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DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

“HOW NIGHT VISION WORKS”

By

S.SILPA – 07881A0540
BRANCH: CSE

Silpa1012@gmail.com

L.TEJASWI – 07881A0552
BRANCH: CSE

tejaswi_lingala@yahoo.com

VARDHAMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


Kacharam , Shamshabad.
RangaReddy Dist. A.P.
ABSTRACT

Night Vision scopes and binoculars heat is a photocathode, similar to


are electro-optical devices that the one in a video camera, except it
intensify (or amplify) existing light is sensitive to infrared radiation
instead of relying on a light source instead of visible light. ability to
of their own. The devices are improve poor night vision.
sensitive to a broad spectrum of
light, from visible through infrared. There are two methods of operating

An accessory illuminator can night vision systems, being either in

increase the light a 'passive' mode or an 'active' mode.

available at the infrared end of the Passive systems amplify the

spectrum by casting a beam of light existing environmental ambient

that is not visible to the human eye. lighting, while active systems rely

Our paper is an image process on an infrared light source to

application for night vision provide sufficient illumination.

technology, which can be often used Active systems are often used today

by the military and law enforcement on many consumer devices such as

agencies, but are available to home video cameras.

civilian users . In our work, night


vision googles capture the image Night vision works on two
even in the dark in the infrared techniques: image enhancement,
region. thermal imaging.Applications of
this technology are
An infrared night vision system Surveillance,Security,
senses heat radiated by things and Wildlife observation,law
produces a video picture of the heat enforcement.
scene. The gadget that senses the
How Night Vision Works

Introduction to How Night


Vision Works

The first thing you probably think


of when you see the words night Gyro-stabilized day/night binoculars.
vision is a spy or action movie
you've seen, in which someone
straps on a pair of night-vision
goggles to find someone else in a
dark building on a moonless night.
And you may have wondered "Do
those things really work? Can you
actually see in the dark?"

Night Vision Image Gallery

The answer is most definitely yes.


With the proper night-vision
equipment, you can see a person
standing over 200 yards (183 m)
away on a moonless, cloudy night! • Mid-infrared (mid-IR) -
Night vision can work in two very Mid-IR has wavelengths
different ways, depending on the ranging from 1.3 to 3
technology used. microns. Both near-IR and
mid-IR are used by a variety
Infrared Light: of electronic devices,
In order to understand night vision, including remote controls.
it is important to understand • Thermal-infrared (thermal-
something about light. The amount IR) - Occupying the largest
of energy in a light wave is related part of the infrared
to its wavelength: Shorter spectrum, thermal-IR has
wavelengths have higher energy. Of wavelengths ranging from 3
visible light, violet has the most microns to over 30 microns.
energy, and red has the least. Just
next to the visible light spectrum is The key difference between

the infrared spectrum. thermal-IR and the other two is that


thermal-IR is emitted by an object
instead of reflected off it. Infrared
light is emitted by an object because
of what is happening at the atomic
level.
Infrared light is a small part of the light
spectrum. Basic Technologies:
Infrared light can be split into three Night vision work in two very
categories: different ways, depending on the
technology used
• Near-infrared (near-IR) -
Closest to visible light, near- Image enhancement - This
IR has wavelengths that works by collecting the tiny

range from 0.7 to 1.3 amounts of light, including the

microns, or 700 billionths to lower portion of the infrared light

1,300 billionths of a meter. spectrum, that are present but may


be imperceptible to our eyes, easily to the naked eye but your NVD can
observe the image. see it. This allows you to use your
scope even in total darkness. The
Thermal imaging - This IRI works like a flashlight and the
technology operates by distance you can see with it will be
capturing the upper portion of limited. We do use the most
the infrared light spectrum, powerful eye-safe illuminator on the
which is emitted as heat by market. This allows our IRI to
objects instead of simply extend out to 100 yards However,
reflected as light. Hotter objects, because of the power at a short
such as warm bodies, emit more distance the IRI may cover only 40-
60% of the viewing area.
4. High Voltage Power
1. Front Lens
Supply

