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Nozzle tip will get damaged because of sulphuric acid corrosion.

That is the main reason most of the

engines cooling water temperature of the nozzle cooling is kept at 85C and in modern engines the cooling
of the nozzle by separate cooling system has been abandoned.

Q.399 What occurs in the combustion space of a diesel engine cylinder shortly after ignition and
before piston reaches TDC?
Ans. (c) Rapid increase in the pressure and temperature.
When the piston is nearing the TDC and the fuel is injected, the temperature inside the combustion space is
sufficiently high near the self-ignition temperature of the fuel. Hence the fuel catches fire and because of
this, sudden increase in the pressure and temperature takes place. The initial stage of ignition takes place
under constant volume therefore the temperature and the pressure increases. In the later stage, the
combustion takes place under constant pressure because the piston is moving downwards and the volume is

Q.400 The effective pump stroke of a port and helix fuel injection pump is determined by
Ans. (c) plunger control rack position.
The rack position will determine the position of the plunger helix with respect to the suction port of the
barrel. This angular position will determine the quantity and time for which the fuel is injected. Hence more
the quantity of fuel more the load and lesser the fuel lower the load. The time for which the fuel is actually
injected into the cylinder is called effective delivery stroke of the plunger which is decided by the helix
position and the position of plunger with respect to the barrel.

Q.401 The amount of fuel delivered by helical plunger type fuel injection pump is controlled by
Ans. (a) rotation of the pump plunger.
Rotation of pump plunger by means of rack and pinion arrangement will cause variation of angular position
of helix with respect to the suction port on the fuel pump barrel. Due to this, the effective delivery stroke of
the fuel pump will change which means that it will change the time for which the fuel is injected. Hence it
will control the quantity of fuel delivered in the unit because the position of plunger helix whether the
termination of the fuel injection is carried out earlier or later part of the injection stroke.

Q.402 Which of the following conditions will develop if the flow of raw cooling water to diesel engine
is obstructed?
Ans. (c) Jacket water temperature will increase.
The jacket water-cooling is a closed circuit and it uses the fresh water. The jacket water is cooled by raw
water by the use of heat exchanger. If the raw cooling water flow is obstructed, the quantity of heat
removed from the jacket cooling water is reduced. At the same time, the jacket cooling water is receiving
heat from the engine which is not being removed from the cooling water. Hence the jacket cooling water
will go on rising continuously.

Q.403 The effect stroke of a constant stroke individual fuel injection pump is varied by the
Ans. (a) controlled rack.
The controlled rack is engaged is with the pinion which in turn is engaged with the controlled sleeve of the
fuel pump. The controlled sleeve, when it rotates, will rotate the fuel pump plunger with respect to the
barrel. This rotation will change the angular position of helix with that of the suction port on the barrel.
Hence ultimately the effective delivery stroke of the pump will change and hence it will change the
quantity of fuel injected.

Q.404 Which of the listed conditions occur if a diesel engine cylinder exhaust valve is leaking?
(a) loss of compression for the cylinder.
(b) misfiring or rough engine running.
(c) damaged valve.
(d) All of the above.
Ans. (d) All of the above.
When the exhaust valve is leaking automatically, the compression pressure drops. When the compression
pressure drops the fuel will not ignite properly. Hence there is a possibility that misfiring takes place. At the
same time, due to low compression pressure the fuel will not burn properly which may cause high exhaust
temperature and loss of the peak pressure. When the valve starts to leak, the high-pressure gas at high
temperature will start to pass through the leaky portion of the valve. This will result in wear or wire-
drawing effect on the valve and valve seat. Thus causing excessive damage to the valve and valve seat and
excessive high exhaust temperature which increases fast.

Q.405 High firing pressure and low exhaust temperature in a diesel engine may result from
Ans. (c) early fuel injection timing.
In case of v.i.t. controlled injection, the early injection cause the fuel to mix up better with the quantity of
air available it will have more time to mix up and form combustible mixture. Due to this, fuel will burn
efficiently and very near to the TDC which will cause high peak pressure and low exhaust temperature.

