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History of geothermal exploration

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Article in Geothermics June 2008

DOI: 10.1016/j.geothermics.2008.01.001


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Manfred P. Hochstein
University of Auckland


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Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

History of geothermal exploration in Indonesia

from 1970 to 2000
Manfred P. Hochstein a, , Sayogi Sudarman b
aGeology Department, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
b Indonesian Geothermal Association, Jl Gatot Subroto Kav 18, Jakarta Sel. 12950, Indonesia
Received 22 January 2008; accepted 22 January 2008
Available online 17 March 2008

Reconnaissance surveys undertaken since the 1960s show that more than 200 geothermal prospects with
significant active surface manifestations occur throughout Indonesia. Some 70 of these were identified
by the mid-1980s as potential high-temperature systems using geochemical criteria of discharged thermal
fluids. Between 1970 and 1995, about 40 of these were explored using geological mapping, geochemical
and detailed geophysical surveys. Almost half of the surveyed prospects were tested by deep (0.53 km)
exploratory drilling, which led to the discovery of 15 productive high-temperature reservoirs. Several types
of reservoirs were encountered: liquid-dominated, vapour-dominated, and a vapour layer/liquid-saturated
substratum type. All three may be modified by upflows (plumes) containing magmatic fluid components
(volcanic geothermal systems). Large, concealed outflows are a common feature of liquid-dominated systems
in mountainous terrain. All explored prospects are hosted by Quaternary volcanic rocks, associated with arc
volcanism, and half occur beneath the slopes of active or dormant stratovolcanoes. By 1995, five fields had
been developed by drilling of production wells; three of them supplied steam to plants with a total installed
capacity of 305 MWe . By 2000, with input from foreign investors, the installed capacity had reached 800 MWe
in six fields, but geothermal developments had stalled because of the 19971998 financial crisis.
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Geothermal exploration; High-temperature prospects; Selection criteria; Exploration surveys; Exploratory
drilling; Java; Sumatra; Sulawesi; Bali; Flores; Indonesia

1. Introduction

Geothermal exploration in Indonesia began in 1970 with the aim of finding and developing
high-temperature geothermal systems. The developments between 1970 and 1990 (in many cases

Corresponding author. Tel.: +64 9 373 7599; fax: +64 9 373 7436.
E-mail addresses:, (M.P. Hochstein).

0375-6505/$30.00 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 221

until 1995) are not well documented. An attempt is made here to summarize the early surveys,
referring to information in publications and reports written in English, mainly by Indonesian
scientists and engineers, which are accessible in the public domain. Thus, the exploration of
prospects is discussed where detailed geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods were
combined to assess field characteristics of importance when siting exploration wells over inferred
high-temperature reservoirs. Results of early geophysical surveys are discussed in more detail
where they led to proper estimates of reservoir areas and, combined with important geochemi-
cal and geological findings, allowed a prediction of reservoir characteristics. Since most of the
earlier exploration efforts are not listed in the scientific literature, theses and diploma reports of
Indonesian geothermal graduate students attending the University of Auckland between 1979 and
2003 became an important source of information and were used for this paper. The geothermal
terminology employed here is that adopted in Hochstein and Browne (2000). The description of
a few prospects not covered by published work is based on observations and field notes collected
by the authors.
Descriptions of Indonesian geothermal resources probably started with the reconnaissance
surveys described by Junghuhn over 150 years ago (Junghuhn, 1854), whose studies covered
mainly active volcanoes and large thermal areas on Java. From around 1900 until the beginning
of World War II, most of the Indonesian Quaternary volcanoes and their fumarole and solfatara
fields were mapped by the Dutch colonial Geological Survey; the results were later published in
the first volume of the Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Padang,
1951). A summary of documented thermal springs on Java, the Molucca Islands, and Sumatra
can be found in the lists of global thermal springs by Waring (1965). After Indonesia gained
independence, the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) started work in the 1960s with
reconnaissance-type surveys that led to the compilation of an inventory of sites with thermal
manifestations. A map showing the location of these sites on Java and Bali was compiled by VSI
in 1968 (Purbo-Hadiwidjojo, 1970). The studies were supported by the State Electricity Com-
pany (PLN) and the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB). International and foreign missions
(UNESCO, EURAFREP) visited several geothermal prospects at that time and, with reference
to the size and type of manifestations, drew attention to prospects associated with hot spring
discharges. A revised catalogue of volcanoes and fumarole fields in Indonesia published by VSI
(Kusamadinata, 1979) provided important information now incorporated in a world-wide cata-
logue of volcanoes that can be accessed through the Smithsonian volcano website (see bottom of
Table 1).
All Indonesian geothermal systems associated with surface manifestations discharging fluids
at boiling temperature occur in areas with Quaternary volcanism and active volcanoes along well-
defined volcanic arcs. There are five active arc segments in Indonesia that define regions of interest
for geothermal exploration (Fig. 1). Using plate tectonic concepts, all active Indonesian arcs can
be interpreted as the result of sub-crustal melting induced by subducted lithosphere plates (Katili,
1975). The major plate tectonic structures shown in Fig. 1 had already been recognised during the
1970s (Hamilton, 1979). All young Quaternary volcanoes can be associated with cooling magma
and igneous intrusions, which, in turn, are heat sources for active arc-type geothermal systems.
The first inventory (in English) of Indonesian thermal areas and prospects, compiled by VSI
as part of a New Zealand (NZ) Aid project in 1987 (NZMFA, 1987; Mahon, 1987), listed 215
sites. The inventory has been upgraded and about 245 thermal prospects are listed in its 1998
version, which is accessible through a VSI website (see bottom of Table 1). We have used the
same names, numbering system, and coordinates of the geothermal sites shown in the 1998 VSI
catalogue (with the exception of a few not yet given there). A list of 87 Indonesian geothermal
222 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

Fig. 1. Principal geographical features of Indonesia showing important plate tectonic structures and location of active
volcanic arcs, based on information taken from Hamilton (1979), Simkin and Siebert (1994), and Hall (2002). Sites of
explored geothermal prospects associated with arc segments are shown in Figs. 24.

prospects already covered by inventory/reconnaissance surveys was also presented by Manalu

(1988). Another important registry of Indonesian geothermal prospects is that contained in an
unpublished report by Kingston and Morrison (1997), which lists 204 sites and describes their
state of exploration.
The selection of Indonesian geothermal prospects for exploration studies was based on earlier
reconnaissance surveys. The characteristics of the discharged thermal fluids, types of manifesta-
tion, and extent of thermal alteration at the surface, together with geothermometer data derived
from chemical analyses, were taken into consideration for the selection. Initially, empirical (liquid
and gas) geothermometers were used (Henley et al., 1984); later, theoretical based geothermome-
ters (for example, Giggenbach, 1980, 1981) were often applied, using selected fluid samples.
Between 1970 and 1995, about 70 sites were tentatively classified as high-temperature prospects
where geothermometer data indicate deep fluid equilibrium temperatures of >220 C. Reconnais-
sance and more detailed exploration studies of most of the 70 prospects are discussed below.
Geothermal exploration increased in 1994 when foreign and private investors were encouraged
by the Indonesian Government to develop and to run so-called independent power projects (IPPs),
which had to sell geothermal power under Energy Sales Contracts to the state electricity company
PLN. This resulted in accelerated exploration and production drilling, which came to a halt as
a result of a financial crisis in 19971998. The history of geothermal exploration in Indonesia
between 1970 and 2000 has therefore been divided into three stages: (1) the starting period, cov-
ering 19701980; (2) a diverse period from 1980 to 1995, and (3) an accelerated development
period from 1995 to 2000.
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 223

2. The rst attempts (19181970)

Exploration of geothermal resources associated with active fumarole and solfatara fields with
the objective of generating electricity was first proposed in 1918. Initial exploration drilling was
undertaken by the Volcanological Section (later to become the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia,
or VSI) of the colonial Geological Survey of Indonesia (GSI), at Kawah1 Kamojang, on Java, in
1926. Several holes were drilled inside a large fumarole field. The third well (KMJ-3) was 66 m
deep and produced steam. The last two holes (123 and 128 m deep) intermittently produced a
two-phase mixture of steam and hot water. The shallow well KMJ-3 discharged continuously for
another 50 years; the discharge rate was about 8 MW2 (about 10 t/h of steam) with a temperature of
140 C at the open lip when measured in February 1975. The two deeper wells stopped discharging
some time after 1928 (Stehn, 1929). Historic photos of the first geothermal drilling efforts can
be seen in Alzwar (1986). Another attempt to explore a solfatara field (K. Sikidang) was made
at Dieng in 1928, sponsored by the Mines Department. A non-producing exploratory hole was
drilled to 80 m depth, encountering a temperature of 145 C at the bottom (Radja, 1975). Further
attempts to explore Indonesian geothermal fields by drilling were not made until 1972. The results
of the earlier geological investigations were used to rank several prospects on Java for further
investigation. The list included the volcanic complexes of Dieng, Gunung Tampomas, Gunung
Salak and Gunung3 Perbakti, K. Kamojang, and the Cisolok prospect (Zen and Radja, 1970). In
1969, a PLN group (Power Research Institute) undertook a geothermal reconnaissance survey of
Sulawesi (Radja, 1970).

3. Geothermal exploration (19701980)

During the first PELITA (first 5-year development plan, 19691974), the Volcanological Survey
group (VSI) completed a geothermal inventory of Sumatra, Sulawesi, and the Halmahera Islands
(Radja, 1985; Soetantri, 1986). Geothermal exploration was supported by foreign aid projects. The
Indonesian State Oil Company (Pertamina) entered geothermal exploration from 1974 onwards
and became responsible for all geothermal exploration in Java and Bali, in line with Presidential
Decree PD 16/1974.

3.1. Exploration of the Dieng prospect (Fig. 2)

Between 1970 and 1972, the K. Sikidang sector of the Dieng volcanic complex was investigated
under the auspices of a USAID program, involving US Geological Survey staff and VSI/ITB/PLN
groups acting as counterpart. The prospect carries a certain volcanic risk, as indicated by its history
of phreatic eruptions and gas hazards (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). All earth-science disciplines
(geology, geochemistry, and geophysics) were used to assess the extent of the prospect and
to locate drillsites. Several exploration holes were drilled in 1972, the deepest of which (DX-
2) reached 145 m, where it encountered 175 C; the hole was not productive (Radja, 1975).
Most of the original objectives were not met, partly because of the inexperience of the drilling
contractors.Pertamina took the project over in 1974 and repeated the geological, geochemical and

1 The abbreviation K. will be use for Kawah (crater or a large crater-like depression) from here on.
2 All heat discharge rates are listed in MW (i.e. MWt ); power plant capacity and inferred electricity generation rates
are quoted in MWe .
3 The abbreviation G. will be used for Gunung (mountain) from here on.
224 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

geophysical exploration studies, with the collaboration of a French contractor (BEICIP), and the
aim of siting deep exploration holes. The resistivity surveys indicated the presence of a roughly
12 km2 area with shallow, low resistivities. In September 1977 the first well, DNG-1, was drilled
near the acid manifestations of K. Sikidang to a depth of 1900 m. Dilute magmatic fluids were
encountered, a reminder that phreatic and CO2 -driven eruptions were still a threat (Le Guern et al.,
1982; Giggenbach et al., 1991). Acid alteration was dominant down to 1000 m and a maximum
temperature of 326 C, with stable mineral equilibrium temperatures of 320315 C, was measured
between 1450 and 1600 m depth (Ganda, 1984; Fauzi, 1985). The well was productive but difficult
to maintain and had to be abandoned after an accident (caused by a partly corroded valve). DNG-1
was the deepest geothermal well drilled in Indonesia during the 19701980 period. The second
well (DNG-2, about 0.6 km south of DNG-1) was completed in August 1979 after reaching a total
depth of 1660 m (Tmax 290 C). It was productive and could discharge about 80 t/h of steam
with an initial, anomalously high, non-condensable gas (NCG) content of about 20% (by weight)
(Bachrun et al., 1995).

3.2. The New Zealand geothermal aid program

In 1971, the NZ consultant group Geothermal Energy Ltd. (GENZL) visited several geothermal
prospects on Java and Bali and proposed reconnaissance studies of selected prospects using VSI
inventory data. The sites to be studied were ranked according to the size of the area with manifes-
tations, preliminary geochemical results, ease of access, and likely regional electricity demand. A
proposal to investigate the K. Kamojang, Darajat, G. Salak, Cisolok and Bali prospects (see Fig. 2)
was accepted and developed into a bilateral aid (Colombo Plan) project supported by the Indone-
sian and NZ Governments. The aim of the project was to use standard exploration techniques
together with exploration drilling to demonstrate the feasibility of producing geothermal energy
for electricity generation in at least one of the five selected prospects. The field surveys started
in late 1972 and were supported by VSI, the first counterpart agency. Pertamina and PLN also
participated from 1974 onwards. By 1974 the five prospects had been investigated and Kamojang
and Darajat were selected for deep exploration drilling.

3.2.1. Exploration of the Kawah Kamojang prospect (Fig. 2)

By 1974 the results of resistivity and shallow temperature gradient surveys had shown that
the upper part of the Kamojang geothermal reservoir covers an area of at least 14 km2 . It was
most likely capped by a thick layer saturated with steam condensates and contained electric-
conductive clay minerals; the natural heat loss rate was of the order of 100 MW (Hochstein, 1975).
Geochemical data pointed to a vapour-dominated system (Kartokusumo et al., 1975); local tectonic
structures and litho-stratigraphic sections were defined (Healy and Mahon, 1982). A medium-
size drilling rig was imported and the first deep well (KMJ-6) was sited near the centre of the
low-resistivity anomaly, which delineated the extent of the thermally altered rocks. The well was
started in late September 1974 and completed after 1 month to a depth of 615 m (Tmax = 239 C). It
was discharged in late December 1974, producing about 6.5 t/h of steam through a 0.11 m (4.5 in.)
diameter slotted liner. It confirmed that Kamojang is a vapour-dominated system, the fourth of its
kind discovered worldwide (after Larderello in Italy, The Geysers in the USA, and Matsukawa
in Japan). In rapid succession another productive (KMJ-7) and three non-productive (KMJ-8, 9,
and 10) wells were drilled within a roughly 4-km2 large central area. By mid-August 1975 the
last hole was completed to 760 m.
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 225

Fig. 2. Location of high-temperature geothermal prospects on Java and Bali explored between 1970 and 2000. Symbols
used for each locality describe the type of system encountered as explained in the inset. The approximate and smoothed
outline of Quaternary pyroclastics and lava flows are from geological maps published by UNESCO (1976) and the
Geological Survey of Indonesia (1977).

