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Ms. Pooja Chawla Monika

Lecturer B.Com 1st year.

Roll No. 2242

A word processor is a software package that helps to create and edit document.
Creating a Document involves typing in it to the internal memory of computer and
saving it by writing it on the spelling mistake, if any and deleting or moving words,
sentences or photographs.


The steps to activate the Microsoft word are:-

1. Click on the start button on the task bar.
2. Select the programme option from the start menu.
3. Click on the Microsoft word option, this involves MS-Word and displays a Document


A new document window is displayed each time a MS-Word is invoked. The word
document window has the following basic components:

Displays the name of the programmer, the name of currently active word document,
the control menu, icon, the maximize button, minimize button and the restore and
close button.
It is positioned below title bar. It contains options like- file, edit, view and format.
Each of these menu bars has drop menu.

Helps the user to perform tasks faster and with ease. Two of the most commonly used
tool bar are standard bar and the formatting tool bar. The standard toolbar provides
shortcuts for menu command while the formatting toolbar contains tools related to
formatting of the text in the documents. When the user starts MS-Word, these
toolbars are displayed just below the menu bar.

Allows the user to format the vertical alignment of text in a document.

Displays the information about the active documents or the task on which the user is
currently working. This includes page number, the column number, and the line
number on which the cursor is positioned & so on. The status bar is positioned at the
bottom of the window.

Helps to scroll the contents of documents. The word document window has two scroll

Word allows you to create and save a document on the disk. The steps to create and
save a new document are:-

1. Select the new option from the File menu.

2. Select the blank document icon.
3. Click on the document radio button in Create new box.
4. Click on the OK button.
A Blank new document is displayed.


The steps to open an existing document are:-

1. Select the open option from the file menu.

2. Select the appropriate drive and folder.
3. Type the name of file to be opened in the file name text box or select the file from the
4. Click on the Open button.

When a document is typed, it is stored in the internal memory of the machine. In order
to preserve the document for the future use, it needs to be saved on the disk. The steps
to save a document are:-

1. Select the Save as option from the File menu.

2. Type the file name in the File name box.
3. Click on the save button. By default, new document is saved as.
Formatting a document includes assigning fonts and font size, aligning the text,
dividing text into columns, adjusting the line and paragraph spacing, setting margins.
Font dialog box contains most comprehensive collections of
formatting options. The steps to open the font dialog box are:-
1. Select the font option from the format menu.
2. Make the appropriate selection in the font dialog box.
In the effects area, a black color check mark on an option
indicates that the selected text exhibits that particular attribute. A completely clear
box for an option indicates that the selected text doesnt have the specific attribute.

The steps to delete text from a document are:-

1. Select the text to be deleted.
2. Select the cut option from the edit menu, or click on the cut button of
the standard toolbar, alternatively, select the text and press Ctrl+X

The steps to move text from one location to another:-

1. Select the text to be moved.
2. Select the cut option from the edit menu.
3. Position the insertion point at the location where the text should appear.
4. Select paste option from edit menu, or click on the paste button of the toolbar.

Name : Amit

Father Name : Sh. Dalbir Singh

Postal Address : VPO Jasssia, Distt. Rohtak

Date of birth : 16th Nov. 1987

Educational / Professional Qualifications :

10th from HBSE Board.

12th from HBSE, Board
Pursuing MBA from Vaish College of Engg., Rohtak

Hobbies : Drawing, Painting, Listening Music.

Excel is an integrated electronic worksheet program developed by Microsoft
Corporation, U.S.A.
It includes three components
1. worksheet
2. graph(chart)
3. database management
Important features of EXCEL are:
date and time related functions
manipulation of character data(string)
database management
keyboard macros to automate tasks
drawing toolbar to create graphics
each worksheet can have multiple sheets

To load Excel, use anyone of the following options:

1) Start menu > All Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Excel
2) Start menu > Run, within Open text box type Excel and click OK.