Q.406 Exhaust pyrometer reading provides an indication of

Ans. (b) distribution of the load between the engine cylinders.
Exhaust gas pyrometer reading which gives the exhaust temperature of individual unit is a rough estimation
of power developed by the individual unit. As a thumb rule, higher the exhaust temperature more is the
power developed and lesser the temperature less is the power developed but this may not be always true. If
the exhaust temperatures are nearly equal, it indicates that all units are developing equal powers and hence
the engine is properly balanced as far as power is concerned.

Q.407 A change in the degree of fuel atomization in a diesel engine cylinder has the greatest effect on
Ans. (d) combustion of fuel in the cylinder.
The more degree of atomization, with proper penetration, will cause better fuel efficiency because the fuel
will be divided into very minute particles which will have more surface area available and the evaporation
of the fuel will be faster so as to form a combustible mixture. Hence the mixture will burn efficiently and
promptly due to which the combustion inside the cylinder will be efficient.

Q.408 Diesel engine oil having low cetane number can result in
Ans. (c) combustion knock.
Lower cetane number of the fuel low is the grade of the fuel and because of that ignition delay will
increase. Hence more fuel will get accumulated inside the cylinder before it catches fire. When it catches
fire it will give knocking effect because of sudden formation of pressure wave. This knocking effect is
called diesel knock which directly depends on the quality of the fuel.

Q.409 To successfully reduce an excessively high diesel engine exhaust gas temperature
Ans. (d) you should reduce the load on the engine.
As a general rule more the load on the engine more will be the exhaust temperature. Hence the first action
to be taken if high exhaust temperature is noted is to reduce the quantity of fuel which is burnt. This is
possible by reducing the load on the engine which reduces the quantity of fuel burnt and the exhaust
temperature reduces immediately.

Q.410 High exhaust temperature and black smoke exhausting from an engine can be caused by
Ans. (a) engine overload.
When engine overload takes place, the amount of fuel burnt is always higher than the quantity of the air
supplied. At the same time, high quantity of fuel is injected. This high quantity of fuel injected cannot burn
in the available time. Under such circumstances, afterburning takes and along with lack of proper quantity
of air it will have higher exhaust temperature and black smoke.

Q.411 Combustion gas venting through the expansion tank can be caused by a
Ans. (b) cracked cylinder head.
When the cylinder head is cracked, during compression stroke when high peak pressure and high exhaust
temperature takes place, these high pressure combustion gas will enter through the cracked cylinder head
valve into the water space. This gas being lighter it will try to rise upwards and get accumulated inside the
expansion tank and it will come out through the expansion tank weld. The gas coming out through the
expansion tank weld will have exhaust gas smell and water in the expansion tank will get discoloured. Also
if the crack is big, more quantity of exhaust gas will find its way into the expansion tank, the expansion
tank may get bubbled out and may get empty due to trapped exhaust gas. Also, the jacket cooling outlet
temperature of that particular unit will also be high.

Q.412 Which of the following problems can cause fluctuating pressures in the closed cooling system
of a main propulsion diesel engine?
Ans. (b) Cavitation in the cooling water pump.
If the inlet in the cooling water pump is restricted or the water is having high temperature, cavitation will
take place in the form of bubble at the suction of pump. Due to this, there will be partial loss of suction.
This will cause the variation in discharge pressure which will result in fluctuations in the pressures of
closed cooling water system.

Q.413 A fuel leak occurs in a high pressure piping between the fuel pump and fuel nozzle. This
requires immediate repairs because of the
Ans. (b) serious fire hazard.
The high pressure pipe leakage will cause the high pressure fuel to leak through the cracked portion of the
fuel pipe. Due to this, the oil coming out through the cracked portion will be in the form of a fine mist. This
mist when it comes in contact with the exhaust manifold or hot surface of the engine, as there is sufficient
amount of air in the engine, it will result in fire in the engine room. Hence immediate repair is necessary to
avoid this fire.

