266 views

Uploaded by kiran9285

- FRICTION LOSSES IN STRAIGHT PIPE
- Pressure Drop
- pipe
- Pipe Work
- Symbols of oil gas piping
- Pressure Drop Calculation
- Fluid Flow Through Real Pipes
- Pressure drop
- Piping Standard
- Piping Guide
- Pressure Drop
- Bee Code -Fluid Piping
- Pipe Material Spec
- Basic Piping
- Pipes and Pipe Sizing _ Int..
- Piping Material
- Valves 12
- FP MANUAL
- Piping Expansion
- Piping Colour

You are on page 1of 5

Velocity

The velocity of hydraulic fluid through a conductor (pipe, tube or hose) is dependent on flow rate and

cross sectional area. Recommended fluid velocities through pipes and hoses in hydraulic systems are as

follows:

suction/intake 2-4 0.6 – 1.2

return 4 – 13 1.5 - 4

pressure/discharge 7 - 18 2 – 5.5

Use values at the lower end of the range for lower pressures or where operation is continuous. Refer to

the flow/velocity nomograms on pages four and five for more information, alternatively, fluid velocity

can be calculated using the following formula:

v = Q × 0.408

D²

Where

Q = flow rate in US gallons per minute (USgpm)

D = inside diameter of pipe or hose in inches (in)

In metric units

v = Q × 21.22

D²

Where

Q = flow rate in litres per minute (L/min)

D = inside diameter of pipe or hose in millimetres (mm)

Pressure drop

Friction between the fluid flowing through a conductor and its inside wall causes losses, which are

quantified as pressure drop. Pressure drop in conductors is an important consideration for the designer

especially in systems where long pipe or hose runs are necessary. The pressure drop over a length of

pipe or hose can be calculated using the following formula, which for ease of calculation uses metric

units. Before proceeding to the pressure drop calculations, the following variables need to be known:

Inside diameter of pipe or hose in millimetres (mm) D

Kinematic viscosity of fluid (at operating temperature) in centistokes (cSt) ν

Density of the fluid in kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m³) ρ

Length of the pipe, tube or hose in metres (m) L

1 of 5

2000 HydraulicSupermarket.com

1. Calculate fluid velocity:

v = Q × 21.22

D²

Where

Q = flow rate in litres per minute (L/min)

D = inside diameter of pipe or hose in millimetres (mm)

Re = 1000 × v × D

ν

Where

Re = Reynolds Number

v = velocity in metres per second (m/sec)

D = inside diameter of pipe or hose in millimetres (mm)

ν = kinematic viscosity of fluid (at operating temperature) in centistokes (cSt)

The formula used to calculate the friction factor is dependent on the magnitude of the Reynolds

Number.

If the Reynolds Number is less than 2300, flow is laminar and the following formula is used to

calculate the friction factor:

f = 64

Re

Where

f = friction factor

Re = Reynolds Number < 2300

If the Reynolds Number is between 2300 and 4000, flow is transition and greater than 4000 flow is

turbulent. For Reynolds Numbers greater than 2300 and less than 100,000 the following formula can be

used to calculate the friction factor:

f = 0.3164 × Re - 0.25

Where

f = friction factor

Re = Reynolds Number > 2300 and < 100,000

In instances where the Reynolds Number is greater than 100,000, friction is highly dependant on the

roughness of the conductor’s inner surface. In these cases Colebrook’s equation, which considers pipe

roughness, is used to calculate the friction factor. However, due to the relatively low fluid velocities

and high fluid viscosities present in hydraulic systems, Reynolds Numbers of this magnitude should not

be encountered.

2 of 5

2000 HydraulicSupermarket.com

4. Calculate the pressure drop:

∆p = v² × f × L × ρ

2D

Where

v = velocity in metres per second (m/sec)

f = friction factor

L = length of pipe or hose in metres (m)

ρ = density of the fluid in kilograms per cubic metre (870-890 kg/m³ for hydraulic oil)

D = inside diameter of pipe or hose in metres (m)

Conversions

SUS (32 – 99) cSt = 0.2253 × SUS – (194.4 ÷ SUS)

SUS (100 – 240) cSt = 0.2193 × SUS – (134.6 ÷ SUS)

SUS (> 240) cSt = SUS ÷ 4.635

US gallon × 3.785 = litre

inch × 25.4 = millimetre

inch × 0.0254 = metre

feet × 0.3048 = metre

lb/ft³ × 16.02 = kg/m³

Pascal (Pa) ÷ 100000 = bar

Pascal (Pa) × 0.000145 = psi

3 of 5

2000 HydraulicSupermarket.com

FLOW / VELOCITY NOMOGRAM (U.S. imperial)