All the functions of ms excel as same as ms word only some commands are different
there are some additional commands also like- chart, function, worksheet facilities
etc. the explanation of all there are as follows: -
1. Rows Inserts the number of cells, rows, or columns you select. In Word, this
command is available only when you've selected one or more end-of-cell
2. Cells Inserts cells starting at the insertion point. You can choose to shift other
cells in the table to the right or down. You can also insert an entire row or
3. Chart Wizard Starts the Chart Wizard, which guides you through the steps for
creating an embedded chart on a worksheet or modifying an existing chart.
4. Insert Function Displays a list of functions and their formats and allows you to
set values for arguments.
5. Insert Function Displays a list of functions and their formats and allows you to
set values for arguments.
6. Hyperlink Inserts a new hyperlink or edits the selected hyperlink.
7. Freeze Panes Freezes the top pane, the left pane, or both on the active
worksheet. Use the Freeze Panes button to keep column or row titles in view
while you're scrolling through a worksheet. Freezing titles on a worksheet does
not affect printing.
8. Hide hides the active workbook window. A hidden window remains open.
TITLE BAR-Displays the application name, file name and various window
controls like minimize button, maximize button and close button.
MENU BAR-Different options for selection.
STANDARD TOOLBAR-Displayed by default, allows to give common
commands like saving the file, opening a file, printing etc
FORMATTING TOOLBAR-Allows the users to give commands related to
formatting cells and cells contents like bold, underline, font style, font size, color
NAME BOX-Display the address of the current cell.
FORMULA BAR-Display the cell content.
CURRENT CELL-Current cell will be the active cell.
ROW HEADERS-There are 65536 rows (lines).
COLUMN HEADERS-There are 256 columns.
SCROLL BAR-Used to scroll through different parts of current sheet.
SPLIT BOXES-Used to split the windows into 2 to 4 parts or to remove the split.
TAB SPLIT BOX-Used to adjust the space occupied by the sheet tabs and
horizontal scroll bar.
SHEET TABS- Displays the sheet names. Each worksheet is named as sheet1,
sheet2 &sheet3.
STATUS BAR-Displays on the left side various modes like ready or edit mode.
The status of num lock and scroll lock keys on the keyboard on the right side.
Click the cell where you want to enter data.
Type the data and press ENTER or TAB
By using the Chart Wizard:
1. Select the ranges you want to include in the chart.
2. Click the chart wizard button on the standard toolbar.
3. Select a chart type and subtype and then click next.
4. Verify that you have selected the correct range and then click next.
5. Set options for the chart, data tables and legend and then click next.
Select allocation for the chart and click
Power Point is a component of Microsoft office that is used to create professional
quality presentation. These can be reproduced on transparencies, paper, 35mm slides,
photo prints and on screen presentation and generate speaker notes & audience
A Power Point allows you to create the contents of your presentation by
typing the text and inserting pictures, sounds and animation. It also provides galleries
of image and sound. Power Point makes the creation of any presentation simple by
providing you with bulling professional design elements called Auto Layouts and
presentation templates. You can also create different versions of a presentation for
different audience and built your contents in either a text based outline view or a
design based slide view. Power Point offers you a way to preview your show, add
special effects to the slides displayed on screen and rehearse the timing of each slide.

The steps to activate Power Point are:-

1. Click on the Start Button in the taskbar.

2. Select the programmes option from the Start Menu.
3. Click on the Microsoft Power Point option.

Before you start creating presentation, you need to understand the structure of Power
Point Screen. The Power Point Screen displays several toolbars and basic screen
elements. The components of Power Point Screen are:

MENU BAR: It is the Menu bar in the Microsoft office applications having file, edit,
insert, format, tools, windows & help menu.

TOOLBAR: A collection of button that you can click on to activate some of the most
common commands in power point. Theses commands can also be activated through

STATUS BAR: It is located at the bottom of power point screen. It displays the
number of the current slide and the name of the template on which the presentation is

VERTICAL SCROLL BAR: It helps you to scroll through slides in a presentation.