The results led to an enlarged aid project with the aim of producing sufficient steam to generate
electricity for a 30 MWe plant, all to be sponsored by NZ aid funds. The production drilling started
with well KMJ-11 (September 1976), using a large drilling rig on loan from the NZ Government.
The last well (KMJ-20) was completed in August 1979. Pertamina also joined the project with
its own rig when drilling well KMJ-19. The depths of the wells varied between 935 m (KMJ-18
with an output of 125 t/h steam) and 1800 m (KMJ-15 with an output of only 5 t/h of steam).
All production wells were vertical and produced through 0.18 m (7 in.) diameter slotted liners.
Maximum temperatures were between 232 and 243 C (Grant, 1979a). At the end of 1979, all
producing wells at Kamojang could deliver about 380 t/h of steam (NCG <1% by wt.), thus
providing sufficient energy for a planned production of 30 MWe (requiring about 235 t/h of steam).
The first electrical power at Kamojang was generated in 1978 when a small (Monoblok 250 kWe ),
free exhaust-type turbine was installed, using steam from exploration well KMJ-6. The design
for the 30 MWe power plant was completed in 1979 and involved NZ contractors and PLN staff.
Further exploration studies were undertaken by Pertamina and VSI personnel from 1976
onwards. These included additional geological, geochemical, and geophysical (gravity and mag-
netic) surveys. The results of most of the geophysical surveys undertaken between 1976 and 1980
have been published (Sudarman and Hochstein, 1983). Downhole measurements in Kamojang
wells provided a better model of a vapour-dominated system than that proposed by White et al.
(1971). Downhole pressure measurements, for example, confirmed the existence of the 350 m
thick layer saturated with condensates (condensate layer) that caps the reservoir. An almost
constant reservoir pressure of 35 bar was encountered below the condensate layer, down to at
226 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

least 1800 m depth (Dench, 1980). Other fluid data and reservoir conditions pointed to a liquid
saturation (Sl ) of roughly 35% (Grant, 1979b).

3.2.2. Exploration of the Darajat prospect (Fig. 2)

The Darajat prospect (also called K. Manuk after its main fumarole area) lies on the eastern
flank of Kendang stratovolcano and close to the Kamojang field (about 10 km to the SW). The
prospect was explored between 1973 and 1975 as part of the NZ aid program, with support by
VSI staff. Geological, geochemical, geophysical and temperature gradient surveys were conducted
during the same period. The results pointed to a structure similar to that at Kamojang, but the
terrain at Darajat is steep and the field not as easily accessible. The inferred reservoir, marked by
thermally altered rocks on top and outlined by a low-resistivity structure, covered about 14 km2 ;
a shallow, concealed outflow exists beneath the lower eastern flanks. The total natural heat loss
of all manifestations was about 100 MW.
The drilling rig from Kamojang was used in 1976 to check the inferred thermal structure.
Because of access problems, the first deep well (DRJ-1) was sited over the inferred shallow
outflow. Starting in August 1976, the well was drilled to 760 m depth, where it encountered 145 C
acidsulfate water. The second well (DRJ-2) was located near the central part of the resistivity
anomaly, also drilled to 760 m, and was completed in May 1977. The stable temperature at the
bottom was 239 C; the well discharged about 10 t/h of dry steam (through its 4.5 in. slotted
liner). The Darajat prospect was the second vapour-dominated system discovered in Indonesia
(Hochstein and Davis, 1977).
After 1976, fieldwork was continued by Pertamina and involved additional gravity, magnetic,
and temperaturegradient studies (Sudarman, 1983). The results of the DRJ-2 well encouraged
Pertamina to drill a third well (DRJ-3) in 1978, approximately 1 km north of DRJ-2. It was
completed to 1520 m depth, encountered a maximum temperature of 247 C, and produced 22 t/h
of wet steam with an NGC of about 1.7% (Whittome and Salveson, 1990). By 1980, the Darajat
field was ready for development.

3.2.3. Early exploration of the Gunung Salak and Cisolok prospects (Fig. 2)
Reconnaissance studies of the G. Salak and Cisolok prospects were undertaken, together with
VSI staff, as part of the NZ geothermal aid programme between 1973 and 1975. The surface
manifestations of the G. Salak prospect (also called the PerbaktiSalak or Awibengkok prospect)
occur in rugged terrain over an area of about 70 km2 . Phreatic eruptions took place at G. Salak
during the last century (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). By 1975, low-resistivity anomalies had been
detected over the northern and southern slopes of G. Awibengkok. These enclose most manifes-
tations where boiling fluids had been observed. A separate, smaller, low-resistivity anomaly was
found near K. Ratu on G. Salak.
Geochemical studies had shown that most thermal springs in the greater G. Salak area discharge
bicarbonate water, except for one at the northern periphery (Saramaya springs) where neutral-pH
chloride water were found. It was inferred that the prospect hosts a vapour-dominated system. Deep
exploration drilling was not recommended in 1975 because of the high logistic costs. However,
exploration was continued by Pertamina after 1975, involving more geochemical and geological
studies. Several temperaturegradient holes were drilled near hot springs. By 1980, it was still
inferred to be a vapour-dominated system (Prijanto, 1980).
The prospect that encloses the Cisolok and Cisukarame boiling springs was first surveyed
during 1972. Results of dc-resistivity profiling indicated that the prospect occurs over a large con-
cealed outflow extending for more than 9 km from an inaccessible mountainous area to the coast
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 227

(Hochstein, 1988). The two thermal spring areas, which together discharge heat at a rate of about
65 MW, produce one of the largest surface flows of hot, neutral-pH NaCl water in Java. In view of
the characteristics of other known concealed outflows outside Indonesia (Healy and Hochstein,
1973), deep exploration drilling was not recommended in 1973. Pertamina continued with explo-
ration studies from 1975 onward, involving Japanese consultants (WJEC), having adopted a
different view. By 1980, deep exploration drilling of the prospect was still being considered.

3.3. Exploration of the Banten prospects (Fig. 2)

Two geothermal prospects in the greater Banten area, at Batukuwung and Citaman, were
explored by Pertamina from 1974 onwards. Numerous warm and hot springs (Tmax = 65 C) occur
along segments of the shore of Lake Danu, with some concentration of springs in the Batukuwung
area; the lake occupies part of the Banten caldera. Hot springs (Tmax = 67 C) also occur over the
southern foothills of the dormant G. Karang volcano, which is topped by a small fumarole field.
The two prospects are about 20 km apart, with G. Karang lying in between.
Gravity and resistivity surveys of the greater Banten caldera area were undertaken in 1974
(Akil, 1975) and showed that the caldera is outlined by a low-gravity anomaly. Geochemical
surveys and a few temperaturegradient measurements in shallow drillholes were carried out in
the Batukuwung sector between 1975 and 1979. The Citaman prospect was explored after 1975
by means of geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys (Mulyadi, 1985), which were
conducted in part by consultants from Japan and France. In 1980 it was still uncertain whether
any of the prospects warranted exploration by deep test wells.

3.4. Exploration of geothermal prospects outside Java

3.4.1. Bali (Fig. 2)

Geothermal exploration of the Bali prospect began in 1971, as part of a NZ bilateral aid
project and in co-operation with VSI, with a geological and geochemical reconnaissance study.
The geophysical surveys (dc-resistivity studies) that followed in 1973 and 1974 pointed to a
deep-seated geothermal system beneath the Bratan Caldera. Elongated low-resistivity structures
beneath the caldera flanks were interpreted as concealed outflows of dilute thermal water, dis-
charged by numerous small thermal (T 52 C) springs at low elevations (about 1000 m below
the level of small, acid discharge features in the Bratan Caldera). The largest of these out-
flows extends over 16 km to the south. Pertamina continued exploration from 1975 onwards,
employing gravity and detailed resistivity surveys. In 1978 and 1979 temperaturegradient sur-
veys were carried out in several drillholes of up to 200 m depth. Later surveys confirmed the
earlier model of a large, deep-seated geothermal reservoir whose top probably occurs at about
500 m depth beneath the old caldera (Mulyadi and Hochstein, 1981; Soetantri and Prijanto,

3.4.2. Sumatra (Fig. 3)

Reconnaissance surveys were undertaken by VSI in the SemurupMuarolabuhLempur area
(Central Sumatra, Fig. 3) between 1972 and 1979, involving geological mapping and a few
resistivity surveys. The G. KunyitLempur area selected as an important prospect (Hasri, 1984) is
associated with concealed outflows which, however, were not recognised during the first surveys.
The prospect was selected at the end of the 1970s for a joint VSIJapanese aid (JICA) study.
228 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

Fig. 3. Location of high-temperature geothermal prospects on Sumatra explored between 1970 and 2000 (see Fig. 2 for
explanation of symbols). The extent of the Quaternary volcanic rocks is from Hochstein and Sudarman (1993).

3.4.3. Sulawesi (Fig. 4)

During the first decade (between 1970 and 1980), geothermal exploration in North Sulawesi
involved the Kotamobagu, Lahendong and Tompaso prospects (Fig. 4), which are associated with
Quaternary arc volcanism at the southern end of the active Sangihe Arc that extends northwards
into Mindanao (Fig. 1). A few geothermal systems hosted by widespread Quaternary and Neogene
volcanic rocks along the western arm of Sulawesi were detected during reconnaissance surveys
(Radja, 1970; Manalu, 1988). The distribution of volcanics shown in Fig. 4 for the western arm of
Sulawesi is probably not the result of paleo-subduction processes (Hall, 2002). East of the Sangihe
Arc lies the short segment of the active Halmahera Arc (Fig. 1), where hot spring systems are
hosted by Quaternary volcanics (Waring, 1965), although little was known about these prospects
at the time.
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 229

Fig. 4. Location of high-temperature geothermal prospects on Sulawesi and Flores (Nusa Tenggara) explored before 2000
(see Fig. 2 for explanation of symbols). The extent of Quaternary volcanic rocks, and the approximate distribution of
Quaternary and Upper Tertiary volcanic rocks, are from UNESCO (1976) and the map by Hamilton (1979).

In North Sulawesi, the Kotamobagu prospect is associated with thermal manifestations occur-
ring over a roughly 300 km2 area, with an inferred central source beneath the G. Ambang area,
an active stratovolcano that erupted about 160 years ago (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). There are
several small solfatara fields near the summit. All manifestations were mapped and their geo-
chemistry studied by VSI between 1977 and 1979 (Andan, 1982). The survey pointed to large
concealed outflows discharging dilute, neutral-pH chloride water at the periphery of the greater
230 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

prospect area, some 1420 km west and southwest of the high-standing target area around G.
Ambang. Temperatures at the extremities of two separate outflows reach 84 and 92 C.
There are three separate geothermal fields in the Minahasa District in North Sulawesi: the
Tompaso prospect beneath the northern foothills of G. Soputan, an active volcano with a history
of recent eruptions, the Lahendong, and the LokonMahewu prospect. All three occur within an
area of about 350 km2 that encloses all manifestations. Reconnaissance studies prior to 1976 were
undertaken by GSI, ITB, and PLN (Basoeki and Radja, 1979). The VSI began exploration in 1976
with geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys; the geochemical survey was supported by
the NZ aid project (Prijanto et al., 1984). At the end of the first decade, Lahendong was selected
for further development studies and test drilling.

4. The second period (19801994): exploration and development on Java

The second period saw a rapid expansion of new and follow-up exploration activities (Ganda
et al., 1992). Most of the activity occurred on Java, involving the exploration of roughly 20
prospects (see Fig. 2). For the first time, outflow structures of two prospects were explored by
deep drilling. Deep wells were also drilled in six other areas, and four discovered and tested
fields were developed by further drilling. Geothermal prospects with significant acid surface
manifestations and associated with active volcanoes were still seen as attractive targets for
exploration. Foreign aid projects contributed to exploration outside Java; for example, JICA (a
Japanese Government aid agency) assisted VSI with the exploration of the G. Kunyit prospect
in Sumatra and the Lahendong field in Sulawesi. The first geothermal power plant (Kamojang)
was commissioned and its installed capacity was rapidly expanded fourfold before the end of
In 1981, a Presidential Decree (No. 20/1981) allowed Pertamina to enter joint ventures with
local and international partners (Fauzi et al., 2000). Two US companies entered the development
scene by signing joint operation contracts (JOCs) with Pertamina to produce steam from the G.
Salak (Awibengkok) and Darajat reservoirs for two large power schemes. Later on, Presidential
Decree No. 45/1991 also allowed Pertamina partnerships to build and to operate geothermal power

4.1. Kamojang

The first plant (Unit 1) with a 30 MWe capacity was built at Kamojang between 1980 and 1982.
It was officially opened in February 1983 and handed over to the Indonesian Government, which
had also contributed to its construction. Some technical details of the first plant are given in Radja
and Sulasdi (1995). There were already plans prior to 1980 to increase the capacity of the power
station (adding two 55 MWe units). This involved the drilling of 23 additional production wells
(KMJ-21 to KMJ-44) by Pertamina between 1980 and 1986; 19 of these wells were productive.
All wells up to KMJ-32 (except KMJ-29) are vertical. To improve yield, the next wells (KMJ-
33 to KMJ-44) were deviated. The depth range of the vertical wells was 12002300 m, and the
vertical depth of the deviated wells was between 1100 and 1450 m (Raharso et al., 1985). The
output of individual wells varied between 25 and 120 t/h of steam with no significant difference
between vertical and deviated wells. The two new units were commissioned in late 1987 (Radja
and Sulasdi, 1995), thus increasing the total plant capacity to 140 MWe . A numerical reservoir
model constructed by OSullivan et al. (1990) reproduced the natural state of the vapour-dominated
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 231

Several follow-up exploration studies carried out during the 19801990 period at Kamojang
highlighted the poor reproducibility and errors of some of these surveys. Such an error occurred, for
example, in some resistivity surveys made by Pertamina and VSI, when ac effects were introduced
at stations over low-resistivity structures as a result of too rapid dc-current switching (Caldwell et
al., 1982; Sudarman, 1983). An incorrect definition of the sign of magnetic anomalies produced
pseudo-anomalies that were at first wrongly interpreted as effects of a deep-seated magnetized
intrusion (Sudarman and Hochstein, 1983). The error was discovered after a 1986 aeromagnetic
survey showed that most of the volcanic reservoir rocks at Kamojang are indeed demagnetised
(Soengkono et al., 1988). Although the earlier (pre-1980) dc-resistivity surveys performed with
the robust Schlumberger array were reproducible, their depth penetration was limited; hence there
was a move towards using magneto-telluric (MT) methods to obtain information about deeper
resistivity structures. The resistivity boundary at Kamojang was defined in detail in 1989 by the
controlled source audio-frequency magnetotellurics (CSAMTs) method, which showed that the
low-resistivity anomaly covers an area of about 21 km2 (Sudarman et al., 2000b). The shallow
resistivity structure could now be interpreted with confidence as being caused dominantly by
conductive clay minerals (Caldwell et al., 1986).

4.2. Developments under operation and energy sales contracts (Gunung Salak and Darajat)

In 1982 Unocal Geothermal Indonesia (UGI) signed a JOC with Pertamina to develop the
high-temperature reservoir of the G. Salak prospect. At the same time, UGI also agreed to an
energy sales contract (ESC) involving UGI to supply steam to Pertamina, which, in turn, would
sell it to PLN to operate power stations after successful field development. Similar agreements
(i.e. JOC and ESC) were made by Amoseas Indonesia Co (Chevron Group) at the end of 1984
with Pertamina and PLN. Both developers had to secure overseas funding.