2. Photocathode 5. Phosphorus Screen

3.Micro-channel
6. Eyepiece
plate
of this light than cooler objects
When you look through a night
like trees or buildings.
vision device you may notice black
spots on the screen. A NVD is
INFRA-RED similar to a television screen and
ILUMINATORS attracts dust and dirt. Typically
All Starlight scopes need some these spots can be cleaned.
light to amplify. This means that if However, this may also be a spot in
you were in complete darkness you the tube itself. This is normal. Most
could not see. Due to this we have a tubes will have some spots in them.
built in infra-red illuminator (IRI) These black spots will not affect the
on all of our scopes. Basically what performance or reliability of the
an IRI does is throw out a beam of night vision device.Night vision
infra-red light that is near invisible devices gather existing ambient
light (starlight, moonlight or  Detect and Neutralize
infrared light) through the front Mines, Minefields, and
lens. This light, which is made up of Unexploded Ordnance;
photons goes into a photocathode Develop Humanitarian
tube that changes the photons to Demining Technology;
electrons. The electrons are then  Deny Enemy Surveillance &
amplified to a much greater number Acquisition through Electro-
through an electrical and chemical Optic, Camouflage,
process. The electrons are then Concealment and Deception
hurled against a phosphorus screen Techniques;
that changes the amplified electrons  Provide for Night Driving
back into visible light that you see and Pilotage; and
through the eyepiece. The image  Protect Forward Troops,
will now be a clear green-hued Fixed Installations and Rear
amplified re-creation of the scene Echelons from Enemy
you were observing. Intrusion.

Recent Development in the Working of Image


Field of Night Vision Enhancement:
Image-enhancement technology is
Night Vision's mission is to:
what most people think of when you
 Conduct Research and talk about night vision. In fact,
Development to Provide US image-enhancement systems are
Land Forces with Advanced normally called night-vision devices
Sensor Technology to (NVDs). NVDs rely on a special
Dominate the 21st Century tube, called an image-intensifier
Digital Battlefield; tube, to collect and amplify infrared
 Acquire and Target Enemy and visible light.
Forces in Battlefield Here's how image enhancement
Environments; works:
1. A conventional lens, called electrons by a factor of thousands
the objective lens, captures through the use of a microchannel
ambient light and some near- plate (MCP) in the tube. An MCP
infrared light. is a tiny glass disc that has millions
2. The gathered light is sent to of microscopic holes
the image-intensifier tube. In (microchannels) in it, made using
most NVDs, the power supply fiber-optic technology. The MCP is
for the image-intensifier tube contained in a vacuum and has
receives metal electrodes on either side of
the disc. When the electrons from
the photo cathode hit the first
electrode of the MCP, they are
accelerated into the glass
microchannels by the 5,000-V
bursts being sent between the
electrode pair. As electrons pass
through the microchannels, they
cause thousands of other electrons
3. power from two N-Cell or to be released in each channel
two "AA" batteries. The tube using a process called cascaded
outputs a high voltage, about secondary emission. Basically, the
5,000 volts, to the image-tube original electrons collide with the
components. side of the channel, exciting atoms
4. The image-intensifier tube and causing other electrons to be
has a photocathode, which is released. These new electrons also
used to convert the photons of collide with other atoms, creating a
light energy into electrons. chain reaction that results in
5. As the electrons pass thousands of electrons leaving the
through the tube, similar electrons channel where only a few entered.
are released from atoms in the tube, An interesting fact is that the
multiplying the original number of microchannels in the MCP are
created at a slight angle (about a 5-
degree to 8-degree bias) to
encourage electron collisions and
reduce both ion and direct-light
feedback from the phosphors on
the output side. Image of a small dog taken in mid-
At the end of the image-intensifier infrared ("thermal") light (false
tube, the electrons hit a screen color)
coated with phosphors. These
Thermal imaging, also called as
electrons maintain their position in
thermo graphic or thermal video, is
relation to the channel they passed
a type of infrared imaging. Thermo
through, which provides a perfect
graphic cameras detect radiation in
image since the electrons stay in the
the infrared range of the
same alignment as the original
electromagnetic spectrum (roughly
photons. The energy of the electrons
900–14,000 nanometers or 0.9–14
causes the phosphors to reach an
µm) and produce images of that
excited state and release photons.
radiation. Since infrared radiation is
These phosphors create the green
emitted by all objects based on their
image on the screen that has come to
temperatures, according to the black
characterize night vision.
body radiation law, thermograph
The green phosphor image is makes it possible to "see" one's
viewed through another lens, called environment with or without visible
the ocular lens, which allows you to illumination. The amount of
magnify and focus the image. The radiation emitted by an object
NVD may be connected to an increases with temperature,
electronic display, such as a therefore thermograph allows one to
monitor, or the image may be see variations in temperature (hence
viewed directly through the ocular the name). When viewed by
lens. thermographic camera, warm
objects stand out well against cooler
Thermal Imaging Process:
backgrounds; humans and other operation of a modern thermo
warm-blooded animals become graphic camera is often similar to a
easily visible against the camcorder. Enabling the user to see
environment, day or night. As a in the infrared spectrum is a
result, thermography's extensive use function so useful that ability to
can historically be ascribed to the record their output is often optional.
military and security services. A recording module is therefore not
Thermal imaging photography always built-in.
finds many other uses. For example, Instead of CCD sensors, most
firefighters use it to see through thermal imaging cameras use
smoke, find persons, and localize CMOS Focal Plane Array (FPA).
the base of a fire. With thermal The most common types are Insb,
imaging, power lines maintenance InGaAs, QWIP FPA. The newest
technicians locate overheating joints technologies are using low cost and
and parts, a telltale sign of their uncooled micro bolometers FPA
failure, to eliminate potential sensors. Their resolution is
hazards. Where thermal insulation considerably lower than of optical
becomes faulty, cameras, mostly 160x120 or
building construction technicians 320x240 pixels, up to 640x512 for
can see heat leaks to improve the the most expensive models.
efficiencies of cooling or heating Thermographic cameras are much
air-conditioning. Thermal imaging more expensive than their visible-
cameras are also installed in some spectrum counterparts, and higher-
luxury cars to aid the driver, the end models are often export-
first being the 2000 Cadillac restricted. Older bolometer or more
DeVille. Some physiological sensitive models as InSB require
activities, particularly responses, in cryogenic cooling, usually by a
human beings and other warm- miniature Stirling cycle refrigerator
blooded animals can also be or liquid nitrogen.
monitored with thermographic
Generations:
imaging. The appearance and
NVDs have been around for more conditions, such as a moonless
than 40 years. They are categorized night. This increased sensitivity is
by generation. Each substantial due to the addition of
change in NVD technology the microchannel plate to the
establishes a new generation. image-intensifier tube. Since the
Generation 0 - The original MCP actually increases the number
night-vision system created by of electrons instead of just
the United States Army and used accelerating the original ones, the
in World War II and the Korean images are significantly less
War, these NVDs use active distorted and brighter than earlier-
infrared. generation NVDs.