SLIDE BUTTONS: These are located at the bottom of the vertical scroll bar and
help you to display the previous and next slide.

Steps to create a blank presentation:-

1. Select the new option from the FILE MENU (New presentation dialog box is
2. Select the general tab and double click on the blank presentation icon. The new slide
dialog is displayed.
3. Select a suitable layout & click on OK button.


1. Normal view.
2. Outline view.
3. Slide view.
4. Slide Solar view.
5. Slide Show view.
Tally Simple Accouting

Tally accounting software for simple accounting.

Complete Booking

Tally maintains all Books of accounts starting from records of vouchers, ledgers etc.
Tally handles different types of vouchers like Payment, receipt, adjustment entries
like Journals, Debit notes, Credit notes, Sales, Purchases, Receipt notes, Delivery
notes etc. Tally follows the double entry system of accounting and hence will
eliminate any possible errors.

Books, Registers and Statement of Accounts

Tally maintains all the Primary books of accounts like

a) Books :
Cashbook, Bank Book.

b) Registers : Tally maintains all registers like Purchase Register,

Sales Register and Journal Registers.

c) Statement of : Tally maintains all statement of accounts like Balance

Accounts sheet, Profit and Loss and Trial Balance, Cash Flow,
Fund Flow & Stock Statement.

General Ledger

Tally maintains details of all ledgers that are defined by the user. You can define your
chart of accounts i.e. - maintain groups, ledger etc. Ledger reports can be used for
scrutiny of accounts. Most accounting systems across the globe follow the concept of
separate Personal and Nominal accounts. Tally follows the concept of single ledger
systems, which includes both Personal and Nominal accounts.
Credit Control (Outstanding Mangement) Including credit Limit

A Tally user can maintain 'Outstanding Reports' along with Age Wise analysis. Credit
Limits can be given 'amount wise' as well as 'period wise'. Once Credit limits are set
for a Party, then the user cannot bill the particular Party beyond the specified limit.
Only the authorized user can alter the Credit Limits. This helps to monitor as well as
control any potential slow collection and warns about the potential bad debts.

To set Credit Limits follow the procedure below :

Activate Budgets and controls by pressing F11 (Features) -> Select Accounts Info -> Select Ledger
--> Select Credit limits -> Select Group -> Define the limit for each ledger either by Value or Period
or Both.

Accounts Receivable and Accounts payable

Accounts Receivables is the amount to be received from Sundry Debtors and

Accounts Payable, the amount to be paid to Sundry Creditors. Tally provides
complete bill wise information of amounts receivable as well as payable either Party
wise or Group wise. This feature can track bills, payments/receipts including
advances one-to-one.

How to use this facility?

Activate 'BillWise' details by pressing F11 (Features). Now Create a Party (Ledger
A/c) under the group 'Sundry Debtors' as well as one under group 'Sundry Creditors',
and also activate 'Maintain balances bill by bill' for all the Parties while you are in
Ledger creation mode. Next, select the option 'Voucher Entry' in 'Gateway of Tally' ->
Select Sales or Purchase Voucher.

Now, while entering the transaction, the user can specify a Ref. no with due date for
the amount or break it up by giving multiple ref no with different due dates.

To view the reports follow the procedure given below.

Select 'Display' (in Gateway of Tally menu) -> Select 'Statement of Accounts' ->
Select 'Outstandings' -> Select 'Receivables' (in case you want to see amount due to
the company) -> Select any particular group. The report displays bill by bill
outstanding for all parties along with the pending amount as well as the due date.

In case user wants to see the amount payable by the company then select the option
'Payable' under the menu 'Outstandings'. The user, once he has selected either
Payables or Receivables can toggle between the two reports by clicking F4 function

For individual Party wise outstanding:

->Select 'Ledger' option under 'Outstandings'. This report gives a bill-by-bill display
of all outstandings for the concerned party along with the total outstanding amount.