4.2.1. Field developments in the Gunung Salak area

Unocal started in 1982 by performing further geophysical surveys (gravity, MT, and dc-
resistivity) around G. Salak and the Awibengkok Dome. The target areas turned out to be close to
those detected in 1976. Several additional temperaturegradient holes were drilled; three down to
about 450 m depth. Exploration drilling began in February 1983 in the Awibengkok field. The first
well (AW-1) was drilled to a depth of 1370 m and became the discovery well (Tmax 250 C).
Testing showed that a liquid-dominated reservoir, saturated with dilute brine4 (TDS of approxi-
mately 13 g/kg and NCG of about 1%), had been encountered; the output of the well was equivalent
to a separated steam flow rate sufficient to produce 5 MWe . Another four deep wells with depths
between 2.0 and 2.5 km were drilled in rugged and difficult terrain within an approximately
6 km2 area around K. Cibureum. The last two were drilled in part by using compressed air to
penetrate sections with swelling clays. The elevation of the well sites differed by up to 500 m and
deep casing (up to 1770 m long) had to be used in one well (AW-4 on top of the Awibengkok
Dome) to stimulate discharge by compressed air. The output of the wells was similar to that of
the discovery well.
To check whether other sectors were more suitable for development, exploration drilling was
shifted in June 1984 to the K. Ratu area, on the western flank of G. Salak, where another low-

4 The term dilute brine is used throughout the paper to refer to thermal water (at atmospheric pressure) with a total

dissolved solids (TDS) content between 10 and 30 g/kg; thermal water with a TDS value between 3 and 10 g/kg is classified
as very dilute brine. The term brine applies to liquids with TDS > 30 g/kg.
232 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

resistivity area had been found. Three deep wells were drilled, the first of which (R-1) was the
deepest (about 2740 m). Well R-1 encountered temperatures up to 307 C and rocks with signif-
icant acid alteration. It also penetrated the entire volcanic sequence and bottomed in sediments.
Separated steam produced during testing (enough to generate 8 MWe ) contained a moderate
amount of NCG (about 5% by wt.) which, together with trace gas and isotope characteristics,
pointed to some deep input of magmatic constituents. Two more wells were drilled but had either
zero or low outputs.
Hence, exploration drilling shifted back to the Awibengkok field (western part) where three
deep, large-diameter wells (0.3 m in the bottom section) were drilled during 1985. The first of these
(AW-6) was successful; it was drilled to a depth of 1370 m, encountered fluids with a maximum
temperature of 260 C and produced through a 0.25 m diameter slotted liner the equivalent of
20 MWe when tested in April 1985. It was the first large producing well in Indonesia. The other
two wells (AW-7, AW-8) had similar characteristics with maximum depths of 1710 and 1830 m,
maximum temperatures of 268 and 279 C, and equivalent outputs of 10 and 22 MWe , respectively.
The entire project was now viable and a minimum power potential of around 145 MWe was
Additional production drilling was stalled to wait for the outcome of the construction of a
power plant by PLN, which took place during the following decade. There is no doubt that the
exploration of the G. Salak (Awibengkok) prospect was a great success considering all the terrain
obstacles that had to be overcome. The development also showed that a large, high-temperature
reservoir with non-corrosive fluids can occur separately close to a volcanic geothermal system.
Unfortunately, the earlier developments at G. Salak were not published and most of the important
information listed here comes from short, later publications (Takhyan et al., 1990; Noor et al.,
1992) and our own field notes.

4.2.2. Development of the Darajat eld

Between 1980 and 1983 a few minor follow-up exploration studies were undertaken by Per-
tamina at Darajat, consisting of MT soundings and the drilling of additional temperaturegradient
holes to 200 m depth (Sudarman, 1983). After signing the JOC contract, the new developer
(Amoseas Indonesia Co.) undertook additional follow-up surveys of the entire prospect between
1985 and 1986. These involved gravity, resistivity (using the CSAMT method), MT, airborne-
magnetic, micro-earthquake, and soilHg surveys. An integrated interpretation model showed
that the low-resistivity structure, thought to represent the propylitic zone, extends over an area
of about 22 km2 , i.e. an increase of about 50% over that found previously. The demagnetised
part of the reservoir showed an elongated structure covering 10 km2 (Whittome and Salveson,
In 19871988 four deep exploratory wells (vertical depth between 1500 and 2300 m) were
drilled within a 5 km2 area, approximately centred on the manifestations of K. Manuk.
Two of the wells (DRJ-4 and DRJ-7) encountered maximum temperatures of 243 and 241 C
and produced dry steam at rates of 81 and 88 t/h, respectively. The other two wells were
almost non-productive. One of these (DRJ-6) confirmed the existence of the concealed, shal-
low outflow beneath the eastern margin of the field that had already been detected by well
DRJ-1 ten years earlier. With a total steam output sufficient to produce about 24 MWe
from three wells, it was predicted that the explored part of the reservoir would sustain
steam production to run a 55 MWe power plant, as outlined by Dobbie (1991). Further
production drilling was halted until financing of the power plant had been arranged by
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 233

4.3. Exploration of prospects with deep outows

4.3.1. The Banten prospects

The Citaman prospect on the souuthern slopes of G. Karang had been explored during the
previous decade (Mulyadi, 1985). Additional MT studies, a micro-earthquake survey, and a
temperaturegradient survey of 15 gradient holes were conducted in 1983. The surveys out-
lined a 6 km long, NNW-oriented target area exhibiting low resistivities at shallow depths and
increasing temperature gradients towards G. Karang (Sudarman, 1985). At the toe of the target
anomaly are the Citaman hot springs, discharging hot, neutral-pH bicarbonate water (Tmax = 67 C;
heat discharge rate of 20 MW), which deposit travertine. Empirical geothermometers pointed
to reservoir temperatures of up to 280 C. However, most of the characteristics listed are also fea-
tures that occur at the toe of a concealed outflow of a hot water system in steep terrain (Hochstein,
1988). A deep exploratory well (BTN-1) was drilled to about 2100 m depth in 1985; the well site
was about 3 km upstream of the thermal springs. It encountered a lateral outflow of hot water with
temperatures between 100 and 120 C at 10002000 m depth (Hochstein, 1988).
Exploration of the Batukuwung prospect in the Banten Caldera continued in 19861987
(Soemarinda, 1988). Fieldwork included dc-resistivity and MT studies, together with
gravity, ground magnetic, temperaturegradient, and micro-earthquake surveys. Several
temperaturegradient wells to 250 m depth encountered dilute neutral-pH bicarbonate water with
temperatures of 5565 C. It was inferred that the whole area is underlain by a concealed outflow
of thermal water that has been diluted by groundwater infiltration. In view of the poor drilling
results from the Citaman area, deep exploration drilling at Batukuwung was cancelled.

4.3.2. CisolokCisukarame
The CisolokCisukarame prospect had been explored during the 1970s. Exploration was con-
tinued until 1983 with the drilling of about 20 shallow temperaturegradient holes; five reached
depths between 100 and 150 m (Soetantri, 1986). Early resistivity surveys, performed in 1974,
indicated that the hot springs at Cisolok and Cisukarame were discharge features of a concealed
outflow of hot water travelling more than 9 km from an unknown source in steep terrain to the toe
of the outflow near Cisolok. This model was still not accepted during the early 1980s. Instead it
was postulated that a young intrusion outcropping near the Cisolok hot springs, which discharge
boiling water and deposit massive travertine, was close to an inferred deep heat source. The
1200 m deep exploration well CIS-1 was drilled in late 1986 close to the Cisolok hot springs
and encountered a 1000 m thick, concealed outflow of thermal water with a bottom temperature
of about 120 C (Hochstein, 1988).

4.4. Exploration of systems associated with dormant volcanoes

During the 1980s Pertamina explored a number of prospects associated with fumarole fields on
the flanks of inactive Holocene volcanoes. Some of these prospects discharge dilute vapour con-
densates similar to those at Darajat and Kamojang, with SO4 contents derived from the oxidation
of ascending H2 S gas.

4.4.1. Ungaran
Two small, active fumarole fields occur at Gedong Sanga over the southern flank of the dormant
Ungaran volcano, 2 km from its summit. Around the periphery, 510 km from the top, there
are three other warm spring areas (Soetantri, 1986); dilute brine (15 g/kg TDS) is discharged
234 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

at Kaliulo, about 15 km to the east. The prospect was explored by Pertamina employing several
geophysical methods (dc-resistivity, MT, and aeromagnetic surveys) between 1985 and 1990
(Budiardjo et al., 1989). Four temperaturegradient wells, up to 500 m deep, were drilled around
the Gedong Sanga area; these showed slightly anomalous temperatures and temperaturegradient
values near the bottom (47 C at 300 m depth). A deep-seated resistivity anomaly associated with
a deep geothermal reservoir was inferred to occur beneath the summit area (Budiardjo et al.,
1989). However, since about 90% of the prospect area was located inside protected forests and
because of restricted access, further exploration was discontinued.

4.4.2. WayangWindu
Gunung Wayang and G. Windu are two small lava domes with no historic eruption history. A
fumarole field with surface acid alteration is found near the top of G. Wayang, within its crescent-
shaped crater. A smaller area with steaming ground occurs at G. Windu. Another smaller fumarole
field lies 6 km north of G. Wayang extending over the southern flanks of the larger, also inactive
G. Malabar stratovolcano. All thermal manifestations occur within an area of 30 km2 (Soetantri,
1986). A detailed exploration programme was launched by Pertamina in 1982, including geologi-
cal, geochemical and geophysical surveys. The latter studies involved dc-resistivity surveys using
Schlumberger arrays, head-on resistivity profiling, MT and SP surveys, as well as gravity and
temperaturegradient studies with temperatures measured in six gradient holes (down to 170 m
depth) (Sudarman et al., 1986).
The first phase of the geophysical surveys focussed on the WayangWindu prospect where an
area of 25 km2 with low resistivity was outlined. Comparison of the constituents of the bicar-
bonate water discharged at WayangWindu with those from Kamojang and Darajat revealed a
close affinity and it was inferred that the WayangWindu prospect might host a vapour-dominated
reservoir (Sudarman et al., 1986). Follow-up MT-resistivity surveys during the next decade indi-
cated that rocks with low resistivity extended beneath G. Malabar (Anderson et al., 1999, 2000),
thus doubling the size of the prospective target area.
The first deep exploration hole, WWD-1, was sited near the centre of the inferred
WayangWindu anomaly. It was drilled at the beginning of 1991 to a depth of 1600 m, encoun-
tering 280 C at the bottom (Budiardjo, 1992). The hole penetrated a 900 m thick cover with a
350 m thick layer saturated with steam5 condensates at the bottom, underlain by a 600 m thick
vapour-dominated layer. It bottomed in a liquid-saturated (20 g/kg TDS) deep reservoir. Another
0.6 km deep exploratory hole (MSH-1) was drilled by Pertamina at the end of 1993, about 5 km
north of the discovery well WWD-1; it encountered a vapour-dominated (natural two-phase) zone
at the bottom. At the end of the 1990s similar systems, but with a magmatic vapour5 core, were
found at Patuha and Telaga Bodas. The WayangWindu prospect was rapidly developed when, at
the end of 1994, a joint venture (initially by Indonesian and US companies) was established with
the aim of conducting a total project development (see Section 7).

4.4.3. Gunung Wilis

About 10 km west of the centre of the G. Wilis stratovolcano lies an old crater (possibly from
a hydrothermal eruption), now occupied by the 1.2 km2 Lake Ngebel. One kilometre south of the

5 The term vapour is used in a narrow sense for the gas phase of water as it occurs underground, whereas the term

steam describes the same phase when discharged at the surface. However, steam has been used in the literature for
both settings, which explains the use of terms such as steam condensate or steam cap in a reservoir setting although
strictly they should be identified as vapour condensate or vapour cap.
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 235

lake one finds a small fumarole field and a few hot springs (Tmax 47 C) discharging neutral-
pH chloridebicarbonate water. The manifestations lie within a valley that drains the western
slopes of G. Wilis and were mapped by VSI prior to 1983. Between 1983 and 1990 the Wilis
prospect was explored by Pertamina using geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys. A
well-defined, low-resistivity target area was not found. A soilHg survey discovered a number of
isolated, small anomalies over the western flank of the volcano (Mulyono, 1989). An airborne-
magnetic survey located a few ill-defined possible targets (Rachman, 1990). Two slim holes
were drilled to 500 m depth in the Ngebel area. The hole nearest to the lake (WSH-1) exhibited
normal temperatures, whereas the other, close to the hot springs (WSH-2), found intermediate
temperatures (Tmax = 149 C) and a small temperature inversion at the bottom. Some steam was
produced from the 3 in. diameter hole but it was later abandoned; the second well intersected an
outflow structure. It appears that the resource is small (Setyobudi, 1993). The project was later

4.5. Exploration of active volcanic geothermal systems with signicant acid surface

The success at Dieng in 1977, when temperatures of up to 326 C were measured in the
discovery well DNG-1, had a strong influence on geothermal exploration in Indonesia when it
was assumed that fluids with similar high temperature could occur beneath the flanks of other
active or dormant stratovolcanoes with active surface manifestations. Over 15 volcanic geothermal
prospects were explored in Java during the 1980s, with seven showing significant acid surface
alteration and manifestations associated with degassing intrusions. In these systems the discharged
SO4 is derived from magmatic SO2 (Moore et al., 2002c).

4.5.1. Dieng
Drilling of production wells was continued during the 1980s by Pertamina, mainly in the
Sikidang area. By 1994, 24 deep wells had been drilled to depths between 1750 and 2500 m
in an area of about 5 km2 around K. Sikidang. The wells encountered a liquid-dominated
system at the bottom, saturated with very dilute brine (TDS of the order of 510 g/kg), a
high-boron content (up to 10% of TDS), and different Cl/B ratios between adjacent wells
(Suwana, 1986). The two-phase and vapour-dominated zones found at depths <1500 m, above
the liquid-saturated region, produced fluids with enthalpy varying between 1500 and 2600 kJ/kg
and high NCG content between 5 and about 20% (by wt.). The maximum temperatures of the
feed zones were between 275 and 325 C, with an anomalously high temperature of 365 C
found in the first well, drilled close to the K. Sileri area (DNG-7). The output rate of the
earlier Dieng wells was between 0 and 90 t/h of steam, except for one well that produced
up to 150 t/h. There were severe maintenance problems caused by casing corrosion and
blockage. By 1990 only 4 out of 14 tested wells in the Sikidang sector were still accessible,
producing a moderate (total) steam flow, sufficient to generate about 15 MWe (Boedihardi et
al., 1991). Between 1981 and 1993, a 2 MWe non-condensing monoblok power plant was
operated intermittently by Pertamina using the steam output of well DNG-2 (Bachrun et al.,
The wells in the Sikidang sector had encountered a volcanic geothermal system with rather
inhomogeneous fluids, derived, in part, from a magmatic vapour plume. The system has affinity
with other magmatichydrothermal systems, as described by Reyes and Giggenbach (1992) and
Reyes et al. (1993). However, there was evidence that the Dieng reservoir extended further north
236 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

into the K. Sileri sector, about 5 km NNW of K. Sikidang. Here, fluids with high temperatures,
moderate TDS (12 g/kg), and low NCG content (about 1% by wt.) were found in one well (DNG-
10) in 1984. It became the new target area for future exploration drilling (Layman et al., 2002)
when a JOC was signed at the end of 1994 between a private Indonesian group and a US company
to develop the field (see Section 7).