Generation 1 - The next Generation 3 - While there are


generation of NVDs moved away no substantial changes in the
from active infrared, using passive underlying technology from
infrared instead.This also means Generation 2, these NVDs have
that they do not work very well on even better resolution and
cloudy or moonless nights. sensitivity. This is because the
Generation-1 NVDs use the same photo cathode is made using
image-intensifier tube technology as gallium arsenide, which is very
Generation 0, with both cathode and efficient at converting photons to
anode, so image distortion and short electrons. Additionally, the MCP is
tube life are still a problem. coated with an ion barrier, which

Generation 2 - Major dramatically increases the life of the

improvements in image-intensifier tube.

tubes resulted in Generation-2 Generation 4 - What is


NVDs. They offer improved generally known as Generation
resolution and performance over 4 or "filmless and gated"
Generation-1 devices, and are technology shows significant
considerably more reliable. The overall improvement in both
biggest gain in Generation 2 is the low- and high-level light
ability to see in extremely low light environments.
The removal of the ion barrier vision goggles is “sightless”
from the MCP that was added in when someone turns on a light
Generation 3 technology reduces nearby. With the new, gated
the background noise and power feature, the change in
thereby enhances the signal to lighting wouldn’t have the same
noise ratio. Removing the ion impact; the improved NVD
film actually allows more would respond immediately to the
electrons to reach the lighting change.
amplification stage so that the
Many of the so-called "bargain"
images are significantly less
night-vision scopes use Generation-0
distorted and brighter.
or Generation-1 technology, and may
consider the ubiquitous movie be disappointing if you expect the
scene where an agent using night sensitivity of the devices used by

professionals. Generation-2, even a single category are classified


Generation-3 and Generation 4 as COMSPEC.
NVDs are typically expensive to
Night Vision Equipment :
purchase, but they will last if
properly cared for. Also, any NVD Night-vision equipment can be split

can benefit from the use of an IR into three broad categories:

Illuminator in very dark areas where Scopes - Normally handheld or


there is almost no ambient light to mounted on a weapon, scopes
collect. are monocular (one eye-piece).
Since scopes are handheld, not
A cool thing to note is that every
worn like goggles, they are good
single image-intensifier tube is put
for when you want to get a
through rigorous tests to see if it
better look at a specific object
meets the requirements set forth by
and then return to normal
the military. Tubes that do are
viewing conditions.
classified as MILSPEC. Tubes that
fail to meet military requirements in
permanent location, such as on a
building or as part of the
equipment in a helicopter,
cameras are used. Many of the
newer camcorders have night
vision built right in.