For a display of total outstandings for all parties -> select 'Group' in the menu
'Outstandings' and then select any particular group or sub-group.
Tally gives Age wise Analysis Reports and hence keeps the user informed for the
range of period the bills have been outstanding. The user has the luxury of defining
the Ageing periods as per his needs. e.g. 0 to 30 days, 30 to 45 days, 45 to 60 and so
on. The procedure for displaying the report is given below. The aging analysis gives
flexibility to do ageing by due date or bill date.

-> Select 'Ouststandings' under Display menu -> select 'Receivables ' or 'Payables'
press F5 (age wise) -> select method of ageing -> specify the periods.

Flexible Voucher Numbering

Tally provides predefined vouchers and also allows the user to define different types
of vouchers as per his/her needs. E.g. the user can further classify Payment Vouchers
by creating vouchers by the name Bank Payment and Cash Payment Vouchers. The
user can also set the voucher numbering as per his needs, which is either automatic
numbering or manual numbering or have no numbering at all. Further the user can
also assign Prefix and Suffix for voucher numbers and numbering can restart either
from beginning of the year or month.

How to create a new Voucher Type?

Select 'Accounts Info' -> select 'Voucher Type' -> select 'create' option -> Now enter
the Voucher name, specify the type of voucher, specify the method of numbering,
activate or deactivate the other functions as per needs.

Flexible Classification of Accouting Heads / Chart of Accounts

Tally allows the user to define account heads as per his requirements. Tally offers 28
predefined widely used Groups. Of these 28 predefined groups 15 groups are Primary
groups and the remaining 13 are sub groups. Among the 15 predefined groups 9
Groups are Balance Sheet items and the remaining 6 groups are Profit and Loss
items. The user is allowed to alter the nomenclature of any of these 28 Groups.
Further the user is allowed to create any number of Groups as per his/her
requirements, which can either be a Primary or a Sub-Group. Tally also allows the
user to have a multiple tree like structure groupings. This flexibility and ease of
configuration allows Tally to be used across industries and geography.

E.g. the user can have Continent wise Debtors groupings (i.e. Asia, America, Europe,
Africa, Australia) under the Group 'Sundry Debtors'. The continents can also be
further bifurcated into countries and states and so on.

Bird,s Eye View / Drill Down Display

Tally allows users to Drill Down from any report to lower levels of reports till the
voucher. E.g. User can view a Balance sheet and then select the required group in the
Balance Sheet and drill down till the vouchers. Any changes then made in the
voucher (i.e. if allowed by current security levels), is reflected real time at all levels.

Data Based reporting

Tally allows users to select any report for a particular date or for any range of dates.
Once you have selected a Report, press F2 (F2 in case of Day Book) and specify the
date range (From and To). You can also do simultaneous comparison side by side for
any two selected periods including across financial years. All reports from Tally are
generated based on the transaction date rather than the date of actual entry and hence
Tally ensures that information is always represented accurately. This unique approach
to bank reconciliation allows review of past date status for auditing purpose.

Voucher and Cheque Printing

Tally provides the facility to print any voucher that has been entered. The user can
print the voucher as soon as he has entered the voucher or even later. Tally also
provides cheque printing facility. The cheque can be printed immediately after
printing the voucher or can be printed later.

To activate Cheque printing option press F11 -> activate 'Set modify company
features' -> enable Cheque printing -> specify bank name (as created in Ledgers) ->
Specify dimensions of Cheque. Now while entering Payment Voucher mention the
name to be printed on the cheque. Once the voucher is saved Tally prompts the user
to print cheque.

Columnar Reports

Tally provides columnar reports in Sales register, Purchase Register and Journal
registers as well as Ledgers and Cash / Bank Books.

For Columnar Reports, Select Display -> Accounts Book -> select any of the registers
-> Press F5 (Columnar).

Bank Reconciliation

Tally provides the user a facility to reconcile bank accounts with his bank statement
and hence providing the user with information regarding transactions, which haven't
been cleared as yet by the bank.