4.5.2. Ijen Caldera

The Ijen Caldera with a diameter of about 16 km is one of the largest in Java. The active post-
caldera volcanoes of K. Ijen and G. Merapi lie over the eastern caldera rim with K. Ijen hosting a
large, active solfatara field (Tmax 210 C) and the largest acid crater lake (about 0.35 km2 ) in the
island (Delmelle and Bernhard, 1994). The heat (evaporation) losses are of the order of 200 MW.
The Ijen Caldera is drained by the Kali Pait river (Banyupahit), which breaches the northern caldera
rim. Near the breach, the Blawan thermal springs, with neutral pH and temperature between 39
and 51 C, discharge about 3 MW of heat (Suroto, 1987).
The Blawan springs lie about 15 km NW of the acid Lake K. Ijen. According to Delmelle
and Bernhard (2000), the composition of the springs does not indicate that equilibrium with the
altered rocks has been reached, thus pointing to an immature K. Ijen acidic hydrothermal sys-
tem, with the Blawan springs lying at the toe of a concealed outflow from K. Ijen. It was also
postulated that the springs are derived from vapour condensates of a deeper-seated geothermal
system elsewhere beneath the huge caldera, away from K. Ijen. Detailed dc-resistivity and MT
surveys (over 100 stations) were made between 1981 and 1985 by Pertamina and its contrac-
tors across the whole caldera, but no significant deep-seated low-resistivity anomaly was found.
Measurements in temperaturegradient holes (150250 m deep) found no sign of anomalous heat
(Alhamid, 1985). The project was abandoned at the end of the 1980s.

4.5.3. Gunung Patuha

The Patuha prospect is associated with the (degassing) G. Patuha volcano, where magmatic
gases discharge into an acid, warm, about 55,000 m2 crater lake (K. Putih). Acid and neutral-pH
springs and minor fumarole fields occur over the volcano flanks within an area of about 40 km2
(see Soetantri, 1986). Pertamina explored the prospect between 1982 and 1989. The studies, in
addition to earlier geological mapping and geochemical programmes, involved dc-resistivity, MT,
and gravity surveys, as well as a temperaturegradient survey in four 100200 m deep wells. Three
of the wells were drilled close to fumaroles; one discharged boiling acid water from 150 m depth.
The thermal springs on the flanks discharge both acid (ClSO4 type) and neutral-pH bicarbonate
water. Resistivity surveys outlined a coherent low-resistivity area (18 km2 ) enclosing K. Putih
and a separate area (5 km2 ) centred on K. Cibuni, about 3 km west of K. Putih. Hot acid water
(up to 90 C) also discharges at Cibuni.
It was inferred by Lubis (1986) that the Patuha system hosts a vapour-dominated or two-phase
reservoir that is pierced by two volcanic chimneys containing magmatic fluids. The model has
affinity with a proto-type of a volcanic (magmatic) geothermal system described by Heming et
al. (1982). In 1994, the 1350 m deep CBN-1 well was drilled by a private Indonesian group in
an enclave centred on K. Cibuni. The bottom temperature was 235 C, and the well produced
mainly steam. The CBN-1 well was the discovery well of the Patuha field. A second well in the
Cibuni enclave was not completed. Exploration of the Patuha prospect was continued in 1995 by
a different Indonesian group and a US company as part of a total project development scheme
(see Section 7).
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 237

4.5.4. Tangkubanparahu
A hydrothermal reservoir was suspected to occur beneath the moderately active Tangkuban-
parahu stratovolcano where historic phreatic eruptions have been confined to the summit crater
(Simkin and Siebert, 1994). The volcano lies over the eastern rim of the 15 km2 Sunda Caldera.
Fumaroles, solfataras (Tmax = 172 C) and hot springs (Tmax 96 C) discharging acid conden-
sates occur within the greater summit crater. Acid hot springs (pH 3) emerge about 5 km NE of
the summit crater at Ciater (discharging about 150 kg/s at 43 C) and about 4 km SW at Kancah
(100 kg/s at 33 C). Significant jarosite deposits can be found at both sites. Owing to fluidrock
interaction, deeper outflows emerge with neutral pH (67) as warm springs about 9 km and 13 km
to the S and SW, respectively, on the flanks of the volcano.
Resistivity surveys (dc arrays, MT arrays, and self-potential (SP) profiles), together with gravity
surveys, were undertaken by Pertamina in 1986. Shallow, low-resistivity anomalies are associated
with the thermal spring areas although no coherent low-resistivity structure was found close to
the summit crater. There was no coherent resistivity structure evident in the MT data, which were
disturbed by topographic effects (Boedihardi, 1987). Exploration of the project was abandoned.

4.5.5. Telaga Bodas

Kawah Karaha and Telaga Bodas were thought to host separate geothermal systems when
exploration started. Soetantri (1986), in his summary of exploration activities by Pertamina during
the 1980s, only refers to the K. Karaha prospect. The two prospects lie on top of a 15 km long,
NS trending volcanic ridge with the active stratovolcano G. Galunggung located at the southern
end. About 5 km north of the Galunggung crater lies the 2 km2 Telaga Bodas collapse area,
with a 0.12 km2 acid, warm crater lake (Lake Telaga Bodas) in its centre. It is surrounded by
fumaroles and acid hot springs. The K. Karaha thermal area, which contains a few fumaroles,
some steaming ground, and a few hot springs, lies 9 km to the north. The Karaha prospect was
first investigated by Pertamina between 1984 and 1986 using dc-resistivity studies (Schlumberger
arrays) and several temperaturegradient holes (maximum depth 250 m). A second exploration
phase started in the 1990s when a consortium of US, Japanese, and Indonesian companies formed
the Karaha Bodas Company (KBC), which reached an energy sales contract agreement in 1994
with PLN for development of the resource (see Section 7).

4.6. Other prospects investigated

At least seven other prospects were investigated on Java in some detail during the 1980s,
although no results were reported. In many cases, the investigations were only reconnaissance
surveys (mainly geological and geochemical). The studies covered prospects associated with
active and inactive stratovolcanoes and volcanic domes and are referred to by Soetantri (1986)
and Radja (1985). Other details are listed in a report by Kingston and Morrison (1997). The
following prospects (for locality see Fig. 2) were investigated.

4.6.1. Gunung Arjuno-Welirang

The high-standing G. Arjuno-Welirang stratovolcano (3340 m) was last active in 1952 (Simkin
and Siebert, 1994). Surface manifestations occur on its western flanks at elevations of 1600 and
1000 m; these consist of hot springs, mud pools, and steaming ground. There are solfataras near the
summit (Tmax = 130 C). The prospect was first investigated by VSI, and after 1983 by Pertamina.
Some dc-resistivity and MT surveys were undertaken but no clear evidence was found for a
low-resistivity target area.
238 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

4.6.2. Cilayu-Bungbulang
The Cilayu-Bungbulang prospect, south of the KamojangDarajat area, appears to be associ-
ated with an outflow from an unknown source beneath the Quaternary volcanic terrain in the north
(see Fig. 2) that produces hot springs (Tmax 89 C) and hydrothermally altered rocks. Detailed
exploration surveys were not undertaken after the reconnaissance study.

4.6.3. Gunung Endut

The G. Endut prospect borders the western area of the G. SalakAwibengkok field. Hot springs
(T 84 C) and altered rocks associated with a diorite intrusion were found during the first
exploration stage by Pertamina. The surface manifestations are minor.

4.6.4. Gunung Lamongan

The active G. Lamongan stratovolcano (last eruption in 1898), with a summit height of 1625 m,
is surrounded by numerous phreatic explosion craters (maars) on its flanks (Carn, 2000). Hot
springs (T 95 C) were discovered on the eastern flank while most of the maars occur on the
western one. A geologicalgeochemical reconnaissance was undertaken by Pertamina in 1983.
The prospect carries a high volcanic risk.

4.6.5. Gunung Muria

The 1625 m high, dormant G. Muria stratovolcano exhibits several maars on its northern
flanks, close to the sea. It was recognised as a possible geothermal prospect in 1983 when a
geologicalgeochemical reconnaissance study was undertaken by Pertamina.

4.6.6. Gunung Slamet

The G. Slamet stratovolcano with a summit height of 3430 m has a 1 km wide summit caldera
with an active solfatara field; its last eruption occurred in 1999. Hot springs occur at 1200 m
elevation, about 7 km NW of the summit solfataras. The first reconnaissance survey of this prospect
was done by VSI, followed by MT, resistivity, gravity and temperaturegradient borehole surveys
undertaken by Pertamina. There is a high volcanic risk attached to the prospect.

4.6.7. Gunung Tampomas

The small, 1685 m high G. Tampomas stratovolcano has no record of historic eruptions; the
surface manifestations are rather small. Reconnaissance surveys were done by VSI at the beginning
of the 1980s; Pertamina continued exploration after 1983 using additional surveys but the prospect
was not considered attractive for exploration drilling.
Some inconclusive geophysical exploration studies were also undertaken during 19851986
in the G. Lawu and Mangunan prospects, both in Central Java. The Mangunan prospect exhibits
some anomalously high, cold CO2 discharges.

5. Geothermal exploration of Sumatra prospects (19801995)

Exploration studies of a few Sumatra prospects conducted during the first half of the 1980s
are mentioned by Radja (1985). These led, in 1983, to the drilling of the first deep geothermal
exploratory well on Sumatra by VSI in the LempurKerinci prospect, which was sponsored by
JICA. The activities of the Pertamina geothermal group began in 1987 with the reconnaissance and
exploration of Sumatra prospects. In 19891990, a subsidiary of Unocal undertook a follow-up
geochemical survey of most prospects on the island and made their results available to Pertamina.
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 239

By 1991, about 25 prospects had been studied (Suari and Fauzi, 1991; Hochstein, 1991). About half
of these were further investigated using detailed ground surveys including geophysical methods.
All prospects occur along the active Sumatra Arc and are associated with active, dormant, or
partly eroded Quaternary volcanic massifs (see Fig. 3). In most of these areas heat is transferred
from cooling intrusions to the surface by fluids moving within the active (Great) Sumatra Fault
Zone, which runs along the median axis of the arc. Exploration studies of several prospects were
completed between 1992 and 1995 and led to the drilling of deep exploratory holes.
By 1990 at least 12 high-temperature geothermal systems had been recognised in the northern
part of Sumatra (Hochstein and Sudarman, 1993); seven were explored in some detail and three
were tested by deep exploration wells between 1992 and 1995. Exploration of four prospects in
the so-called Sarulla Block was accelerated when a joint operation and energy sales contract was
signed in 1993 between Pertamina, PLN and Unocal Sumatra. In the southern part, at least 20
prospects were thought to be high-temperature systems (Hochstein and Sudarman, 1993), seven
were explored in detail and two tested by deep drilling. All explored prospects can be divided into
those associated with: (1) active or degassing volcanoes, (2) dormant or partly eroded Quaternary
volcanoes, or (3) inferred cooling intrusions, but at a distance from volcanic centres.

5.1. Exploration of prospects in the northern part associated with active or degassing

5.1.1. The Seuluwah Agam prospect

Seulawah Agam is a stratovolcano (summit height 1810 m) of PleistoceneHolocene age at
the NW tip of Sumatra in Aceh Province. There are several fumarole fields on its NW slopes
with steaming ground where some hydrothermal eruptions might have occurred in historic times
(see Smithsonian volcano website). Hot springs discharging neutral-pH water at temperatures of
up to 90 C (at Ie Seuum) occur in the foothills, about 15 km NW of the summit, pointing to the
existence of large concealed outflows (Suari and Fauzi, 1991; Hochstein and Sudarman, 1993).
The first exploration studies, which included resistivity and gravity surveys, were conducted
by VSI between 1981 and 1984 (Radja, 1985). Pertamina undertook a follow-up survey after
1990 that included drilling of temperaturegradient holes. The data pointed to a reservoir similar
to that at Sibayak (see next section); the Seulawah Agam project was abandoned during the

5.1.2. The Sibayak eld

Gunung Sibayak is an active volcano, close to its twin peak G. Pintau (summit elevation
2210 m); the last eruption occurred in 1881. The two peaks are surrounded in the south by a
segment of the Singkut Caldera, having a diameter of about 6 km. Solfataras near the summit of
G. Sibayak discharge steam (T 116 C) containing magmatic gases (SO2 and HCl). Hot springs
on the SE flank of the volcano discharge sulfatechloride water with a pH between 2 and 6 at
temperatures between 40 and 65 C. Many thermal springs deposit sinter (Suari and Fauzi, 1991).
Detailed exploration studies were undertaken by Pertamina after 1987 using dc-resistivity and
gravity surveys. By 1991, a low-resistivity target area of 12 km2 had been outlined, centred on
G. Sibayak and the hot spring area (Mulyadi, 2000b). The first deep exploration well, SBY-1,
was drilled to 1500 m depth in 1992. It encountered a liquid-dominated reservoir with 225 C at
the bottom of the well. The productivity was moderate (70 t/h total fluids). Four directional wells
were drilled in the following 3 years; it was found that hotter fluids (up to 280 C in SBY-5) and
moderate yields (up to 210 t/h hot fluids; equivalent to producing 5 MWe ) can be obtained from
240 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

wells directed towards Mt Sibayak (Daud et al., 1999). Drilling showed that the productive area
of the reservoir is smaller (5 km2 ) than previously inferred.
Additional MT surveys were undertaken after 1992 to obtain more information about the
reservoir structure (Mulyadi, 2000b). The surveys led to the discovery of two concealed outflows.
One of these extends for more than 6 km northeast of G. Sibayak and discharges cold CO2 gas at
its toe (at Bandar Baru). Steam from one of the Sibayak wells has been used to drive a 2 MWe
back-pressure turbine, which has produced electricity for the local grid since 1995.

5.1.3. Sorik Merapi

Sorik Merapi is an active stratovolcano (summit 2145 m) whose last activity (ash eruption)
occurred in 1986. High-temperature (200250 C) solfataras discharge in the summit crater and
are associated with sulfur deposits around its acid crater lake. Other solfatara fields and craters are
found on the NE flanks of the volcano, where phreatic eruptions occurred during the last century.
Most solfataras discharge steam containing magmatic gases. Acid manifestations (including mud
pools, acid SO4 Cl springs, and fumaroles) are located further down the flanks at 800 m elevation
(Sibinggor Tonga). A concentrated discharge (200 L/s) of acid steam condensate occurs at an
elevation of 650 m, leading to the formation of an acid hot creek (Aek Milas). Further downhill
in the NE foothills, at 200 m elevation and about 12 km away from the summit, the first neutral-
pH springs discharge boiling water (at Samboraga). These are probably associated with a large
concealed outflow (Hochstein and Sudarman, 1993).
Pertamina undertook a detailed exploration programme at Sorik Merapi between 1989 and
1993, which included dc-resistivity, MT, SP, gravity, magnetic, and temperaturegradient surveys.
Further exploration of the project was deferred because of anticipated corrosion problems and the
inferred high volcanic risk (Suari and Fauzi, 1991).

5.2. Exploration of prospects in the Sarulla area

Several high-temperature prospects in the greater Sarulla area occur in a tectonic graben asso-
ciated with strands of the Great Sumatra Fault Zone. The Sibualbuali prospect lies at the southern
end and Namora-I-Langit (NIL in Fig. 3) at the northern end of this area, which was explored in
detail after the signing of the JOC in 1993; the area was then referred to as the Sarulla Contract
Area (Gunderson et al., 1995).