Q.414 Individual cylinder performance in the diesel engine is routinely determined by the exhaust
Ans. (c) pyrometer readings.
As a general rule, the exhaust temperature will give a fairly good idea of power developed by the individual
units. The exhaust gas temperature from individual unit is taken into consideration as a measure to
determine the power developed by the individual unit. Hence as long as all unitss temperatures are equal or
they are within a prescribed limit, this indicates that all units are developing nearly same power and the
engine is properly balanced.

Q.415 Excessive diesel engine cylinder exhaust backpressure will be caused by

Ans. (c) an obstruction in the exhaust silencer.
When the exhaust valve opens and exhausting takes place through the exhaust valve, if the exhaust gas
silencer valve is blocked or choked, there will not be easy flow of exhaust gas and complete emptying of
the exhaust gas from the cylinder will not possible. Under such circumstances, when the piston is on the
upward stroke it will give a backpressure over the piston and there will be loss of power in overcoming this

Q.416 The injection pressure of a hydraulic fuel injection nozzle can be increased by
Ans. (d) increasing compression on the pressure spring.
The fuel is injected when the pressure developed by the fuel injection pump will act on the annular space
around the fuel injection nozzle will overcome the spring compression from top on the fuel injection
nozzle. As the compression pressure increases, more pressure will be required by the fuel injector nozzle to
lift up against the spring compression. Hence more the compression pressure more will be pressure
required for the fuel injector to open. Hence the injection pressure will increase as the compression pressure
of the spring increases.

Q.417 The combustion knock occurring in a diesel engine can be caused by

Ans. (d) prolonged ignition lag.
Due to prolonged ignition lag the time between the fuel injection and fuel ignition will be large. During this
time, large amount of fuel will get accumulated into the combustion space. When this accumulated fuel
suddenly gets ignited it will cause an explosive pressure wave which will create the knocking effect.

Q.418 Which of the following problems could develop due to the accumulation of oil vapours into the
crankcase of diesel engine?
Ans. Crankcase explosion.
Accumulation of oil vapours in the crankcase and presence of hot spot will cause the vapour to convert into
oil mist. When the oil mist comes in contact with the hot spot in presence of large quantity of air, which is
available in the crankcase, it will form a lethal combustible mixture and it will cause a crankcase explosion.

Q.419 One problem resulting in a diesel engine fuel injector opening pressure being lower than
specified by the engine manufacturer is
Ans. (d) quantity of fuel injected tends to increase.
As the fuel injection pressure is lower than recommended by the engine manufacturer, the fuel injector
valve will open much earlier but the closing will not alter. Due to this, the quantity of fuel injected will be
more than what is required.

Q.420 Which of the listed reasons is the most likely cause of a sudden drop in compression pressure
in one diesel engine cylinder?
Ans. (b) Malfunctioning of the valves.
Malfunctioning of the valves may be because of improper adjustment of the tappet clearance or the valves
may be sticky or leaky. Under all these conditions, during compression, the compressed air will leak
through the leaky valve and automatically the compression pressure will drop.

Q.421 repeated in Q.420

Q.422 Failure to open the diesel engine test cock after a long period of shutdown prior to starting
may result in
Ans. (b) damage to cylinder head and piston.
If the test cock or the indicator cock is not opened and the engine is started and due to any reason there is
accumulation of fluid on top of the piston, this fluid will get compressed. As the fluid is incompressible,
excessive pressure will be developed between the piston top and cylinder head bottom portion. This will
cause the cracking of the cylinder head, damage to the piston, bending of the connecting rod or in worse
case it may cause damage to the crankshaft in the way of slippage.