For bank reconciliation follow the following procedure:

Firstly, while creating "Bank Account" Ledger, specify 'Effective date of

reconciliation' (ie the date from which the user wants to reconcile his bank accounts).
Select, -> Display -> Account Books -> Bank Book -> Select the particular 'Bank'
Select month -> Press F5 (Reconcile). Now enter the date, on which a particular
transaction has been cleared. Tally now provides information of balances as per
company Books as well as per Bank.

The word Internet is used to describe a network of computer network or called the
www (World Wide Web), which incorporate a very large and complicated set of
equipment. Internet is used to create a concept of global village. The interconnection
of computer, not on chatting or e-mail, but it can be used to get information on any
topic. It is used by students for educational purpose and by business persons for
having a check on market. Online shopping facility is also available on the internet.
By the use of internet, you can get information on any topic, of any part of the world
by sitting at a place. So, Internet is not only a source of information, but also it helps
us to understand others point of views. It is also cheap and economically a good
option for getting information. It also makes working fast & easy and saves time also.

The main services on the internet includes:-

Web browsing: - Supported by the http protocol, this function allows users to
view web pages using a web browser.

E-mail:- Allows people to send & receive electronic messages.


The e-mail system abbreviates the electronic mail that is currently used on the
internet was not designed on the curb the abuses presented by view and spam, they
are occurring today.

E-mail system today allows:-

Anyone can set the from field in the e-mail to any one they want. This means that
you can send an e-mail message and make it look like the president of United States
sent the message. This is called Fake message sending.


People use an internet to access web pages that are available across the internet.
Internet browsers includes:-



Web pages are created in a marked up form of text file called HTML (Hyper Text
Markup Language). The markup within the text indicates document structure showing
where paragraphs begins, what are the items in a list, headers etc.

Indication of the following things:-

1.Protocol being used as HTTP or FTP.

2.The domain that the web pages is found on. This will point to a specific organizations
or a companys web server.
3.The location of page on the server including the directory path and file name.
The WWW provides for the following two functions which support
communication. Without the communication support mentioned below, the internet
could not function. These two functions are provided by internet service provides
listed below under the Internet Organization header:

Physical lines that is sent across.

Routing of Data: - There are special machines on the internet called routers,
which determines where data needs to go to get from the sender of the data to the

If an e-mail cannot be delivered, the e-mail standard provides for the sender to
receive a notification indicating that the message could not be delivered.
Basic necessity for doing this kind of activities is to have a mail account with any
service providing URL i.e.,, etc. If you have
an account, then you have to follow the following steps:-
1. Go to the site (in which you have an account)
2. Log in your account. Once you enter in your account you will get total information
about your account there.

To read the mails you have received, Click on inbox button. That will give you the
information about new mails in your account. Select any mail you want to read and
press enter. You will get information about the sender, subject and message.

If you want to delete mail, then select mail and press delete button. Here you also
have an option to delete mail in bulk.

Click at the Compose mail button.
Write e-mail address to which you want to send e-mail.
Write the subject on which you are sending the mail.
Write the message in the blank box or space provided for it.
Select option of spelling check foe checking the spellings.
Save a copy of the same in your mail account for future reference.
Click on the Send button.
Then you will receive a message for e-mail sent, if it has been sent successfully.
Otherwise undelivered or failure delivery will be shown. It indicates that either e-mail
address is wrong or there is some typing mistake.
Search Engines are the websites which we use to search any kind of data,
websites, information etc by filling keywords (name, category, etc)













Dos stands for Disk Operating System. The term DOS can refers to any operating
system but it is most often used as a short form code M.S.DOS ( Microsoft Disk Operating
System ) originally developed by Microsoft. However dos is a 16-bit operating system does
not support multiple users or multitasking.

Different Versions Of DOS :-

There have been upgrades since M.S DOS was
introduced. The 1981, original versions was labeled version 1.2 since than
there have been Dos 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, 3.1, 3.3, 4.0, 4.1, 5.0, 6.0 and important
features of the version of Dos is that all of them are backward compatible that
is you can still run applications programmes with them that you could run on
the earlier versions.