5.2.1. Gunung Sibualbuali

Sibualbuali (summit height: 1820 m) is a partly eroded, mainly andesitic stratovolcano whose
lower, eastern flanks straddle the main branch of the Great Sumatra Fault Zone. There are numerous
fumarole fields, mud pools, and acid sulfate surface manifestations around the volcano, extending
over an area of 45 km2 . The most active fumaroles occur over two parallel, NW-trending strands
of the fault zone running beneath the eastern and western flanks of the volcano (Gunderson et
al., 1995). The NCG content of the fumaroles lies between 3 and 25 wt.%. The most vigorous
fumaroles (with T 132 C) occur over these faults and some discharged steam contains traces
of SO2 and Cl (Soenaryo, 1992).
There is no evidence for any lava flow with an age of <0.1 My. Most of the thermal springs on the
upper slopes discharge acid steam condensates, some at boiling temperature; on the lower flanks,
springs discharge steam-heated groundwater. One spring contains traces of deeper derived fluids.
Extensive thermally altered ground with acid manifestations (5 km2 ) occurs over the eastern
flanks of the volcano and encloses several fumarole areas. In the northern foothills, 8 km NNW
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 241

along the main fault zone, there are cold CO2 gas discharge features at Pengkolon, possibly at
the toe of an outflow plume from Sibualbuali (Hochstein and Sudarman, 1993). Previous gas
discharges along this stretch have caused an accumulation of soil gases and volatiles (CO2 , Hg).
Detailed exploration studies of G. Sibualbuali were undertaken by Pertamina, beginning
in 1988. These included dc-resistivity and gravity surveys, which outlined a 15 km2 low-
resistivity anomaly (centred on the eastern area with surface manifestations). It is surrounded
by a larger area (50 km2 ) with low-gravity anomalies (Suari and Fauzi, 1991). Additional
surveys were undertaken in 1993 by Unocal Sumatra after the signing of a JOC with Per-
tamina and PLN. The later surveys led to the discovery of a few peripheral and distal
low-resistivity areas. One of these was checked by well SIP 1-1, drilled to 2080 m depth in
1994. The well was non-productive but showed a bottomhole temperature of 230 C. It encoun-
tered layers of lacustrine, clay-rich sediments to the east of the Sumatra Fault Zone (Wijaya,

5.2.2. Silangkitang and Donotasik

The Silangkitang and Donotasik prospects lie about 30 and 15 km north of the Sibual-
buali field, along the main branch of the NE-trending Great Sumatra Fault Zone. Both
areas were initially explored by Pertamina towards the end of the 1980s. Resistivity
soundings and profiling outlined two elongated, low-resistivity areas of limited extent
(<10 km2 ), which enclose the surface manifestations at Silangkitang and Donotasik (Soenaryo,
At Silangkitang (also called N-Sarulla), the manifestations include several boiling Cl springs
and hot pools discharging a slightly alkaline, deeply derived thermal water. The springs deposit
sinter; boiling fluids at shallow depth have triggered historic hydrothermal eruptions. Most of the
fumaroles occur over the trace of the Great Sumatra Fault Zone and are surrounded by acid man-
ifestations; their steam contains traces of magmatic gases (HCl, SO2 ). Cation geothermometers
point to deep equilibrium temperatures of about 270 C.
A second exploration programme was conducted by Unocal Sumatra from 1993 onwards
as part of their JOC agreement. It included geological and geochemical studies, and additional
geophysical surveys (gravity, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM), and magnetotelluric). Some
results of these studies were presented by Gunderson et al. (1995, 2000). Interesting findings
include the discovery of a small, young (0.12 My) rhyolite dome at the southern end of the
Silangkitang prospect and a previously unknown small caldera. The Silangkitang area was selected
for exploration drilling. The first well (SIL 1-1) was drilled in 1994 to 2100 m depth (activities
after 1995 are listed in Section 7).
At Donotasik (also called Danau Tasik), thermal manifestations are spread along the Great
Sumatra Fault Zone for about 6 km, and include boiling springs, several ebullient pools, and
a small geyser (T 99.5 C) in the central sector. (The Donotasik prospect is not shown in
Fig. 3; it lies between the adjacent Silangkitang and Sibualbuali areas). The hot spring water
at Donotasik is similar in composition to that discharged at Silangkitang. Gases collected at the
southern end contain traces of magmatic fluids; cation geothermometers applied to the chem-
istry of the boiling springs indicate deep equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 230 C
(Pudjianto et al., 1991; Soenaryo, 1992). Several smaller dacitic-to-rhyolitic domes were found
over the uplifted eastern part of the shear zone towards the northern end of the Donotasik
manifestations. It is possible that traces of magmatic fluids detected at Silangkitang and Dono-
tasik are derived from young intrusions. The Donotasik prospect was not explored by deep
242 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

5.2.3. Namora-I-Langit
The centre of the Namora-I-Langit prospect (the NIL prospect in Fig. 3) lies about 10 km to the
NW of Silangkitang, between two principal strands of the Great Sumatra Fault. It was explored
in detail from the beginning, in 1993, by Unocal Sumatra. The surveys showed that smaller
groups of fumaroles are scattered over a large (50 km2 ) area where thermal springs discharge
neutral-pH, chloridesulfatebicarbonate water. In the southern part there is an area of roughly
4 km2 with impressive acid manifestations, including acid pools and acid springs, which are sur-
rounded by acid-altered ground (leached rocks containing residual quartz). Numerous fumaroles
discharge steam (Tmax = 119 C) with a high content of NCG (1045% by wt.). Manifestations in
the NIL prospect are associated with a volcanic complex consisting of numerous small Pleistocene
andesitic-to-rhyolitic domes (Gunderson et al., 1995). TDEM and MT surveys outlined a shallow
low-resistivity structure over an area of about 30 km2 (Gunderson et al., 2000). Because of access
problems, exploration drilling was delayed until 1997.

5.2.4. Other high-temperature prospects in Northern Sumatra

Reconnaissance and geochemical studies point to a few other high-temperature systems in
North Sumatra, including the Kembar and G. Pusukbukit prospects (Suari and Fauzi, 1991;
Hochstein and Sudarman, 1993). Although deep liquids are not discharged, gas equilibria point to
the existence of a high-temperature resource in each of these areas. The G. Pusukbukit prospect
presents extensive steam-altered grounds; it lies close to the western shore of Lake Toba. The heat
source might be associated with relicts of crustal melts which caused the catastrophic Lake Toba
ignimbrite eruption over 74,000 years ago (refer to Smithsonian website).

5.3. Exploration of prospects belonging to the southern Sumatra group

Data from reconnaissance surveys were used to locate about 20 high-temperature prospects
in Central and South Sumatra (Hochstein and Sudarman, 1993). One third of these were
explored using detailed geophysical studies, such as dc-resistivity, gravity and magnetic surveys
(Boedihardi et al., 1993). However, our knowledge about the structure and types of geothermal
systems in the southern group is restricted since exploration results were published for three
prospects only, two of which, G. KunyitLempur and Ulubelu, were explored by deep drilling.

5.3.1. Muarolabuh and Sungai PenuhSumurup prospects

The Muarolabuh and Sungai PenuhSumurup prospects occur within, or at the margin of,
grabens associated with concealed strands of the Great Sumatra Fault Zone (see Fig. 3). These
two areas, which are separated by a 70 km long segment of the fault zone, exhibit similar surface
manifestations, including boiling springs, hot pools, and silica sinter flats, which occur in rather
flat terrain.
At South Muarolabuh, hot springs discharge boiling, slightly alkaline NaCl water (TDS of about
2.6 g/kg) at an elevation of about 800 m, pointing to a deep, unmixed origin. Cation geothermome-
ters indicate deep fluidrock equilibrium temperatures of 230 C. The location of the springs
appears to be fault controlled. Geophysical surveys (dc-resistivity, head-on profiling, gravity, and
magnetic surveys) were undertaken by Pertamina and an ITB group to trace concealed major
faults (Santoso et al., 1995). A deep reservoir of hot fluids, however, could not be detected.
Another group of thermal springs (North Muarolabuh springs) occurs along the western margin
of the same graben which hosts the South Muarolabuh springs, but about 13 km downstream at
an elevation of about 400 m. Here, almost neutral-pH, dilute sodium-sulfate-bicarbonate water
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 243

(TDS 0.8 g/kg) discharges with a maximum temperature of 91 C; they may derive from a
different source than that of South Muarolabuh.
The Sumurup hot springs and hot pools occur close to the fault-controlled western margin of
the Sungan-Silak Valley, at about 780 m elevation. The springs discharge slightly alkaline NaCl
water (TDS 1.9 g/kg), which is unmixed and of deep origin (cation geothermometers point to an
equilibrium temperature of about 230 C). Impressive is the occurrence of large (up to 1000 m2 ),
sinter-rimmed hot pools with boiling temperature at the bottom, and large sinter flats covering at
least 0.1 km2 (evaporation losses from all pools are 30 MW). A picture of a sinter-depositing,
spouting, boiling spring from Sumurup has been published (Sigurdsson, 2000). Elsewhere, sinter-
rimmed, boiling hot pools with clear NaCl water have been found on top of hot water systems
(e.g. Ohaaki and Orakeikorako in New Zealand). Altered rocks with low resistivity occur beneath
the Sumurup manifestations and extend into the roughly 6 km wide adjacent broad valley, along
whose eastern margin can be found the Sungai Penuh hot springs, at an elevation of about 750 m
and over a distance of roughly 2 km. These springs discharge dilute NaClHCO3 water (up to
84 C) and deposit travertine.

5.3.2. Gunung KunyitLempur

Several fumarole fields and a few small hot springs discharging steam condensates occur on
the upper slopes of the young G. Kunyit stratovolcano (summit height: 2150 m), which lies inside
the KerinciSibelat National Park. There are two craters at the top, although the age of the last
eruption is not known. The prospect had been investigated by VSI at the end of the 1970s. In
the foothill region there are two hot springs discharging neutral-pH NaCl water, about 16 km
north and northeast of the summit (Hasri, 1984). Detailed geophysical surveys (dc-resistivity,
CSAMT, gravity, and magnetic methods) of the northern and northeastern slopes were undertaken
between 1981 and 1984 by JICA. These surveys located a narrow (1 km wide) target area with
low-resistivity rocks.
The first deep exploration well (LP-1, elevation 1230 m) was drilled in 1983 into the target
zone, about 3 km to the east of the volcano summit, to a depth of 1005 m. It encountered a
local outflow from a liquid-dominated reservoir with a maximum temperature of 186 C at about
700 m depth. A second well (LP-2, at an elevation of about 1360 m) was drilled in 1988 to a
depth of 1025 m and found fluids with a maximum temperature of 208 C at bottomhole. Both
wells discharged upon completion, but discharge could not be maintained (Sitorus, 1999). The
two wells were the first deep geothermal wells drilled in Sumatra.

5.3.3. Hululais
Numerous manifestations occur within an area of roughly 30 km2 over the NE slopes of the
eroded Bukit Hululais volcano (summit at about 1825 m). The prospect lies within an area defined
by several NW-trending strands of the 15 km wide Great Sumatra Fault Zone. Earlier studies
showed that fumaroles and mud pots (T 98 C), together with acid hot springs, occur between
1000 and 1500 m elevation over the upper slopes. Several hot springs (Tmax 87 C) discharge
neutral-pH NaCl water in the northern foothills and further to the east in a NW-trending valley
(about 400 m elevation).
Further exploration studies were undertaken in 19931994; these included dc-resistivity and
MT surveys as well as the drilling of two temperaturegradient holes. The resistivity surveys
outlined a 15 km2 target area with low-resistivity rocks beneath the NE flanks of the Bukit
Hululais volcano. Other low-resistivity areas lie further to the east and beneath the valley. The
western part of the Hululais prospect has not been explored yet. One of the temperaturegradient
244 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

holes at the eastern margin of the low-resistivity target area encountered a conductive gradient, and
about 50 C at 180 m depth (Mulyadi, 1995; Guntur and Mulyadi, 2003). Gas geothermometers
applied to fumarole gases point to deep equilibrium temperature of at least 275 C. The setting of
the prospect has affinity with that at Sibualbuali (see Section 5.2.1).

5.3.4. Lumut Balai

Bukit Lumut and Bukit Balai are eroded twin volcanoes exhibiting two eruption centres on
Lumut (summit elevation at 2055 m) and a third on Balai, about 5 km to the east. Active fumarole
fields occur on Lumut volcano; the fields are surrounded by steaming ground with acid surface
alteration (Penindayan field). Another group of manifestations occur within the NE foothills of
Balai volcano where boiling springs (Ogan Kanan group) discharge near neutral-pH sodium-
chloride water (estimated mass flow rate of about 300 kg/s) and deposit sinter (Suari and Fauzi,
1991). Cation geothermometers point to equilibrium temperature higher than 240 C (Hochstein
and Sudarman, 1993). Resistivity surveys located a potential target area of about 25 km2 at Lumut;
a low-resistivity target area of similar size is indicated for the Balai volcano.

5.3.5. Sekincau and Suoh prospects

Gunung Sekincau (summit at 1720 m) and G. Belirang are two volcanoes located over the
southern and northern rim, respectively, of a small, compound caldera (about 5 km extent in
NS directions). There are several solfatara and fumarole areas inside and outside the caldera.
Fumaroles and hot acid springs occur over the eastern and southern slopes of G. Sekincau. Most
fumarole fields are surrounded by acid alteration with silica residue at K. Belirang, at 1150 m
elevation, where temperatures of 106 C have been measured in the solfataras. Traces of SO2
have been found in several fumaroles; acid hot springs and pools contain traces of condensed Cl
Gas geothermometers indicate deep equilibrium temperatures of up to 300 C (Suari and Fauzi,
1991). Fumaroles with SO2 traces and boiling acid springs occur downhill at Becingut, about
8 km SSE of K. Belirang, about halfway to the Suoh depression. Apart from geological and
geochemical exploration, some detailed geophysical surveys (dc-resistivity, gravity, and magnetic)
were undertaken by ITB and Pertamina groups up to 1991. The surveys covered mainly the
northern and central slopes of the prospect. Exploration has since been abandoned.
The Suoh (Suwoh) prospect lies about 12 km south of G. Sekincau in a depression (at about
250 m elevation) between strands of the Great Sumatra Fault Zone. Numerous lakes, mud pools,
boiling springs, and fumaroles occur within the depression over an area of 10 km2 . The prospect
is known for its history of hydrothermal eruptions, which created large explosion craters (maars)
now filled with thermal water. The last catastrophic event occurred in 1933 (Simkin and Siebert,
1994); frequent but smaller eruptions have occurred as recently as 1994.
The hot springs discharge neutral-pH, NaCl water with a rather high, stochiometric unbalanced
chloride content (Suari and Fauzi, 1991). Cation geothermometers indicate equilibrium temper-
atures between 240 and 260 C. Steam from fumaroles on the western side of the 1 km2 Lake
Asam contains traces of SO2 . High steam clouds over steaming ground and hot pools point to large
natural heat losses. All manifestations indicate the presence of a shallow liquid-dominated system.
Boiling hot springs (Way Panas) occur over the NE, fault-controlled margin of the depression,
about 6 km west of the centre of the Suoh Field. The prospect was investigated by VSI between
1980 and 1984 (Radja, 1985) and by Pertamina at the end of the 1980s. Exploration was resumed
later on (see Section 7.2).
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 245

Widely separated areas of steam-altered ground occur over an eroded, NS trending strip from
Sekincau towards the Suoh depression; this might be indicative of a concealed outflow from the
Sekincau volcanic geothermal system. It has been suggested that the Suoh Field could be at the
end point of such an outflow (Hochstein and Sudarman, 1993).