Q.423 Which of the listed conditions is most likely to cause a crankcase explosion?
Ans. (b) Fuel dilation of lubricating oil.
When fuel dilation of lubricating oil takes place, automatically the flash point of the lubricating oil reduces.
Under such circumstances, if there is any hot spot present in the crankcase and the oil mist is formed along
with the oil mist there will mist of the fuel present. This mist of the fuel will be more prone to explosion
and hence explosion will be caused much early.

Q.424 repeated

Q.425 A diesel engine is operating with excessively high exhaust temperature in all cylinders. In order
to correct this condition, you should first
Ans. (a) reduce the engine load.
As a general rule if the load is more on the entire engine, the entire engine will be using more quantity of
fuel. When more quantity of fuel is burnt, automatically more heat will be generated. This will give higher
exhaust temperature for entire engine. Hence to reduce this exhaust temperature the quantity of fuel
injected is reduced and to reduce to quantity of fuel injected, you have to reduce the load on the engine.

Q.426 The overspeed trip installed on most diesel engines will stop the engine by shutting off the
Ans. (b) fuel oil supply.
When overspeed takes place in order to prevent the damage to the engine it is necessary to stop the engine.
For instantaneous stopping of the engine. the best possible way is to shut off the fuel immediately. This is
done by the overspeed trip which will bring the position of the fuel rack of all the fuel pump to zero
position and no fuel will be injected and the engine will be immediately stopped.

Q.427 White smoke exhausting from a operating diesel engine may be due to
Ans. (a) cracked liner.
Especially if the liner is cracked at the lower position, the water will enter into the combustion space. This
water when it gets evaporated, during the combustion stroke because of combustion of fuel, will form
steam. This steam will come along with the exhaust gas into the atmosphere through the funnel of the ship.
When it comes out it will get cooled down by the atmospheric temperature. This steam will be visible due
to water present in it and it will form white mist when it comes out of the funnel.

Q.428 Black smoke exhausting from an operating diesel engine can be caused by
Ans. (a) fuel dribbling from leaky fuel injector.
When the fuel is dribbling from leaky fuel injector it is actually coming into the combustion space when it
is not required. At the same time, it is not in atomized condition. Under such conditions, afterburning will
take place and fuel which is dribbling will not mix properly with the air. Hence the improper combustion of
this fuel will take place during the exhausting stroke of the engine and hence black smoke and higher
exhaust temperature will be indicated.

Q.429 A device which functions to bring a diesel engine to fullstop to protect it from damage is known
Ans. (b) overspeed trip.
If the due to any reason the engine gets into overspeed, due to the centrifugal force caused by rotation, there
will be excessive damage may take place to the engine to the extend that the piston may come out from the
cylinder or from the crankcase or the bottom end bearings may break. In order to prevent such heavy
damage, it is necessary that the engine should stop immediately. This is possible by installing the overspeed
trip which will sense the overspeed and immediately shut off the fuel.

Q.430 Which of the following conditions can cause oil to accumulate in the cooling system of a diesel
Ans. (b) Defective oil cooler core.
If the lubricating oil cooler, in which the cooling is carried out by jacket cooling water especially in case of
small engines, is leaking the lubricating oil will find its way into the jacket cooling water. This system is
utilized in the engines working in the cold weather where the lubricating oil is cooled by jacket cooling
water in a cooler.

Q.431 Lubricating oil accumulating in the cooling water system of a diesel engine will result in
Ans. (b) poor heat transfer.
When the lubricating oil find its way into the jacket cooling system it will coat over the heat transfer
surface. As lubricating oil is poor conductor of heat, it will effect the efficient heat transfer and will cause
the overheating of the liner and the cylinder head due to the overheat transfer.

Q.432 When the opening pressure of a diesel engine fuel injector is greater than that specified by the
engine manufacturer
Ans. (a) the quantity of the fuel injected decreases.
If the opening pressure of fuel injector is more than that specified by the engine manufacturer, the fuel
injector will open late and it will close at particular time depending upon the load. Hence the automatically
the quantity of the fuel injected will be reduced because of the opening of the fuel injector is late.