4 of 5

2000 HydraulicSupermarket.com

FLOW / VELOCITY NOMOGRAM (metric)

5 of 5

2000 HydraulicSupermarket.com

- FRICTION LOSSES IN STRAIGHT PIPEUploaded bywhoelse_i
- Pressure DropUploaded bysanjibkrjana
- pipeUploaded bysreelu
- Pipe WorkUploaded byDinesh Radhakrishnan
- Symbols of oil gas pipingUploaded byDelvin Davis M
- Pressure Drop CalculationUploaded byray_k_9177
- Fluid Flow Through Real PipesUploaded byVitthal Khandagale
- Pressure dropUploaded byMonica Davis
- Piping StandardUploaded byJitendra Bhosale
- Piping GuideUploaded byveluchamymuthukumar
- Pressure DropUploaded byEng Alf
- Bee Code -Fluid PipingUploaded byHussain
- Pipe Material SpecUploaded byAnirban Mandal
- Basic PipingUploaded byMurugan
- Pipes and Pipe Sizing _ Int..Uploaded bykrishna.haridas
- Piping MaterialUploaded byLcm Tnl
- Valves 12Uploaded byGarima Awasthi
- FP MANUALUploaded byshekharvkate
- Piping ExpansionUploaded byjomolt
- Piping ColourUploaded byVirgil Titimeaua
- Piping Codes & StandardsUploaded byAhmed Mansour
- suvidya book1Uploaded byamankodi
- Intro PipingUploaded byAjay Kumar
- Piping- Introduction to Pipe Stress AnalysisUploaded byNishith
- Piping Material PresUploaded bysurjeetsandhuria
- Stanadrad Pipe MaterialUploaded bysantoshblonkar
- Regulations for Color Code for piping systemsUploaded byMohammed Najim
- 53932115 Piping Fabrication ProcedureUploaded bygeorge israel

- Valve Material EquivalentsUploaded byKasthuri Rangan K
- International Comparision of Standards.pdfUploaded bywitanto90
- GlobalizationUploaded byAmol Khadke
- Stainless SteelUploaded bySurender Pal Singh
- Article - Metric System & SpecificationsUploaded bykiran9285
- Rubber ToleranceUploaded bykiran9285
- Constructive AnatomyUploaded bygazorninplotz

- Centripetal ForceUploaded byShukor Az
- Rotary DryerUploaded byRiza Dikromo
- UT Dallas Syllabus for biol3361.001.06s taught by Vincent Cirillo (cirillo, rmarsh)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Relative-PermeabiliRPty_0151.pdfUploaded byCHANFLE
- Experiment 7.docxUploaded byAriadna Agoto
- Evidence Based Climate Science - EasterbrookUploaded byPRMurphy
- 2.1 Rates of ChangeUploaded byRenee Edwards McKnight
- 01 Transmission of Heat 273-284Uploaded byeamcetmaterials
- Caracterización de fracciones de crudoUploaded byMaria Baca
- Drying TheoryUploaded bySepehr Bagheri
- 123456789Bubble PowerUploaded byChirag Gowda
- CAPE Chemistry 2008 U1 P1 TrinidadUploaded byShandev Indoi
- 11767_Term Paper Topics b1911 (5)Uploaded byNeha Singh
- Tracerco Diagnostics Residence StudyUploaded byMiki Jaksic
- Ventilator-Centrifugal-AntiEx CMP EExe EExdUploaded byVanja Stanojevic
- Strong Weak Acids and Bases pH calculationUploaded byatomicsize
- Heat TransferUploaded byember_memories
- Physics 73 SyllabusUploaded bycontinentalfloss
- Dimensionless Units in the SIUploaded byanaklembah@Scribd
- Surface TensionUploaded byKarla Velasco
- Mechanical Energy and PowerUploaded bySuresh Senanayake
- Section 16.4 Force on Current-carrying Conductor in Magnetic FieldUploaded bytwy113
- Sol Gel Coatings on Metals for Corrosion Protection 2009 Progress in Organic CoatingsUploaded bysercandeniz
- Lectuer-7 Double Pipe Heat Exchanger DesignUploaded byVyan Ilham
- kech106 chemistry very imp resourceUploaded byAkhil Krishna
- Ensayos de Jar Test iUploaded byEzequiel Brandan
- 207_210_MET_54_1Uploaded byRory Cristian Cordero Rojo
- Isolation and Identification of Methyl cinnamate from Syrian Ocimum Basilicum .pdfUploaded byAnnamari Ardeleanu
- 1403.5164.pdfUploaded byJonathan
- 09_Simu_QRL[1].pdfUploaded byAli AH