chapel) J . Bonito Do. Do. Do. (Cupolas) Do.. j Ao-nola Franco . Francesco Sinione . Lnca Giordano .. (Arena. Domenico) Andrea da Salerno . .. Do. Do. . Francesco di Mura . Religious . .. Do. Domenichino . . Conca . gendary mello Giotto Destroyed Santo Chiara Fresco. Fresco.. (Sacristy) Fresco. Religious Do. L. Benasca . .. do. Kind of Subject.. . (Refectory) [House No.. (4th do..) Albert Durer (?) Maestro Simone . . . Giotto (?) . Carlo ali' Gennaro Maldarelli Religions . S. Do. Do. Gnido . Tintoretto .

do. (Sacristy) Do. 303 Painters' Names. Fresco.(Clia] Palma Vecchio Cav. Giovanni a Do I Leonardo da Bisnccio Fresco. Gregorio Ar. . d'Arpino S. Giorgio dei Andrea del Salerno Legendary 1 Genovesi S. Gesu Vecchio .. Bernardo Lama Bernardino Siciliano Marco da Siena . Carbonara . gina . Religious . . L'Incoronata . i . Giordano . Imparato . Francesco di Camuccini .. . Giordano . Do.. Locality* Bassano Andrea di Salerno Mignard OiL Religious S. Doceno . Bernardo Lama Religious . Do. Nuovo Fresco. Paola . Giordano .. Stanzioni . Do. Oil. . ) Yasari . Lorenzo Oil. (Sacristy) Fresco. » EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. Maria degli An Bernardino Siciliano geli Do. Kind of Subject. Vincenzo Corso Andrea Vaccaro De Matteis Religious S. S. &c. school of Allegorical. . Angelo Criscuolo Spagnuoli Andrea del Sarto ( S. Marco da Siena Solimena . . S. Guiseppe a) Molinari Legendary . Do. Chiaja .. Maestro Simone Antonio Solario Do. . L. Giacomo dcgli Do. Giotto. dell' An- Francesco di Mura . do. Gennaro di Cola Historical Do Do. Donna Re- Religious Do. Criscuolo . Do. i L. Do. Do. Spagnoletto .Filippo. Corenzio L. Pacecco de Rosa meno Frea Spagnoletto . Legendary Oil. G. Oil. Do. . do. S. Religious . mmziata Corenzio Do. &c. Oil. j Solimena .

zie. do. Santafede . Do. &c. Cav... Lionardo da Pistoja Legendary Do. Do. . do. . Spagnoletto Do.. Carlo Caliari . . (vanlt) Stanzioni . do. della Pieta) Do Religions . . Caracciolo .Oil. Stahzioni . (side walls Fresco. Do. Araato il Vecchio Do. Anella de Rosa . . Do. (Refectory) Do. . Do. Do. of the Crucifix) j L. . Stanzioni . Do. . delle Gra Andrea da Salerno Do. Polito Do. Do. . &c. Do. Do.* | - t of do. (Cupola). choir) Domenico Vaccaro Stanzioni . Do. Do.. Fresco. ( S. ... Andica Vaccaro . Do. Religions . .. Oil. . do. (Chapel) Oil. (Chapels) . L. do. del Pianto . . Religions S. . Do. . Giordano Giordano . Legendary j F resc0 . Guido . la Nnova Fresco. Fresco. (Chapel) Corenzio Do. Do. do. Corenzio Carlo Maratta De Matteis . Stanzioni . Do. . Corenzio Do. Do. . Do. Pietro del Donzello Religions Do. 304 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Simone Papa .) ) . . Locality.Maria Donna) Micco Spadaro . . . Martino Fresco. Do. &c. Do. do. Finoglia . della Sanita Vaccaro. Methods. Giordano . Giordano . Do. { D Coeli E g!m : } F — Bernardino Siciliano Do. Do. .. Do. Lanfranco . Fresco. Do. Do. Spagnoletto .. del Par to . Oil. Spagnoletto Do. Romita j ( . Do. Do. Annibale Caracci Solimena . . Do. . Giordano Stanzioni L.. . Andrea Vaccaro . d'Arpino Do. Marco da Siena .. . do. . Do. Kind of Subject.