5.3.6. Ulubelu (Hulubelu)

The Ulubelu prospect occurs within a 60 km2 tectonic depression; its floor is at an ele-
vation of 700800 m. The depression, which may be an eroded caldera, is surrounded by
volcanic mountains of Pliocene to Pleistocene age with the dominating Mt. Rindigan (1700 m
summit height) in the north. The field is often described as the RindiganUlubelu prospect.
Within the depression there are fumaroles, hot mud pools, and hot acid springs enclosed by
areas of thermally altered ground. Hot springs discharge neutral-pH sodium-chloride water
(Tmax = 97 C) in valleys opening to the south at elevations between 150 and 250 m, about 8 km
south of the centre of the depression. The lower thermal springs (Waypanas) deposit traver-
tine, thus indicating a connection with a concealed outflow. Cation geothermometers point
to deeper equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 220 C (Kusnadi, 1993; Sunaryo et al.,
A reconnaissance survey of the prospect was started in 1989 by Pertamina, followed, from
1991 to 1993, by detailed geological, geochemical and geophysical (dc-resistivity, MT, gravity
and ground magnetic) surveys. The resistivity studies delineated a low-resistivity area of about
30 km2 , which includes an area over the inferred southern outflow.
A 1160-m deep exploration well (UBL-1) was drilled in 1995 in a thermally active area in the
southern half of the target area. It encountered an almost constant temperature of about 200210 C
from roughly 300 m depth down to bottomhole (after 1 week heating), showing a temperature
inversion beneath the top of a liquid-saturated reservoir at about 600 m depth (Suharno, 2003).
Although the hole was drilled as a slim hole, completed with a 0.075 m (3-in.) diameter slotted
liner in the lower half, it was able to discharge, indicating that Ulubelu hosts a liquid-dominated
reservoir (Mulyadi, 2000a). At the end of 2006 the bottomhole temperature in UBL-1 was 224 C
(Ribut Mulyadi, personal communication, June 2007).
Constant temperatures of 200 C were also measured below about 600 m depth in another
1000 m deep well (UBL-3), about 4 km NW of UBL-1. Wells showing constant temperatures
with depth in a liquid-saturated reservoir usually indicate some forced convection, i.e. some
lateral flow. However, it is possible that reservoir temperatures at Ulebulu have declined recently
as studies of fluid inclusions and alteration minerals point to past temperatures of 250300 C in
the bottom half of the wells (Kamah et al., 2000).

5.3.7. Rajabasa
Active manifestations point to the existence of a high-temperature system beneath G. Rajabasa,
a young basalticandesitic stratovolcano (summit: 1280 m) at the southern end of Sumatra; its
southern perimeter butts against the Sea of Sunda Strait. Fumarole activity, minor acid hot springs
and altered ground occur on the volcano flanks and in the foothills of the SE quadrant (from
400 m elevation at Cukung down to 90 m at Guntir). At sea level on the SE shore, boiling
springs discharge neutral-pH NaCl water (Gaung Botak), which causes geyser activity and minor
sinter deposition during a few months of the year. In the NW quadrant, there are a few acid
discharge features at higher elevations such as the Biliran (sulfur) springs (Tmax = 55 C) at 300
elevation. Other springs at lower elevations and along the NW shore discharge slightly alkaline
water at temperatures below 65 C; the springs along the seashore deposit travertine. Unmixed
246 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

deep thermal water has not been found yet. The neutral-pH NaCl water emerging at sea level in
the SE quadrant contains traces of seawater (Suari and Fauzi, 1991).
Reconnaissance, geochemical and a few gravity and magnetic surveys were undertaken by VSI
during the 1980s. Pertamina continued with exploration until 1993 using detailed geophysical
studies (dc-resistivity and MT), which indicated a deep-seated source. Two temperaturegradient
holes were drilled in the SE sector in 1992 (Kingston and Morrison, 1997).

5.3.8. Other high-temperature prospects in Central and Southern Sumatra

At the end of the 1980s, the results of the reconnaissance surveys were used to infer the occur-
rence of a few additional high-temperature prospects in the southern half of Sumatra. Two of these
are volcanic geothermal systems: G. Talang and Marga Bayur. The Talang prospect was explored
using a few geophysical surveys (Santoso et al., 1995). Fumarole activity and boiling springs
occur at Graho Nyabu and Sungai Tenang, pointing to liquid-dominated reservoirs. Concealed,
large outflows from similar reservoirs, which deposit travertine at the surface, discharge at Danau
Ranau and Ratai (Hochstein and Sudarman, 1993).

6. Exploration and geothermal developments outside Java and Sumatra (19801995)

6.1. Bali

Exploration of the Bratan Caldera prospect during the 1980s was restricted since parts of the
caldera had been given National Park status. However, some additional resistivity surveys (MT)
were undertaken by Pertamina in 1987. These were disturbed in part by topographic effects, but
allowed penetration of the thick, low-resistivity layer on top. At the beginning of 1994 the fate of
the prospect was still uncertain.

6.2. High-temperature prospects on Banda Arc Islands (Nusa Tenggara)

Seventeen prospects with significant thermal manifestations occur on Banda Arc islands, twelve
on the island of Flores. Reconnaissance surveys of most prospects have been undertaken by VSI
and PLN since 1970 (Radja, 1975, 1980, 1985). The early involvement of PLN reflects the interest
in using small geothermal developments for rural electrification of these islands. At the end of the
1980s, a small bilateral New Zealand aid programme, with VSI and PLN as counterpart, assessed
the Ulumbu prospect on Flores (see Fig. 4).
The Ulumbu geothermal field lies on the SW flank of the Poco Lok volcanic complex (summit
height 1675 m), where three fumarole fields occur over an area of 30 km2 at elevations between
650 and 1200 m. The largest field is located in the Wai Kokor valley at 650 m elevation, where
heat is discharged at an estimated rate of 100 MW (Johnstone, 2005). Scattered over the lower
slopes are bicarbonate springs with low Cl content. Exploration studies were undertaken by
VSI and PLN from 1980 onwards and included geological, geochemical, and geophysical (dc-
resistivity) surveys. Additional geophysical surveys were conducted in 1989 as part of the aid-
sponsored study.
The first deep well (ULB-1) was drilled in 1994 as a vertical well to 1890 m depth; it penetrated a
840 m thick section of Quaternary volcanics. Two other deviated wells (ULB-2, ULB-3) reached
projected vertical depths of 750 and 840 m, respectively. All three wells were drilled at a site
close to large fumaroles. The first well found neutral-pH Cl water with temperatures of about
230 C below 800 m depth, but encountered poor permeability down to the bottom, where a
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 247

small temperature inversion occurs. The other two wells produced dry steam from a shallow
vapour-saturated layer but with declining output. It is likely that the wells intersected an outflow
zone of a liquid-dominated reservoir located somewhere upstream (Grant et al., 1997). Fluid
inclusions indicate paleo-temperatures similar to those measured in the ULB-1 well (Kasbani et
al., 1997). Further development of the prospect has been suspended.

6.3. Sulawesi

During the 1980s significant geothermal development occurred in North Sulawesi when deep
exploration drilling started at Lahendong. Exploration activities were continued at the Kota-
mobagu and Tompaso prospects (see Fig. 4).

6.3.1. Lahendong
The reconnaissance studies of the Lahendong VSI/JICA project were completed during
19811982 with the drilling of three, small diameter (0.073 m) holes at the western side of Lake
Linau. The first hole (LH-1) blew out when it reached about 230 m depth; the second was about
350 m deep and discharged steam (Prijanto et al., 1984; Surachman et al., 1986, 1987). Little is
known about the third well except that it probably reached about 650 m depth. In 1980, Pertam-
ina was appointed by the Indonesian Government to develop the Lahendong prospect. A second
exploration phase started in 1982, involving gravity, magnetotelluric, and dc-resistivity surveys,
which are well documented (Alhamid, 1984; Sudarman et al., 1996). The resistivity surveys out-
lined a low-resistivity area of at least 8 km2 . Geochemical surveys found several acid hot springs
occurring close to this area, surrounded, in turn, by a few, widely scattered, neutral-pH, Cl springs
(Prijanto et al., 1984) with gas geothermometers indicating deep fluid equilibrium temperatures
of up to 320 C.
The first deep exploration well (LHD-1) was drilled in 1983 to about 2200 m depth in the west-
ern sector of the low dc-resistivity target zone, close to an area with acid surface manifestations. It
encountered acid chloridesulfate water with a temperature of about 260 C at 660 m depth and a
maximum temperature of about 300 C at total depth. The well discharged acid fluids (Sudarman
et al., 1996).
Between 1983 and 1986, five more deep (between about 1900 and 2200 m depth) vertical wells
were completed. Well tests showed that Lahendong is a liquid-dominated system with measured
temperatures of up to 350 C in the southern sector. Wells away from the acid core can produce up
to 125 t/h of neutral-pH, chloride fluids with a rather low (<1% by wt.) NCG content (LHD-4, for
example, referred to by Sudarman et al., 1996; Khasani et al., 2001). Two productive zones were
found, a shallow one about 450 m thick and a deeper one up to 1200 m thick. Some exploration
results from the first half of the 1980s have been reported by Sulasdi (1986).
A 2.5 MWe binary plant was erected close to the producing well LHD-5 by BPPT (Indonesian
Technology Research Agency) in 1993. It failed after a few days running and has been mothballed
(Ibrahim et al., 2005). Drilling activity slowed down between 1986 and 1995, during which
only five deep, mostly deviated wells were completed. Three of the first ten deep wells were
producers. There was good evidence, however, that with some additional make-up wells, planning
and construction of a 20 MWe modular plant could go ahead (Sasradipoera and Hantono, 2003).

6.3.2. Tompaso
The surveys of the Lahendong prospect, started in 1982 by Pertamina, included the Tompaso
area, whose manifestations occur about 10 km south of the Lahendong field. Results from dc-
248 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

resistivity and MT surveys showed that high-resistivity structures separate them (Alhamid, 1984).
The low-resistivity structures associated with the Tompaso prospect, however, are not well defined
and comprise two smaller, separate areas with shallow, low resistivities. The one in the SW exhibits
extensive acid surface manifestations at its SW margin (K. Masam); the other area, about 6 km
to the east (at Tempang), contains hot, neutral-pH chloride springs. The chemical composition
of the spring water shows affinity with the neutral-pH springs in the greater Lahendong area; for
example, they have the same Cl/B ratio (Prijanto et al., 1984). Silica and gas geothermometers
indicate that Tompaso is a high-temperature system (inferred equilibrium temperature between
200 and 250 C based on the 1984 studies). The results of the first deep Lahendong wells brought
the exploration studies at Tompaso to a halt.

6.3.3. Kotamobagu
Detailed geophysical and geochemical surveys were undertaken by Pertamina in the Kotam-
abagu prospect during the 1980s. These studies included the drilling of shallow (to 150 m depth)
temperaturegradient holes. The surveys confirmed that the prospect has an acid centre around G.
Muayat (about 4 km east of the active G. Ambang volcano). Nearby fumaroles contain traces of
magmatic fluids. This centre appears to be surrounded by a large, liquid-dominated reservoir with
neutral-pH Cl fluids. Aided by tectonic fracture zones and its regional hydrological setting, the
reservoir feeds several large, concealed outflows associated with shallow, thermally altered rocks.
These, in turn, can be recognised as low-resistivity structures in the dc-resistivity and MT surveys.
One of the concealed lateral flows transfers hot, neutral-pH Cl water to Labang, over 10 km west
of the acid centre. Another outflow emerges roughly 15 km to the SE, at Bakan (discharging about
800 kg/s at temperatures of 85 C), and a third discharges at Tompaso Baru, more than 10 km to
the NE of G. Muayat. The last two outflows appear to be associated with a NE-to-SW trending,
broad fracture zone; segments of this zone were traced by head-on resistivity surveys conducted
over the SW and NE flanks of G. Muayat.

7. Exploration and development of prospects from 1995 until 2000

The industrial development of explored Indonesian geothermal resources was rather slow
prior to 1995. Power plants with a total generating capacity of about 305 MWe had been con-
structed at Kamojang, Awibengkok, and Darajat. A complex local energy market and inflation
made it difficult to secure overseas funding for partial developments. Fixed contracts were intro-
duced from 1994 onwards to allow for development of IPP where steam field development,
steam production, and electricity generation were awarded, often as a package, to large, mainly
foreign investors who were tied by energy sales contracts (in terms of foreign currency) to
PLN. Eleven such contracts were signed. Many contract developments began with additional
exploration surveys, followed in rapid succession by accelerated exploration and production
drilling. Parallel to these developments, geothermal exploration by Pertamina, PLN and VSI

7.1. Power station developments

Extension at Awibengkok led to sequential increases of 55 MWe (Unit II) in 1997 and 165 MWe
(Unit III) in the same year. The first large plant at Dieng (60 MWe ) was completed as an IPP in
1998; the plant capacity at Darajat was increased by 80 MWe (Unit II) in 1999. The last plant
during the 1990s was completed at WayangWindu (G. Malabar) with a capacity of 110 MWe
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 249

in 1999. Thus, within the short span of 4 years, the generating capacity of the geothermal plants
had been increased by a total of 470, 415 MWe of which were mainly funded by private foreign
Geothermal developments came to a halt as a result of the financial crisis affecting Asian
countries in 19971998, which led to a massive devaluation of the local currency. The electricity
sales contracts with foreign investors could no longer be fulfilled and two presidential decrees
(PD 39/1997 and PD 5/1998) led to the closure of most projects under contract. This was followed
by a long period of re-negotiation of sales contracts, changes in ownership of plants, fields and
prospects, and litigations that have now been settled except for one (Ibrahim et al., 2005; Saptadji,
2006). The situation also caused some stagnation of geothermal development with the exception
of the completion of the Lahendong 20 MWe modular plant in 2000 and an increase by 47 MWe
to a total of 377 MWe capacity at Awibengkok in 2002.