Applications:
DARK INVADER Multi-purpose Pocketscope
Common applications for night
vision include:
Goggles - While goggles can
be handheld, they are most often • Military
worn on the head. Goggles are • Law enforcement
binocular (two eye-pieces) and • Hunting
may have a single lens or stereo • Wildlife observation
lens, depending on the model. • Surveillance
Goggles are excellent for • Security
constant viewing, such as • Navigation
moving around in a dark • Hidden-object detection
building. • Entertainment

The original purpose of night vision


was to locate enemy targets at night.
It is still used extensively by the
military for that purpose, as well as
for navigation, surveillance and
targeting. Police and security often
Cameras - Cameras with
use both thermal-imaging and
night-vision technology can
image-enhancement technology,
send the image to a monitor for
particularly for surveillance.
display or to a VCR for
Hunters and nature enthusiasts use
recording. When night-vision
capability is desired in a
NVDs to maneuver through the
woods at night.

Detectives and private investigators


use night vision to watch people
they are assigned to track. Many
At the International Motor Show
businesses have permanently-
(IAA) in Frankfurt, Siemens has
mounted cameras equipped with
introduced a night vision system
night vision to monitor the
that works with infrared technology.
surroundings.
With this innovation, Siemens has
A really amazing ability of thermal also become the first automotive
imaging is that it reveals whether an industry supplier to create a
area has been disturbed -- it can prototype of an electronic
show that the ground has been dug pedestrian marking system. One
up to bury something, even if there quarter of all serious traffic
is no obvious sign to the naked eye. accidents take place in the evening
Law enforcement has used this to or at night. And about one third of
discover items that have been all traffic fatalities are the result of
hidden by criminals, including accidents during these hours.
money, drugs and bodies. Also,
recent changes to areas such as That’s why Siemens VDO
walls can be seen using thermal Automotive has developed an
imaging, which has provided infrared system that’s up to series
important clues in several cases. production standards. Night Vision

Many people are beginning to makes a vehicle’s darkened

discover the unique world that can surroundings visible out to a

be found after darkness falls. distance of 150 meters. Night


Vision generates an electronically
Night Vision System for processed video image that can be
Cars: displayed in real time either in the
head-up display or on a TFT
monitor in the instrument panel. according to temperature
differences and typical shapes and
Depending on the automotive marks pedestrians on the monitor
industry’s design requirements, with a warning. It will be some time
Night Vision works with two before these special features will be
different systems. With the near- ready for market launch.
infrared system, two barely
noticeable infrared emitters are The advanced development phase
integrated into the headlights. The for an exclusively video-supported
infrared light they produce is Night Vision system has been
captured by a small camera completed, however. Production as
positioned close to the rear-view part of a network of driver
mirror. The second system, a assistance systems could be
solution in the long-wave spectral launched in 2008. In addition to the
range, a high-resolution infrared electronic recognition and
camera is installed behind the evaluation of a vehicle’s
radiator grille. Using a wavelength surroundings, Siemens VDO sees
of six to 12 micrometers, it detects comfortable interaction between
the infrared heat radiation from the driver and system as the most
vehicle’s surroundings, which is important development priority.
displayed as a negative image:
CONCLUSION: It’s a
Objects that are cold — because
critical study, which plays a vital
they are inanimate — appear
role in modern world as it is
darkened, and living things are
involved with advanced use of
displayed as brightobjects.
science and technology. The
advances in technology have
The pedestrian marking in the video
created tremendous opportunities
image has been realized by Siemens
for Vision System and Image
VDO as a prototype with image
Processing.The technology has
processing electronics. This
evolved greatly since their
analyzes all the image data
introduction, leading to several
"generations" of night vision
equipment with performance
increasing and price
decreasing.From the above
discussion we can conclude that this
field has relatively more advantages
than disadvantages and hence is
very useful in varied branches.

REFERENCES:

http://medind.nic.in/iab/t06/i1/iabt06i
1p11.pdf
http://blogs.ibibo.com/eminem/Night-
Vision-Technology.html
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/
nightvision5.htm