Do. . Historical Do. e Paolo . Sckeffer Corenzio Religious SS. 1 180 Do. (Chapter Stanzioni . (the Choir) Fri Corenzio Religions S.Marl in . . do. Silvestro dei Buoni Do. Btanzioni . Francesco Imperata Legendary Do.p. . Cav. Paolo Magtriore Do. L. (Sacristy) 1 1 >. Michelangelo da ravaggio Spagnoletto . Legendary Chapel) . Do. Do. Do. . . (Sacristy | .: Luca Cambiaso Do. do. (the Tesoro) Do. Pietro ad Protasio Crivello. Stanzioni . . Carava^'gio Santafede . Corenzio Do. Severino t Do. Do. . Aram do. Do. Do. Do. (Ch 1) . i to Sacristy) | I Soliniena . . Oil. Religions Monte della Mi- Corenzio sericordia Giordano . Oil. Do. Martin Corenzio Do. (del Coll' - f . d'Arpino Stanzioni . Micro Spadaro ( Landscape I ( pels) . Corenzio Finaglia Do. Vaccaro Religious and I S. . Do. Avanzino . a Maiella De Matteis Do. f Marco di Siena . S. | Corenzio Lo Zingfaro Various Do. Stanzioni . x . De Matteis Cav. . EXISTING MIKAL DECOK\ Painters' Names. Do. Calabrese Legendary Do. ( Do. f Do. . Monte Oliveto . Caiacciolo . Kind <>i' Subject. i Marco da Siena sio Criscnolo ! . (d'Aval Santafede . do. . do. . Ho. do. . do. Giordano . . Religious Do. Legendary j > v Do. Do. J Parhecco di Rosa La Mnra Do. do. Sinione Papa . Do. . Do. Do. .

.306 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names.

. Steinle Religions Cathedral Fresco. Herrmann and other: Classical Glyptothek scholars . Historical Hofgarten (some Do. Foerster Zimmermann Rochel . Painters' Names. Munich. \ NewPinakothek Herr von Kanlbach Yarions Do. Herr von Kanlbach . Hiltensperger decaying) Lmdenschniidt Schilgen Gassen Eberle Monten Neher ! Tsar . assis-\ r» t pelle. Veit Historical Museum . tic. and other scholars j gendary silica) . Locality. Do. Encaus- Scholars Do. i £> •*> isonilacn (Jia- •• mSi Fresco.<: Von Schnorr and Do.07 GERMANY. designs by Classical . The Residenz . . )1 EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. Stilhe . . Historical New Mm ram . Religious and1TLe.aft. assisted by I Religions and Ludvigskirche and Do. Cologne. Water- erlat a DUSSELDORF. Schinkel.". Direktor von Corne-] lius. (Exterior) . Stiirmer Herrmann . f Kanlbach . Thor Do. (Alleheilige Ka- Heinrich Hess. Berlin. Kogel lterior. Kind of Subject. and ted by Shraudolph - . Fresco. . Portico Museum -co.

. Miiller.. Appolixaeisberg Deeger .Chapelle Rethel . <tc..308 LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL Painters' Names. Appolinaris Fresco. Religious St.. Locality. Methods.. &c. Do.. Historical Rathaus . . Kind of Subject. Ittenbach . Aix-La..

Do Notre Dame de Do. Alaux Do. .il de ( rrace Gros 'Oil. . 1 Maraia . Mi guard Religious . St. Lorette Lusson . Do Madeleine . Blondel Saint . . . 1 Paul. Vincent di Do. Abel de Pujol Guillemot . Royer . Oil. . . .ene Delacroix Do. Historical Pantheon Gerard /Ecole dee Beans Pan! Delarochc Do. ( Saint-Denis diO Eup. ute-Elizabeth . Abel de Pujol Sclmetz . . Louis Fresco. Signol . ( rermain des a Hypolite Flandrin Religious 1 Frea . .Delacroix Do. Saint-Ambroise Do. ( pola) . Fresco. Jacqnes Lesueur Allegorical . Couderc St. 1 cycle . Severin Flandrin Do. i I (St. Painters' Names. Ornamental Sainte Chapelle . . Picot . FllAXCE. V. ) Flandrin . Kind of Si lity. - Fi John) J . Paul. . EXISTING MURAL DECOItATK'. le Abel de Pujol Decaisne Religious . . Orsel Perrin . . | Zieg-ler . . Arts (Ik-mi. Valbrun (Saint-Rocli(Cu- Pierre Do. Wax. ( St. Saint-SnJpice . . (Chapel St. St. . Do. Delaroche . Vinchon Henri and E. Do. Temper. Violet Due. du Haut-Pas .