Prompt is character or message that tells the user that
Computer is ready to accept a command or input. In Dos the prompt is a right
pointing:- arrow or carrte that looks like:> . You can enter in a Dos command
at the Dos prompt.

The portion of the screen where you enter instruction is
called command line. The prompt appears on the command line. A command
is an instruction issued to perform a specific task or function. Once you have
type the command you must press the enter key to issue the command.

There are two types of command in DOS :-
1. Internal Commands :-
Memory resident or Internal commands are
essential or frequent used actions. These commands are
automatically loaded into the computers memory during the
booting process. For example:- Dir, Cls , Del , Cd , Md , Ver , Date
, Time , Rd ,Rename etc.

2. External commands:-
Disc resident or external commands
are for special purpose .They are present in separate files on your
hard disk so that they dont typically consumed valuable memory
space. For example:- Diskcopy, Format, Restore ,Backup ,
Format etc.

Commands are given below:-

1. MD :- Make Directory

This command is used for making or creating the new directory.

Syntex :- Md <dir name>

Example:- Md Compuer


2. CD :- Change Directory

This command is used for changing the directory or changing

the path from one dest. to another dest.

Syntex :- Cd <dir or drive name>

Example:- Cd Computer


3.) Copy Con :-

This command is used for making a file or creating a file.

Syntex :- Copy con < file name>

Example:- Copy con abc

C:/> Copy Con abc

4.) Type:-

This command is used to see the contents of a file.

Syntex :- Type <file name >

Example:- Type abc

C:/> Type abc

5.) Fdisk :-

Starts the fdisk program which partitiona harddisk for

use with dos.

Syntex :- Fdisk

Example:- Fdisk

6.) Format :-

This command is used to formatting the disk drives.

Syntex :- Format <drive name>

Example:- Format d:

7.) Date :-

This command is used to show the system date and change

the system date.

Syntex :- Date

Example:- Date


8.) Time :-
This command is used to show the system time and change the
system time.

Syntex :- Time

Example:- Time

9.) Ren :-

This command is used for renaming the file name and


Syntex :- Ren <old file name> <new

file name>

Example:- Ren abc xyz

10.) Copy :-

This command is used for copying one file to another.

Syntex :- Copy <source file name>


Example:- Copy abc d:

11.) Cd.. :-

This command is used to come back one step or come

outside from the recent command.

Syntex :- Cd..

Example:- Cd..
12.) Dir :-

This command is used to see the whole directory or data of

any drive or any dir.

Syntex :- Dir

Example:- Dir

There are so many commands in dir command:-

a. Dir/p to see the dir page wise.

b. Dir/w- to see the dir width wise
c. Dir/l- to see the dir in alphabetic order etc.

13.) RD :-

This command is used for removing the directory.conditions for

removing the dir:-

1. Dir should be empty.

2. Dir should not be current directory.

Syntex :- Rd <dir name>

Example:- Rd abc

14.) Del :-

This command is used for deleting the file of files.

Syntex :- Del <file name>

Example:- Del abs

15.) Tree :-

Since a disk have many sub-dir branching out from the root
dir., you need a way of finding out what are the branch of tree are.
It displays the structure of a dir graphically.

Syntex :- Tree

Example:- Tree

16) ATTRIB: -

Each file in the directory has certain information associated with it.
The directory also contains other information, called attribute. It displays
or changes file attributes.

Syntax: - ATTRIB [+R / -R] [+A / -A] [+S / -S] [+H / -H] drive:][path]

+ Sets an attribute.

- Clears an attribute.

R Read-only file attribute.

A Archive file attribute.

S System file attribute.

H Hidden file attribute.

Example: - c:\>attrib +H lucky

Output: -This command hide the directory lucky and if we want to unhide
the directory then again [h] attrib command is used.