7.2. Exploration on Sumatra after 1995 (for localities see Fig. 3)

Exploration drilling in the Sarrulah Block prospects continued after 1994. The discovery
well at Namora-I-Langit (NIL 1-1) was drilled in 1997 to about 1500 m depth (T 275 C) and
encountered a liquid-dominated system. Three additional deep exploration wells were drilled sub-
sequently, one of which bottomed in a large, deep-reaching body of acid-altered rocks (Gunderson
et al., 2000).
At Silangkitang four more wells were drilled between 1995 and 1998 to a maximum depth
of about 2300 m. Completion tests showed that the prospect was also a liquid-dominated sys-
tem. Three of the wells were deviated and drilled to intersect the main fault zone; one (SIL 1-2)
encountered a maximum temperature of 310 C at the bottom. Most of the wells were produc-
tive and one was capable of producing 130 t/h of fluids with an enthalpy of about 1400 kJ/kg
through a 0.18 m diameter liner. The NCG content of the produced fluids was 23% (by wt.). The
Silangkitang reservoir appears to be a fracture zone-type reservoir associated with an active mega
shear zone.
Three more deep wells were drilled directionally through strands of the Great Sumatra Fault at
Sibualbuali between 1995 and 1997. The wells were deviated towards G. Sibualbuali, intersected
the fault zone, and encountered a liquid-dominated reservoir with a temperature between 218 and
248 C in the production zone (Gunderson et al., 2000). All exploration activities came to a halt
in early 1998.
Geothermal exploration of the Suoh and Sekincau prospects was renewed in 1997, involving
a private developer. The studies comprised geological, geochemical and geophysical fieldwork
(MT and gravity surveys). The 19971998 financial crisis also brought this development to a
premature end.

7.3. Exploration on Java (see Fig. 2)

Exploration drilling at WayangWindu, renewed after 1995, confirmed the existence of the
thick vapour-dominated layer already encountered by the first well in 1991. Several additional
deep wells were drilled to depths where temperatures are between 280 and 300 C in the underlying
brine-saturated region at depths of 20002500 m. A three-dimensional reservoir model of the
system has recently been presented (Asrizal et al., 2006). Drilling of production wells was stopped
in 1998. At that time sufficient steam flow was available to drive a single 110 MWe turbine of the
first power plant, which was completed in 1999 (Murakami et al., 2000).
250 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

Exploration continued in 1994 at KarahaTelaga Bodas when the project was taken over
by the private Karaha Bodas Company. Detailed geophysical (MT) studies indicated that K.
Karaha and Telaga Bodas are part of the same geothermal system (Anderson et al., 1999);
this was confirmed by deep drilling, which showed that the Talaga Bodas sector hosts a mag-
matic geothermal system (Allis et al., 2000). Nineteen deep (>1 km) holes were drilled within
a 30 km2 target area between 1995 and 1998. Most were fully cored slim holes, but eight
were completed as exploration and production wells. One, near the acid Lake Telaga Bodas,
reached 2300 m depth and encountered a vapour-dominated reservoir with a maximum tem-
perature of about 353 C; another well, about 2800 m deep with a bottom temperature of about
316 C, found neutral-pH NaCl fluids in the Karaha sector (Allis et al., 2000; Powell et al.,
The Telaga Bodas part of the reservoir was interpreted in terms of a magmatic vapour plume
that changes gradually towards the Karaha sector to a neutral-pH condensate layer/vapour
layer/liquid substratum type reservoir, similar to the WayangWindu system. Development of the
project was suspended after 1998. Financial support by the US Department of Energy, however,
allowed analysis and interpretation of the exploration data, which were published in a num-
ber of papers (Tripp et al., 2002; Raharjo et al., 2002; Moore et al., 2002a,b,c; Nemcok et al.,
Rapid exploration drilling was also employed at Patuha between 1996 and 1998 when 17
deep temperaturegradient holes (slim holes) were drilled to depths ranging between 650 and
1200 m within a roughly 40 km2 target area. The inner sector was probed by 13 deep wells down
to depths between 1000 and 2150 m (Layman and Soemarinda, 2003), avoiding the area sur-
rounding the acid Lake K. Putih (Sriwana et al., 2000). The deep wells encountered a 0.5 km
thick vapour-dominated (natural two-phase) layer below 1 km depth at temperatures between
200 and 240 C. The layer is underlain by a hot, liquid-saturated region that produced hot
water with very low mineralization (of unknown pH) in one deep well (PPL-02), indicative
of a heat pipe setting (Bau and Torrance, 1982). The first productive well was the 1000 m
deep PPL-01 well drilled in the SE part of the field near K. Ciwiday (bottom T 200 C);
the well lies roughly 8 km east of the Cibuni discovery well CBN-1. The system has affinity
with that encountered at KarahaTelaga Bodas and WayangWindu, except for the composition
of the liquid beneath the vapour-dominated cap. Vapour pressure, and hence vapour tempera-
ture, increase at constant level towards K. Putih. Exploration here was also brought to a halt in
Fast developments also occurred at Dieng when a private developer (HCE) started operation.
Eighteen deep production wells were drilled between 1995 and 1998, with sixteen wells drilled in
the new Sileri field, 35 km NNW of the centre of the Sikidang field. Almost all HCE wells produce
from depths between 2000 and 2300 m, where bottom-hole temperatures are in the 300335 C
range. The wells discharge neutral-pH, two-phase fluids with an enthalpy between 1400 and
1750 kJ/kg. The TDS of the dilute brine was between 15 and 25 g/kg, and the NCG content low
(<1% by wt. in separated steam). Some input of magmatic fluids was detected in two wells located
between the two fields (Layman et al., 2002).
A 60 MWe plant (Unit 1) was built in the Sikidang sector to use steam from a few
nearby Pertamina wells, at the time still accessible, with additional fluids coming from HCE
wells in the Sileri bore field. However, the Sikidang wells failed and all fluids had to
be sourced from the Sileri field. The Sikidang plant was commissioned in early 1998 but
did not start operation since HCE withdrew from further developments as a result of the
financial crisis. After settling of insurance claims and returning the Dieng Project to the
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 251

Indonesian Government in 2001, the Dieng power plant (Unit 1) was re-commissioned in

7.4. Exploration on Bali and Flores

Exploration started again on Bali when access problems were solved and a JOC was signed
between Bali Energy (a joint venture involving a major US developer and a local company) and
Pertamina at the end of 1994. The Bratan Caldera prospect became the Bedugul geothermal
project (Fig. 2). Some geophysical surveys (TDEM-MT) were repeated and exploration pro-
gressed rapidly to the drilling of six (11.6 km depth) slim holes and three deep exploration wells
(BEL-01, BEL-02, and BEL-03). The latter wells were drilled to vertical depths of about 2400 m
where a maximum temperature of 310 C was measured (Hochstein et al., 2005). They could not
be properly tested after completion in early 1998 and the project was suspended as a result of
the 19971998 financial crisis. Recently, two of the three deep wells have been discharged suc-
cessfully, confirming the existence of a deep, productive, liquid-dominated system, which might
present two-phase fluid zones beneath the Bratan Caldera (Mulyadi et al., 2005).
A New Zealand Aid programme was extended in 1997 to allow for an assessment of the Sokoria
prospect on Flores (Harvey et al., 1998). Another bilateral aid project (between the Indonesian
and Japanese Governments) led, after 1997, to the exploration of the Bajawa prospects, also on
this island (see Fig. 4).
The Sokoria (Sukaria) prospect lies on the SW slopes of Keli Mutu volcano (summit height:
1640 m), known for its three acid crater lakes below the summit (Pasternak and Varekamp, 1994).
Over its flanks and at elevations of <900 m, there are widespread thermal springs that discharge
magmatic condensate, steam condensate, and mixed reservoir fluid (Harvey et al., 2000). On
the SE slopes and in the SW sector, about 10 km from the summit, neutral-pH NaCl water dis-
charges at elevations of about 500 and 300 m, respectively. Cation-equilibrium temperatures of
200250 C were obtained for two outflows of neutralized fluids, derived presumably from a
magmatic geothermal system centred on Keli Mutu; the Sokoria prospect may be associated with
one of its SW outflows.
In the greater Bajawa area on Flores, there are active thermal areas over the northern and
eastern slopes of the high-standing Inerie stratovolcano (2245 m summit height), whose latest
eruptions are of Holocene age. Impressive thermal areas can be found at Keli (840 m elevation)
and Nage (530 m elevation), roughly 5 and 6 km east of Inerie volcano, respectively. Here, hot
acid sulfatechloride waters discharge with temperatures of up to 70 C at Keli and up to 80 C at
Nage. For the latter area, a total discharge rate of about 500 kg/s has been quoted (Takahashi et al.,
2000). It has been inferred that the manifestations at Keli and Nage are derived from a magmatic
geothermal parent system (Nasution et al., 2000).
Another high-temperature prospect in the greater Bajawa area occurs at Mataloko, at an eleva-
tion of about 1000 m, roughly 13 km NE of Inerie Volcano. Acid sulfate water, with temperatures
up to 95 C, discharge within a large (0.35 km2 ) area of steaming ground showing acid surface
alteration. Gas geothermometry indicates a temperature of about 250 C at depth. The Mataloko
area was explored as part of an IndonesiaJapan aid project and the first two shallow exploratory
wells were drilled inside a steaming ground area in 2000. The second well (MT-2) encountered a
productive layer with an inferred bottom temperature of about 197 C at 180 m depth (Sitorus et
al., 2001). Two additional wells (MT-3 and MT-4) were recently drilled to 540 m and about 755 m
depth, respectively and found a maximum temperature of 205 C (Kasbani et al., 2004); the two
wells produced minor amounts of steam.
252 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

8. Summary and discussion

About 70 out of more than 200 geothermal prospects throughout Indonesia were identified as
potential high-temperature systems before 1995 (Sudarman et al., 2000a) and 42 of these were
explored in some detail between 1970 and 2000 using geological mapping as well as geochemical
and geophysical surveys (see summary in Tables 13). Another 30 or so areas have only been
subject to reconnaissance studies; only half of the sites are mentioned in the literature. Almost all
explored prospects are hosted by Quaternary volcanic rocks, derived from volcanic centres that
form part of the active Sunda and Java Arc (Figs. 2 and 3), the Inner Banda Arc (Figs. 1 and 4),
and the Sangihe Arc segment (Fig. 4).
Ten geothermal areas were explored in some detail during the first period (19701980), five
on Java and five outside. Three of the five Java prospects were explored by deep drilling, which
discovered high-temperature reservoirs (i.e. with T > 220 C) at Darajat, Dieng-Sikidang, and
Kamojang. At that time, exploration models were still limited in outlook. The phenomenon of
concealed outflows, for example, was poorly understood and it was only found later that two of the
prospects investigated during the first decade exhibit such characteristic hydrology. The problem
was better understood during the next decade. There were also problems with exploring prospects
hosted by active and dormant volcanoes exhibiting characteristic acid surface manifestations
derived, in part, from non-equilibrated magmatic fluids. It was recognised at the end of the 1980s
that development of geothermal energy was constrained by limited technical and manpower
resources, and that foreign investment and foreign developers were needed to enhance geothermal
There was a significant increase in exploration activities during the second period between
1980 and 1995 when 45 new prospects were explored. Thirteen fields were tested by deep
exploratory drilling, in seven of them the first deep well was drilled by the government agency
Pertamina. High-temperature reservoirs were discovered at Dieng-Sileri, Lahendong, Sibayak,
and WayangWindu-Malabar. The private sector (mainly with foreign investment) drilled discov-
ery wells in another four prospects where high-temperature reservoirs were found (Awibengkok,
K. Ratu, Sibualbuali, Silangkitang). Non-productive wells encountering intermediate tempera-
tures were drilled into concealed outflows on Java (Citaman, Cisolok, Ngebel-G. Wilis), and on
Sumatra (G. KunyitLempur). A high-temperature outflow was discovered by aid-sponsored deep
drilling on Flores (Ulumbu). Such outflows were found to be common in mountainous terrain.
The majority of prospects explored in Sumatra, for example, appear to be associated with lateral
outflow plumes, as indicated by geochemical and geophysical surveys (see Table 2).
During the last period (19952000), six prospects were tested by deep drilling, which discov-
ered productive high-temperature reservoirs at Patuha, Karaha, Namora-I-Langit, and at Bedugul
on Bali. All discovery wells were drilled by the private sector. A deep exploration well was drilled
by Pertamina at Ulebulu; the Mataloko prospect on Flores was recently explored by deep drilling,
which was supported by government and aid funding.
During the three decades (from 1970 to 2000) of geothermal prospecting in Indonesia, explo-
ration and interpretation methods were continuously upgraded by involving overseas contractors
and Indonesian staff who had received overseas geothermal training (Fanelli and Dickson, 1988).
For identification and delineation of reservoir target areas, electrical geophysical methods, espe-
cially the robust DC arrays (Schlumberger arrays), were widely used during the first and second
periods. In the early 1980s it was recognised that the low resistivity of rocks overlying most high-
temperature reservoirs was caused mainly by clay (matrix) minerals. Tests showed that the thick,
low-resistivity, cover structures can be penetrated by MT methods. However, earlier MT surveys
Table 1
Overview of exploration of geothermal prospects on Java
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Batukuwung 6.13; 105.93 E Y N N O(N) N Outflow?, G. Karang?

Citaman (G. Karang) 6.33; 106.08 E Y Y/(85) N O(S10) N Outflow, G. Karang
85 G. Endut 6.64; 106.30 R N N N N (?)(SV) High-temperature system?
88 K. Ratu (G. Salak) 6.72; 106.70 E N Y/(84) N N MC, AS Y(SV) Volcanic geothermal

M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

90 Awibengkok (PerbaktiSalak) 6.73; 106.68 E Y Y/(83) Y O(N?) AS (?)(SV) L-dominated reservoir:
110/55/165 MWe
additional 47 MWe (2002)
92 Cisolok 6.90; 106.43 E Y Y/(86) N O(SSW10) N Outflow, unknown source
102 Patuha (incl. Ciboni) 7.16; 107.39 E Y Y/(95) (Y) N AL, AS, MG Y(SV) V layer system, acid lake,
magmatic V core
101 Kawah Kamojang 7.13; 107.80 E Y Y/(74) Y N AL N V-dominated reservoir:
30/110 MWe (1982/1987)
106 Darajat 7.23; 107.73 E Y Y/(77) Y sO(E) AL, AS N V-dominated reservoir
with shallow outflow:
55/80 MWe (1994/1999)
105 WayangWindu 7.22; 107.62 E Y Y/(91) (Y) N AS, AL, MG N V layer system: (also G.
Malabar, SV) 110 MWe
116 KarahaT. Bodas 7.22; 108.07 E Y Y/(96) (Y) N AS, AL, MG Y(SV) V layer system, acid lake,
magmatic V core (Bodas)
126 Tangkubanparahu 6.77; 107.58 E N N N O(SW13) AS, AL, MG Y(SV) Volcanic geothermal
124 Tampomas 6.72; 108.00 R(E) N N N N ? N(SV) High-temperature system?
Muria (Muriah) 6.62; 110.88 R(E) N N N N N(SV) High-temperature system?
109 Cilayu-Bungbulang 7.45; 107.50 R(E) N N N O N Outflow?, unknown
136 Dieng (Sikidang) 7.22; 109.90 E Y Y/(77) Y N AS, AL, MG Y Volcanic geothermal
systems, magmatic V
core; 2 MWe (19811993)
136 Dieng (Sileri) 7.20; 109.90 E Y Y/(84) Y N AS, AL Y L-dominated, 2-phase,
60 MWe (1998)

Table 1 (Continued)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

141 Ungaran 7.20; 110.42 E Y N N O(E15?) N(SV) (Deep-seated)

high-temperature system
131 Slamet 7.25; 109.17 E Y N N N AS Y(SV) Volcanic geothermal
134 Mangunan 7.20; 109.77 R N N N O N Outflow?
138 G. Lawu 7.62; 111.13 R N N N N ? N(SV) (Deep-seated)