Perrin . . Monvoisin . Brunetti Wafflard . des Blan-] G. Gaillol . Oil. . Lesueur Do Sainte-Marguerite Do. do. co-Manteanx j Vanloo . Do. Guerin .Jean. Auuron Do. Frezel . . Do. Do. Decaisne . Lebrun . Do. Coypel . . Saint. Vauttier Mignard Ant. Saint-Nicholas des Delestre Champs Caminade Valentin Daurin .Leu . Do. j (Do. Methods. . . Do. du Char. desVictoires Oil. donnet Lesueur Mignard Notre-Dame de^ C. Gostier . Historical Ary Scheffer 1 Saint-Francois j Greuze . . 1 Antin . bois . l'Abbayc-aux. do. Conderc Seb. Bourdon Simon Vouet Do. Signol . Picot Saint. do. Do.Laurent Religious . 1) 310 LIST OF THE PKINCIPAL Painters' Names. Coypel Perron . ( Saint-Louis d' Do. Dep-eorges . f Saint . Do. A. Simon Vouet Lemoine Halle . Do. Galoche Restoul Bon Boullonge L'ee-lise des Restoul Do Missions et. Kind of Subject.. . Do. . . Do. Locality. Lebrun Do. . Phillipe de Champagne Delaval . en l'He Oil. . .

i 1 Painters' Names. EXISTING MURAL DECORATIONS. :. .

Do. Kind of Subject. Maclise. . . Watts. . G. Thornliill . ' Sculptors. . R. after Do.A. Burleigh . W. Greenwich Hos- (Allegorical ] pital j Verrio Do. Do. Do. R. J.312 LIST OF THE PKINCIPAL ENGLAND.R. . E.A. A. (Arcades) after. . Do. Stotharcl. . Maclise. Dyce. after flic famous Soutli Kensington Mosaic. . Hampton Court Do. . Do. F. A.. .. . . Do. Do. . Armitage. Do. A. Sir J. . A. .^ Summer house. Buckingham r Do. Armitage. after . Locality. Do. Do. Do. f University Hall. and The Water- D.A. [All Saints. . Do. 1 Whitehall J . Do. R. do. R. F. (Chapel Royal) Sir Peter Paul Rubens Allegorical Oil. Do. Do. Leighton. ( Religious . .A. . Do.. . R. j garet Street Y Do.A. Do. Do.. Do. . Do. R. Redgrave.A. R.A.] and other Royal Y Poetical . 1 Islington . . J Palace . Sir Edwin Landseer. . G. Do.A. (Religious St. R. 1 (retouched) (St. Paul's (Dome) Do. R. Do. . F. Tenniel . Ward. : Waterloo) .A. . Watts. . Mosaic. Paul's (Spun Stephens. J. 1 Gordon Sq. . Methods. . J Houses of Par C. . . Historical -Meeting at i glass. Do.. . R. . Fresco. Do. C. Do. after (Portraits of Poynter. M. A. (retouched) Do. Cope. . . Dyce. R. E. D. W. Do. . Poetical . I dril) . Do. R.. ( Catholic Chapel. . . Do. Mar-] W. . A.. . Do. J.. . . . i Historical .A. Herbert. . I 'ainters. .A. &c. . . Painters' Names. &c. Barker Bath Fresco. Historical liament . R. R. R. R. . E.A. (Death of ISTel-j f son. Do.A..A. R. Academicians . Horsley. .



C . 172. and Distemper \\< re well nndi This preference for Fresco in the execution of monumental work the halcyon days of art was. FINIS. Distemper is much m such conditions the latter soon perishes. it is. it was sparingly. If Fn it tible of injury from damp walls. however.. Oil. J. here and thi racies in reference to the methods. E. therefore. and the preservation of thil in Italy. Ogden and Co. St. and when adopted. and it : of the Royal Commission on the Fine Arts that many I : long survived the retouchings which were made in Tern] withstanding the durability of Mosaic. CONCLUDING REMARKS In so extensive a list there may possibly be. Printers. and with the tion that was the best adapted to the purpose. The TTater-Grlass process may prove superior to all otl the preceding table shows that till the invention of this | Fresco had the testimony of the Great Masters and the centuri- its favour. deliberate. it was never a favourite method with the great painfr architects. sufficiently to show that Fresco was preferred by the I for Mural Decoration. and within well defined limits. though Mosaic. John Street.

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