Q.433 Black smoke exhausting from an operating diesel engine is an indication of poor combustion
which may be caused by
Ans. (c) clogged air intake passage.
If the air intake passage is clogged, automatically the engine will be starved off the air. The quantity of fuel
injected will not burn efficiently because of lack of sufficient amount of air. If the fuel does not burn
efficiently, it will be indicated by black smoke and high exhaust temperature.

Q.434 The highest pressure in a diesel engine cylinder normally occurs

Ans. (c) after TDC.
As is indicated by the draw card the fuel is injected slightly before TDC. Depending upon the quality of the
fuel, the fuel will mix with the hot air which is available to convert itself into a combustible mixture. This
combustible mixture will ignite to give a sudden maximum pressure denoted by Pmax. For this process to
take place, there is some time lag between fuel injection and fuel ignition. Hence by the time complete fuel
burning starts, the piston has already passed the TDC and it is slightly on its downward stroke. This is the
time when complete fuel will burn and high pressure wave will be formed. Thus the maximum pressure in a
diesel engine will be always after TDC.

Q.435 Diesel engine lubricating oil dilation with fuel oil is indicated by
Ans. (a) decreased viscosity.
If the lubricating oil is getting contaminated due to fuel oil, the viscosity of the lubricating oil will drop
down because the viscosity of the fuel oil is much lesser than the viscosity of lubricating oil. Hence when
they get mixed together, the viscosity of lubricating oil will drop down depending upon the quantity of fuel
which is contaminating the lubricating oil. This is easily checked by the flow stick which are supplied for
the on-board testing of the lubricating oil. Also, it will drop the flash point of the lubricating oil. This is the
most dangerous situation and action should be taken immediately otherwise bearing damage will also take

Q.436 A broken pintle in a fuel injector usually causes

Ans. (c) distortion of the spray pattern.
When the pintle breaks or gets eroded, as it is controlling the single hole in the center of the nozzle, when
the needle gets lifted up under the high pressure of the fuel oil. When the fuel oil passes around the pintle
the distribution pattern of the fuel oil changes.

Q.437 Diesel engine cylinder head test cocks are used

Ans. to remove the accumulated oil or moisture from the top of the piston.
In order to avoid the hydraulic pressure developed during starting of the engine which may otherwise cause
damage to the cylinder head, liner, piston, connecting rod and the crankshaft, it is necessary to blow
through the engine just before starting it on air and fuel.

Q.438 A classical way of checking for excessive fuel injection in one cylinder of an operating diesel
engine is
Ans. (c) frequently checking the cylinder exhaust temperature.
As a general rule, the cylinder exhaust temperature is an indication of the quantity of fuel burnt in that unit.
Hence higher the fuel burnt higher is the exhaust temperature. Hence by checking the exhaust temperature
we can get a rough idea as how the distribution of fuel is taking place for individual cylinder. If the
temperature is at higher level by rough estimation we can assume that the quantity of fuel delivered to that
unit is higher than as compared to any other units.

Q.439 A diesel engine emits a blue exhaust smoke as a result of

Ans. (c) excessive cylinder lubrication.
If the cylinder lubrication is excessive in that case the cylinder lubricating oil will burn along with the fuel.
When the lubrication oil burns it gives a blue tinge to the exhaust gas from the funnel.

Q.440 Which of the following problems could cause misalignment between the needle valve and fuel
injection nozzle?
(a) A bad fuel needle.
(b) A defective nozzle tip seat.
(c) Distorted valve body.
(d) All of the above.
Ans. All of the above.
If the needle is bad it will not sit squarely on the valve seat. If the valve seat itself is distorted then the
needle will not sit properly on the valve. At the same time, if the complete body is distorted, then along
with the body, the cylinder in which the needle moves will also get distorted and hence needle will not sit
squarely onto the seat. This will also cause the distortion and misalignment of the needle and valve seat.