M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

high-temperature system
150 G. Wilis (T. Ngebel) 7.82; 111.63 E Y Y/(93) N O(W) N(SV) Outflow from G. Wilis
149 G. Arjuno-Welirang 7.72; 112.57 E N N N N AS, AL, MG Y(SV) Volcanic geothermal
152 G. Lamongan 7.95; 113.38 R N N N N AS Y(SV) Volcanic geothermal
153 Kawah Ijen 8.02; 114.20 E Y N N O MG, MS, AL Y(SV) Volcanic geothermal
systems, acid lake,
magmatic V core

Explanation of columns in Table 1

Column Description

1 Number assigned to the geothermal site on the VSI website (

2 Name of site or prospect; other (local) names in parentheses
3 Coordinates: 1st (four digit) number: deg. latitude (prefix +, N; prefix , S); 2nd number: deg. longitude E
4 Status of exploration in 2000: R, advanced reconnaissance, including soil surveys (no geophysical surveys); E, detailed exploration, including
several geophysical surveys, often temperaturegradient survey; R(E), advanced reconnaissance but using at least one geophysical method
5 Temperature gradient or shallow exploration holes drilled (usually 100300 m deep): Y, yes; N, no
6 Deep exploration hole drilled (usually 10002000 m deep): Y, yes; (77) year when first hole drilled; N, no
7 Several exploration holes drilled (several production wells drilled): Y, yes; N, no; (Y), not used for production yet
8 Concealed outflows: O, outflow(s) inferred from geophysical and/or geochemical surveys; O(S16), direction and length (in km) of largest,
concealed outflow; sO, shallow outflow; N, no clear evidence for any concealed outflow
9 Presence of significant acid (or magmatic) fluids at surface: AS, acid surface alteration; AL, acid springs; MG, traces of magmatic gases (HCl,
SO2 ) in fumaroles; MC, traces of magmatic condensates; MCO such traces in outflows
10 Inferred volcanic risk using data from the Smithsonian website ( and Simkin and Siebert (1994): Y, yes; (Y),
probable; ?, possible; N, no; (SV), young stratovolcano SV
11 Keywords describing likely type of geothermal system (L, liquid; V, vapour); installed, incremental plant capacity in MWe and year of
commissioning; for example: 30/110 MWe (1982/1987), i.e. total capacity of 140 MWe by 1988
Table 2
Overview of exploration of geothermal prospects on Sumatra (for explanation of columns, see Table 1)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

5 Seuluwah Agam +5.47; 95.65 E Y N N O(NW12) AS, AL, MCO Y(SV) Volcanic geothermal systems
15 Kembar 3.77; 97.70 R N N N N AS N High-temperature system,
shield volc.
18 Sibayak 3.23; 8.50 E Y Y/(92) Y O(N10) MC, MG, AL Y(SV) Volcanic geothermal systems,
L-dominated, pilot plant:

M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

2 MWe (1995)
22 Pusukbukit 2.60; 98.67 R N N N O? AS N L-dominated, margin of Lake
Namora-I-Langit 1.91; 98.99 E N Y/(97) (Y) N AS, AL, MG N L-dominated, acid centre,
27 Silangkitang (N. Sarulla) 1.87; 99.06 E N Y/(94) (Y) N AS, MG N L-dominated, graben
Donotasik (Danau Tasik) 1.73; 99.10 E N N N N AS, MG N L-dominated, graben
28 Sibualbuali 1.57; 99.27 E N Y/(94) N O(N8) AS, MG ?(SV) L-dominated, acid centre
31 Sorik Merapi 0.75; 99.58 E Y N N O(NW12) AS, AL, MC Y(SV) Volcanic geothermal systems,
(MCO), acid lake
46 G. Talang 0.90; 100.69 R(E) N N N O? MC ?(SV) Volcanic geothermal systems
48 Muarolabuh 1.43; 101.02 E N N N O N L-dominated, graben
54 Sungai Penuh (Sumurup, 2.02; 101.42 E N N N O N L-dominated, graben
55 G. KunyitLempur 2.28; 101.51 E N Y/(83) N O(N?) ?(SV) Volcanic geothermal systems,
57 Graho Nyabu 2.47; 101.65 R N N N O N L-dominated?
58 Sungai Tenang 2.68; 101.94 R N N N O N High-temperature system?
68 Hululais 3.20; 102.25 E Y N N O(N) AS, AL N L-dominated
62 Lumut Balai 4.17; 103.52 E N N N O AS ?(SV) L-dominated
65 Marga Bayur 4.33; 103.17 R(E) N N N N MC ? Volcanic geothermal systems
73 Danau Ranau 4.55; 103.54 R N N N O N L-dominated?
74 Sekincau 5.07; 104.18 E N N N O(S12) AS, AL, MG Y(SV) Volcanic geothermal systems
75 Suoh 5.23; 104.27 E N N N N MC, MG (Y) L-dominated, large phreatic
eruptions, graben
80 Ulubelu 5.37; 104.57 E N Y/(95) N O(S8) AL N L-dominated, outflow
82 Wai Ratai 5.58; 105.13 R N N N O? N L-dominated?
83 Rajabasa 5.78; 105.63 E Y N N N AL ?(SV) L-dominated, deep seated

Table 3
Overview of exploration of Indonesian geothermal prospects on Bali, Flores, Sulawesi (for explanation of columns, see Table 1)

M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

157 (Bali) Danau Bratan (Bedugul) 8.27; 115.13 E Y Y/(97) (Y) O(S16) AS N Deep-seated, L-dominated
two-phase system
169 (Flores) Ulumbu 8.40; 120.45 E N Y/(94) N O N Outflow, L-dominated,
shallow V cap
171 Sokoria (Keli Mutu) (Sukaria) 8.77; 121.82 E N N N O(SW10) AL, MC Y Volcanic geothermal systems,
acid lakes, radial outflows
Inerie/Nage/Keli 8.87; 121.00 E N N N ? AL, AS, MOC ?(SV) Volcanic geothermal systems
175 Mataloko 8.83; 121.06 E Y Y/(00) N ? AL, AS N Volcanic geothermal
systems?, shallow V cap
183 (Sulawesi) Lahendong +1.27; 124.80 E Y Y/(83) Y N AS, AL N L-dominated
high-temperature system,
acid core, modular plant:
20 MWe (2000)
182 Tompaso +1.15; 124.57 E N N N N AS, AL (Y) L-dominated
high-temperature system,
acid centre (K. Masam)
179 Kotamobagu +0.75; 124.35 E Y N N O(SE15) MG, AL (?)(SV) L-dominated
high-temperature system,
acid centre (G. Muayat)
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 257

Fig. 5. Temperatures at the bottom of the first, deep exploratory well(s) drilled between 1974 and 2000 in Indonesian
high-temperature prospects. Bottom temperature of the next productive well drilled is also shown where the first well was
not productive or had to be abandoned.

suffered from noise and inadequate reduction of terrain effects. It was only after 1990, when MT
interpretations were published, that it was shown that deeper, hot structures with high resistivi-
ties can be mapped beneath low-resistivity capping structures, as demonstrated by Ussher et al.
(2000) for MT soundings at Darajat and Sibayak, by Mulyadi (2000a) for Ulebulu, by Anderson
et al. (1999, 2000) for the WayangWindu-G. Malabar prospect, and by Raharjo et al. (2002) for
KarahaTelaga Bodas. Controlled source MT surveys (CSAMT) were applied with success to
outline boundary structures of prospects.
Other geophysical methods were also increasingly used to obtain additional information on
reservoir structures. Airborne-magnetic surveys produced good results for some prospects (Kamo-
jang, Darajat), but were inconclusive for others (G. Wilis, for example). The same applies for
structural methods (gravity surveys). Direct methods, such as temperaturegradient surveys, were
widely used with overall good success. Soil gas surveys were introduced and produced, together
with isotope studies, information about paleo-fluid flows (in Sibualbuali, for example) and associ-
ated heat transfer. Logging of cuttings and cores from exploration holes was refined continuously
using detailed mineralogical interpretations to assist in determining structure and stratigraphy and
in interpreting the hydrology of a geothermal system.
The successful completion of any first deep exploratory well is a measure of the validity
of the interpretation model used to locate it. Simple parameters of success are the stable bot-
tom temperature and discharge characteristics upon completion, which have been plotted versus
258 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266
M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266 259

(vertical) well depth in Fig. 5 for all first deep exploratory geothermal wells drilled in Indonesia.
The next second-round productive well was included for prospects where the first deep well
was non-productive. The data cover 30 deep wells drilled in 20 prospects (total of 23 fields); two
shallow wells with depths <200 m are also listed (KMJ-3 and MT-2). The plot shows that one
third of the first deep wells were non-productive or were abandoned. Another half were produc-
tive (discovery) wells (AW-1, CBN-1, KMJ-6, NIL 1-1, PPL-1, SBY-1, SIL 1-1, WWD-1) with
six wells becoming second-round discovery wells (BEL-3, DRJ-2, DNG-2, LHD-4, KRH 4-1,
SBE-1), drilled after the first well was found to be non-productive or had to be abandoned. One
fifth of all first exploratory wells encountered concealed outflow plumes (BTN-1, CIS-1, DRJ-1,
ULB-1, WSH-2, and probably UBL-1).
Exploration and development of prospects associated with active or dormant stratovolcanoes
were difficult. The data in Tables 13 show that these prospects are widespread (at least 25 out of
the 55 listed). The majority (18 out of 25) can be classified as volcanic geothermal systems and
15 of these were explored in some detail using various combinations of geological, geochemical,
and geophysical methods. However, parts of the reservoirs containing magmatic gases and their
condensates could not be located by surface exploration methods. When five of the magmatic sys-
tems were tested by deep drilling (Dieng-Sikidang, K. Ratu, Sibayak, Patuha, and KarahaTelaga
Bodas), it was found that magmatic fluid input was often more widespread than anticipated. At
Dieng-Sikidang this resulted in abandonment of the old bore field because of well maintenance
problems. However, the recent development of the Dieng-Sileri prospect, located within 35 km
of the magmatic plume at Dieng-Sikidang, shows that sectors of volcanic geothermal systems
can be developed.
Several types of geothermal systems, encountered during the geothermal exploration of Indone-
sian prospects, are shown in Fig. 6. During the first decade, two types were identified, namely
the vapour-dominated type (Kamojang and Darajat) and a geothermal volcanic system hosting a
magmatic vapour plume (Dieng-Sikidang). A simplified section of each type is shown in Fig. 6a
(taken from Hochstein and Browne, 2000) and Fig. 6b (modified after Layman et al., 2002),
respectively. In addition to Dieng-Sikidang, two other volcanic geothermal systems, K. Ratu and
G. Sibayak, were explored by deep drilling before 1995. Traces of magmatic fluids were detected
in the K. Ratu wells and the project was abandoned. At Sibayak, most of its liquid-dominated
reservoir was unaffected by magmatic fluid input and drilling of production wells continued up
to the end of the 1990s.
A new type of geothermal system was discovered at WayangWindu in 1991 when, in the dis-
covery well, a thick vapour-dominated layer was found to be sandwiched between liquid-saturated
upper layers (also containing vapour condensates) and a liquid brine-saturated substratum (see
Fig. 6c), based on information in Budiardjo (1992) and Asrizal et al. (2006). Two other volcanic
geothermal systems, each exhibiting a magmatic vapour plume, were explored by deep drilling

Fig. 6. Simplified sections of the six different types of Indonesian geothermal system that were explored by deep drilling
(the value S in each figure denotes an inferred liquid saturation of the reservoir rocks, which controls phase movement). (a)
A vapour-dominated system (similar to the Kawah Kamojang and Darajat system). (b) A volcanic geothermal system with
a magmatic steam plume surrounded by neutral-pH hot fluids (affinity with the Dieng SikidangDieng Sileri prospect).
(c) A vapour layer system with (partially) liquid-saturated layers on top and a liquid-saturated substratum (affinity with
the WayangWindu prospect). (d) A vapour layer system in the setting of a volcanic geothermal system (allowing for
different aspect ratios of the magmatic vapour plume and the vapour layer, the model has affinity with the Patuha and the
Telaga BodasKaraha prospects). (e) A liquid-dominated system associated with a major fault zone (system encountered at
Silangkitang). (f) A liquid-dominated system beneath a stratovolcano associated with a concealed outflow plume (affinity
with the Citaman and Cisolok prospects). Elevations given in kilometres above sea level.
260 M.P. Hochstein, S. Sudarman / Geothermics 37 (2008) 220266

after 1995 at Patuha and KarahaTelaga Bodas. At both sites an intermediate vapour-dominated
layer is underlain by a liquid-saturated substratum (see Fig. 6d), adopted from models shown by
Allis et al. (2000) and Layman and Soemarinda (2003).
A deep-seated, high-enthalpy, natural two-phase reservoir with almost neutral-pH fluids was
found in the Dieng-Sileri sector (Fig. 6b), outside the magmatic plume beneath the Sikidang area.
A liquid-dominated reservoir was discovered first in 1983 at Awibengkok; others were found later
at Silangkitang and at Ulubelu. A section of the Silangkitang type, controlled by a deep-reaching
fault zone, is shown in Fig. 6e (after Gunderson et al., 2000).
The Sibualbuali and the Lahendong prospects are sub-types of liquid-dominated geothermal
systems, where a deep-reaching body of rock (with acid fluids and acid alteration) occurs inside
or at the margin of a liquid-dominated reservoir. Other deep-seated liquid-dominated reservoirs
were discovered after 1995 at Namora-I-Langit on Sumatra and beneath the Bratan Caldera on
Bali. A liquid-dominated parent system below mountainous terrain with a lateral outow plume
(daughter system) beneath the foothills and the surrounding plain is shown in Fig. 6f (from a
sketch by Hochstein and Browne, 2000). Thick outflows were encountered in the deep Citaman
and Cisolok exploratory wells.

In summary, geothermal exploration in Indonesia from 1970 until 2000 can be seen as a
sequence of successful and less successful developments undertaken partly by the public sector
(Indonesian Government agencies) and partly by private industry. They were supported by for-
eign experts, private and foreign funding, and several international aid projects. Deep exploration
drilling was successful in about15 of the 20 prospects tested. By the year 2000, successful develop-
ments had resulted in the construction of several large electrical power plants with approximately
800 MWe of installed capacity (increasing to about 850 MWe by 2002). The plants use steam
produced from six large reservoirs with quite different reservoir characteristics.


During the search of old records and events, important information was provided by Mr. B.
Budiardjo, Mr. S. Ganda, Mr. F. Hendrasto, Mr. R. Mulyadi, Ms. P. Utami (the Indonesian team)
and Mr. E. Anderson, Mr. I. Bogie, Mr. H. Hole, Mr. E. Layman, Dr. A. Reyes, and Mr. K. Seal.
A/Prof. P.R.L. Browne and Dr. J. Moore provided constructive comments to earlier versions of
the paper. Ms. L. Cotterall drafted the figures.


Many papers listed below, which have been published in the Proceedings of geothermal
workshops (Auckland University and Stanford University, for example) and international
geothermal conferences (World Geothermal CongressesWGC, for example), can be
accessed through the Internet URL:

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