Q. 443 The highest load applied to the diesel engine crankshaft main bearings are
Ans. (c) firing loads.
During the firing of the fuel, the piston is nearly at TDC position and the piston rod, connecting rod and the
connecting rod bearings are nearly in the same vertical plane because of which full load of firing is
transmitted to the crankshaft. When the load is transmitted to the crankshaft, the crankshaft is supported by
the main bearings. Thus the load is transmitted to the main bearings and ultimately to the bed plate and
transverse girder.

Q.444 If the diesel engine fuel injection timing is changed to delay the start of injection until the
pistons are at TDC, the engine will
Ans. (b) develop less power under load.
If the fuel is injected when the piston is at TDC, by the time it mixes up with air and forms a combustible
mixture, the piston has already passed TDC and is moving downwards. Under such circumstances, the
firing of the engine will take place when the piston is moving towards BDC. In this condition, the firing
will take place under increasing volume instead of constant volume so the pressure cannot be developed
onto the piston. As the pressure on the piston top is most important from the point of view of power
developed considering the power developed is given by
Power developed = PLAN
In this condition, power developed by the engine will reduce and whatever fuel is burnt will be wasted due
to afterburning resulting in high exhaust temperature but low power.

Q.445 Increase in compression ratio of a diesel engine while maintaining designated rate of fuel flow
will result in
Ans. (a) increase in the horsepower.
If the compression ratio increases, the air in the cylinder will be more dense and the quantity of air
increases. At the same time, the temperature of the air at the end of compression increases. As a result, the
fuel injected will burn efficiently and promptly. All this will result in more power being developed by the
engine because more heat can be released from the fuel which is burnt.

Q.446 If the jacket water temperature in a diesel engine rises rapidly above normal, you should
Ans. (b) first reduce engine load.
Jacket cooling water temperature will also roughly estimate the engine load. Higher the engine load, higher
will be the heat absorbed by the jacket water and hence the temperature will increase. Hence jacket water
temperature is a rough estimation of power or load on the engine. If the jacket water temperature is
excessively high and it is not because of any other reason such as malfunctioning of jacket water cooler,
then it is necessary to reduce the load and carry out the further investigation and rectify the fault.

Q.447 During which of the listed piston stroke of a four-stroke cycle diesel engine is the piston
moving downwards?
Ans. (a) Intake stroke.
In a four-stroke cycle diesel engines, the piston will move downwards two times: one during the expansion
stroke and one during which air will be drawn inside the cylinder called the intake stroke. During the intake
stroke, the intake valve is open and the piston is moving downwards so whatever increase in volume is
there, due to downward movement of the piston, will be filled up by the incoming air under intake stroke.

Q.448 In operating diesel engine, preignition can be caused by

Ans. (b) oil in the air charge.
Preignition is caused because ignition takes place before the fuel is injected. This is possible only if the fuel
vapours are present in the air suction. When this air is compressed these vapours will get ignite before the
fuel is injected and will cause the preignition.

Q.449 Significant retardation of diesel engine fuel injection timing will result in
Ans. (d) reduced engine power.
Retardation of fuel injection timing will cause the fuel injection to occur late during the compression
stroke. As the fuel injection is late, by the time it forms a combustible mixture with the compressed air, the
piston will be near to TDC or it might have already passed the TDC. If it has already passed the TDC and if
fuel ignition takes place, the pressure is increasing; also the volume is increasing as the piston is moving
downwards, hence the maximum peak pressure reduces which will cause loss of power. Also, afterburning
will take place and the exhaust temperature will be high but the power developed by the engine will be low.

Q.450 When fuel is injected late into diesel engine cylinder

Ans. (d) fuel consumption will be high.
When the fuel is injected late into the diesel engine cylinder the combustion will take place late and
afterburning effect will take place. The maximum pressure will reduce due to which the mean effective
pressure will be reduced. Ultimately the power developed by the engine will be less but the quantity of the
fuel burnt will be same. Hence the specific fuel oil consumption of the engine will increase and the thermal
efficiency of the engine will drop.